Analog I C Design

MEL G632
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

ANU GUPTA EEE

AICD Lecture 1
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Anu Gupta

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Introduction

in BITS Pilani.bits-pilani.Analog I C Design MEL G632 Instructor-in-charge : ANU GUPTA Email (I/C): anug@pilani. Pilani Campus .ac.

Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.Objective The objective of this course is to teach analog integrated circuit design using today’s technologies and in particular. CMOS technology.

why Analog? BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .The (electronic) world is going Digital.

NEED
While many applications have replaced much analog circuitry with their digital counterparts, the need for analog circuit design is actually growing. REASON 1------Consumer-focused electronics have become the driving force of industry, But , consumer electronics has become all-digital, networked, sophisticated, and almost independent of time, place, physical embodiment, and content. Users expect their tailored audio and video content when, where, and how they want it, to their own schedule and convenience.

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Reason 1--Consumer-focused electronics
Ans.---As the digital demands have increased, they have increased the demands on analog as well, which is good for R&D and production investment. Ironically, new requirements for features in digital cell phones are dictating the needs for new analog functions. And in turn, the increased analog capability has enabled more the desired digital functionality and performance, as well. So we have one of the few cases where a positive feedback loop is for good Example---Electronic application in demand CELL PHONE
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Basic Digital Handset
The key components of a basic handset are the radio, the power management, and the analog and digital baseband processing.

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Analog in digital handset. Interesting fact: There's more analog in a digital handset than in an analog model BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

(DAC) --And there's an analog filter there to clean up that signal. Getting the signal up onto the RF carrier. BITS Pilani. ---But before conversion. ---power amplifier (PA). and to control the power. --analog circuitry is needed to control the PA to ramp it up and down. need to filter it (using an analog filter). --What comes out to your ear must be converted from digital to analog.In a digital handset. Pilani Campus . --convert the voice signal to a digital stream (with an "analog" ADC).

what comes down from the RF carrier is a modulated signal that needs ADCs to decompose the signal into quadrature components. BITS Pilani. which requires DACs and some filters (more analog parts). Pilani Campus . On the receive side.Putting the signal up on the air waves generally requires turning bits into a modulated carrier.

Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. high-performance audio. like things to manage a color display. and the backlighting for it. and so on.The battery and power management CIRCUIT that's needed to handle all the new digital "stuff“ that's being packed into the newer models.

Modern Handset BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

user interfaces. • Music-player phones with iPod-like capabilities----high-quality playback digital-toanalog converters (DACs) and headphone driver amplifiers for audio playback. • Emerging TV-related feature is the ability to play back recorded still photos and short video clips from the phone to a TV set. Pilani Campus . • Games---improved graphics capability. This requires creating an analog video signal from the digitally-stored photo or video clip. and even sound effects. • TV reception is a new feature emerging in cell phones----keeping the display brightly lit to watch a video clip without consuming too much power requires power management. power-management and battery-monitoring/charging functions needed to maximize battery life while powering all the new features.• Higher resolution camera---analog image processing required to interface a multimegapixel camera sensor to the digital processor. BITS Pilani.

analog effects in these digital circuits are playing an important role in the circuit behavior. as the clock speed of digital circuitry approaches 1 GHz. Pilani Campus .Reason2.High speed Also. BITS Pilani.

the digital media river would slow to a trickle. power-supply components.Which Analog circuits are important? • If not for the multitude of analog and mixed-signal components that vendors have developed in the past decades. disk-drive read/write circuitry. to make the digital world possible. touch-screen interfaces. • • • • • • It also takes basic small-signal amplifiers. display drivers. audio through RF power amplifiers. motor controls. It takes countless A/D and D/A converters—audio. line drivers and receivers. . RF—to make it possible. transmitters. video. and much more. thermal sensors and fan controls.

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Analog IC Design .

debug analog integrated circuits by presenting a concise treatment of the wide array of knowledge designer. develop. Pilani Campus . required by an analog IC BITS Pilani.Aim while teaching The aim of this course is to help students conceive.

bottom-up manner c. Emphasize understanding and concept over analytical methods (simple models) d. Develop a firm background on technology and modeling b. Present analog integrated circuits in a hierarchical. Illustrate the correct usage of the simulator in design e. Develop design procedures that permit the novice to design complex analog circuits (these procedures will be modified with experience) .Approach to be followed a.

-----will help to take the mystery out of analog design. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. In all cases .Emphasis Presenting the fundamentals required to build highperformance analog systems. emphasis on the most important and fundamental principles as they pertain to state-of-the-art analog design.

& Time Remarks Mid-semester Test 90 min OB OB Analog design project / take continuous home weekly lab-assignments Comprehensive 3 hrs. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 35 100 CB BITS Pilani.Course Handout Component Duration Weight age 25 40 Spread throughout the semester Date.

Required background knowledge • Basic knowledge about single stage amplifiers • Modelling • AC.. DC. Pilani Campus . Analysis techniques • Frequency response analysis • Negative feedback BITS Pilani.

Symbology and Terminology • Summary BITS Pilani.Introduction • Analog Integrated Circuit Design • Technology Impact on Analog IC Design • Analog Signal Processing functions • Notation. Pilani Campus .

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1 for digital BITS Pilani.Unique Features of Analog IC Design Geometry is an important part of the design Electrical Design →Physical Design →Test Design Usually implemented in a mixed analog-digital circuit Analog is 20% and digital 80% of the chip area Analog requires 80% of the design time Analog is designed at the circuit level Passes for success: 2-3 for analog. Pilani Campus .

The Analog IC Design Flow BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

W/L values.Continued Electrical Aspects-Topology.Analog IC Design . Pilani Campus . and dc currents BITS Pilani.

Continued Physical Aspects-(Layout) -Implementation of the physical design including: .Busses for power and clock distribution External connections Testing Aspects -Design and implementation for the experimental verification of the circuit after fabrication BITS Pilani.Analog IC Design .Connections between the above . Pilani Campus .Transistors and passive components .

Comparison of Analog and Digital Circuits BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

breadth (analog only is rare) Be able to learn from failure Be able to use simulation correctly Simulation “truths”:---(Usage of a simulator) x (Common sense) = Constant Simulators are only as good as the models and the knowledge of those models by the designer Simulators are only good if you already know the answers BITS Pilani. analog circuits are more complex than digital Requires an ability to grasp multiple concepts simultaneously Must be able to make appropriate simplifications and assumptions Requires a good grasp of both modeling and technology Have a wide range of skills .Skills Required for Analog IC Design In general. Pilani Campus .

Complexity as a Function of the Number of Transistors BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Technology Impact On Analog IC Design .

Trends in CMOS Technology Moore’s law: The minimum feature size tends to decrease by a approx. Pilani Campus . Semiconductor Industry Association roadmap for CMOS BITS Pilani. factor of 1/ 2 every three years.

Time: BITS Pilani.Trends in IC Technology Technology Speed: Figure of Merit vs. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .IC Design Development Time A steeper ramp for the IC design development is required for every new generation of technology BITS Pilani.

More nonlinearity. Smaller parasitics. Increased 1/f noise below 0.25µm CMOS. Smaller channel resistances (lower gain). Suitable models for analog design not available BITS Pilani. Higher transconductance. Higher bandwidths The bad: • Reduced voltages.Technology impact on IC Design The good: Smaller geometries. Deviation from square-law behavior The ugly: • Increased substrate noise in mixed signal applications. Threshold voltages are not scaling with power supply. Pilani Campus .

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Pilani Campus .Threshold voltages and power supply BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Frequency Performance based on Scaling BITS Pilani.

Innovation in Analog IC Design BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Technology-Driven versus Application-Driven Innovation BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Application driven circuit innovation BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Results: • Scramble to develop new tools • Complexity is increasing with each new scaling generation • Need more trained and skilled circuit designers BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Analog Signal Processing Signal Bandwidths versus Application BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Signal Bandwidths versus Technology BITS Pilani.

floppy disk or other kind of disk drive • Modems . Pilani Campus . and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information.Analog IC Design has Reached Maturity There are established fields of application: • Digital-analog and analog-digital conversion • Disk drive controllers-circuit which allows the CPU to communicate with a hard disk. filters---A modem is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus . • Bandgap reference • Analog phase locked loops • DC-DC conversion • Buffers BITS Pilani.• Codecs---A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal.

don’t use analog. Pilani Campus .Existing philosophy Regarding analog circuits: “If it can be done economically by digital.” BITS Pilani.

Consequently Analog finds applications where speed. area. or power have advantages over a digital approach. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.

Eggshell Analogy of Analog IC Design (Paul Gray) .

Analog Signal Processing versus Digital Signal Processing in VLSI Key issues: • Analog/Digital mix is application dependent Not scaling driven •Driven by system requirements for programmability/adaptability/testability/desig nability BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

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massively parallel) A newly growing area inspired by biological systems .performance oriented (speed. power.Application Areas of Analog IC Design • There are two major areas of analog IC design: • • Restituitive . accuracy. area) Classical analog circuit and systems design • Cognitive .function oriented (adaptable.

Analog VLSI (An oxymoron): • Combination of analog circuits and VLSI philosophies .

Many similarities between analog circuits and biological systems • Scalability • Nonlinearity • Adaptability Neuromorphic analog VLSI • Use of biological systems to inspire circuit design such as smart sensors and imagers .

motor output .Smart autonomous systems • Self-guided vehicles (Mars lander) • Industrial cleanup in a hazardous environment Sensorimotor feedback • Self contained systems with sensor input.

What is the Future of Analog IC Design? • • Technology will require more creative circuit solutions in order to achieve desired performance • • Analog circuits will continue to be a part of large VLSI digital systems • • Interference and noise will become even more serious as the chip complexity increases • • Packaging will be an important issue and offers some interesting solutions • • Analog circuits will always be at the cutting edge of performance .

innovation will combine new applications with existing or improved technologies .• • Analog designer must also be both a circuit and systems designer and must know: -Technology and modeling -Analog circuit design -VLSI digital design -System application concepts • • There will be no significantly new and different technologies .

• • Semicustom methodology will eventually evolve with CAD tools that will allow: .Design capture and reuse .Test design .Quick extraction of model parameters from new technology .Automated design and layout of simple analog circuits .

AND TERMINOLOGY .NOTATION. SYMBOLOGY.

Example: .

MOS Transistor Symbols .

Other Schematic Symbols .

• • Analog IC design consists of three major steps: • 1.SUMMARY • • Analog IC design combines a function or application with IC technology for a successful solution.) Test design (Testing) • • Analog designers must be flexible and have a skill set that allows one to simplify and understand a complex problem . Topology. W/L values.) Physical design (Layout) • 3.) Electrical design . and dc currents • 2.

or power have advantages over a digital approach. analog finds applications where speed. • • Deep-submicron technologies will offer severe challenges to the creativity of the analog designer. area. • • Analog IC design has reached maturity and is here to stay. • • The appropriate philosophy is “If it can be done economically by digital. don’t use analog”. • • As a result of the above.• • Analog IC design is driven by improving technologies rather than new technologies. .

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