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ANU GUPTA EEE
AICD Lecture 1
Analog I C Design MEL G632 Instructor-in-charge : ANU GUPTA Email (I/C): anug@pilani. Pilani Campus .bits-pilani.in BITS Pilani.ac.
CMOS technology. BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .Objective The objective of this course is to teach analog integrated circuit design using today’s technologies and in particular.
Pilani Campus . why Analog? BITS Pilani.The (electronic) world is going Digital.
While many applications have replaced much analog circuitry with their digital counterparts, the need for analog circuit design is actually growing. REASON 1------Consumer-focused electronics have become the driving force of industry, But , consumer electronics has become all-digital, networked, sophisticated, and almost independent of time, place, physical embodiment, and content. Users expect their tailored audio and video content when, where, and how they want it, to their own schedule and convenience.
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Reason 1--Consumer-focused electronics
Ans.---As the digital demands have increased, they have increased the demands on analog as well, which is good for R&D and production investment. Ironically, new requirements for features in digital cell phones are dictating the needs for new analog functions. And in turn, the increased analog capability has enabled more the desired digital functionality and performance, as well. So we have one of the few cases where a positive feedback loop is for good Example---Electronic application in demand CELL PHONE
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Basic Digital Handset
The key components of a basic handset are the radio, the power management, and the analog and digital baseband processing.
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Analog in digital handset. Pilani Campus . Interesting fact: There's more analog in a digital handset than in an analog model BITS Pilani.
and to control the power. --analog circuitry is needed to control the PA to ramp it up and down.In a digital handset. Pilani Campus . need to filter it (using an analog filter). ---power amplifier (PA). --What comes out to your ear must be converted from digital to analog.(DAC) --And there's an analog filter there to clean up that signal. BITS Pilani. ---But before conversion. --convert the voice signal to a digital stream (with an "analog" ADC). Getting the signal up onto the RF carrier.
BITS Pilani.Putting the signal up on the air waves generally requires turning bits into a modulated carrier. which requires DACs and some filters (more analog parts). Pilani Campus . On the receive side. what comes down from the RF carrier is a modulated signal that needs ADCs to decompose the signal into quadrature components.
and the backlighting for it. Pilani Campus . and so on. high-performance audio. BITS Pilani. like things to manage a color display.The battery and power management CIRCUIT that's needed to handle all the new digital "stuff“ that's being packed into the newer models.
Modern Handset BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Pilani Campus .• Higher resolution camera---analog image processing required to interface a multimegapixel camera sensor to the digital processor. and even sound effects. BITS Pilani. user interfaces. power-management and battery-monitoring/charging functions needed to maximize battery life while powering all the new features. • Games---improved graphics capability. • Music-player phones with iPod-like capabilities----high-quality playback digital-toanalog converters (DACs) and headphone driver amplifiers for audio playback. This requires creating an analog video signal from the digitally-stored photo or video clip. • TV reception is a new feature emerging in cell phones----keeping the display brightly lit to watch a video clip without consuming too much power requires power management. • Emerging TV-related feature is the ability to play back recorded still photos and short video clips from the phone to a TV set.
analog effects in these digital circuits are playing an important role in the circuit behavior. as the clock speed of digital circuitry approaches 1 GHz. BITS Pilani.High speed Also.Reason2. Pilani Campus .
disk-drive read/write circuitry. motor controls. to make the digital world possible. • • • • • • It also takes basic small-signal amplifiers. .Which Analog circuits are important? • If not for the multitude of analog and mixed-signal components that vendors have developed in the past decades. video. power-supply components. transmitters. line drivers and receivers. the digital media river would slow to a trickle. and much more. thermal sensors and fan controls. audio through RF power amplifiers. It takes countless A/D and D/A converters—audio. touch-screen interfaces. display drivers. RF—to make it possible.
BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Analog IC Design .
required by an analog IC BITS Pilani. develop.Aim while teaching The aim of this course is to help students conceive. Pilani Campus . debug analog integrated circuits by presenting a concise treatment of the wide array of knowledge designer.
bottom-up manner c. Present analog integrated circuits in a hierarchical.Approach to be followed a. Develop a firm background on technology and modeling b. Illustrate the correct usage of the simulator in design e. Develop design procedures that permit the novice to design complex analog circuits (these procedures will be modified with experience) . Emphasize understanding and concept over analytical methods (simple models) d.
In all cases . Pilani Campus .Emphasis Presenting the fundamentals required to build highperformance analog systems. BITS Pilani. emphasis on the most important and fundamental principles as they pertain to state-of-the-art analog design. -----will help to take the mystery out of analog design.
35 100 CB BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Course Handout Component Duration Weight age 25 40 Spread throughout the semester Date. & Time Remarks Mid-semester Test 90 min OB OB Analog design project / take continuous home weekly lab-assignments Comprehensive 3 hrs. 1956 .
.Required background knowledge • Basic knowledge about single stage amplifiers • Modelling • AC. DC. Analysis techniques • Frequency response analysis • Negative feedback BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Pilani Campus . Symbology and Terminology • Summary BITS Pilani.Introduction • Analog Integrated Circuit Design • Technology Impact on Analog IC Design • Analog Signal Processing functions • Notation.
Unique Features of Analog IC Design Geometry is an important part of the design Electrical Design →Physical Design →Test Design Usually implemented in a mixed analog-digital circuit Analog is 20% and digital 80% of the chip area Analog requires 80% of the design time Analog is designed at the circuit level Passes for success: 2-3 for analog. 1 for digital BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
The Analog IC Design Flow BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Pilani Campus . and dc currents BITS Pilani.Analog IC Design . W/L values.Continued Electrical Aspects-Topology.
Pilani Campus .Transistors and passive components .Continued Physical Aspects-(Layout) -Implementation of the physical design including: .Analog IC Design .Busses for power and clock distribution External connections Testing Aspects -Design and implementation for the experimental verification of the circuit after fabrication BITS Pilani.Connections between the above .
Comparison of Analog and Digital Circuits BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
breadth (analog only is rare) Be able to learn from failure Be able to use simulation correctly Simulation “truths”:---(Usage of a simulator) x (Common sense) = Constant Simulators are only as good as the models and the knowledge of those models by the designer Simulators are only good if you already know the answers BITS Pilani.Skills Required for Analog IC Design In general. analog circuits are more complex than digital Requires an ability to grasp multiple concepts simultaneously Must be able to make appropriate simplifications and assumptions Requires a good grasp of both modeling and technology Have a wide range of skills . Pilani Campus .
Pilani Campus .Complexity as a Function of the Number of Transistors BITS Pilani.
BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Technology Impact On Analog IC Design .
Semiconductor Industry Association roadmap for CMOS BITS Pilani.Trends in CMOS Technology Moore’s law: The minimum feature size tends to decrease by a approx. Pilani Campus . factor of 1/ 2 every three years.
Pilani Campus .Trends in IC Technology Technology Speed: Figure of Merit vs. Time: BITS Pilani.
IC Design Development Time A steeper ramp for the IC design development is required for every new generation of technology BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Smaller channel resistances (lower gain). Deviation from square-law behavior The ugly: • Increased substrate noise in mixed signal applications. Increased 1/f noise below 0. Threshold voltages are not scaling with power supply.More nonlinearity. Suitable models for analog design not available BITS Pilani.25µm CMOS. Higher transconductance. Higher bandwidths The bad: • Reduced voltages. Smaller parasitics. Pilani Campus .Technology impact on IC Design The good: Smaller geometries.
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Pilani Campus .Threshold voltages and power supply BITS Pilani.
Frequency Performance based on Scaling BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Innovation in Analog IC Design BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Pilani Campus .Technology-Driven versus Application-Driven Innovation BITS Pilani.
Application driven circuit innovation BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Results: • Scramble to develop new tools • Complexity is increasing with each new scaling generation • Need more trained and skilled circuit designers BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .
Pilani Campus .Analog Signal Processing Signal Bandwidths versus Application BITS Pilani.
Pilani Campus .Signal Bandwidths versus Technology BITS Pilani.
filters---A modem is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information. floppy disk or other kind of disk drive • Modems . The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data BITS Pilani.Analog IC Design has Reached Maturity There are established fields of application: • Digital-analog and analog-digital conversion • Disk drive controllers-circuit which allows the CPU to communicate with a hard disk. and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. Pilani Campus .
• Bandgap reference • Analog phase locked loops • DC-DC conversion • Buffers BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .• Codecs---A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal.
Pilani Campus .Existing philosophy Regarding analog circuits: “If it can be done economically by digital. don’t use analog.” BITS Pilani.
area. or power have advantages over a digital approach.Consequently Analog finds applications where speed. Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.
Eggshell Analogy of Analog IC Design (Paul Gray) .
Pilani Campus .Analog Signal Processing versus Digital Signal Processing in VLSI Key issues: • Analog/Digital mix is application dependent Not scaling driven •Driven by system requirements for programmability/adaptability/testability/desig nability BITS Pilani.
Application Areas of Analog IC Design • There are two major areas of analog IC design: • • Restituitive .function oriented (adaptable. area) Classical analog circuit and systems design • Cognitive .performance oriented (speed. power. massively parallel) A newly growing area inspired by biological systems . accuracy.
Analog VLSI (An oxymoron): • Combination of analog circuits and VLSI philosophies .
Many similarities between analog circuits and biological systems • Scalability • Nonlinearity • Adaptability Neuromorphic analog VLSI • Use of biological systems to inspire circuit design such as smart sensors and imagers .
motor output .Smart autonomous systems • Self-guided vehicles (Mars lander) • Industrial cleanup in a hazardous environment Sensorimotor feedback • Self contained systems with sensor input.
What is the Future of Analog IC Design? • • Technology will require more creative circuit solutions in order to achieve desired performance • • Analog circuits will continue to be a part of large VLSI digital systems • • Interference and noise will become even more serious as the chip complexity increases • • Packaging will be an important issue and offers some interesting solutions • • Analog circuits will always be at the cutting edge of performance .
• • Analog designer must also be both a circuit and systems designer and must know: -Technology and modeling -Analog circuit design -VLSI digital design -System application concepts • • There will be no significantly new and different technologies .innovation will combine new applications with existing or improved technologies .
• • Semicustom methodology will eventually evolve with CAD tools that will allow: .Design capture and reuse .Quick extraction of model parameters from new technology .Automated design and layout of simple analog circuits .Test design .
NOTATION. SYMBOLOGY. AND TERMINOLOGY .
MOS Transistor Symbols .
Other Schematic Symbols .
) Physical design (Layout) • 3.) Electrical design . • • Analog IC design consists of three major steps: • 1. W/L values. Topology. and dc currents • 2.SUMMARY • • Analog IC design combines a function or application with IC technology for a successful solution.) Test design (Testing) • • Analog designers must be flexible and have a skill set that allows one to simplify and understand a complex problem .
• • As a result of the above.• • Analog IC design is driven by improving technologies rather than new technologies. don’t use analog”. • • The appropriate philosophy is “If it can be done economically by digital. or power have advantages over a digital approach. • • Deep-submicron technologies will offer severe challenges to the creativity of the analog designer. analog finds applications where speed. . area. • • Analog IC design has reached maturity and is here to stay.
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