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A&M (Imaginary Company)
Modern Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) with Touch Display
Proposed by: Angelus Vincent P. Guilalas
it introduces computermediated communication theories which reveal some patterns of tool usage to overcome the challenges of distance. Given the trend towards globalization in the software development industry. as well as the scope of the next stage. Adequate tool support is paramount to enable collaboration in distributed software development. and summarizes research activities aimed to build an evidence-based model of task-technology fit for communication-intensive activities such as distributed projects. In addition to concurrency across stages. software engineers communicate both directly. This provides a basis for more rapid development. through meetings and informal conversations. This ensures that the direction of the project can be adjusted dynamically to accommodate critical events and needs. and indirectly. most work in collaborative environments for distributed development has focused on codespecific tasks rather than on other software engineering activities at a higher level of abstraction like requirements engineering or software design. a release-based strategy ensures that there are short intervals between incremental releases of tangible results. as fewer opportunities for rich interaction and lower frequencies of direct communication. Here it introduces taxonomy of software engineering tools for distributed projects and presents collaborative development environments. share and integrate information. Moreover. ITRODUCTION Software development is an intense collaborative process where success depends on the ability to create. effectively using iteration to show progress and manage risk. distance creates an additional challenge to development processes. by means of software artifacts. Distributed software development takes a concurrent rather than sequential development approach. ranging from classic platforms for dispersed developers in open source software projects to modern environments for flexible and distributed processes. There is a need to further our knowledge of what is the most appropriate collaboration tool set to achieve a Final Project Page 2 . with smooth transitioning from one stage of a project to the next as well as continuous delivery of staged results that are of value in the total solution. Building upon the theoretical background of media selection. In order to support collaborative work on their projects. The use of this approach implies iteration with a checkpoint at the conclusion of each stage to validate the quality of stage results. developers teams geographical distributed.Distributed Software Development 2013 I. Collaboration in Distributed Software Development scenario is significantly affected by the stakeholders. However.
maritime technology. Philippines was established in 2005 while the innovation center in Singapore was founded on November 2007. To us. Our vast industry know-how is reflected in a wide range of innovative and unique software solutions that we have developed for and together with our customers in the factory. device integration. IT Operations & Services and Software Maintenance & Support. Singapore Final Project Page 3 . Software Development. building automation and energy technology. Filipino and Singaporean software developers. highly qualified software engineers in Philippines. Our subsidiary in Talamban.Distributed Software Development 2013 shared understanding among distributed project stakeholders. competency and quality. Quality Assurance. which comprise Americans. The subject is A&M Company which is a software development firm with the main office in New York. but also offer offshore development services to our customers in Europe and America in a proven A&M quality to significant price advantages. The company’s headquarter is in New York. offshore development means distributed development of your software by mixed project teams. Cebu City. engineering systems and web applications. A&M has gained the reputation as a reliable partner for many renowned customers worldwide. Being 25 years in business. There we do not only serve the upcoming markets in Asia. mechanical engineering. United States and the auxiliary office at Cebu City. United States. then distributed software development can be benefited from an interdisciplinary approach. A&M Software stands for innovation. We mainly focus on solutions for Human Machine Interfaces (HMI).and process automation. This offer holds the following benefits for you: • Substantially reduced average hourly rates. and Singapore. Our service portfolio includes Management & Technology Consulting. Filipino and Singaporeans team members • Faster realization through the deployment of additional. Philippines. Offshore-Development with A&M is different. A&M is the competent service provider for all matters concerning software products in the industrial automation. due to a mix of Americans .
accidents. change is difficult and people continue to follow poor design practices. Our Filipino and Singaporeans colleagues are highly qualified. The special A&M team spirit also reigns supreme among our colleagues in Philippines and Singapore • Ideal starting conditions for cost-efficient maintenance of the finished software. However. The users have highest expectations regarding design and intuitive usability. You interface exclusively with our staff in America. decades of research has identified better implementation methods. Your contact persons in New York. Many HMIs actually impede rather than assist operators. with the advent of newer and more powerful systems. Based on studies Poor HMI designs have been identified as factors contributing to abnormal situations. iPad. There is no need for a costly transfer to a new team. Unfortunately. projecting their everyday experience with handling consumer devices such as iPhone. This is a user interface in a manufacturing or process control system which provides a graphics-based visualization of an industrial control and monitoring system. or Tablet-PCs onto industrial applications. User guidance and screen layout of the individual interaction scenarios have to be adapted to achieve sound finger operation.Distributed Software Development 2013 • Convenient communication. These user requirements need workflow-oriented interaction models and a first-class UI design. They will coordinate the upcoming development tasks with their colleagues in Philippines. and Singapore • We avoid the overhead with a pure interpreter-frontend without real technical know-how. USA are technical project managers and architects. RATIONALE The proposed distributed project is to develop and implement solutions for Modern Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) with Touch Display. Their technical standard is as good as ours here in USA and they speak perfect English • A low fluctuation rate means stable teams. billions of dollars of lost production. and fatalities. Final Project Page 4 . these limitations no longer apply. who actively participate in the development of your project and who are responsible for the quality of the end product • No disadvantages in productivity. II. Many of the poor designs are holdovers due to the limitations of early control systems and the lack of knowledge of system designers. The development of modern human machine interfaces with touch displays poses a new challenge for manufacturers of industrial devices and machines. Also.
improve brand communication and enhance customer loyalty Final Project Page 5 . amongst others • Extensive feature enhancements with updates can be incorporated into touch interfaces with great flexibility. through to complete workflows for configuration and / or correction of errors allow for an operation of equipment with less user errors and thus more productivity • With a comprehensible way of operation. according to the situation. size. Why touch interfaces? Touch-sensitive displays have become widely accepted not only in the consumer industry. touch-sensitive displays are more and more taking over. Space requirements for operating elements remain the same in spite of varying functionalities of machine types and generations With the GUI design supporting intuitive operation of devices and machines. can considerably reduce training cost for the operating personnel • Comprehensive work instructions for the operator.with continuously increasing quality (resolution. reliability.) • In contrast to keyboard and mouse. industryfitness) • Touch interfaces combine display and operating elements in the most confined space and reduce space and cost for machine operation • Interfaces as a human machine interface can visualize additional information for the user (application support / work instructions. dash boards.Distributed Software Development 2013 a. The driving force is the economic benefit for manufacturers of equipment. more complex functionalities and specific machine advantages can be utilized by the operator • A modern and superior operating concept can differentiate the products of a manufacturer from the competition. touch interfaces are more appropriate for hygiene measures and are therefore increasingly used in medical engineering. While in the past industrial applications were mainly operated via key panels. the entire economic potential of touch interfaces is highlighted: • A good and easy to understand user interface. graphic representation of fault causes. adapted to language. application and situation. machinery and plants: • Their popularity in consumer electronics has dramatically brought down the cost of touch interfaces . colors. etc. membrane keyboards or even external interfaces like keyboards or mouse.
In addition. A transfer of usability concepts from PC software is not possible – even when using large Final Project Page 6 . At this late time in the development process. only after the development of the first GUIs by the software developers. It is a fact that. The result is that in the majority of cases the GUI is created in a very technology. at the latest when facing these indirect effects and economic concerns. The demand on functionality. At best. Personnel changes. An involvement of users in the development process often does not take place or. the practice is as follows: Functional software is developed on the basis of specifications. the use of rarely used features or advanced configuration options. however. The following three aspects appear to be vital: • The design of operating surfaces for touch interfaces is subject to its own rules. confusing or even "unusable". colors and fonts). Countermeasures are expensive trainings.and more often than not by the developers of the functional software itself. Indirectly. The consequences of this procedure are reflected in the users’ reactions: User interfaces are perceived as being complex. Summarized. the operation is being trained and learned. Without knowing users and applications. lead to operating errors. declining productivity and high cost. In a nutshell: Instead of making a device intuitively usable. Why traditional development methods fail for touch interfaces Traditional software development is sequential. but not the operating concept. they can only change the visual design (icons. in many ways does not meet the requirements and operation sequences in practice. The manufacturer should be encouraged to reconsider the optimization of its human machine interface. if at all. Only afterwards.Distributed Software Development 2013 b. ergonomics and an attractive “look and feel” is increasing and makes HMI development more challenging.and function-focused way. the uncertainties and training expenses are reasons for customers and users to consider the introduction of new machine models as extremely complicated and to delay it in practice. since major changes to the user interface cause complex changes to the software itself. Thus the product can later be operated reliably by well-trained core staff and in standard functions. manufacturers of industrial applications do not have the necessary experience to develop an intuitive and appealing touch interface operating concept. The operating concept. graphical artists and designers will be involved to apply cosmetic changes to the user interface. in many cases. the user interface is created . the widespread use of attractive touch display interfaces in consumer electronics creates subconscious expectations of users. generated from the developer's point of view. only at a very late stage. requests for changes are usually refused due to cost and time expenditures or the already imminent launch of the product.
methods for a successful development of innovative touch interfaces. highly efficient operating concept that is close to applied practice. USA because it is located close to the technical university and pursues a lively national and international knowledge exchange.Distributed Software Development 2013 touch displays. A&M offers support for the development of touch interfaces tailored to your requirements from developing an interaction concept to establishing a development platform to embedding an optimized control system into an ergonomic user interface achieving highest standards in design and usability. New methods and systems have to be implemented for the team work (collaboration infrastructures (DSD) in order to make this cooperation efficient and to further reduce the development time despite the complexity of the project. PHASES The location where the development and the planning stage is done at the head quarters in New York. The often tried 1:1 reproduction fails regularly. To this end A&M has developed an innovative procedure model based on best practice experience. This proposal presents methods. The users. ergonomists. c. design engineers / computer scientists and users in an iterative. The key success components of this approach are the early and intensive involvement of users in the development process and the parallel and agile development of interface design and software. processes and software development tools that have proven to be successful in the development of award-winning HMI projects. proven and tested methods and tools that development managers and product managers can use to prepare their own processes and development staff for new challenges. software and user interfaces. Final Project Page 7 . The installation of an infrastructure for distributed development (Distributed Development Platform) allows for an efficient division of labor between specialist teams for the development of hardware. have to be involved in the development process. products and approaches. in particular. There are best practice approaches. It transfers promising topics from research and academics to industrial-standard applications. • Equipment and machine operators need a comprehensive. The involvement of usability experts. • The design of innovative touch interfaces requires intensive interdisciplinary and often multi-site collaboration of application specialists. user-centered process framework. The proposed Modern Human Machine Interface (HMI) with Touch Display will look to these conditions and find ways. specialized tools and new development processes is essential.
IMPLEMENTATION Knowing different studies in distributed software development experienced the proposed Modern Human Machine Human (HMI) with Touch Display project has individually been confronted with the weaknesses of traditional development procedures described above.g. Analysis. Coding and testing happens in Singapore because our test system is located in this subsidiary. Our integrated technologies provide various possibilities to reuse test cases from early development stages at the Hi Level Test bench stands. This includes the Specification. Apart from turnkey simulation and test solutions we develop interesting operational concepts in our own test laboratories. e. between application developers and GUI designers or customers and developers? Final Project Page 8 . The tests are executed on a diagnostic and flash test bench developed by A&M. Philippines takes the responsibility for the support in series for all diagnostic parts of the new infotainment system MMI-3G. Based on modern software products. cost-effective commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and state-of-the-art test system A&M develops customized solutions for test automation. respond quickly to customer requirements by means of short turn-around-times and accelerate the entire development process. Design and Operation of test systems as well as the Planning and Execution of tests. Cebu City. Simulations and tests during development allow us to detect errors in software functions quickly and cost-effectively. Benefits for our customers: We relieve them from test execution and enable them to meet the Verification and Validation independence required in safety-critical developments. III. Thus our customers achieve a maximum of process safety.Distributed Software Development 2013 Our subsidiary office in Talamban. seeking answers to questions such as: • How do we involve the customer's product experts and the product end users in the development of the interaction concept for an interface as early as possible? • How can we achieve as many intermediate steps as possible in the development being presented to users with their feedback flowing into the ongoing development of software and HMI? • How can development cycle times in projects of touch interfaces be reduced and undesirable developments be avoided? • How can the communication be optimized between the project participants.
Incremental software development.1). A&M have developed a process model based on their different competencies as well as on existing and improved tools and processes. with rapid feedback across activities.Distributed Software Development 2013 • How can we keep a project open for alterations and variations? Both the headquarters and subsidiary offices recognized the need for new approaches and procedure models. The cost of accommodating changing customer requirements is reduced. Based on this motivation. Iterative and incremental development processes. Object-oriented system development process. backtracking when we realize that we have made a mistake. Incremental development has three important benefits: 1. using Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Unified Process (UP) specification languages and 3. Middleware. The amount of analysis and documentation that has to be redone is much less than is required with the waterfall model. The basis has already been established with methods such as: 1. and validation activities are interleaved rather than separate. Incremental development Incremental development is based on the idea of developing an initial implementation. Since then. By developing the software incrementally. and personal systems. then only the current increment has to be changed and. it is cheaper and easier to make changes in the software as it is being developed. We rarely work out a complete problem solution in advance but move toward a solution in a series of steps. This means that the customer can evaluate the system at a relatively early stage in the development to see if it delivers what is required. they established a partnership for innovative touch interface software solutions. Generally. Incorporation of the procedural approaching proposed by PMBOK. e-commerce. is better than a waterfall approach for most business. If not. exposing this to user comment and evolving it through several versions until an adequate system has been developed (Figure 1. Incremental development reflects the way that we solve problems. the user-centered design process (UCD). development. agile development models. possibly. which is a fundamental part of agile approaches. rapid prototyping and usability tests 2. Specification. Final Project Page 9 . the early increments of the system include the most important or most urgently required functionality. new functionality defined for later increments. Each increment or version of the system incorporates some of the functionality that is needed by the customer. expanding the management areas indicated.
Although incremental development has many advantages. Customers can comment on demonstrations of the software and see how much has been implemented. Concurrent Activities Specification Initial Version Outline Description Development Intermediate Versions Validation Final Versions Figure 1.Distributed Software Development 2013 2. Middleware is normally implemented as a set of libraries. Customers are able to use and gain value from the software earlier than is possible with a waterfall process. 3. even if all of the functionality has not been included. More rapid delivery and deployment of useful software to the customer is possible. A distributed system therefore requires software that can manage these diverse parts. Final Project Page 10 . and ensure that they can communicate and exchange data.1 Iterative and incremental development processes Middleware The components in a distributed system may be implemented in different programming languages and may execute on completely different types of processor. It is easier to get customer feedback on the development work that has been done.2. The term ‘middleware’ is used to refer to this software—it sits in the middle between the distributed components of the system. it is not problem-free. which are installed on each distributed computer. This is illustrated in Figure 1. and protocols for communication may all be different. Models of data. plus a run-time system to manage communications. Customers find it difficult to judge progress from software design documents. information representation. which shows that middleware is a layer between the operating system and application programs.
plus provide a set of standard services that could be used by these components. Figure 1.Distributed Software Development 2013 Application Components Coordinated Operation Application Components Middleware Information Exchange and Common Services Middleware Operating System Logical Interaction Physical Connectivity Operating System Wireless Networking Wireless Networking System 1 Figure 1.2 Middleware in a distributed system System 2 The proposed Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) with Touch Display will incorporate COBRA as a middleware of the development team. It was intended as an open standard that would allow the development of middleware to support distributed component communications and execution.3 The structure of a CORBA-based distributed application Final Project Page 11 . CORBA is a well-known specification for a middleware system that was developed in the 1990s by the Object Management Group.
etc. which is responsible for ensuring that messages are passed to the appropriate system. electronic commerce.4 User Centered Design The proposed distributed project based also of user-centered design (UCD) in (figure 1.Distributed Software Development 2013 This proposes that a distributed application should be made up of a number of components: • • Application objects that are designed and implemented for this application. and a number of other areas. These domain object standards cover finance/insurance. It communicates with the middleware. Figure 1. and limitations of end users of a product are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. Standard objects that are defined by the OMG for a specific domain. etc. This carries out the required computation and. Procedural communication in a distributed system is usually implemented using remote procedure calls (RPCs). • Fundamental CORBA services that provide basic distributed computing services such as directories. returns the result to the calling component. system management facilities. The middleware in the system intercepts this call and passes it to a remote component. via the middleware. wants. The term horizontal facilities suggests that these facilities are common to many application domains and the facilities are therefore used in many different applications. User-centered design can be Final Project Page 12 . In RPC one component calls another component as if it was a local procedure or method. • Horizontal CORBA facilities such as user interface facilities. security management.4) is a type of user interface design and a process in which the needs. healthcare.
It is necessary an organizational guide a process. The project manager must establish a structure for the precise can among the team. It is important to keep using UML during the development process. It is necessary a process that integrates diverse development facets. It can be used to provide insights of the project vision and project requirements of different abstraction levels and its artifacts provide a common view that works as basis for the collaborative project. Due to client’s demands that always look something more. The presence of highly trained developers is not enough. We face the need of creating more complex software each time. Thus UML. provides documentation that eases the communication with clients as well as with team members. It deals about a precisely and clearly way to capture and share requirements. interactive and incremental. but also to test the validity of their assumptions with regards to user behavior in real world tests with actual users. centered in the architecture.Distributed Software Development 2013 characterized as a multi-stage problem solving process that not only requires designers to analyze and foresee how users are likely to use a product. It includes a set of consistent diagrams that can be used to describe and communicate system requirements of a software. UML provides a number of static and dynamic diagrams that specify not ambiguously the system and its behavior. UP (Unified Process) is one of the solutions presented for these problems. The proposed distributed project will also incorporate Unified Modeling Language (UML) it is a recent synthesis of object-oriented languages.UML can be use with all processes throughout the development lifecycle and across different implementation technologies. The implementation of a modeling language of standard object is a component of this structure. UP is a generic framework of a development process. better and faster. project and code. If used in the initial phases only and do not connect UML artifacts to build and test activities. Final Project Page 13 . Modeling provides three key benefits: • • Visualization Clear communication The UML focuses primarily on specifying and documenting system requirements and projects. UP is guided by use cases. based on components and it uses the entire UML definition. and then insist with its usage. it is possible to lose control of the project. if used properly.
But isn't the software development process suffering from the stepwise optimization of the user interface in user discussions? No. priorities are changing in the interface development. In this way. user feedback is taken into account at the earliest possible stage minimizing cost and complexity of changes. It is good practice to design the essential elements with paper and pencil and or on a flip chart and to discuss the necessary interaction mechanisms with all stakeholders. The development proceeds iteratively and incrementally. not the function implementation“.NET). b. Consequently. the participant groups of the workshop stay involved. Participation of relevant disciplines ensures that all aspects are taken into account. For this purpose. In the course of the project.Distributed Software Development 2013 Process model for the successful development of modern touch interfaces in industrial applications a. graphical and interactive touch panels meet the experiences and needs of the users in the daily practice and in the best possible way. Unlike in classical technical and functional designs. SwiXML Final Project Page 14 . C++). a joint workshop takes place involving all stakeholders and representatives of customers and users. because the consequent use of new software development tools such as the GUI description languages XAML (Microsoft. The goal is the definition of use cases and based on this the development of a workflow-oriented interaction concept. Both the fundamental interaction interfaces and the basic layout of the application can be derived from the jointly developed drafts. Due to the incremental development of the GUI with active user participation. intermediate results of the touch interface development are presented to users again and again. Development of an interaction concept (workshop) and early prototyping The requirements for functionality and display have to be worked out at an early stage and have to be constantly reviewed by an iterative and incremental further development of the HMI. MycroXAML (OpenSource. Embedded in mockups (reduced function models). Parallel development of functional software and GUI design The second component of the process model is crucial for the efficiency of the development project. Experience shows that the main functionalities and operating controls can be defined in appropriately moderated workshops.long before a functional device prototype is available. the following approach is recommended: At the beginning of the development. the user sets the priorities:”The focus is on the operation flow. the practical use can be simulated and the usability can be optimized with interactive sequences of screen designs .
They utilize their specific tools such as Adobe Photoshop to create screen designs pixel by pixel as well as MS Expression Blend to create dynamic and interactive prototypes. agile development (Distributed Development Platform) The procedure model described in this paper requires a very intensive communication within the project team.and can thus be parameterized in one file. Both development processes can thus be completed in parallel. This results in a great advantage for the rapid HMI development. such as country-specific or customer-specific versions. This can now be done by the designer via parameter settings on user request . In most cases. Final Project Page 15 . due to its incremental and interactive development stages and close involvement of users and designers. The partially parallelized development lines cannot be successful without the following conditions: permanent exchange of information. it has been complicated to transfer functionalities from one special user interface to another. Using GUI description languages. Java) and QML (Nokia Qt. which is larger than in traditional development processes. Professional WYSIWYG editors for these languages give the designers the freedom for design and enrichment with interactive process steps without requiring them to take care of the code. Infrastructure for a linked. The software developers are working on the hardware functionality and interaction based on the jointly developed interaction concept. The realization of product variants. Good intentions alone do not lead to the desired communication.the underlying function call in the software migrates automatically. access to current software versions and total transparency of the project progress for all parties. hardware and software specialists as well as external service providers requires the team to cooperate nationwide or even internationally. designers and developers have a common basis for the first time and can develop functions and layout simultaneously without impeding one other. separated by design and function.Distributed Software Development 2013 (OpenSource. This applies also for different operating system platforms. can easily be implemented. The user interfaces can be configured with flexibility without software modification. the participation of users. C++) allows for the design of the user interface being almost completely decoupled from the development of the functional software. while the GUI designers and usability experts refine the user interface in close consultation with the users based on the interaction model. Merging of function and interface design is carried out using the page description languages . In traditional software development processes. Such development projects are only successful when using appropriate software infrastructure. c.
IV. This infrastructure supports the project team with the following functions: Role-based access rights • Ticketing system for a task management. It covers the essential requirements for an efficient. test cases for typical interaction sequences) The platform allows for short cycles and thus a modern. user actions are recorded and reused as automatic test cases. parallelized development process via its tool architecture. traceable without gaps. the various development teams have always the latest software version available. Change requests and their connection to the code versions. can reliably be recorded. communicated. Final Project Page 16 .Distributed Software Development 2013 The Distributed Development Platform. The HMI build process is executed automatically by the push of a button or by being triggered through the setting of a change. etc. Here. in order to continuously validate the increasing development functionality. The possibility to include automatic regression tests directly into such an infrastructure is crucial. is a comprehensive development platform that can be used worldwide with defined access rights and is adapted to the respective project. milestones. multilingualism. For Qt-based GUI applications it is possible to perform automatic text length verification for all GUI elements and thus to review all languages at the push of a button. progress. The development process reaches an extremely high level of transparency. developed by A&M. in particular for HMI software (variants. Tools such as Google Test offer HMIs the possibility to simulate a virtual user. in particular. times. The involvement of customers and users is possible at any time. efficiently and completely automated. hence. and their completion be monitored • Project management functionalities (project plan.) • Source code management with configuration management for versions including their history • Build management and automatic generation of documents to facilitate the access of all project participants to the current software version • Integration of automated regression tests. Large parts of software and HMI can be tested in this way. agile software development. in particular for agile HMI software development. SUCCESS CRITERIA Manufacturers and project managers who want to differentiate their industrial products through intuitively operable touch interfaces and outstanding GUI designs have a best practice approach with the process described above.
the original draft. Experience shows that the project teams of the manufacturers need to apply new ways of working and new tools. a prototype version and the final product version of the user interface. The early and intensive involvement of users.Distributed Software Development 2013 Figure 1.5 Examples of the development process of a touch interface for a testing device. it creates the basis for a team-wide understanding of the practical application and ensures the early and continuous involvement of users and usability experts. design and usability experts Final Project Page 17 . With its interaction concept.
Such fundamental changes in tools and methods require manufacturers to provide a professional management of this change process in order not to overstrain their employees. they are verified using interactive prototypes and mock ups. involving the end-user. In doing so. • A good project management approach based on PMBOK which includes the unified process (UP) and UML language. Accordingly. • Special infrastructure for distributed development to secure the efficient cooperation of all teams of experts involved. parallel development of interface design and software through the effective separation of design and function.Distributed Software Development 2013 require new thinking and methods. Factors of success for the HMI development process: • Workflow-oriented interaction concepts are designed. for e-business software development in a physically distributed environment to ensure the quality. utilizing elements of agile software development. manufacturers should build a team with experienced external specialists and openminded internal staff to develop touch interfaces in the first projects. the intensive coordination between all project stakeholders enforces the use of effective tools for distributed development . From an early stage onwards. Most development projects suffer from time constraints and high pressure to succeed. Final Project Page 18 . Therefore. standard of the proposed HMI distributed project.not at least to achieve the necessary efficiency and transparency in the overall process. • Agile. it is easier to learn the new ways of working and to gain practical experience with these methods and tools.
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