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Biology

Science is a way of thinking/method of investigating the nature of the world in a systematic manner. Three themes of biology Evolution- where population changes over time Information transfer Energy transfer- Life requires continuous input of energy from the sun.

5 most important qualities of living organs of living organisms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nutrition Respiration Excretion Reproduction Irritability

Properties of life; How to tell something is living or not. What is life? Capacity for metabolism Controlled response to environment Growth Reproduction Transmission of information

What is biology? Biology is the study of life.

Biologists study: Interaction of life Interaction with environment Problems and purpose a solution i.e. (medical treatment, disease prevention, etc.)

Structures
Biosphere- All regions of the earths crust, atmosphere, and oceans that holds life Ecosystems- A community and all the environmental and physical characters that surround and affect it CommunityPopulations- A group of morphologically similar organisms in same area Organisms- A group of cells, tissue, organs working together to form an individual; All living things are organisms. Organ systems- A group of organs performing same function, e.g. Circulatory system comprises of blood, heart tissue etc. Organs- A group of tissues performing same function Tissue- A group of cells performing same function Cells- Basic unit of life Molecules Important bimolecules; Glucose, animo acids, cellulose, proteins Species- A group of morphologically similar organisms that can reproduce to form variable offspring MORPHOLOGICALLY The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without consideration of function

Functions
Growth- Increase in size or increase of number of cell Respiration- The breakdown of glucose molecules to release energy, producing carbon dioxide and water as bi-products Movement- The ability to spatially translocate Irritability - The ability to respond to external stimuli Excretion- Elimination of metabolic waste products; e.g. urine, carbon dioxide Nutrition- Obtaining nutrients either by photosynthesis or by feeding

Reproduction- Producing offspring Photosynthesis-

(Functions) Interactions
Preditor-prey- feeding and grazing interactions. Responsible for movement of energy throughout the food chain. Mutualism- A systematic relationship where both participants are metabotically involved. Both benefit and would suffer or would not be as productive if association were to end. E.g. coral and polygs Parasitism- A relationship where one partner benefits, usually the smaller and the other suffers. E.g ticks and dogs/pigs and human Commensalism- one partner benefits and the other neither benefits or suffers. No metabolic linkage between participants. E.g. remoras and sharks

Three basic themes of biology


Evolution Population change over time Explains how ancestry of organisms can be traced to earlier forms of life

Information transfer Information must be transmitted within cells, among cells, within cells, among organisms, and from one generation to the next

Energy transfer Life requires continous input of energy from the sun

Organisms are composed of cells

Cell theory
1. A fundamental unifying concept of biology 2. Every single organism is composed of one or more cell 3. New cells are formed only by decision of previous cells Unicellular- consists of one cell Multi-cellular- Depends on coordinated functions of cells, that are organized to form tissue, organs and organ systems

Cell structure
Plasma membrane- Protects cell and regulates passage of materials between cells and its environment DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) contains genetic instructions and transfer genetic information Organelles specialized to perform specific function

Two types of cells Prokaryotic cells Structurally simple Do not have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organells Are either Bacteria or archea

Eukaryotic cells Contains a variety of membrane enclosed organelles including a nucleus which houses DNA More complex than prokaryotic cells Compartmentalize many cellular functions within organisms and endomembrane systems

Organisms grow and develop Biological growth Involves increase in size of cells or organisms Increase in size for both

Development Includes all changes during an organisms life. E.g. A human develops from fertilized eggs into a multi-cellular organism with structure and body form adapt to specific functions.