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Kingdom Animalia

are made of animal cells; has no cell walls heterotrophic chemotrophic eukaryotic: multicellular: lysosomes, centrioles invertebrates flagella, cilia vertebrates Things Used to Classify Animals 1. Feeding 2. Respiration 3. Internal Transport 4. Excretion 5. Response 6. Movement 7. Reproduction Trends in Animals 1. more complex, specialized cells which form tissues and organs 2. radial (right) bilateral (left) symmetry 3. cephalization is the concentration of sense organs in the anterior region dorsal

anterior

posterior

ventral

Invertebrates
have no backbone Phylum Porifera 1. - the flagella move water into the sponge - cells collect nutrients from the water before it leaves the sponge (filter feeder) 2. - no specialized structure for respiration 3. - oxygen is taken directly from the water as flagella constantly move water through the sponge (they are able to do this because most of the cells are very close to water) - cells similar to amoeboids crawl around and deliver nutrients 4. - no kidneys or solid wastes; sponges pee into the environment and the water carries it away

5. - nothing, no response at all; no hormones or nervous system 6. - no movement 7. - asexual: can do budding - sexual: keeps eggs inside, at the bottom of the sponge, and shoots out millions of sperm from the top of the sponge Importance *has holes surrounded by flagella

homes for many marine fish and worms have a symbolic relationship with bacteria humans have isolated anti-fungal and compounds from sponges

anti-bacterial

Phylum Cnidarian example: jellyfish have two forms (right) gastrovascular cavity: stomach-like transport area two-way digestive system mouth is entrance and exit tentacles have nematocysts which are poison-filled sacs with a coiled needle (below)

1. - nematocysts paralyze or kill the prey with poison - tentacles sweep the food through the mouth and into the gastrovascular cavity, where it is gradually broken down - many jellyfish have symbiosis with photosynthetic protists 2. - oxygen diffuses directly into the jellyfish 3. - no organized internal transport network - long gastrovascular cavities help carry partially digested food throughout the body (the movement of the jellyfish moves the fluid inside the gastrovascular cavity) - nutrients diffuse through body walls 4. - no excretory system*; metabolic waste products diffuse directly into the water through the body walls * Note: excretion systems are mainly concerned with removing hazardous forms of nitrogen (NH3) and other wastes made by the body (CO2); poo is NOT part of the excretory system because it is stuff we never used 5. - jellyfish have no brain, but they have a simple nerve net to coordinate tentacle movement - specialized sensory cells transmit information about the environment to the rest of the jellyfishs simple nervous system; medusae have more complex nervous systems than polyps - many cnidarians also have photoreceptors so they can swim towards the light

6. - no muscles: polyps can expand, shrink, and move their tentacles by relaxing or contracting epidermal cells; contractions of specialized epidermal cells in medusae change the bellshaped body, causing it to close like a folding umbrella, pushing water out of the bell and moving the medusa forward by jet propulsion - drift along on waves 7. - two stages in life cycle: the sessile polyp and the motile medusa - polyps reproduce asexually by budding off an existing polyp or off a tiny medusa - both polyps and medusae do external fertilization to reproduce sexually - when the medusae mature, they release gametes into the water - after fertilization occurs, the zygote grows into a ciliated larva that swims around for some time; later, this larva settles own, attaches to a hard surface, and changes into a polyp Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) simplest organisms with bilateral symmetry first organism with cephalization: brain 2 nerve cords free-living (ie. not a parasite or carnivore) eg. Planaria saprobes detrivores - have a muscular pharynx to suck water/food into their gastrovascular cavity - have branched intestines connected to the gastrovascular cavity for digestion - waste leaves through the mouth on the ventral side (two-way digestive system) - no specialized cells; respiration by simple diffusion - very thin: get oxygen directly or through the intestines and gastrovascular cavity - covered by intestines - flame cells remove excess water and ammonia - have well developed ganglia (ie. concentration of nerves) that are almost a brain - brain controls movement and detects stimuli from eye spots - varies: Planaria have muscles; others have cilia or flagella for movement; many parasites use their host for movement - many are so simple that they can regenerate - many also do external fertilization Example 1: Flukes mainly found in Southeast Asia and North Africa blood fluke eggs are often in meat, especially pork their eggs are resistant to stomach acid, so eggs hatch in the small intestine larva eat the intestines to make their way into the blood after they are in the blood, they start to eat the heart and liver flukes come back to the intestine and lay their eggs

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Example 2: Tapeworms Parts to Know: suckers hooks scolex: for attachment to intestine proglottid: make 100 000 eggs each the eggs are resistant to acid and hatch into a specialized worm tapeworm eggs are eaten in incompletely cooked meat

Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms) 1. more advanced (overall) than flatworms* because they have a one-way digestive system most of these are free-living, but some are parasitic about 90 000 can be found in one rotten apple - very efficient digestive system: able to get more nutrient-rich food without losing the one already in their stomach/gastrovascular cavity - specialized areas for digesting particular types of food - no specialized structure for respiration - generally have low needs of food and oxygen because they do not move quickly - the smaller ones have large surface areas and can move faster - no specialized system; their small size allows each cell to remove its own wastes - ganglia only; no brain (*this raises questions about whether roundworms are really more advanced than flatworms: ie. is a brain or an anus more important?) - have multiple sensors to detect food types

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neurons 10000000 = brain in a ganglia, only cell bodies are together and can communicate in a brain, all parts of the neuron are in communication

6. - have muscles but are uncoordinated (no brain to control movement; only on/off switch) 7. - many are hermaphrodites capable of fertilizing themselves Example 1: Hookworms live in the lymph vessels in your body the lymph recycles tissue fluid for your body hookworms block the tissue fluid and trap it in the arms, legs, and face Example 2: Ascaris worms hatch in the intestines and rip their way into the bloodstream worms make their way to the lungs where they break their way through the alveoli these worms will wiggle their way up the trachea and can be coughed up Phylum Annelida (Segmented Worms)

Free-Living Earthworms 1. - pharynx developed so that it can come out of the mouth - many have jaws or a sticky substance to catch food - have a one-way digestive system: mouth pharynx esophagus crop gizzard intestines anus mouth: where food enters pharynx: swallows food esophagus: tube connecting the pharynx and crop crop: stores food gizzard: grinds up food using stones; firm and muscular intestine: digests food; lined with blood vessels to help absorb and transport food anus: where wastes exit 2. - aquatic gills - terrestrial breathe through their skin (must be moist) 3. - first to have a closed circulatory system; blood is always in vessels - have 5 aortic arches that act like a heart near the anterior end 4. - many segments have specialized structures called nephridia, which are primitive kidneys - these remove NH3 from the body 5. - have a brain and ventral nerve cord

6. - two types of muscles: one makes them fat and one makes them long

7. - hermaphrodites (both male and female)

Parasitic Leeches adaptations: suckers and jaws to attach to prey saliva has many adaptations: anesthetic (painkiller), anti-clotting enzymes holds 10 times their weight in blood

Phylum Mollusca (Mollusks) huge variations in this phylum: examples include squids, clams, and slugs defined as soft-bodied animals with an internal or external shell All have 4 specialized parts: Foot: soft part that contains the mouth Mantle: thin layer around most of the animal which secretes CaCO3 Shell: hard covering made of CaCO3 to protect internal organs Visceral Mass: internal organs Class Function Gastropods have a specialized sandpapery tongue called a radula Bivalves filter feeders use their gills to capture food gills have a sticky substance that captures food particles as it is waved around Cephalopods

1. Feeding

sharp jaws to prey on fish

2. Respiration 3.

drags radula over food to cut it up

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aquatic mollusks have gills terrestrial mollusks have specialized mantles with extra surface area open circulatory system (ie. blood vessels) Internal closed circulatory blood is pumped through tissues Transport systems not very efficient (no organization) like earthworms, have nephridia to remove excess waste Excretion (ie. nitrogen in the form of ammonia) (octopi) have numerous sensing organs, which require a large brain those that move little and have few sensing Response organs only have a few ganglia thought to be smarter than some vertebrates and can be trained two very powerful muscles which hold crawl around slowly the shell closed Movement jet propulsion foot is quite can flap shell to muscular move very quickly for short distances Reproduction external fertilization

3 Classes of Mollusks: 1. Gastropods (stomach-foots): eg. slug, snail many are missing shells mostly found on land slow mover with simple nervous systems 2. Bivalves (2 shells): eg. clam strong muscles hold the 2 shells together mostly sessile but can flap their shell to move quickly for short distances simple nervous and circulatory/internal transport system 3. Cephalopods (head-foots): eg. squid and octopi 8 flexible tentacles for movement and catching prey; have muscles sharp beak-like jaws to catch fish well developed sense organs - touch, sight need a brain to coordinate movement and senses closed circulatory system Phylum Arhtropoda arthro = jointed; pod = foot segmented-bodied organisms with a hard exoskeleton made of chitin growth is a problem as the hard shell limits them to grow, they need to do an energy-expensive process called molting (ie. losing their shell) this is a problem because they lose their protection and ability to move well arthropods also have a maximum size because their shell becomes too heavy for them to move and their respiratory system is inefficient There are 4 classes: Trilobita: aquatic extinct arthropods, now only found in fossils Chelicerata: spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions Crustacea: shrimp, crabs, lobsters, crayfish Uniramia (biggest class): centipedes, millipedes, bees, moths, all other insects - segmented body plan allows for specialized limbs for feeding - herbivores (locusts); carnivores (spiders); detrivores (crabs); parasites (ticks, fleas) - 3 types: gills/lungs (aquatic), book gills (aquatic), or tracheal tubes (terrestrial) - tracheal tubes are a network of empty tubes carrying air around the animals (inefficient because the animal needs to keep moving) - well developed heart pumps blood through an open circulatory system - blood does not necessarily carry oxygen - specialized structures called Malpighian tubules remove nitrogenous wastes - brain made from multiple ganglia with a nerve cord - compound eyes; many chemical receptors - great detection of air or water currents - many can hear and have eardrums

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- able to communicate (eg. honeybees) 6. - very coordinated movement - strong muscles pull on exoskeleton 7. - insects: usually sexual, with separate male and female individuals; meet by advertising using bright colours, sounds, or odours - crustaceans: male uses specialized appendages to transfer sperm to female - chelicerata: female spiders keep sperm until their eggs are mature Phylum Echinoderm

*size determines distance

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spiny skin: eg. sea stars Dorsal Side internal skeleton made of CaCO3 they look radially symmetrical, but they are not dorsal side is spiky and ventral side has a mouth most important system is their water vascular system: it helps with feeding, respiration, internal transport, elimination tube feet (hollow suction cups) in the water vascular system can suck water into the sea star - one-way digestive system - tube feet can filter feed in ocean water - like to eat bivalves: first, they use the suction of their tube feet to attach; then, muscles in arms open the shell; next, the sea stars stomach shoots out and eats the inside of the bivalve - stomach is connected to intestines running down each arm - tube feet do respiration - water vascular system moves water throughout the sea star, carrying nutrients and wastes - tube feet remove ammonia - have a nerve ring (no brain) with radial nerves running down each arm - 2 main sensors: photoreceptors (detect light) and statocysts (detect up and down) - use tube feet to attach themselves to rocks, then muscles pull the sea star forward - sexual, but excellent at regeneration (as long as the piece contains a bit of the nerve ring, it can potentially regenerate)

Vertebrates
phylum Chordata - unifying characteristics: 1. Notochord - long flexible rod located between the digestive tract and nerve cord (backbone) 2. dorsal nerve cord 3. pharyngeal gills (slits) - these grow over in humans and other land animals 4. tail Fish 1st group in Chordata, these are the simplest vertebrates scaled, aquatic vertebrates that have gills and fins for swimming 3 categories: Jawless fish: 1st fish had large bony plates and no hinge in their jaw had to be filter feeders as they could not harm prey swam around with their mouth open had no pectoral fins for fine movement most of these are extinct today today there are 2 main examples: i. Lamprey - a parasite of fish which feeds off of fish blood (see below) ii. Hagfish - look a bit like a snake; secrete slime to protect their food and as a method of attack to harm others gills

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Cartilaginous fish: these have a skeleton made of cartilage examples: sharks and rays dont die from cancer sharks have over 3000 teeth which are discarded and regrow Bony fish: 97% of all fish, 40% of all vertebrates; over 15 000 species examples: goldfish, salmon, tuna, piranha have swim bladders to control their depth in the water - Yup, they eat 2. - gills - one loop, 2 chamber heart system: blood is always travelling where it needs to go - oxygenated blood goes towards tissues; deoxygenated blood goes towards gills - primitive fish remove ammonia and carbon dioxide by gills - most bony fish have kidneys to remove ammonia and urea (less toxic than ammonia) - many-lobed brain: smell - olfactory thinking - cerebrum sight - optic movement and balance - cerebellum homeostasis/keeping things the same (ie. body temperature) - medulla oblongata and hypothalamus - pectoral fins control fine movement while swim bladder controls up/down - male and female fish do external fertilization - some fish can change gender if there are too much hormones in the water Amphibians

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both lives - examples: frogs, salamanders, newts aquatic as larva but terrestrial as adults gills lungs - herbivores as larva (tadpoles) - carnivores as adults (frogs) 2. - gills for aquatic stage - adults have poor lungs, weak chest muscles, large alveoli (low surface area for gas exchange) - chest muscles are so weak their pharynx is used to push air into lungs - lungs are so weak that they must breathe through their skin 3. - 2 atria, 1 ventricle, 2 loop system - the pressure in the frogs blood system is much higher than in the fish - the blood moves so much faster that it is more efficient, even though it has mixed blood (purple)

4. - kidneys remove excess nitrogenous wastes 5. - brain has improved cerebrum over fish - no claws or teeth for protection; generally rely on quick responses 6. - tadpoles swim; frogs jump 7. - male frog jumps on the female frog - female frogs lays unfertilized egg; male fertilizes them (external fertilization) - eggs are squishy without protection from drying out - frogs do not look after their young so many eggs must be laid Reptiles lunged animals with scaly skin and special eggs: eg. crocodile, snakes, turtles well adapted to living on land for their whole life 1. - many are carnivores, with teeth - some have poisons: eg. snakes have hollow fangs to inject venom into their prey - well developed digestive system 2. - powerful chest muscles move air in and out of lungs, which have smaller alveoli - much more efficient nasal passages to move air into lungs - 3 things air needs to be when it reaches lungs: warm, moist, and filtered (nose hair, mucus) 3. - 2 loop system, 3.5 chamber heart - there is a partial divide in the ventricle - this reduces mixing and allows more oxygenated blood to go to the tissues and more deoxygenated blood to go to the lungs 4. - kidneys make urine; excrete urea, not ammonia: NH3 (hazardous, spends less time in the body) urea (less hazardous) - main adaptation is removal of uric acid as a waste - uric acid is a paste and it can be excreted with little water loss 5. - well developed sense organs - eyes that see colour - some can sense heat 6. - improved skeletal system - much stronger muscles than amphibians - specialized adaptations such as claws (allows it to move over rough terrain) 7. - internal fertilization; lays eggs with a special adaptation of a leathery covering to prevent them from drying out Cold-blooded vs. Warm-blooded fish, reptiles and amphibians are all cold-blooded birds, mammals, and humans are all warm-blooded ectotherm (cold-blooded) = outside heat the environment controls the internal body temperature

take way less energy to live (about 10% of what we need) do not have to eat as often can only live in certain places often hibernate during winter or only eggs survive endotherm (warm-blooded) = inside heat the animal controls its own body temperature can live in most places high metabolic rate - gives off extra energy as heat have a layer of fat for insulation as well as hair, fur, or feathers Birds

there are over 9000 species of these endothermic, feathered vertebrates feathers (which are light and hollow) are for warmth and flying, with 2 appendages for perching, and 2 for flying 1. varies: - crows eat anything - hummingbirds eat nectar - seagulls eat fish - robins eat worms - woodpeckers eat insects - most birds have a crop and gizzard, like earthworms

2. - have anterior and posterior air sacs in lungs (above, left) - each breath, air is used twice - air sacs use more oxygen per breath AND make the bird less dense 3. - 4 chambers, 2 loop system (above, right) - no mixing = very efficient - heart rate: 150 - 1000 beats/minute 4. - birds have kidneys to excrete uric acid; this saves a lot of water

- excess salt is removed by tears 5. - excellent optical part of the brain; have excellent auditory system - olfactory and taste, however, are generally poor - many birds can detect magnetism of the poles 6. - more birds fly than dont (exceptions: emu, ostrich, penguin) - have hollow bones 7. - females only have 1 ovary - internal fertilization; lays eggs - they watch over their young until they hatch How do birds fit into the world? pollinators, insect eaters, feathers for pillows and jackets, chickens taste yummy, etc. Mammals 1. endothermic - have fat, fur/hair; sweat glands to cool off viviparous - bear live young mammary glands (only on females, make milk) to nourish young - you can tell what they eat by the shape of their teeth (picture: square = large flat teeth, herbivore; triangle = sharp teeth, carnivore) - many herbivores (eg. cows) have rumen - special place in intestine to break down plant matter - great lungs but not as good as birds - small, numerous alveoli - 4 chamber heart: 2 atria, 2 ventricles; 2 loop system - same as the bird heart, although often beats slower (eg. 70 beats/min for humans) - highly developed kidneys - part of homeostasis - regulate excess nitrogen, water, blood pressure, salt concentration - mostly excrete urea - well developed brain; most developed cerebrum - swim (eg. dolphins, whales) - walk on four legs (eg. dogs, cheetahs) - walk upright (eg. humans, apes) - fly (eg. bats) - internal fertilization

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Orders of Living Mammals Monotremes* - egg laying mammals (eg. platypus, only found in Australia and New Guinea) Marsupials* - are pouched animals (eg. kangaroos, koala bears, only found in Australia) *nourished by the egg Placental - the young is nourished by the placenta (half mom tissue, half baby tissue; steals energy from mom) inside mom