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BLOOD Blood is a special connective tissue consisting of fluid matrix, plasma, and formed elements. PLASMA Plasma constitutes 55% of blood. 90 to 95% of plasma is water. 6 to 8 % of plasma is proteins. Fibrinogen , globulins and albumins are the major plasma proteins. Fibrinogen helps in clotting or coagulation of blood Globulins help in defense mechanism. Albumins help in osmotic balance. Plasma also contains small amounts of minerals like Na+ , Ca++, Mg++ ,HCO3 –, Cl – etc. • Factors of coagulation are present in an inactive form. • Plasma without clotting factor is called serum. FORMED ELEMENTS OF THE BLOOD • Formed elements include erythrocytes, leucocytes, and platelets. • These constitute 45% of the blood. ERYTHROCYTES • These are red blood cells (RBC). • A healthy adult man has 5 millions to 5.5 millions of RBC in cubic milli meter of blood. • In adults RBC are formed in red bone marrow. • RBC of mammals is non nucleated and biconcave in shape. • Haemoglobin is the red coloured iron containing pigment in the RBC. • A healthy individual has 12-16 gm of haemoglobin in 100 ml of blood. • RBCs have an average of life span of 120 days. • RBCs are destroyed in spleen (graveyard of RBCs) LEUCOCYTES • These are white blood cells (WBC) • These are nucleated cells. • Average number is 6000- 8000 in mm3 of blood. Two types of WBCs are present 1. Granulocyte 3 types of granulocytes are there 1. Neutrophils - most abundant RBC. (60-65%), phagocytic 2. Eosinophils - 2-3% - resist infections, involve in allergic reactions 3. Basophils - least abundant RBC (0.5 -1%).Involve in inflammatory reactions. Secrete histamine, sreotonin, heparin etc 2. Agranulocytes 2 types of agranulocytes are there. 1. Monocytes - phagocytic 2. Lymphocytes - (20-25%), responsible for immune response of the body. B and T lymphocytes are present


They are ABO type and Rh type. B and O • O group persons can accept blood only from O group.00 to 3.00 in mm3 • Main function is blood clotting Diagrammatic representation of formed elements of blood Blood Plasma Blood corpuscles RBC Granulocytes WBC agranulocytes formed elements platelets Neutrophils basophil eosinophil lymphocytes monocytes BLOOD GROUPS • Two types of blood grouping is widely used. • ABO grouping is based on the presence or absence of two surface antigens A and B on the RBC and the antibodies present in the plasma. So they can accept blood from any groups . 2 . • The plasma of AB group persons has no antibodies. So they can donate blood to any group . • B group persons can accept blood from B and O • AB group persons can accept blood from AB .PATELETS • These are called thrombocytes . • Produced from special type of cell in the bone marrow known as megakaryocytes • Normal count is 1. • Antibody A reacts with antigen A and in the same way antibody B reacts with antigen B leading to the destruction of RBCs. • The RBC of O group persons has no antigen. • A group person can accept blood from A and O.500.Hence they are called Universal Donors. A .500.Hence they are called Universal Recipients. • A group has antigen A and antibody B • B group has antigen B and antibody A • AB group has antigen A and B but no antibody • O group has antibody A and B but no antigen BLOOD GROUPS AND DONOR COMPATIBILITY • During blood transfusion in order to avoid clotting donor’s blood is matched with recipient’s blood.

• During the delivery of first child mixing of maternal and foetal blood occurs . This fluid is known as lymph. hence the name. • Lymph has the same mineral distribution as that in plasma but it is devoid of RBC. • This can be seen in Rh positive foetus which is developing in the uterus of Rh negative lady who became pregnant in the second time. • Thromboplastin released from platelets and damaged tissues initiates the formation of thrombokinase • Ca2+ ions are essential for the activation and action of thrombin. • Persons with Rh antigen is Rh positive and without Rh antigen is Rh negative. platelets and some proteins. Prothrombin Ca 2+ Thrombokinase enzyme complex Thrombin Fibrinogen fibrin (clot) LYMPH (TISSUE FLUID) • When blood flows under high pressure through the capillaries. • Rh antigen is first observed in Rhesus monkey . • This can be avoided by injecting anti Rh antibodies to the mother immeadiately after the first child. 3 . water and other dissolved substances are filtered out from the blood plasma to the intercellular space. his blood will develop antibody against Rh antigen. • Then the mother begins to produce antibodies against Rh antigen in her blood • This Rh antigen enters in to the foetus if the lady conceives the second child and destroy the foetal RBC. ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FOETALIS • This is an Rh incompatibility disease. • Thrombin is found in the blood in an inactive form called prothrombin • The enzyme complex thrombokinase converts prothrombin to thrombin through a series of reactions. • This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme thrombin. COAGULATION OF BLOOD • Blood exhibits clotting or coagulation in response to an injury inorder to prevent excessive loss of blood from the body. • If an Rh negative person receives blood from Rh positive one.Rh GROUPING • Surface of RBC contains another antigen known as Rh antigen. • Clotting involves the conversion of soluble plasma protein fibrinogen into an insoluble form called fibrin.

So this circulation is known as incomplete circulation. Eg . Fats are absorbed through lymph in the lacteals present in the intestinal villi. • Deoxygenated blood from all body parts enters into the right atria and and from there enters into the right ventricle. Open Circulatory System Blood from heart passes through large vessels into open spaces or body cavities called sinuses Eg . Incomplete Double circulation • In amphibians and reptiles. gases. Closed circulatory system Blood pumped from the heart always circulate through a closed network of blood vessels. Lymph vessels collect lymph and drain it to major veins. • The ventricles pump the blood without any mixing up . a network of closed branching blood vessels and blood. etc between the blood and the cells always occur through lymph.3 chambers (2 atria and a ventricle) 3. hormones etc. • It has the size of a clenched fist • The double walled membrane which protect the heart is pericardium • Pericardium has a fluid in it known as pericardial fluid • Heart has four chambers . Lymph contains specialized lymphocytes which are responsible for immune response. the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the gills/ lungs/skin. birds and mammals .Thus two complete circulatory pathways are there and known as complete double circulation.2 chambers (atrium and a ventricle) 2. in between the lungs. Fishes . Annelids and chordates Animal groups and number of heart chambers 1. • From the gills oxygenated blood enters the tissues directly.4 chambers (2 atria and 2 ventricles) Single circulation • In fishes deoxygenated blood from tissues reaches the heart and from there pumped to the gills for oxygenation. Amphibians and reptiles (except crocodiles) . Complete double circulation • In birds and mammals oxygenated blood is received in the left atria and from there enters into the left ventricle. Crocodiles. TYPES OF CIRCULATION 1. • Right atrium receives the deoxygenated blood from the body parts. HEART • Mesodermal in orgin • Situated in the thoracic cavity . • Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mixes in the ventricle and ventricle pumps this mixed blood .Upper small chambers are atria and lower large chambers are ventricles 4 . Lymph is an important carrier for nutrients.This circulation is single circulation. HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Consists of a muscular heart .• • • • • Exchange of nutrients. Arthropods and molluscs 2.

70-75 /min Atrio – Ventricular Node (AV Node) • The mass of nodal muscle tissue seen in the lower left corner of the right atrium close to the atrio ventricular septum is atrio ventricular node Bundle of His • The bundle of nodal fibers arising from the AV node is Bundle of His.• • • • • • • • • Inter atrial septum separate the two arias. • SAN can generate the maximum number of action potentials ie. Semilunar valves guard the openings of pulmonary artery and aorta These valves allow the blood to flow in only one direction The muscles of the heart is known as cardiac muscles Sino –atrial node (SA Node) • This is a special type of muscle tissue present in the right upper corner of the right atrium which initiates and maintains the rhythmic contractile activity of the heart. Atrio ventricular septum separate the atria and ventricles The opening of atria to the ventricle is guarded by valves Tricuspid valve guard the opening of right atrium and right ventricle Bicuspid or mitral valve guard the opening of left atrium and left ventricle. Purkinje fibers • Bundle of His branches again and the branches give rise to minute fibers throughout the ventricles Flow chart of the path of cardiac impulse SA node AV node Bundle of His Purkinje fibers ventricles Section of human heart 5 . Inter ventricular septum separate the two ventricles.

Cardiac output • The volume of blood pumped out from each ventricle per minute is called cardiac output. • The sequential event in the heart which is cyclically repeated is called the cardiac cycle and it constitutes atrial and ventricular systole.8 seconds Atrial systole • All the 4 chambers are in the relaxed state.CARDIAC CYCLE • Contraction of the heart chambers is systole • Relaxation of the heart chambers is diastole • The contraction and subsequent relaxation of the chambers of the heart constitute a heart beat. So it is known as joint diastole • During atrial diastole right atrium is filled with deoxygenated blood and left atrium is filled with oxygenated blood from the lungs Stroke volume During a cardiac cycle . Ventricular systole • The contraction of the ventricles is ventricular systole. each ventricle pumps out approximately 70 ml of blood which is called stroke volume. • Tricuspid and bicuspid valves are open . which is associated with the closure of the semilunar valves. the tricuspid and bicuspid valves close and the deoxygenated blood is forced to enter the pulmonary artey and oxygenated blood enter the aorta opening the semilunar valves. which is associated with the closure of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves • The second sound is dub. Electrocardiograph(ECG) 6 . • Blood from the pulmonary veins and venacava flows into the left and right ventricles through the right and left atria. Diastole • The relaxation of heart chambers after contraction is diastole • The atria and ventricles relax simultaneously .Sounds of heart • During each cardiac cycle two prominent sounds are produced which can be heard using a stethoscope. and diastole. • It begins when the ventricles are full of blood . • The cardiac out put of a healthy individual is 5000 ml or 5 liters . • The heart beat 72 times/mt. • The first heart sound is lub . So the duration of cardiac cycle is 0. • When the ventricles begin to contract . • The stroke volume multiplied by the number of beats per minute gives the cardiac output.

• • • • • • • • The machine used to record the electrical activity of the heart during cardiac cycle is called electrocardiograph. Double circulation • Human heart is a double pump. oxygen and other essential substances to the tissues and takes CO2 and other harmful substances away for elimination. The graph obtained from the machine is electrocardiogram The ECG has 3 peaks. Hepatic portal system • The vascular connection between the digestive tract and liver is called hepatic portal system.This type of heart to lung circulation is called pulmonary circulation. Hence it has great significance.P . • The hepatic portal vein carries food laden blood from the alimentary canal to the liver before it is delivered to systemic circulation. The QRS complex represents the depolarization of the ventricles The T wave represents the return of the ventricles from excited to normal state(repolarisation). Systemic circulation • The circulation between heart and various body parts is called systemic circulation • In this circulation oxygenated blood from the left ventricle is pumped into the aorta • The arteries from the aorta supply blood to all parts of the body .wave marks the end of the systole The deviation from the standard shape indicates abnormality or disease. Each side pumps blood to two different system known as double circulation • It involves pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation Pulmonary circulation • The circulation between the heart and lungs is called pulmonary circulation • The deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle is pumped into the pulmonary artery and carried to the lungs. • Oxygenated blood from lungs is carried to the left atrium by pulmonary veins . Coronary circulation • The circulation of blood between heart chambers and heart walls is known as coronary circulation Schematic plan of blood circulation in human 7 . QRS and T . • The deoxygenated blood from the tissues is returned to the right atrium by superior and inferior venacave • Systemic circulation provides nutrients. The P-wave represents the electrical excitation or depolarization of the atria. The end of the T.

ie auto regulated by specialized nodal muscle tissue . Angina ( angina pectoris) • A symptom of acute chest pain due to the deficiency of oxygen to the heart muscles • It is more common in middle – aged and elderly • It occurs due to the block of blood flow. that condition is known as hypertension • Hypertension leads to heart diseases .which make the arteries narrower. DISORDERS OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) • Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm of Hg • 120 mm of Hg is the systolic pressure and 80 mm of Hg is the diastolic pressure • If the blood pressure rises to 140 / 90 . • Medulla oblongata moderate the cardiac function through autonomic nervous system • Neural signals from sympathetic nerves increase the rate of heart beat and cardiac output . • It may lead to heart attack. fat . Atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease) • It is an arterial disease due to the deposition of calcium . • Parasympathetic neural signals decrease heart beat and cardiac output • Hormones from adrenal medulla increase the cardiac out put. Heart failure • This is a condition in which the heart is not pumping enough blood to meet the needs of the body Notes Prepared by BIJU T L HSST Zoology GHSS Mylachal. Tvpm 8 . cholesterol and fibrous tissues on the inner lining of the large and medium sized arteries . damage to brain and kidney.Regulation of cardiac activity • Human heart is myogenic .