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Respiration The process of exchange of oxygen from the atmosphere with the carbondioxide produced by the cell is called respiration or breathing. Respiratory organs Lower invertebrates like sponges, coelenterates flat worms etc. Exchange oxygen with CO2 by simple diffusion over their entire body surfaces. Moist skin Tracheal tubes gills lungs Earth worms amphibians insects Aquatic arthropods, Molluscs, Fishes Reptiles Birds Mammals

Human respiratory system External nostrils nasal passage Nasal chamber nasopharynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli



Larynx • It is a cartilaginous box which help in sound production and hence called the sound box. Epiglottis • It is a thin elastic cartilaginous flap which cover the glottis .Epiglottis prevent the entry of food in to the larynx during swallowing. Pleura • It is the double layered membrane which covers the lungs .Fluid in the pleura is pleural fluid. It reduces the friction on the lung surface. Steps involved in respiration


Inspiration 2. Intra pulmonary pressure becomes less than atmospheric pressure. Air from outside move in to the lungs. Events in expiration 1. 1. 3. 2. 8. Expiration Events in inspiration • It is the process in which atmospheric air is drawn in . 5. Air from lungs expelled. 4. Mechanism of breathing • Involves two steps 1. The ribs and the sternum raised. External inter coastal muscles contracts. Diaphragm and inter costal muscles relaxes 2.release of carbon dioxide. Pulmonary volume increases. Volume of thoracic chamber increases in dorso ventral axis 6. 3. Thoracic and pulmonary volume decreases. 7. Diaphragm contracts. Intra pulmonary pressure increases above the atmospheric pressure 4.During inspiration the following events takes place. Volume of thoracic chambers increases in anterio posterior axis. 2 .

• This is tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume Functional residual capacity (FRC) • Volume of air that will remain in the lungs after a normal expiration • It is expiratory reserve volume + residual volume. Residual volume (RV) • Volume of air remaining in the lungs even after a forcible expiration. • From the atmospheric air 02 diffuses into the alveoli and alveolar PO2 becomes 104. This includes expiratory reserve volume. Total Lung Capacity (TLC) • Total volume of air accommodated in the lungs at the end of a forced inspiration.(TV+IRV) Expiratory capacity (EC) • Total volume of air a person can expire after a normal inspiration. • Thus PCO2 in the deoxygenated blood becomes higher than that of alveoli and CO2 diffuses from blood to alveoli.Tidal volume(TV) • Volume of air inspired or expired during a normal respiration is tidal volume • It is about 500 ml.This includes RV+ERV+TV+IRV or It is vital capacity + residual volume EXCHANGE OF GASES Partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in respiration • Partial pressure of inspired air that is entering in lungs is 159. 3 .(ERV+RV) Vital Capacity (VC) • The maximum volumes of air a person can braethe in after a forced expiration. • CO2 diffuses out of the lung alveoli and PCO2 in alveoli becomes 40. • This is tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume. • O2 from alveoli diffuses in to the blood and blood PO2 becomes 95. • The PO2 of deoxygenated entering the lung alveoli is 45. • It is about 1100 to 1200 ml Inspiratory capacity(IC) • Total volume of air a person can inspire after a normal respiration. tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume (ERV+TV+IRV) or the maximum volume of air a person can breathe out after a forced inspiration. • It is about 2500 to 3000 ml Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) • The volume of air a person can expire by a forcible expiration. • It is about 1000 to 1100 ml. • Blood delivers O2 to the tissues and blood PO2 changes to 40. • Thus PO2 in the alveoli is higher than that of deoxygenated blood and O2diffuses in to the blood • Because of tissue respiration CO2is formed in the tissues. ie.6000 to 8000 ml of air per minute Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) • The volume of air a person can inspire by a forcible inspiration.

The structure of alveoli is favourable for gaseous exchange . Endothelium of alveolar capillaries. 3.substantiate The alveolar membrane is in close contact with the alveolar capillaries and it is known as diffusion membrane or respiratory membrane. • The total thickness of the above membrane is less than a millimeter which is very much favorable for diffusion of gases 4 . It has the following layers 1. Basement substance in between them. One celled thick squamous epithelium of alveolar membrane 2.

• This curve is highly useful in studying the effect of factors like PCO2 .high H+ ion concentration and higher temperature favour dissociation of oxyhaemoglobin Oxygen dissociation curve • The binding O2 with haemoglobin is mainly related to partial pressure of O2. low PCO2. This curve is known as oxygen dissociation curve. • In tissues low PO2 . (20-25%) • Haemoglobin + CO2 carbamino haemoglobin • In the alveoli the reaction is reversed. • 20-25 % of CO2 is transported by RBC. • Remaining 3% is carried in plasma. • If we plot the partial pressure of O2 against percentage of saturation of haemoglobin with O2 a sigmoid curve is obtained. • Carbamino haemoglobin CO2 + haemoglobin 5 . temperature etc OXYGEN HAEMOGLOBIN DISSOCIATION CURVE Transport of CO2 • 70% of CO2 is carried as bicarbonates. • In tissues PO2 is less and PCO2 is high . lesser H+ concentration and low temperature in the alveoli help in the formation of oxyhaemoglobin in the lung alveoli. • The red coloured pigment present in RBC is haemoglobin. • Haemoglobin binds with O2 in a reversible manner Haemoglobin +O2 oxyhaemoglobin • One haemoglobin molecule binds with four O2 molecule • In tissues oxyhaemoglobin dissociates to O2 and haemoglobin What are the factors which favour the formation of oxyhaemoglobin in lungs and its dissociation in tissues? • High PO2.H+ conc..So haemoglobin in the RBC binds with CO2 and carbamino haemoglobin is formed.high PCO2 .Transport of O2 • About 97% of O2 is transported by RBC in the blood. • 7% Of CO2 is carried in plasma.

• • RBC contains the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which convert CO2 and water to carbonic acid. • Respiratory centre is located in the medulla oblongata and pons of brain known as pneumotaxic centre.+ H+ H2CO3 H2O + CO2 • Thus CO2 trapped as bicarbonates from tissues is transported to alveoli and released out as CO2 How respiration is regulated • Respiration is controlled by neural system. • Neural signals from this centre can alter the respiratory rate. Occupational Respiratory Disorders • This is due to the exposure of harmful substances like fumes or dust present in the environment where a person works. H2CO3 HCO3. Tvpm 6 . • At the alveolar site PCO2 is low and the reaction is reversed. • Receptors associated with aortic arch and carotid artery can also recognize changes in CO2 and PH. Emphysema • The alveolar walls are damaged and respiratory surface is reduced .It is due to cigarette smoking. and can send necessary signals to the rhythm centre. Silicosis . DISORDERS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Asthma • It is the difficulty in breathing due to inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles. Carbonic acid soon dissociates in to H+ ions and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) Bicarbonate ion soon diffuses out of the RBC.asbestosis Notes Prepared by BIJU T L HSST Zoology GHSS Mylachal. • Eg .