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Journal of the

STRUCTURAL DIVISION

Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers

;;;;;::;:::=

BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE UNDER COMPRESSIVE LOADINGS

By 1. Demir Karsan,! and James O. Jirsa/ M. ASCE

INTRODUCTION

This paper describes and evaluates an experimental study of the strength

and behavior of plain concrete subjected to repetitions of compressive stress

!Ovarious levels. A total of 46 short rectangular columns were tested under

cyclically varying axial loads to establish stress-strain relations for plain

concrete. The characteristics of the loading and unloading stress-strain re

lationships were studied, and expressions for these relationships were

derived.

BACKGROUND

Early research on plain concrete subjected to variable load histories was

aimed toward obtaining a fatigue limit for the materi?l. Fatigue tests of ce

ment mortar were followed by fatigue tests of plain concrete in which the

reported fatigue limits were generally from 40% to 60% of the staLic cylinder

strength. A decrease in the tangent modulus and the Poisson's ratio with in

• creased number of cycles of loading was reported. This early work has been

. reviewed in considerable detail by Nordby (5).3 Murdock and Kesler (4) con-

eluded that there was no Significant fatigue limit for plain concrete under

loads of the order of millions of cycles. However, for a given stress level the

Inumhl>r of ('\7('1,,<: nl'onl1('inO" hillll'P ('olllrl hI' oht"inl'rl.

2545 CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

2544 December, 1969

1. The stress-strain relationships of concrete under

histories possess an envelope curve, which may be considered

identical with the stress-strain curve obtained under constantly

strain.

2. The stress-strain relationships of concrete subjected to cyclic

possess a locus of common pOints which are defined as the point

reloading portion of any cycle crosses the unloading portion. Stresses

the common points produce additional strains, while stresses at Or

these points will result in tIle stress-strain path going into a loop. It Was

observed that the values of the common pOints depended on the

stress in the cycle, i.e., the stress amplitude.

Shah, et al. (7,B,9) reported tests of prismatic specimens subjected to

peated axial compression. Tests showed that the maximum stress of the

of common points appeared to be approximately equal to the critica:lload

which the volume of the concrete uru!l'er compression ceases to decrease

the micracracking in the mortar sharply increases.

Most of the experimental work to date has been aimed toward obtaining

fatigue stress level for concrete. The loadings were generally at high

The effects of acceleration and speed on the behavior were generally

eliminated.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this investigation were twofold: (1) To study

tally the behavior of concrete under various compressive loadings in

determine the factors governing the responses of concrete to repeated

ings and examine the mechanism of failure under these loadings; and (2)

develop expressions for the stress-strain relationships of the concrete,

on the experimental results and to use these expressions for predicting

behavior of concrete under other compressive loading histories.

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Test SPecir;zens.-:-The test specimens were short rectangular COlumllS{

Thedimensions of the column at the critical sectionwere 3-in. X

To confine failure .to the mid?eight of the column, bath ends of the specimellSl

curve. Axial load was applied with a 60-ton hydraulic ram connected

Id_operated high-pressure pump which provided a nearly constant rate

of oil to the ram. The load was transmitted to the specimen through a

yoke resting on a spherical head on the ram. The movable yoke was

to a rigid base plate which distributed the load to the end face

test specimen. On the other end, a similar rigid plate was pin-connected

00 K load cell which was used to monitor the axial load. Both ends of

specimens were grouted with a quick setting high-strength gypsum cement.

lIoriZo

ntal

load was applied through a manually operated screw-type me

'snt. As the mechanism was rotated, a horizontal thrust was developed

the column of the load frame. Horizontal loads were applied only to

:ain

tain

a uniform strain across the specimen.

w

{oJ {bl

FIG. l.-TEST SPECIMEN FIG. 2.-LOAD FRAME

Strain rates were suc? that t?e maximum the

were flared and reInforced WIth No.5 bars. \ jected to steadily increasIng stram was reached In 3 mm to 5 mm. For cyclIc

The concrete mix proportions were constant for all the specimens. The I' loading the peak load on the specimens was applied in 1 min to 2 min and re

concrete was a blend of Type m Portland Cement and 50% Colorado River· moved in about 1/2 min to 1 min.

sand and 50% 3/4-in. gravel by weight. The specimens were cast in a vertical instrumentation. -Four O.B-in. wire resistance gages were used to monitor

position. 6-in. x 12-in.. control were cast with each specimen. the strains on the two opposite 3.-in. faces at .the of column.

The speclmens were cured m a mOIst room for 2, 5 or 7 days and testedati Because the specimens were subJected to strams conSIderably In excess of

7, 14 or 21 days. Cylinder strengths varied from 3,500 psi to 5,000 psi. Values

1

( the normal operating range of the strain gages, strains were also measured

of for each specimen and complete details of the experimental program' over a 6-1/2-in. gage length, using two differential transformer displacement

are given in Ref. 3.. , 'I transducers placed at the midsections of the specimens. These transducers

Loading An'angement.-A rigid loading frame (Fig. 2) was constructed in . were placed on the opposite 5-in. faces of the specimen and were 'supported

which .axial Or flexural loads could be applied simultaneously or separately., between light steel frames fastened to the specimen with pOinted set screws.

The silffness of the loading frame was sufficient to avoid problems associated Test Procedure. - Load histories were controlled by monitoring one of two

with the release of energy in the unstable portion of the concrete stress- variables: (0 Incremental strain during a given cycle, or (2) stress level

2547

OJ''

2546 December, 1969

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

during a given cycle. Loads were applied manually and the magnitude

to produce the specified seress level or strain increment as

by an X-Y recorder plot. A total of 46 specimens were tested in

different series which are identjfied below by the distinguishing feature

load history. The number of tests in each series is given in parentheses.

Series AM1: Steadily Increasing Strain to Failure (13 Specimens).-Speci

.:::

e usually cast in groups of two or four. The strain was steadily

to failure on one specimen in each group. This test was used to

the effects of other loading histories. Typical stress-strain curves

' ...... the test specimens in series AM! are shown.in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. The non-

A; ensiona! coordinates F and S will be presented later.

IllSedes AC2: Cycles to Envelope Curve (9 Specimens).-The concept of an

• II Ii'

velope curve for the response of concrete has been proposed by other in

co r Wk1 K< fC""""": '.".............

..

:stlgators (10). The envelope curve can be defined as the limiting curve

S. t/tg

"

"

"

FIG. 3.-CYCLIC LOADING TO ENVELOPE CUR,VE

1.0

--,

I: I I

I ' /;AM,j,,) !

,.

'-06

' ".""! '

'

",.",

, y<

SMITJ-t- YOUNG ............

-.....

' ..... ,.n

'kll:

"

So oc/ to

FIG. 4,-COMPARISOK OF ENVELOPE CURVES \VITH TEST AC4-10

- I

I

•

, within which all stress-strain curves lie regardless of the load pattern. To

Investigate the validity of the envelope curve, the strains in a given cycle

were increased until the stress-strain path reached the envelope curve. A

-"01

' , stress-strain curve for test AC2-09 is shown in Fig. 3.

Series AC3:Varying Strain Increments (10 Specimens).-The specimens in

series AC2 were subjected to strain cycles in which a specified strain incre

'"",,00,.

) ment was added during each cycle. Stress-strain curves are shown in Fig. 6

"1Ii\l"Ut

r' [or AC3-10 in which strain increments of 0.5 x 10-

3

were added during each

>. cycle. Some of t.h.e specim.ens w.e .. re loaded to an initi.al specified ...s.t. r.a.... in such

as 1 x 10-

3

and then cycled to produce a given incremental st:rElJrr such as

.• 0.1 x 10-

3

in each .cycle. In many of these tests the results to

" 5 .. ,/(.

those of series AC2 because the incremental strain was large enotigh.,-i9 pro

duce stress-strain curves which reached the envelope curve. •

I

FIG. 5.-COl'l'IPARISO.K OF ENVELOPE CUHVES WITH TEST AC4-13

,: AC4: Cyd" betw••n M",lmom and Minlmom 81"" Lov.l, (14

J

0.1-1-- . AI' 'I "'

,.8 II ,I

..I 'ltV r n

I' r 'I

1).6 :.1 I

•.4

'1............

02

o. ,V 1/ vq.-r ........--{<

co

1.0 l.a 3.0

5 • c/c,

FIG. 6.-CYCLIC LOADING PRODUCING GIVEN STRAIN INCREMENT

2548

2549

December, 1969

Specimens). - In this series load cycles were applied between

e

x 12-in.

and the

ched.

mens

giv-en

levels until the strains stabilized or until the maximum stress lev-el

be sustained, Maxi:num stresses varied between 0.85 fJ and 0,59 JI.

, mum stresses vaned between 0 and 0.70 Stress-strain Curv-es lor

AC4-10 and AC4-13 are shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Additional details Of til

perimental program are given in flef. 3,

BEHAVIOR OF TEST SPECIMENS

Monotonic Loading to Failure.-The specimens in which the strain

steadily increased to failure were used to evaluate the behavior of

subjected to other load histories. In order to facilitate comparisons

test results, stress-strain curves are plotted in normalized coordinates.

stress coordinate F is normali7,ed with respect to I;, the 6-in.

1.0

0.8

'_<.l 0.6

"

0,'

0,'

0,0

0,0 1.0

3.0

S=: £/£1)

FIG. 7,-l\]OP;OTONIC LOAD/KG TO FAILURE

inder strength. For the specimens under monotonic loading to failure,

median value of the strength was 0.85f; and the mean wasO.S6/; with a

dard deviation of 0.04 r;. The strain coordinate, S, is normalizedwith

to Eo' the strain corresponding to the peak stress. The median value of

the specimens subjected to monotonic loading was 1.68 10-3 ,

was 1.71 10-

3

with a standard deviation of 0.14 )< 10-

3

• Strains

specimens subjected to cyclic loads were normalized with respect to the

of Eo for the specimen which was cast from the sa111e batch of concrete

subjected to monotonic loading (0 failure.

The results of several of the tests in series AMI are shown in Figs.

and 5. Points from the stress-strain curves of the 13 tests in. this series

plotted in Fig. 7. Also plotted in Fig. 7 are stress-strain relationshi

gesled by Smith and Young (11), and Hognestad (1,2), The equations for

curves are expressed in terms of the coordinates F and S. The smith-

HOGHESTAO; F= o.ass {Z-sl. fot 511£1,0

i

F=O.!lS1-a,I01S,forS!!:to

.••L.

• t .

---: --; ""-.' I

"', \ -..,.

i -/

F= O.85Se-('i Sl

2·0

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

appears to best fit the observed stress-strain relationship and

to approximate the behavior of concrete under monotonic load-

in the age of the concrete at testing and in the strength did not

have an influence on the shape of the stress- strain curves obtained

the specimens under monotonic loading to failure or those under

and were not considered to be significant variables in the range

this investigation.

JlilJlletope Curve. -The test results as represented by the curves in Fig. 3,

aindicate that the stress-strain paths under cyclic loading generally

eKceed the envelope curve. In those cases where the envelope was the

stress-strain curve for the companion specimen under monotonic

to failure, the comparison is excellent.

the specimens tested, the stress-strain relationship became approx

tangent to the envelope curveas.shown by the stress-strain curves

AC2-09 and AC3-10 (.E'xgs. 6). The same behavior was

in specimens AC4-l(i and AC4·1S (Figs. 4 and 5). It is significant

ulation of strain under constant maximum stress levels produced

when the envelope was reached.

1II Fig. 8 another type of load history is shown. Even though the cycles

quite different than those presented previously, the stress-strain curves

specimen AC2-07 remained within the envelope until very high strains

oints plotted in Fig. 9 are the values of peak stress and strain from

for which the stress-strain path in a given cycle became ap

coincidental with the envelope curve. Although there is some

the Smith-Young expression is a good approximation of the test

the specimens tested, the envelope curve may be defined as the stress-

curve obtained under monotonic loading to failure and approximated by

Smith-Young equation. Failure was observed when a given stress-strain

exceeded the envelope, however, the specimen could be loaded to the

regardless of the strain accumulated prior to a given cycle. Strain

did not appear to reduce the strength to a level below the en

Itshould be remembered that the envelope and the stress strain curves

be altered if the strain rate or the' properties of the concrete were

man Points. -Sinha, GerstIc, and Tulin (W! ind1Catedthat the locus of

oints where the reloading portion 'of any cycle crosses the unloading

maybe defined as a stability limit at which the strains stabilize and a

hysteresis loop is formed in subsequent cycles. Stresses above this

produce additional strains whUe maximum stresses at or below this

cause the stress-strain history to go into a loop, repeating the pre

cycle without further permanent strain. Using this definition, if the

level corresponding to a common point, as indicated in the stress

strain history of specimen AC2-09 (Fig. 3), is not exceeded in subsequent

e)'eles, strains should not exc.eed the value at the common point. .....

'l'hebehavior of the specimens in this investigation suggesfifa"tN;j't'e" rigor

definition of the stability limit. The common cyclic

load tests with various maximum stress levels are plotted in Fig. Hr. In view

Ilfthewide scatter, the common pOints may have a range of values.

2551

.l'fi!1"

2550 December, 1969

The scatter may be explained by examining the stress-strain

specimen AC2-07 [Fig. 8(a)). Four specimens were cycled in this m

all exhibited similar behavior. The location of the common points

obtained.

is

in a detail of the stress-strain history [Fig. 8(b)). For example, after

'·0

TIlT AC -07

# oIU,Op6i

0 .•

0.6

0.4

0.2

().o

.8 1.0

( ;A Complete Load History (b) POirtt5

FIG. 8.- VARIA TION OF COMMON POINTS

10

'.8

'U

" 0.'

.y. a<

$$ te/Co

02

00 20

'U

.,

s • (:/ (0 "

FIG. 9.-POINTS ON ImVELOPE CURVE (J.1EASURED)

20 had been carried out, the specimen was reloaded until the unloading

tion of cycle 20 was reached (point n) and then the specimen was unloaded.

This routine was continued until the common pOint stabilized at points D and

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

£. In general, the magnitude of the reduction of the point of intersectionde

creased with the number of cycles. If the locus of points for the first, second,

third, .•. ,common points are drawn, a family of common point curves can be

10

O.

"

o ,

0.1

0.0

o0 10 '0 1.0

s C/ CQ

FIG. lO.-COMMON POINTS (MEASURED)

. ,

'-

Ie

00

I.' Z..Il C /(0

FIG. n.-EFFECT OF 1I1INIMUM STRESS LEVEL ON COMMON POINTS

test results plotted.in Fig. 10 .and the behavior exhibged tn· tests such

as AC2-07 (Fig. 8) show that intersecting points of load cycles'"ttf,tije envelope

Curve constituded an upper limit on the common points (hereafter called com

mon point limit). As cycles with lower stress levels were introduced, the

1.0

'"

2553

stress level'

2552 December, 1969

paint of intersection was reduced but stabiltzed at a lower bound

limit),

The effect of the minumum stress level on the common points is iIIull:"

trated in Fig. 11. Specimens AC4-12 and AC4-13 were cast from the salll;

batch of concrete. Both were subjected to the same maximum

but the minimum stress levels were different. The common points for both

specimens were identical. The same behavior was noted in other specimens.

On this basis, it can be assumed that the common points were independent Of

the minimum stress levels in a particular load history.

The dependency of the common pOints on the maximum stress level is

shown in Fig. 12 for 5 tests with cyclic loadings between a zero minimUJll

stress level and different maximum stress levels. In test AC4-12 the maxi.

mum stress level, 0.79 f;, was higher than the peak value of the common

nST F'mQIIi(

•

AC4- n 0.71

·

.At'.' 10 U ..

,...

•.n ",0

... AC' 03 .... 4040

• Ae4 -01

I us!)

0"1

ui /lo::!"'- =t,,_

"

., +-f-----J----

When

'.0 ... 1-----,

liMn

:- G.'

•.• I I •

J.O 1.0 0.0 ...

s • C Ie.

FIG. 12.-COMMON POINTS FOR TESTS WITH CONSTANT MAXIMUM STRESS

LEVEL

point limit, and as a result, the points of formed a smooth curve

located approximately on the common paint limit. The maximum stress'level

for test AC4-1O was 0.76 f which was about equal to the peak value of the

common point limit. The points of intersection for this speCimen followed the

common point limit initially, then formed an approximately horizontal

until the strain accumulation reached the common point limit. This trend

also apparent in test AC4-11. Although the strain accumulation was

than expected, this can be explained by the higher envelope curve m

for the companion specimen under monotonic loading to failure.

maximum stress was reduced to 0.63 nand 0.55 f; in tests AC4-03 and

01, the cOmmon points gradually increased but approached the stability

. and strain.accuinulation ceased under continued

The observed behavior may be summarized as

1. The stress and strain at the peak of the load cycle were the prime

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

abIes in determining the location of the common point. Minimum stress levels

did not appear to have a significant effect on the common points.

2. Peak stress-strain values above the common point limit produced points

of intersection very near this limit. With lower peak values; the points of

intersection fell between the common pOint limit and the stability limit.

0.' .11--__

I I 1111111 H #' H /' :..i"

1.0 +--------- ---,

".<'"

o

"'U

",;

0.4

02

00 J' I'." 'q r'l

0.0 . 2.0

"0 '.0

s .t:/t.

FIG. 13.-LOADINGCURVES

1.0

O.

'-v 0.6

'

..

04

01

0.0

0.0 1.0 20 '.0

S·'/£'O

FIG. 14.-UNLOADINGCURVES

3, If the stress and strain at the peak of the load cycle wa:t'aoove the sta

bility limit, strains accumulated until failure occurred oruntif' strain accu

mulations reached the stability limit. At this point, strains stabilized and

formed a closed hysteresis loop for subsequent cycles.

2555

2554 December, 1969

Note that if the effects of time were considered, creep strains would

there was

the observed behavior. With reduced strain rates, the stress-strain

would shift toward the strain axis, and it would be difficult to define a

limit (6).

Nonrecoverable Strains. -Nonrecoverable or plastic strains are the strains

corresponding to a zero stress level on loading or unloading stress-strain

curves. The changes observed in the slopes of the stress-strain curves sug.

gest a relationship between the plastic strain ratio Sp and the nature of the

loading curves.

Loading curves from a number of spec1mens subjected to different lOad

histories are plotted in Fig. 13. Each group of curves originated from a

similar plastic strain ratio. It is apparent that the slope of the curves gradu.

ally decreased with increasing values of Sp. The common point limit (the

locus of common points of load cycles to the envelope curve) is also shown in

Fig. 13. It can be seen that the common point limit corresponds approxi

mately to the point at which the slope of loading curves changes significantly.

Previous investigations (7,9) have shown that the change in slope can be at

tributed to a significant increase in microcracking.

Unloading curves from a number of specimens in which the unloading

portion of the cycle started at or near the envelope are plotted in Fig. 14. In

each case the minimum stress level was zero, These plots show that the plas

tic strain ratio was a major variable in determining the shape of the lOading

and unloading curves. The load history preceding a given value of Sp did not

Significantly alter the curves originating at that value of S p.

PREDICTION OF FAILURE

Derivation oj Expressions jor Stress-Strain Curves.- Using the observed

response of the specimens, expressions were developed for loading and un

loading stress-strain curves in order to duplicate the observed response

analytically and predict failure under load histories other than those actually

imposed on the specimens. As shown in Figs. 13 and 14, the shapes of the

loading and unloading curves appear to be functions of the nonrecoverable or

plastic strain ratio. In order to develop expressions for these curves, various

polynomials were compared with the experimental curves, and a second de

gree parabola was selected to represent the shape of the curves. Better ap

proximations with higher order or transcendental expressions might have

been obtained. However, considering the accuracy of the test results, the

advantages of a simple stress-strain relation outweigh the small gain in ac

curacy derived using higher order approx1mations.

To account for the changing shape of the loading and unloading curves with

increasing plastic strains, the stress-strain curves were developed as func

tions of the plastic strain ratio. For a given plastic strain ratio, relationships

between the strain at which a loading curve will intersect the previous un

loading curve (common point) and the envelope curve were obtained.

Envelope Curve.-The equation for the envelope curve, the expression de

veloped by Smith and Young (12), has been presented previously (Fig. 7 and 9)

and is repeated below in terms of the nOrmalized parameter FE and SE'

points on the envelope:

(I-SE)

FE = 0.S5 SE e .......•..........•.......... (1)

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

common Points.- The experimental results (Fig. 10)tndicated that although

a variation in the location of the common points, a common point

lilllitand a stability limit could be established. Analysis of the common points

produced exponential expressions of a form similar to the envelope curve:

_ Se [t-Se/(O.315+0.'n(3)]

Fe - {:3 0.315 + 0.77{:3 e ..•........•..•. (2)

The common point limit, {:3 0.76, and the stability limit, {:3 = 0.63, are plotted

in Fig. 10. The variation in {:3 accounts for the change in the maxima of the

lilllits. Since the common point for a given cycle of load was dependent on the

Illagnitude of stress in the previous cycle, the following distinction must be

Illade as to the value of {:3 for the applicable common point.

1. If the peak lies above the common point limit, {:30.76, the common

point is on the common point limit.

2. If the peak lies in the regiOn between the.· common point and stability

limits, {:3 varies betweenO. 76 and 0.63. .

3. If the peak lies below the stability limit, the common point

to the peak, and the stress-strain curves form a closed hystereSiS loop. Note

that this criterion implies that if stresses do not exceed 0.63 n cyclic load

ings will not produce failure.

The values of {:3 for the common point and stability liroits are in the range

of critical stresses reported by other investigators. Shah, et al. (7,9) have

reported the onset of major microcracking at 70% to 90% of the ultimate load.

The value of {:3 at the stability limit is 0.63 n (74% of the specimen strength)

andat the common point limit, is D.76 n (90% of the specimen strength) which

indicates that the behavior of the concrete is controlled primarily by micro

cracking. It is also interesting to note that RUsch (6) has reported that the

sustained load strength of concentrically loaded specimens is 75% to SO% of

the static strength which corresponds with the value 6f {:3 for the stability

limit.

Plastic Strain Ratio (Sp).-Fig. 15 shows the relationship between the plas

tic strain ratioSp and the strain ratio at the common point Se. The expression

for the curves passing through these pOints is the following:

Sp (1.76 - fl)(0.160 S(; + 0.133 Se) ................... (3)

in which 0.63 :S (:3 :S 0.76. Fig. 16(a) shows the relation between the plastic

strain ratio Sp and the strain ratio at the point where a given loading curve

starting at Sp intersects the envelope curve SE' Fig. 16(b) shows the relation

between the plastiC strain ratiO S p and the strain ratio at the point where a

given unloading curve starts on the envelope curve The equations for these

relationships are the following:

Loading: Sp 0.093 Sj: + 0.91 SE ..................... (4)

,', -

Unloading: Sp 0.145 Sf + 0.13 SF •••••••••• ••

Loading Curves. -The expressions for loading curves are secol'ld degree

parabolas which pass through the following three points: (1) The point at which

the reloading curve or its extension starts (Sp, F =0); (2}the ¢ommonpoint

2557

@lW}Mi'¥l!fl'if'V')p;

2556 December, 1969

*e

"

,., \=1:,/£.

..

.,

ID (b)

"

\",£,It.;;

FIG. 15.-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLASTIC STRAIN AND STRAIN AT COMMON

POINTS

.

U

"

1'\

7r.

" '.

$p. o_onsE .. O-lUUf:

UtoII.,J:lAO/fiG ENVELOPE

TO ,Sp_

,.

"

101 \:.. e

E

1<:,

FIG. IS.-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEt\ ENVELOPE STRAINS AND PLASTIC STRAINS

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

and (3) the point at which the reloading curve or its extension (Sc. Fc);

aches the envelope curve (SE. FE)'

re Unloading Curves. - The three points through which the second degree pa

rabola unloading curves pass are as follows: (1) The pOint at which the un

loading curve or its extension to the envelope originates (SE' FE); (2) the

ollllllon point (Se. Fe); and (3) the plastic strain ratio (Sp. 0) at which the

curve or its extension terminates.

For cycle ABCD[Fig. 17(a)] the three pOints through which the curves pass

are determined in the following manner. The,value of Sp at point B is found

using Eq. 5 (unloading from A); point C is found using Eq. 3 for Se and Eq. 2

for FC; point D is found by solving Eq. 4 for SE and Eq. 1 for FE'

1.0

" ...__-.:1•• , .,,,/'NV.""..

0 ..

.."'-..' "

'-

'-,.

0 ••

0.'

COMMON POINT LIMIT

0.' (ll=o.7ol

0,0 r "(.e

0,0 ,,,-.,nl'

,.0

,.\

,.0

,,0

(51411:1 !NVltOP•

, ..... /

0.... __ ""'.'.......-'

./ lS".",I f$mQ..

A G ''''"'-.

0.6

/ ,/

1/

I

---.

.

0.'

,

/

0'-1

I ./ /

o.or '(-:

1.0 1.0

• fbi

FIG. n.-LOADING AND UNLOADING CURVES (COMPUTED)

For cycle EFGH [Fig. 17(b)] between specified values of FmaxandFmin'

some modification of the preceding procedure is necessary. The unloading

curve EGF is part of curve E' GF', and the value of S p for curve E' GF' is

found by trial and error so that the curve will pass through point E when Eqs.

1, 2, 3, and 5 are satisfied. The unloading curve· is terminated at F when F min

Is reached. The loading po.rtion FGH passes through points ..,Fmin)' (Se.

Fe) which was found in the preceding step, and point H' (SE,

using the value of at pOint F' inEq. 4. The curve is terminat-ed'when Fmax

is reached. A similar approach may be used to determine stress'"'strain paths

if a given strain increment is to be added.

A computer program was written to solve the various cases presented:

2561 2560 December, 1969

0<15 <-<

[ _0<T-«<

0,60

I :{

j 0<75

< I IEXPfRI.ENTAL (F'::';Nl CURVE, I..

'\....01<

I

1 .... 1

..... -.'

' •

, I"L_ I

.l

.--- --.0.__.-"..,-___..

"",0

I .j I

--I · I I _

0,1$

P FOtiQuo.l,ml!O<U - __<_

.- I· .. I '-' l

0.60

.00 Ht ...

N" Numb., of Cycl••

FIG, 22.-NUMBER OF CYCLES TO FAILURE (Fmax " CONSTANT; Fmin " 0)

J

K

0·8

0.15

0.1

0.&

0<.

0-3

_ 0.2

0,1+ 0.'

0·0

f=.!;!!.. ___ ___ _____

O·' .. I------.-------r-------\..

.0<1 ZOO '00

N =Number 0'1 Cycles

FIG. 23.-'NUl\IBEH OF CYCLES TO FAILURE'(F

max

CONSTANT; Froin I 0)

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

and the two curves should intersect at some point below D [Fig. 19(b) J. In ad

dition the plastic strain ratios at point G differ considerably. On the basis of

the observed results, the assumption of uniqueness would not appear to be

fl\l.rranted.

Fig. 20 shows the computed and measured response for specimen AC4-10

which was cycled between stress levels of F max = 0.77 and F min O. The

speeimen failed in cycle 21 and failure was predicted in cycle 25. In Fig. 21

the response of specimen AC4-13 is shown. This specimen was subjected to

cyclic loads between stress levels of Fmax 0.79 and Fmin == 0.40. The spec

lInen failed in cycle 28 and failure was predicted in cycle 34. If uniqueness of

the loading and unloading curves was assumed, failure would be predicted

after only three cycles .

The computed number of cycles to fallure for tests in which the load is

varied between a given maximum stress level Fmax and a minimum stress of

zero is shown in Fig. 22. Both measured and computed values are <plotted.

Since the observed maximum of the stability limit was at a stress ratio of

0.63, the experimental curves shown in Fig. 22 will become asymptotic to F

0.63. Fig. 23 shows the computed nuinber of cycles to failure for loadings

between given maximum and minimum stress levels. The maximum stresS

ratio is plotted along the ordinate. For example, the number of cycles to

failure with Fmax == 0.80, and F min == 0040 is approximately 25. Using these

curves (Figs. 22, 23), the number of cycles to failure may be estimated.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

A series of 46 short rectangular test specimens (Fig. I) were subjected to

repetitions of compressive stress to various levels to obtain expressions for

the response of plain concrete. The expressions developed are functions of

the ultimate stress and strain values of standard 6 x 12-in. control cylinders

and the loading history. Using these expressions the response of plain con

crete subjected to varying load histories can be estimated.

The following conclusions were obtained:

1. For the specimens tested, the envelope curve coincided with the stress

strain curve for a specimen under monotonic loading to failure (Fig. 7). The

stress-strain path reached the envelope regardless of the strain accumulated

prior to a particular cycle.

2. The location of the common pOints was dependent primarily on the mag

nitude of the maximum stress and strain of the previous load cycle. The com

mon points for loading from nonzero levels were identical to the common

points corresponding to load cycles starting at a stress of zero (Fig. 11).

3. Examination of the location of the common points shows that failure

would be produced under repeated loads with stresses exceeding about 0 .63 f

the maximum of the stability limit. This limit was independent of the mini

mum stress levels in the cycles.

·4. Loading and unloading curves starting from .a pOint wtt11tli. tke stress

strain domain were not uriique;-and'the value of stress and strain at the peak

of the previous loading cycle must be known to estimate the re'l!ptmse. '

5. The analytical expressions obtained for the envelope curve, the common

point and the stability limits, and the loading and unloading stress-strain re

2563

'"."""'.

2562 December, 1969

lations produce results that compare well with the experimental results

3, 1B, 20, 21), The formulation of these expressions provides a general lUe"thi

od for estimating the number of cycles to failure under repeated loads (FigS

22, 23) with strairi rates similar to those considered in the investigation, .

APPENDIX I.-REFERENCES

I. Hognestad, E., "A Study of Combined Bending and Axial load in Reinforced Concrete Mein.

bers," University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station, Bulletin Series No. 399,

195L

2. Hognestad, E., Hanson, N. W., and McHenry, D.• "Concrete Stress Distribution in Ultimate

Strength Design," Journal of the American Concrt!tl1lnstitute. Vol. 52, No.4, December, 1955

pp.455-479. i

3. Karsan, I. D., "Behavior of Plain Concrete under Variable load Histories," thesis presented to

Rice University, at Houston, Texas, in 1968. in partial fulfillment of the requirements ror the

degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

4. Murdock, J. W., and Kesler, C. E., "Effect of Range of Stress on Fatigue Strength or Plain

Concrete Beams," Journal of the American Concrete Institute. Vol. 55, No.2, August, 1958, Pp.

221-231.

5. Nordby, G. M., "Fatigue of Concrete-A Review of Research," Journal of the American Con.

crete Institute. Vol. 55, No.2, August, 1958, pp. 191-219.

6. Rusch, H., "Researches toward a General Flexural Theory for Structural Concrete," Journal oJ

the American Concrete Institute. Vol. 57. No. I, July, 1960, pp. 128.

7. Shah, S. P., Sturman, G. M., and Winter, G., "Microcnicking and Inelastic Behavior of Con.

crete," Flexural Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete. ASCE, 1965.. 50, The International Sym.

posium, Miami, Florida, 1964.

8. Shah, S. P., and Winter, G .. "Inelastic Behavior and Fracture of Concrete," Journal of the

American Concrete Institute. Vol. 63, No.9, September, 1966, pp. 925-930.

9. Shah, S. P., and Winter, G., "Response of Concrete to Repeated Loadings," RlLEM. Interna·

tional Symposium on the Effects of Repeated Loading on Materials and Structural Elements,

Mexico City, 1966.

10. Sinha. B. P., Gefstle, K. H., and Tulin, l. G., "Stress-Strain Relations for Concrete under

Cyclic Loading," Journal of the American Concrete Institute. VoL 61, No.2, February, 1964,

pp. 195-211.

. Smith, G. M., and Young, l. E., "Ultimate Theory in Flexure by Exponential Function," Jour.

nal of the American Concrete Institute. Vol. 52, No.3, November, 1955, pp. 349.. 359.

APPENDIX II, -NOTATION

The following symbols are used in this paper:

= ultimate compressive strength 'ofstandard 6-in. x 12-in.cylinder;

f = concrete stress;

f max = maximum compressive stress reached in a given cycle;

F = I In = stress ratio;

CONCRETE BEHAVIOR

FaX = maximum stress ratio in a given cycle;

; in minimum stress ratio in a given cycle;

Fe = stress ratio at the common point;

FE = stress ratio on the envelope curve;

S = tlto strain ratio;

maximum strain ratio in a given cycle;

SJ!UllC

minimum strain ratio in a given cycle;

SIIlin

strain ratio at the common point;

Se

€ pi€ 0 = plastic or residual strain ratio;

Sp

strain ratio on the envelope curve;

a factor relating the common point with the stress and strain ratios

of the peak of the previous load cycle;

( = concrete strain at I;

(0

concrete strain at I and

(p

plastic strain.

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