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Movement Moving of part of the body is known as movement . Locomotion Movement of whole body from one place to another place is locomotion. Types of movement 1. Amoeboid movement Amoeba like movement is known as amoeboid movement .This movement is with the help of cytoplasmic process known as pseudopodia Eg. Phagocytosis by leucocytes, migration of macrophages through tissues. 2. Ciliary movement Movement with the help of cilia is known as ciliary movement Eg. Movement of paramecium, transport of dust particles in the respiratory tract, movement of ova in oviduct , movement of sperm in vasa efferentia. 3.Flagellar movement Movement with the help of flagellum Eg. Movement of euglena, movement of sperm in the female genital tract etc. 3. Muscular movement Movement with the help of muscles MUSCLE Muscle is a specialized tissue of mesodermal in origin. About 40-50 % of the body weight of a human adult is contributed by muscles. Muscles have special properties like excitability, contractility, extensibility and elasticity. Based on location muscles are classified into three 1. Skeletal Muscles (striated muscles ) 2. Cardiac Muscles 3. Visceral Muscles (Non striated muscles or Smooth Muscles) 1. Skeletal Muscles (striated muscles) They are attached to bones by tendons. They are voluntary in nature and involved in locomotory movements, body posture etc. They have transverse stripes and hence called striated muscles. 2. Cardiac Muscles They exhibit striations. They are involuntary in nature. Seen only in heart muscles. They are innervated by autonomic nervous system 3. Visceral Muscles (non striated muscles or Smooth Muscles) They are non striated , hence called smooth muscles They are involuntary Found inside the walls of internal or visceral organs like alimentary canal , reproductive tract etc. 1

STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE Belly Central buldged portion of skeletal muscle is called belly. Point of orgin The end of muscle which is attached to the immovable bone is called point of orgin Point of insertion The end of muscle which is attached to the movable bone is called point of insertion Fascicles Skeletal muscles is made up of a number of muscle bundles called fasciles Fascia Fasciles are held together by common connective tissue layer called fascia . Sarcolemma Plasma membrane of muscle fibre Sarcoplasm Cytoplasm of muscle fibre Syncitium Sarcoplasm of muscle fibre contains many nuclei .So it is called syncitium Sarcosomes Mitochondria of muscle cell Sarcoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cell Muscle showing muscle bundles and muscle fibers

Myofibrils large number of filaments arranged parallelly in the sarcoplasm of muscle fibers. A band (anisotropic band) The dark region in the muscle fibre I band ( isotropic band ) The light region in the muscle fibre H zone The paler region at the centre of A- band . 2

Z line The darker line in the centre of I band M line Thin dark line runs through the centre of the H-zone Sarcomere The portion of the myofibril that lies between two adjacent Z lines It is the repetitive unit of myofibril Each sarcomere has a complete A band and half of I band on either side. Muscle fibre showing sarcomere

STRUCTURE OF CONTRACTILE PROTEINS Actin and myosin are the contractile proteins of the muscles Structure of actin filaments Actin filaments are the thin filaments . Actin filaments exists in two forms globular actin or G- actin and fibrous actin or F actin. Fibrous actin is formed by the polymerization of globular actin The actin filaments also contains two other important proteins called tropomyosin and troponin Tropomyosin is found along the grooves of actin double helix Troponin is found at intervals in the actin filament in close association with tropomyosin An actin filament

Structure of myosin filament Myosin filaments are thicker proteins Myosin filament has two portions - a head and a tail The head is formed of heavy meromyosin and tail is formed of light meromyosin The globular head is an active ATPase enzyme and has binding sites for ATP and active sites for actin . A myosin filament

Mechanism of muscle contraction Muscular contraction begins when a nerve impulse reaches the neuromuscular junction . The junction between a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre is called neuromuscular junction or motor end plate . A neural signal reaching this junction releases a neurotransmitter Acetyl choline, which generates an action potential in the sarcolemma. Now sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions . The calcium ions binds with the troponin subunit of actin filaments. The binding of calcium ions leads to the exposure of active sites present in the F-actin. These sites are specific for myosin heads and myosin heads binds with F- actin. This binding is just like a hooks and known as cross bridges This binding and formation of cross bridges activate the ATPase enzyme present in the myosin head. ATPase enzyme breaks ATP into ADP and phosphorus and the energy released is used for the cross bridge movement. The cross bridges pulls the actin filaments towards the centre of A band ,ie , to the Hzone. Thus during contraction myosin filament is static and actin filament actually reduce in length and shortening of sarcomere occurs Stages in cross bridge formation

The contraction is followed by relaxation and during relaxation calcium ions are pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum Now troponin mask the active sites of the F- actin and myosin head detaches from the cross bridge. The cross bridge breaks and actin filaments occupies its normal position and muscle relaxes. Thus during muscle contraction actin filament slides over the myosin filament. This theory is known as sliding filament theory proposed by H. Huxley and J. Hanson Sliding filament theory of muscle contraction

Red and white muscles Based on the presence of myoglobin , a red pigment of haemoglobin , muscles are of two types 1. Red muscle with high amount of haemoglobin and 2. White muscle with low amount of myoglobin No Red muscle White muscle 1 High amount of myoglobin Low amount of myoglobin 2 Smaller diameter Bigger diameter 3 Mitochondria more in number Mitochondria less in number 4 Contains more capillaries Contains less capillaries 5 Sarcoplasmic reticulum is less Sarcoplasmic reticulum is more distributed distributed 6 Does not easily fatigued Gets fatigued easily 7 Slow response to stimulus Quick response to stimulus Eg . red muscle extensor muscle on the back White muscle muscle of the eye ball

SKELETAL SYSTEM It is made up of bones and cartilages Bone cells are called osteocytes and cartilage cells are called chondrocytes Human skeleton is made up of 206 bones. Human skeleton is divided into two 1. Axial Skeleton 2. Appendicular skeleton 1.Axial Skeleton It is formed of 80 bones Skull 29 bones Vertebral 26 bones column Sternum 1bone Ribs 12 pairs Bones of the skull (29 bones) Cranial bones Facial bones Hyoid bone 8 bones 14 bones 1 bone

3 pairs Middle ear bones (malleus , incus , stapes) Diagramatic view of human skull

Bones of the vertebral column Made up of 26 bones called vertebrae 5 types of vertebrae are there 6

Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx

7 vertebrae 12 vertebrae 5 vertebrae 1 vertebra (5 vertebrae fused to 1) 1 vertebra (4 vertebrae fused to 1)

Atlas Atlas is the first vertebra and skull rests on it Axis Axis is the second vertebra .The skull and atlas together rotates on it Occipital condyls The smooth rounded projection at the posterior end of the cranium which articulate with the atlas Foramen magnum Big hole at the base of the skull through which the brain is connected to the spinal cord Sternum Breast bone situated along the middle line of the thorax Ribs Formed of 12 pairs of bones Classified into 3 types Thoracic vertebrae , ribs and sternum together called rib cage True ribs False ribs (Vertebrochondral ribs) Floating ribs 1-7 pairs (directly attached to sternum) 8 10 pairs (not directly attached to sternum) 11 and 12 pairs (not connected to sternum )

Ribs and rib cage

Appendicular skeleton It is formed of 126 bones Fore limbs Hind limbs Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle 30 x 2 30 x 2 2x2 2x1 60 bones 60 bones 4 bones 2 bones

Bones of forelimb -30 bones Humerus Radius ulna Carpals and 1 bone 2 bones 8 bones 5 bones 14 bones Bone of the upper arm Bones of the lower arm Wrist bones Palm bones Finger bones

Metacarpals Phalanges

Bones of pectoral girdle Consists of two bones 1.Clavicle a long bone , commonly called collar bone 2. scapula - forms the shoulder blade Acromian process - The structure present in the scapula which articulate with the clavicle Glenoid cavity - The depression in the pectoral girdle which articulate with the head of humerus

Bones of hind limb 30 bones Femur 1 bone Thigh bone longest bone Tibia and fibula 2 bones bones of lower leg Patella 1 bone Knee cap Tarsals 7 bones Ankle bone Metatarsals 5 bones Foot bone phalanges 14 bones Bones of the toe Pelvic girdle Formed of two coxal bones Each coxal is bone formed by the fusion of 3 bone ileum , pubis and ischium Acetabulum - The cavity formed at the point of fusion of the three bones ileum, ischium and pubis Pubic symphasis - The pubis bone of the two sides articulate at the median line and forms pubic symphasis

JOINTS The place of articulation between two or more bones or between a bone and a cartilage is known as joints 3 types of joints are there 1. Fibrous joints or immovable joints no space between joints do not allow any movements bones are held together with white fibrous connective tissue in the form of sutures eg . Sutures of skull bones 2. Cartilaginous joints or slightly movable joints allows very little movement two bones are connected by fibro cartilage eg .joints between vertebrae 3. Synovial or movable joints in this joint space between articulating bones are there and helps in locomotion and many other movements . the cavity seen in the joints is synovial cavity and the fluid in the synovial cavity is synovial fluid . Types of synovial joints 1.ball and socket joint - eg . joint between humerus and pectoral girdle (shoulder joint ) , hip joint 2.hinge joint - eg . knee joint 3. pivot joint - eg . between atlas and axis 4. gliding joint - eg . inter carpal joint , inter tarsal joint 5.saddle joint - eg. Between carpal and metacarpal of thumb DISORDERS OF MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL SYSTEM Myasthenia gravis auto immune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction leading to fatigue , weakening and paralysis of skeletal muscles Muscular dystrophy progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles mostly due to genetic disorder Tetany rapid spasms(wild contractions) in muscle due to low calcium ions in body fluid Arthritis inflammation of joints Osteoporosis Age related disorder characterized by decreased bone mass and increased chances of fractures. Decreased levels of oestrogen is a common cause Gout inflammation of joints due to accumulation of uric acid and crystals Notes Prepared by BIJU T L HSST Zoology GHSS Mylachal, Tvpm 10