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Seminar Presentation

on Mechanics of Grinding (Theory of Metal Cutting)
By Kudzanayi Chiteka

Higher negative rake angle. numerous and random. Generally a finishing operation achieving the surface finish of up to 0. Cutting speeds are higher.025µm and extremely close tolerance.Introduction Abrasive Machining Material removal by the action of hard.Cutting occurs at either the periphery or the face of the grinding wheel.Cutting occurs by the abrasive grains that are much smaller. Self-sharpening as each abrasive falls off Can be used on all types of materials. abrasive particles usually in a form of a bonded wheel. Similar to slab milling . Different than milling . .

Grinding wheel Consists of abrasive material and bonding material. Parameters Abrasive materials Grain size Wheel grade Wheel structure Bonding material . Abrasive particles accomplish cutting Bonding material holds particles in place and establishes shape and structure of wheel.

ex. for ferrous and high-strength alloys SiC – harder but not as tough.Abrasive Materials Properties High hardness. so a new sharp edge is exposed. Materials Al2O3 – most common. abrasive materials such as ceramics . Toughness Friability . cast irons and certain ceramics CBN – very hard. very expensive. brass. stainless steel. natural and synthetic. for hard. for harden tool steels and aerospace alloys Diamond – Harder and more expensive.Capacity to fracture when cutting edge dulls.: Borazon by GE. for aluminum. Wear resistance.

Grinding wheel .

grit projects into work. surface is deformed and energy is consumed but no material is removed Rubbing .Three Types of Grain Action Cutting -grit projects far enough into surface to form a chip material is removed Plowing . but not far enough to cut instead. but no material is removed .grit contacts surface but only rubbing friction occurs. thus consuming energy.

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Mechanics of Grinding .

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t1 is given by t1 = f mm ZN Where f= Feed (m/sec) Z = Number of active grains N= rpm of the wheel .Uncut Chip thickness per grit.

Number of active grains Z = πDCb’ Where: D=Diameter of the wheel C=Surface density of active grains (mm-2) b’=Average grain width of cut (mm) rg = cutting ratio in grinding .

Power. W Force per single grit. Fc Where: D=Diameter of the wheel C=Surface density of active grains (mm-2) b’=Average grain width of cut (mm) Uc = Specific energy A = Cross-sectional area .

Chip Formation during surface grinding .

Components of Grinding Force Average force per grit .

Residual stress in workpiece after surface grinding .

Growth of power requirement of different wheel grades .

Grinding wheel wear .

(2000) 2. New Delhi. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. K... Production Engineering Science. Manufacturing Technology : Metal Cutting and Machine Tools. New Age International Publishers. Standard Publishers Distributors. C. New Delhi. Lal G. Delhi. and Singh C. New York.. (1989) 5..References 1. (1965). K. (1996) 4. (1998) 3. N.New Delhi. Ltd. Rao P. Willey Eastern Ltd. All About Machine Tools. Pandey P. . Kalpakjian S. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. . Gerling H. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Introduction to Machining Science.

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