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CERTIFICATE

The nodes change their position frequently and thus routing of the data has become an important issue. In this work. There are many researches done in the past and many are still going to evaluate the performance and compare them and bring out the different routing protocols. we evaluate the performance of one of the most important Reactive routing protocol i. just node to node communication. AODV routing protocol with Random waypoint Mobility model and CBR traffic conditions.Abstract Ad hoc network in the computer communication means the user wanting to communicate with each other by forming a temporary network without the support of an infrastructure. There are many routing protocols for MANET which are broadly classified as Pro active. .e. Reactive and Hybrid routing protocol. Mobile Ad hoc network or MANET is developed by IETF MANET working group in which the networking nodes are mobile and they themselves act as hosts and routers.

13 Figure5 Hierarchical division of a network under Cluster Gateway Switch Routing……….…...39 ...………………………………………………………....38 Figure 22 the extended routing zone….21 Figure9 Route Request in AODV ………………………………………………………………24 Figure10 Broadcasting RREQ in AODV…………………………………………………...24 Figure11 Broadcasting and Reverse path in AODV ……………………………………….………………………………………………………36 Figure21 Query Detection example…....List of Figures Figure1 Example of simple Ad-Hoc Network…………………………………………. Classification of Routing Protocols in MANET………………………………………....19 Figure7 RREP Message Format…………………………………………………………………20 Figure8 RRER Message Format………………………………………………………………....…...………………………………………………… 32 Figure18 Routes through IARP and IERP………………………………………………………34 Figure19 QD1 and QD2…………………………………………………………………………35 Figure 20 Route Discovery in ZRP…….26 Figure15 Setup of forward path for transmission……………………………………………….25 Figure12 Broadcasting RREQ and Reverse Path in AODV ………………………..……………………………………………………….……….16 Figure6 RREQ Message Format ……………………………………………………………….9 Figure4.. 26 Figure14 Final reverse path in AODV………………………………………………………….27 Figure 16 Counting to infinity problem……………………………………………….....25 Figure13 Broadcasting and reverse path in AODV…………………………………………….………..29 Figure17 Structure of ZRP…………………..…….…… 2 Figure3 routing update in MANET ………………………………………………………….……….. Change in topology in MANET…………………………………………………. 2 Figure 2...

List of Tables Table1 Applications of MANET………………………………………………………………….17 Table3 Fields in RREQ………………………………………………………………………….4 Table2 Comparison of Proactive and reactive routing protocol………..……………………….19 Table 4 Qualitative comparision between AODV and ZRP ……………………………………34 .

List of abbrevations AODV Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector CBR Constant Bit Rate IETF Internet Engineering Task Force IP Internet protocol MANET Mobile Ad Hoc network PDR Packet delivery Ratio QoS Quality of Service RREP Route Reply RREQ Route Request RRER Route Error TTL Time to Live VANET Vehicular Ad hoc Network NTDR Near Term Digital Radio ZRP Zone Routing Protocol IARP Intrazone Routing protocol IERP Interzone Routing Protocol BRP Bordercast Resolution protocol .

Protocol overview.1.32 6.Characterstics of AODV……………………. ZRP……………………….2..4...Problems of Ad-hoc Routing Protocols……………………………………….12 4... …………………………………………………………. Problem Statement………………….………….…31 6...Working of ZRP…………………….3 1.…………………………….7 4.30 5..1.4. Litrature Survey…………………………………………………….Problems in routing with MANET………………………………………..………………….45 .3 1..9 4.………………………..3 1.Advantages of MANET………………………………………………………..40 7.…….3..5.2.………..…. Performance Metrices……….Structure of ZRP….…………......Disadvantages of AODV…………………………………………………...18 5.…………………………………………………….INDEX 1..3.. Characterstics of MANET …………………………………………………….……….Classification of Ad-hoc Routing Protocols………. Comparitive Table………………………………………………………………………..………………………………..3.Advantages of AODV………………………………………………………….32 6. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..10 4.2.1.AODV Terminology……………………………………………………….………………………………………………..4.Working of AODV protocol………………………..8 4.………………………….……………………...2.…22 5. Limitations/Disadvantages ……………………………………………………4 2.1.Quantitative Metrices…………………………………………………………. Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks………………………………. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol…………………………………18 5....3. Introduction to AODV…………………………………………………….Query Control Mechanism…………………………………………………….2.4... Routing protocols………………………………………………………………………….6.Qualitative Metrices.37 7.42 8.1 1.5 3....30 5..……………………………………………………...…………………………………………36 6.…………………………….32 6.…24 5.13 5.....Applications of MANET………………………………………………………...1..40 7.….

References……………………………………………………………………………….47 .9.46 10. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………..