SIGNAL FLOW GRAPHS (SFGs) SIGNAL FLOW GRAPHS (SFGs) - Can be considered a simplified block diagram. However, the mathematical rules of the flow graph are more restrictive than the block diagram. One type of signal flow graph is called the PHASE VARIABLE FORM. PHASE VARIABLE FORM - Uses only integrators with a gain of 1 in the forward path. Links to the integrators may have any gain. FUNDAMENTALS OG THE SFGs - SFGs are used to describe a control system transfer function. Generally, the graphs are simpler than a block diagram. Since only nodes, branches and loops are used to show the configuration of the system. PHASE VARIABLE FORM Several rules apply to phase variable form of an SFG. 1. The fundamental building block consists of two outer nodes: one is an input, the other is an output, and a summing junction is in between. The gain of the input node may be any value, and the gain at the output node is 1/s multiplied by the input value. Signals may flow only in the direction of the arrows. 2. This type of graphs applies only to linear systems. 3. The equations used in the SFG must be algebraic (integrodifferential equation are first transformed to the S-plane). 4. Feedback and feed-forward loops are used to complete the design. 5. There are as many forward path integrations as the largest exponent of S in the system. 6. The equations generated are simultaneous equations of the system, which are easily transferred into matrices. 7. It is assumed that all integrators in the system are of the summing type and may have more than one input. All inputs are summed algebraically according to their sign.


The fundamental building block of the phase variable flow graph:

1 R

1/s Y

Note: The outer circles indicate nodes, which are variables’ and the lines, which are connecting branches, indicate transfer relationships. The central node is a summing junction. FEED FORWARD PATHS - Are from the second integrator output to Y(s) and from the output of the first integrator to Y(s) and are positive values. - The output nodes of the integrators are labeled from right to left with an arbitrary constant such as X1(s). Note: You form the simultaneous equations into matrices by taking 3 to the left-hand side of the equations and converting the equations to the time domain by using the DOT (derivative of time) notation for the derivatives formed.

MATRIX FORM There are two types of systems to consider when using this model: 1. POLE-ZERO MODEL 2. ALL-POLE MODEL

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