You are on page 1of 3

Introduction to the Foundational Theory of Modern Social Thought Earlier, Sciences and Social Sciences were not separated

• Thomas Hobbs was an optician in violent controversy with Descartes over Optical sciences . • John Locke was studying medicine and was a surgeon. • Karl Marx – philosophy, economist, political scientist, founding father of sociology • Faber – a Legal Tourist, studied economic history, identified himself as an economic historian. All the readings are on the internet. Don't get scared. Skim read for the lecture so you can have a sense of the text, then listen to the lecture. Thomas Hobbs • laid the foundations of modern social science • Argued over the condition of human nature, are we good or evil? • Rejected Dualism • Most of his arguments gained their roots through his experience and understanding of biology. ◦ This foundation is greatly disputed • Was a Royalist • Skeptical about Democracy, believed in the need for a strong, central authority ◦ religious conflict, Henry 8th who had marital issues remember he split from the Roman Catholic church so he could divorce his barren wife, etc, etc. Bloody Mary tried to get rid of the Church of England and bring back Catholicism, the crown went to his sister Elizabeth who was under pressure from the Puritans to get rid of Catholicism all together. The Protestants were pissed, Luther was wandering around, lots of big issues going on with church and state. After Mary the Virgin, we had Charles and James the first with mucho civil wars going throughout England, Charles the first was executed , and then Cromwell took the crown and things started to settle down. • Since Hobbs was a Royalist, he got tossed out of England and had to flee to France, where he wrote the Leviathan. ◦ Extremely controversial and is a hot topic for those interested in rational choice theory. ◦ Hobbes really tried to put human nature into terms of mathematical equations. ◦ Didn't like the idea that people could transfer their loyalties to a new government so he decided to come up with his Social Contract. ▪ People are by nature evil and need an all-powerful sovereign to keep people from being constantly at war with everyone else. • 1660, Hobbs was invited back to the court, but in 1666 there was a fire, and people thought this fire was the will of God in vengeance of the sinful people in court. They used Thomas Hobbes as a scapegoat because of his recent work on materialism. Leviathan • 1651, two volumes ◦ Book One; Section 1, on Man. ▪ Hobbes was obsessed with the idea of motion after he read about Galileo, so his starts with the motions of the human bodies, ▪ Chapter Six; appetites, desires, aversions, fears, and voluntary actions. ▪ Chapter 7-11; the relationship between people

and so I have fears. the rights and duties of government and the subjects. ◦ Part Two. in fact. Social Contract • State of Nature ◦ What is the original nature of humans prior to sovereign intervention? ◦ First Law of nature is you must pursue self-interest (Rational Choice Theorist) ▪ no suicide or self-harming actions ◦ Second Law of nature is to not to do others what you would not want them to do to you ▪ foreshadows major theorists of ethics (Imanuel Kant. • We strive for power ◦ Vita motions – we want to have food ◦ Animal motions – Voluntary motions which is determined via appetites and aversions ▪ We can't do whatever we want to do. the first theory of politics. First Social Contractarian. common wealth. Nobles and serfs. and yet because we are all so equal. Wanted to find out what the Sovereign was. more power. ◦ Even the weakest person has the capacity to kill the strongest person ▪ the same for intellectual application. and as a result will act voluntarily. etc) • If there is no restrains on choice and individual action. this is not evil. rather than the solution for it. we have a decision. Now you have to make a decision between your fear and your appetite. Is it worth it to pay this price? ▪ Say I've found a person who is lovely and I want to approach a person and ask for a date. ▪ We have a Will. we are even more equal intellectually ◦ What comes from this equality is this unending fight. discover what was the proper source of law? What are the themes of human nature?? • Man will deliberate between appetites and aversions. so we have to prioritize and acquire a means to achieve more resources. because every action has a cost and we don't have unlimited resources.▪ The state of Nature and the two laws of nature. however. so equality is the reason for social conflict. ▪ Since we all desire the same thing. we fight each other for scarce or finite resources. then there is no civilization ◦ Foreshadows Sigmund Froid ◦ Civilization comes out of the repression of drives rather than their satisfaction. ◦ Do we have free will? Are we inherently evil or good? Are all our actions per-determined? ◦ We have to negotiate out a voluntary action between our appetites and desires and our fears. ▪ Leads to Faber and Nietzsche • Equality ◦ One of the first philosophers to claim we are all born equal. yet I am afraid of rejection. it is necessary for survival. . there is no victor. slaves and slave-owners. ◦ Part 3 and 4 offer a theological justification for these arguments. ◦ We wish to influence other people. this was extremely radical at the time.

You can withdraw your loyalty from a sovereign that fails to do this. ◦ As a result. comes from repression and suffering by sacrificing your baser drives in favor of intellectual pursuits. Once you enter this government.• • ▪ Civilization comes from suffering! ◦ The great products of human kind. This is Montesquieu theory on checks and balances. it is obligatory. Locke comes back and critics this. • Gives now theory on how power can be held in check. yet still not acceptable to the bourgeoisie class because he put too much power to the monarchs Contributions and Short Comings • focuses on peace. not just survival. there is no new contract to void that. art. not just bare preservation. and so we cannot just walk away from it. science. everything. ◦ We get protection and safety from the sovereign so we're not killing each other and we can entire into civilization where we are free to pursue our deeper intellectual desires rather than bickering for our basic human needs such as food and shelter. not acceptable to the monarchs because he took away too much of their power. if it harms your physical body. it has to give more than this. We are forced into this contract via fear. • Very strongly in favor of “Enlightened” Absolutism (One King. The Power of the Sovereign • Must produce safety. It's forever. but does not really consider that the sovereign might abuse its power. So we should put our rights aside and transfer them to others. One Leader) but vaguely entertained the idea of a correctly constructed assembly of men. and transfer it to a 'good' one. .