John Locke The Person • Born in 1642, Summerset, father was a Captain in a parliamentary army • Went to Oxford in '52, noted

that he was idle, unhappy, and unremarkable. • Gave an address in '64 – traditionalist and authoritarian ◦ King is good, the people are beasts, etc • Same sort of time period as Hobbes, Cromwell became the King of England, but there was still a lot of chaos from the 30's and early 40's. Charles the Second came back to be King of England and the monarchy was restored. • 1666, he meets Anthony Cooper who was a high aristocrat who was still anti-royalist who opposed Charles I. He went to Oxford to get a cure for his liver disease where he met John Locke as his doctor. Where they became close acquaintances. ◦ '67 Locke moved to Cooper's house like in feudal times wherein clients lived in their master's house. ◦ Became his confident, adviser, and surgeon. • '67 wrote the essay on toleration, advocating the right to dissent, which separates him from Hobbes. Hobbes conceded that if the king does not deliver on its duties you can transfer your loyalty from the king to another sovereign, but Locke says you have an individual right to dissent. • Conflict between Charles II and Cooper, in effect Locke. ◦ Charles II had only illegitimate children, thus the legitimate heir to the throne was James. ◦ James was Roman Catholic, which was a big problem in Britain at that time. ◦ Parliament was afraid that James would restore the influence of Catholicism which would reduce the power of parliament. ▪ Parliament considered passing this 'test act' which would test whether or not you were really loyal to Roman Catholicism, and if you were then you couldn't hold certain offices, which was obviously straight discrimination, but at the time was parliament's way of defending themselves against the Vatican and the power of the Pope. • Because of Cooper's support of this he was dismissed as Lord Chancellor. ◦ A few years later, parliament passed the test act and supported a different James, one of Charles illegitimate children, a protestant, as successor to the throne. ▪ Haha, then this other James dismissed the parliament ▪ He was eventually imprisoned in the tower of London, until he was released and fled to Amsterdam • Vicks (English Democrats) were accused of trying to overthrow the king and so some of them were executed. Locke was afraid he'd be next in line so he fled to Amsterdam. • Revolution in '88 where William of Orange becomes the King. James II didn't realize that even the Torry's (Republicans) didn't really support his religious agenda, so the two parties invited William to become king of England along with Queen Mary. ◦ Locke can now return to England safely and did in 1690 • Died in 1704 Two Treatises of Government • Know one really knows when the first and the second treatise were written, so we don't really

▪ There must be a standing rule of liberty for everybody that is derived from a proper form of legislature. he says that it is untrue that Eden received the land. etc. etc. so there is no man who is better than others. and advocated inequality. First Treatise ◦ Locke wrote in response to a book by Robert Filmer who was very much for absolutism. how the hell are you going to trace back your lineage? ▪ Even if you could do this. ◦ We need a common superior. just because you have a certain ancestor doesn't mean you should have power. ▪ Three elements of political power. ◦ In a state of nature we will all govern by reason because we are all born reasonable. a sovereign. ▪ Even if we assume that there was one single male who assumed land and authority. Men over women. so now the legislature is the form of sovereign. So now government must protect our property. ▪ This is where a lot of Locke's theological theories are formed. that apple is mine because of my labor • Property and profits belong to the labor. ▪ We subject ourselves to the authority of others via a form of consent. so every one should trace back their lineages to determine their authority among man and their position in society. (almost communist?) • Every man has a property in his own person. in order to avoid the state of war. • The fruits of your labor belong to you ◦ If a pluck an apple out in the field. the experienced over the young. is would be ridiculous. not that we are rational.• • know which was first. but our property. it was mankind who received the land from God. ◦ Theory of property ▪ What is property? Where does it come from? (foreshadows Adam Smith and Karl Marx) • All fruits of the earth belong to each human being in common. and we are his property. three duties of politics • The right to make law • execution of law • the defense of the common man against outside enemies ▪ Origins of political power • why would I give up my freedom and my equality to enter into a government? ◦ Men are all made by God. • However. but also to extend liberties! • We want to protect not only our survival. ▪ We can understand that we are not supposed to harm each other wherein Hobbes stated that we learn morality via struggle. and this is unquestionable (Way Marxist) . and we have not been created for the pleasures of one another. ◦ We are all born free and equal. there is always the risk of war. and this inequality comes from God via the placement of your birth in a strong lineage. Laws should not be extended simple to ensure survival. which is why we would submit ourselves and exit the state of nature ◦ There is a distinction between a state of war and a state of nature. Strong clash of Hobbes. what if that person is a jerk? The right person should have authority regardless of their lineage. Locke is liberal so freedom is the primary value.

You can do anything by which you do not injure anyone else. but is close ▪ Same law must apply to everyone if power is transferred to the community in order to preserve private and communal power. but you still obey the law of where you are born. and now wealth can be horded without the harm of anyone. • God has given us all things richly. ◦ I can't amass a million apples because I will never be able to consume it. This is was just impossible. which is implied. because by law Congress is the only body that can declare war. • Those who work harder should get more. You need to be able to sue the government. but often times the executive branch conducts actions which can commonly be interpreted as 'war' but was never officially declared so. not necessarily private ownership ◦ the primary assumption of this claim is that what we desire is in great abundance.◦ Though the water in the fountain be everyone's. which is where we start to revive the concepts of the polity (Republic) and Democracy • One can be subjected to authority only through consent ◦ Tacit consent. we are not fighting over scarce resources like what Hobbes assumes. ◦ You can only own what you can actually enjoy. so why should I be morally allowed to take those apples from the commons? • Absolutely obvious that property belongs to those who can cultivate it. Executive. no one can doubt that the water in the pitcher belongs to the one who draws it out. but how far has he given it to us to enjoy? We cannot take more than our fair share. ◦ We need a rule by majority. this should probably have happened. ▪ Limits on private property. and Federative • Federative – defense against outside enemies • Legislative and executive power must be separated. legislative. • Labor creates value. . ▪ Seek laws that protect you not just against your neighbor. but laws that protect you against kings and those in power • thus we need a consent of every individual in order to create legitimate rule. with the invention of money. ▪ Argues that there are three branches. • Federative and Executive should probably be separated too. so there needs to be a system that would not allow this to happen. the accumulation of property occurs. ▪ Doesn't really identity what the majority is. the only way to show your non-consent is to leave. but doesn't necessarily need to be separated. ◦ A Separation of Power/Checks and Balances ▪ in absolute monarch you cannot appeal to the law in cases where the king has violated your rights in some way. ▪ But then he backpedals. you have not signed any contract. Ownership of the cultivator. ◦ In the US. this is now popular sovereignty yet.

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