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Sine Wave - A common type of alternating current and alternative voltage - Also referred to as a sinusoidal wave form or simply sinusoid. Note: Other types of waveforms are components of many individual sine waves called HARMONICS. SINE WAVE VOLTAGE SOURCES Two methods of operating sine wave voltages: 1. Electromagnetically by AC generators 2. Electronically by oscillator circuits Note: AC generator also called as alternator Signal generator an instrument that produces sine waves for use in testing or controlling electronic circuits and systems. All signal generators consist basically of an oscillator. OSCILLATOR an electronic circuit that produces sine wave voltages whose amplitude and frequency can be adjusted. *Sine waves may be produces graphically and by plotting from table of sines. PERIOD OF A SINE WAVE The time required for a given sine wave to complete one full cycle is called the PERIOD (T). Note: The period of a given sine wave is the same for each cycle. FREQUENCY OF A SINE WAVE Frequency (F) - is the number of cycles that a sine wave completes in one second. - Measured in Hertz (Hz)

F = 1/T
January 15, 2011

VOLTAGE AND CURRENT VALUES OF SINE WAVES There are several ways to measure and express the value of a sine wave in terms of its voltage or its current magnitude. These are instantaneous, peak, peak to peak, RMS and average values. 1. INSTANTANEOUS VALUE - The instantaneous value is different at different points along the curve. - Instantaneous values of voltage and current are symbolized by lower case v and i respectively. 2. PEAK VALUE (Vp) - The peak value of a sine wave is the value of voltage (or current) at the positive or negative maximum (peaks) with respect to zero. - Peaks are equal in magnitude. 3. PEAK TO PEAK VALUE(Vpp) - The voltage (or current) from the positive peak to the negative peak.

ANGULAR MEASUREMENT OF A SINE WAVE DEGREE - an angular measurement corresponding to 1/360 of a circle or a complete revolution. RADIAN (rad) - is the angular distance along the circumference of a circle equal to the radius of the circle.

1 rad = 57.3 2pi radians = 360

January 15, 2011