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HISTORY

Selenium is a trace mineral that is essential to good health but required only in small amounts. Selenium is incorporated into proteins to make selenoproteins, which are important antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant properties of selenoprotein help prevent cellular damage from free radicals. Free radicals are natural by-products of oxygen metabolism that may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Other selenoproteins help regulate thyroid function and play a role in the immune system. Selenomethionine is an amino acid-based type of organic selenium found naturally in food. Selenium supplements come in a variety of forms, including selenomethionine, used for numerous health-promoting purposes. Although all selenium supplements are thought to produce similar effects in the body, selenomethionine is more easily absorbed than nonorganic forms of selenium such as selenate. Methionine is an amino acid, meaning it is a building block of protein. When you consume selenomethionine supplements, your body recognizes the selenium as the amino acid methionine and immediately incorporates it in into its protein stores. In fact, taking selenomethionine supplements results in plasma selenium stores twice as high as equivalent doses of non-organic selenium supplements such as selenate, according to the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Selenomethionine (Se-met) 3 along with other seleno amino acids was suspected already in the mid-1930s to be one of the toxic components of seleniferous plants, but suggestive experimental evidence for its presence in seleniferous wheat protein hydrolyzates was obtained only in 1949. Se-met was definitely identified in plant proteins in the 1950s1960s and was concurrently also shown to be produced by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiea, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, rumen bacteria and marine algae, when these were grown in Se-containing media. In 1962, 75Se-met became available and was introduced as a pancreatic radio imaging agent. In the mid-1970s, metabolic studies indicated that Se-met is well absorbed and retained, suggesting its use for nutritional Se supplementation. At about the same time, high Se-yeast was introduced as an economical food source of Se-met. By 1984, synthetic l-Se-met was also beginning to be produced at a cost comparable to that of Se-yeast on a per-Se basis. Numerous experimental studies have since established that Se-met and Se-yeast are suitable for nutritional Se-supplementation. However, concerns have also been raised that Se-met might, under some conditions, accumulate in, or be released from body stores to toxic levels.

PROPERTIES AND BENEFITS TO OUR BODY


Selenium is required by the body as a trace element for the production of an important antioxidant called glutathione peroxidase. Selenium can prevent oxidization and thereby protect cells and tissues from free radicals. It can also assist the immune system by stimulating the production of white blood cells. Selenium has the ability to rid the body of heavy metals like mercury and arsenic. It has also been found to slow down the process of aging, and maintain elasticity of the tissues.

Selenium can help prevent viral replication and is effective in controlling infections. It also has an anti-inflammatory property, and may be used to reduce pain and stiffness experienced by arthritis patients. Selenium is concentrated in the kidneys, liver, muscles and the thyroid. It boosts and helps regulate the immune system and fights back infections, some harmful bacteria and viruses. Selenium has been shown to prevent some health conditions like, heart diseases, arthritis, muscular degeneration, strokes, gray hair and different types of cancer. Selenium has also proved effective in fighting viruses that cause cold sores and shingles. Some studies have shown that consumption of selenium is helpful in making the blood less sticky which prevents heart strokes. Selenium supplementation was observed to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures in children. Selenium supplementation is also reported to improve mental fatigue and anxiety in adults. Selenium deficiency reduces the activities of the selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes, leading to a number of functional disorders including skeletal muscle dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, hepatic degradation, increased capillary permeability, and pancreatic degeneration. L-selenomethionine is easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is better absorbed and retained in the body than other forms including selenite or selenate. Organic forms of selenium, such as selenomethionine, are selenium bound to methionine, an essential amino acid. Cancer: Several research reports indicate the inverse relationship between higher blood levels of selenium and mortality from cancer including lung, colorectal, prostate and skin cancer. Laboratory studies indicate the potentially beneficial role of selenium in the management of mammary cancer. Prostate Cancer: The Journal of National Cancer Institute revealed that men with high blood levels of selenium were about half as likely to develop advanced prostate cancer as the men with lower blood selenium. This study had a sample size of over 1000 healthy males and a study period of over 13 years. The duration is significant because prostate cancer is a slow growing disease. Thyroid Function: Selenium can help to regulate thyroid hormones. Thyroid enzymes depend on selenium to balance out metabolic levels, which can also play a key role in weight management. Free Radical Damage: Selenium can help the reduction of free radical damage in cells. Selenium helps create antioxidants in the body, which protects cells from damage. Heart Disease: Selenium deficiency may be a significant contributor to heart problems, including an enlarged heart and heart disease. Many physicians recommend getting adequate amounts of selenium to combat heart disease. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Low levels of selenium have been reported in rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile chronic arthritis. Additionally, research indicates that individuals with rheumatoid

arthritis, a chronic disease that causes pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in joints, have reduced selenium levels.

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion


Absorption of selenium occurs mainly at the the lower end of the small intestine. All forms of selenium, organic as well as inorganic, are really absorbed. Overall absorption has been show, in experimental animals and in humans, to be around 80%.There are differences, however, between levels of absorption, as well as of subsequent utilization, of the differently chemical forms of element. In general, organic compounds, such as selenomethionine are absorbed more efficiently than are inorganic forms, particularly selenite, with uptake from the gastrointestinal tract of more than 90% of selenomethionine compared to about 60% of selenite (Stewart et al, 1987). Differences in chemical form also affect levels of retention in the body over time .It has been shown, in humans as well as in experimental animals, that selenomethionine is retained more efficiently than selenite or selenite, but is not as efficient in maintaining selenium status (Fairweather-Tait, 1997) Selenomethionine is also better retained in tissue, where it is incorporated into proteins, non-specifically, in place of methionine than selenocysteine (Thomson,1998). There is some evidence of differences in the level of absorption of selenium if it is supplied along with food, rather than in isolation as organic or other supplements, (Sirichakwal et al, 1985) .It has also been reported that selenium is more readily available if it is in plants rather than in animal foodstuffs (Young et al 1982) Absorption can be affected by a number of dietary factors, in addition to the chemical form of the element, It is enhanced by the presence of protein, vitamin E, and Vitamin A, and is decreased by sulphur, arsenic, mercury, guar gum, and vitamin C (Fairweather-Tait,1997) The major fate of all selenium absorbed from the diet, whatever its original chemical form of source, is to be incorporated into body proteins. The process involved can be summarized briefly as follows the ingested selenium is transported in the blood from the intestine to the liver .There is reduced to selenide before being transported in the blood, bound to alpha and gamma globulins to various organ and targets tissue.It is then incorporated into specific selenoprotein, as selocysteine, and non-specifically, as selenomethionine .The highest levels of selenium are deposited in red blood cells, liver, spleen, heart, nails and tooth enamel.Excretion of absorbed selenium is mainly via the urine, with some loss in in sweat, and also in hair. In addition, small amouts are lost through bilary, pancreas, and intestinal secretions in feces (Linder, 1988).

NATURAL RESOURCES
Plant foods are the major dietary sources of selenium in most countries throughout the world. The content of selenium in food depends on the selenium content of the soil where plants are grown or animals are raised. For example, researchers know that soils in the high plains of northern Nebraska and the Dakotas have very high levels of selenium. People living in those regions generally have the highest selenium intakes in the United States [8]. In the United States, food distribution patterns across the country help prevent people living in lowselenium geographic areas from having low dietary selenium intakes. Soils in some parts of China and Russia have very low amounts of selenium. Selenium deficiency is often reported in those regions because most food in those areas is grown and eaten locally.

Selenium also can be found in some meats and seafood. Animals that eat grains or plants that were grown in selenium-rich soil have higher levels of selenium in their muscle. In the United States, meats and bread are common sources of dietary selenium. Some nuts are also sources of selenium. Selenium content of foods can vary. For example, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Composition Database lists the selenium content of Brazil nuts as 544 mcg of selenium per ounce, but values from other analyses vary widely. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their very high selenium content. Selected food sources of selenium are provided in Table 1. Table 1: Selected Food Sources of Selenium Micrograms Percent Food (mcg) DV* Brazil nuts, dried, unblanched, 1 ounce (6-8 nuts) 544 777 Tuna, light, canned in water, drained, 3 ounces 68 97 Cod, cooked, 3 ounces 32 46 Turkey, light meat, roasted, 3 ounces 27 39 Bagel, egg, 4 inch 27 39 Chicken breast, meat only, roasted, 3 ounces 24 34 Beef chuck roast, lean only, roasted, 3 ounces 23 33 Sunflower seed kernels, dry roasted, 1 ounce 23 33 Egg noodles, enriched, boiled, cup 19 27 Macaroni, enriched, boiled, cup 19 27 Ground beef, cooked, broiled, 3 ounces 18 26 Egg, whole, hard-boiled, 1 large 15 21 Oatmeal, instant, fortified, cooked, 1 cup 12 17 Cottage cheese, low fat 2%, cup 11 16 Bread, whole-wheat, commercially prepared, 1 slice 11 16 Rice, brown, long-grain, cooked, cup 10 14 Rice, white, enriched, long-grain, cooked, cup 6 9 Bread, white, commercially prepared, 1 slice 6 9 Walnuts, black, dried, 1 ounce 5 7 Cheddar cheese, 1 ounce 4 6

*DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers developed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. The DV for selenium is 70 micrograms (mcg). Most food labels do not list a food's selenium content. The percent DV (%DV) listed on the table indicates the percentage of the DV provided in one serving. A food providing 5% of the DV or less is a low source while a food that provides 1019% of the DV is a good source. A food that provides 20% or more of the DV is high in that nutrient. It is important to remember that foods that provide lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet. For foods not listed in this table, must refer to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Nutrient Database Web site.

Manufacture/Derive/Synthesis
Selenized-yeast is often employed in nutritional supplements as a bioactive form of Se. However, the quality of some food supplements is of concern as some may not contain yeast which has metabolized inorganic selenium to the bioactive form, but instead contains yeast spiked with inorganic selenium. Some labeling, such as organic selenium or selenium yeast are ambiguous with respect to the forms of selenium contained in the supplement. As it is the bioactive form found in selenized yeast that is reported to bestow the anti-cancer properties,it is important to establish quality control procedures to determine the speciation of Se and the Se content of supplements.This note presents a procedure for the analysis of Se containing nutritional supplements and the determination of SeMet therein by HPLC-ICPMS. Se is a multi-isotopic element, where the major isotope at m/z 80 is interfered by the argon dimer (80Ar2+). This note demonstrates the use of the XSeriesII ICP-MS Collision Cell Technology to remove this interference and permit acquisition of chromatographic data with the most abundant Se isotope. Although a certified reference material (CRM) is not yet commercially available, a selenized yeast material currently undergoing a certification procedure was used for method validation. Schematic presenting the metabolism of inorganic selenium by yeast. The last steps present the ultimate formation of SeMet and its non-specific incorporation into the proteome. Selenium has complex biogeochemistry and occurs in chemical forms that are analogous to forms of sulfur (S). Chief among these are elemental selenium (Se0) selenide (Se-2), selenite (SeO3-), and selenate (SeO4-) as well as methylated forms Sex(CH3)x. Selenate and selenite can be taken up by plants and converted to organic forms (2, 6-10).These organic forms are usually analogues to S-containing biomolecules, especially amino acids. This occurs through either nonspecific isosteric substitution for S in amino acids ([Se] cysteine or [Se]met), or through co-translational conjugation of selenophosphate (SePO3-) to serine mediated by selenocysteine (sec) transfer RNA (tRNAsec) and sec synthase (SELA). In the latter case, sec is incorporated into genetically encoded selenoproteins (i.e., those proteins whose encoding DNA sequences have a UGA codon and a sec insertion sequence). In addition, some other metabolites, such as selenosugars, are known to occur

PRODUCT

What Is It? Selenium protects normal cell function by supporting the bodys natural defenses and scavenging harmful free radicals.* Uses For Selenium Antioxidant Support: Selenium is a natural antioxidant that delays the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and preserves the elasticity of tissue. Selenium is required for the production of certain prostaglandins, which promote healthy blood flow. In synergy with vitamin E, selenium promotes healthy growth and fertility, and improves the function of certain energy producing cells. Selenium also plays a role in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and immune function.* What Is The Source? Selenium is derived from sodium selenite. Methionine (selenomethionine only) is derived from Homoserine, which is produced by organic chemical synthesis. Selenomethionine serves as a storage form. The methionine is incorporated directly into proteins, releasing selenium as they are catabolized. Citrate (selenium citrate only) is derived from corn dextrose

fermentation. Ascorbyl palmitate (selenomethionine only) is derived from corn dextrose fermentation and palm oil. Hypo-allergenic plant fiber is derived from pine cellulose. Recommendations Pure Encapsulations recommends 1 capsule per day, with a meal, or as directed by a health professional. Are There Any Potential Side Effects Or Precautions? If pregnant or lactating, consult your physician before taking this product. Selenium is generally well tolerated, however large amounts can cause selenium toxicity. Symptoms of toxicity include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nail changes, fatigue, irritability, hair loss, muscle pain and/or weight loss. Consult your physician for more information. Are There Any Potential Drug Interactions? Selenium may be contra-indicated with blood thinning medications. There is evidence that selenium could reduce the effectiveness of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Consult your physician for more information. Selenium (selenomethionine) each vegetable capsule contains v 3 selenium (selenomethionine)....................................................... 200 mcg ascorbyl palmitate (fat-soluble vitamin C).......................................... 2 mg (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) 1 capsule per day, with a meal, or as directed by a health professional. *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. 490 Boston Post Road Sudbury, MA 01776 USA P: 800-753-2277 F: 888-783-2277 Your Trusted Source www.PureCaps.com csservice@purecaps.com

REFERENCES
1. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Selenium-HealthProfessional/Reviewed: October 12, 2012 2. http://www.livestrong.com/article/440937-selenomethionine-benefits/Article reviewed by Chuck Goldberg Last updated on: May 12, 2011 3. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/7/1653.long 2000 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences 4.http://www.pno.ca/preferred-nutrition-products/item/preferrednutrition/selenomethionine.html 5.2010 Preferred Nutrition Inc. All rights reserved. Designed by MedleyMedia 6.http://books.google.com.my/books?id=Gr6pQ3egv0IC&pg=PA29&lpg=PA29&dq=absorpt ion+of+selenomethionine&source=bl&ots=d3eC942BEg&sig=lIdM3nf3jN4pZ4accWnCIo8vU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IkJ4UbjFJ8_yrQeoxIGAAw&sqi=2#v=onepage&q=absorption%20o f%20selenomethionine&f=false 7. http://www.thermo.com/eThermo/CMA/PDFs/Articles/articlesFile_26474.pdf 8.http://www.pureencapsulations.com/products/shop-by-productcategory/minerals/selenium.html#