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ECEG07 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM INTRODUCTION COMMUNICATION - Was one of the first applications of electrical technology today in the

e age of fiber optics and satellite television, facsimile machines and cellular telephones. Communication system remain at the leading edge of electronics probably no other branch of electronics has profound an effect on peoples everyday life. - Refer to the basic process of exchanging information by electronic means. - Any communication system moves information from a source to a destination through a channel. The information from the source will generally not be in a form that can travel through the channel, so a device called a transmitter will be employed at one end, and a receiver at the other. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION SOURCE TRANSMITTER RECEIVER DESTINATION

SOURCE The source or information signal can be analog or digital. Common examples are analog audio and video signals and digital data. Sources are often described in terms of the frequency range that they occupy. Examples: 1. Telephone quality analog voice signals contain frequencies from about 300Hz to 3KHz 2. Analog high fidelity music needs q frequency range of approximately 20Hz to 20KHz. DIGITAL SOURCES Digital sources can be derived from audio or video signals, e.g. alphanumeric characters. The PITCH of a sound means how low or high it is. Pitch depends on how many times the sound sources moves to and from or vibrates each second. This is the same as the frequency.

ECEG07 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM Note: Our ears pick-up frequencies from about 20 to 20KHz. We hear sounds below 80Hz as low deep booms, thuds, or rumbles. Frequencies below about 30Hz may not be heard clearly, but if they are powerful enough, we can feel them as vibrations in the air and ground. Note: Our ears are the most sensitive in the range from 400Hz to 4KHz (human speech tends to be around 300 to 1KHz). Sounds above 5KHz are extremely high pitched screeches. Terms: ULTRASONIC SOUNDS are too high pitched to our ears. INFRASONIC SOUNDS are too low for our ears. MODULATE adapt the signal to the channel. DEMODULATE match the signal to the receiver. COMMUNICATION change of information that can be understood. THE DECIBEL SCALE the measurement scale which compares the intensities of sounds which are similar to their loudness or volume. Its unit is dB.
dB SCALE 10 30 50 70 100 120 140 170 200 Tickling of watch Bird song Soft conversation Loud conversation Chain saw Dangerous loud music Jet plane nearby Blue whale groaning Atomic explosion

ECEG07 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM THE CHANNEL A communication channel can be almost anything: a pair of conductors or an optical fiber, satellite, microwave. Sometimes a channel can carry the information signal directly; an audio signal can be carried directly by a twisted-pair telephone cable. A radio link through free space cannot be used directly for voice signals. An antenna of enormous length would be required and it would not be possible to transmit more than one signal without interference/noise. Such situations require the use of a carrier signal whose frequency is such that it will travel, or propagate through the channel. This carrier wave will be altered or modulated by the information signal in such a way that the information can be recovered at the destination. When a carrier is used, the information signal is known as the MODULATING SIGNAL. Since the CARRIER FREQUENCY is generally much higher than that of information signal, the frequency spectrum of the information signal is often referred to as the BASE BAND. Thus, the three terms: INFORMATION SIGNAL, MODULATING SIGNAL and BASE BAND are equivalent in communication schemes involving modulated signals. RECEIVER The destination upon which information from the transmitter is delivered. Performs decoding and demodulation. The output of the receiver may be fed to transducers of various types depending as system requirements.

ECEG07 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM MODULATION All system of modulation are variation on a small number of possibilities a carrier is generated at frequency much higher than the highest baseband frequency. Usually the instantaneous amplitude of the baseband signal is used to vary some parameters of the carrier.

Note: The MODULATION is done at the transmitter. An inverse process called DEMODULATION or detection takes place at the receiver to restore the original baseband signal. SIGNAL BANDWIDTH An unmodulated sine wave carrier would exist at only one frequency and so would have zero bandwidth, however a modulated signal is no longer a single sine wave and it therefore occupies a greater bandwidth. HARTLEYS LAW A general rule that relates bandwidth and information capacity. States that the amount of information that can be transmitted in a given time is proportional to bandwidth for a given modulation scheme.

I = ktB
Where: I k t B amount of information to be sent a constant that depends on the type of modulation time available channel bandwidth

ECEG07 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM BANDWIDTH (BW) A range of frequency required to carry the information for a radio, telephone or television signal. Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupied by a signal.

BW = f2 f1
Where: f2 f1 - upper sideband - lower sideband

FREQUENCY DIVISION ON MULTIPLEXING One of the benefits of using modulated carriers even with channels that are capable of carrying baseband signals is that several carriers can be used at different frequencies. Each can be separately modulated with a different information signal and demodulate whichever is required. MULTIPLEXING The term used in communication to refer to the combining of two or more information signals. When the available frequency range is divided among the signals the process is known as FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (FDM). Radio and television broadcasting in which the available spectrum is divided among many signals are everyday examples of FDM.

ECEG07 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION PRELIM TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (TDM) Alternative method for using a single communication channel to send many signals is to use TDM. The entire bandwidth is used for each signal but only for a small part of the time. TDM is used extensively especially with digital communication. The digital telephone system is a good example

= C/f
Where: C f

C = f
- wavelength - speed of light - frequency

Note: LOW FREQUENCY are sometimes LONG WAVE. HIGH FREQUENCY corresponds to SHORT WAVE.