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In today’s competitive world, computer has assumed critical importance in every field. It has become an essential qualification for almost all ventures. In our Bachelor of Computer Application, we have been prepared to be at par with the industrial requirements. But theoretical knowledge is not just enough in present eras. Theoretical knowledge accompanied with the practical knowledge makes us ready for making a good performance when we enter the industry. Training phase is a very important phase in one’s course and gives the student an opportunity to expose himself to the environment of well knit institution and hence understand how the skills that he acquired during theoretical studies to practical situation. This training has been developed as a part of industrial training, which Punjab State Board of Technical Education & Industrial Training requires its students to undergo. The purpose of the industrial training is to familiarize the students of Computer-Graduate Degree course with the present working environment of the Indian industry. To provide them with an opportunity to study the latest technological trends that has been established. It provides an opportunity to both upgrade skills and add to the corpus of professional knowledge in an environment that provides you with practical and theoretical knowledge.


This humble endeavor bears the imprint of many persons who were in one way or the other helpful in the completion of our three years degree. We would like to take this opportunity to present our vote of thanks to our guides who acted as lighting pillars to enlighten our way through out this project. This project would not have been possible without the kind assistance and guidance of many people who indeed were helpful, cooperative and kind during the entire course of our project. The acknowledgment would not be complete without expressing our indebtedness to our teacher in charge Mr. Virender Singh who guided us in this project and was the constant source of reference for us and showed full interest at each and every step of our project.

Chahat Pahwa


Error Handling
Response to Users Errors and undesired situation has been taken care of to ensure that the system operates without halting in case of such situations and proper error messages are given.

The system is able to avoid catastrophic behavior.

User Friendliness
The System is easy to learn and understand. A native user can also see the system effectively, without any difficulty. .

Cost Element
In the new system, servicing a given demand in a program does not require lot of money. The system is reliable, versatile and efficient.

Response Time
The response time of all operations is according to the user needs.

User Satisfaction
The system is such that it stands up to the user expectations.


JavaScript Functions and Our Projects page. • • • • Home Page About Us Services (JavaScript Functions) Our Projects 4 . About Us. It just contains some project details and 4 pages of Home Page.Introduction The Minor Project is On Basic Business website template by Using HTML. JavaScript and CSS (style sheet).

com helped us understand our requirements better. I have concentrated the focus on the resources: hardware as well as software available for this project development. The input of this phase is all the logical information gathered yet and the output is the software requirement specification. http://w3schools. • Specific Requirements • • Hardware Interfaces Software Interfaces 5 . Besides. clearly specifying what the proposed software should do.Requirements In this phase we have filtered the information yet gathered within framework of the Students’ Database Management objective and the environment in which project is to be developed.

8 GB Graphics – Radon 1GB Graphic Card SOFTWARE USED • • • • • • HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) Java Script Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Notepad plus Adobe Photoshop CS5 Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 OPERATING SYSTEM USED • Windows 7 Home Premium WEB BROWSERS USED • • Internet Explorer 9 Google Chrome 6 .Intel Core i7 – 2.HARDWARE USED • • • • Processor .9 GHz 2nd Generation HDD .750 GB RAM .

It was called the Standard Generalized Markup Language or SGML on web. the second tag is the end tag Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags. HTML or Hyper Text Markup Language has evolved from the SGML.INTRODUCTION TO HTML HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. 7 . HTML Documents . but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.Web Pages • • • HTML documents describe web pages HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text HTML documents are also called web pages The purpose of web browsers (like Internet Explorer) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. It comprises of: MARKUP LANGUAGE It refers to the tags which specify how to incorporate text. HTML Tags HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags • • • • HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag. In 1980. HTML is used to construct formatted pages for the web known as web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags. which is displayed on the page. and sound and also control visual elements such as fonts. WEB PAGE CONTENTS It refers to the actual text information. a markup language was developed to create documents that could be displayed consistently on computers of different hardware and operating systems. font sizes and paragraph sizing. graphics.

Use <del> instead Deprecated. Use <del> instead Deprecated. Use styles instead Defines teletype text Defines a variable Defines an abbreviation Defines a long quotation Defines a table Defines a table header Defines a table row 8 .Tag <html> <body> <h1> to <h6> <!--> <p> <br /> <hr /> <b> <big> <em> <i> <small> <strong> <sub> <sup> <ins> <del> <s> <strike> <u> <tt> <var> <abbr> <blockquote> <table> <th> <tr> Description Defines an HTML document Defines the document's body Defines header 1 to header 6 Defines a comment Defines a paragraph Inserts a single line break Defines a horizontal rule Defines bold text Defines big text Defines emphasized text Defines italic text Defines small text Defines strong text Defines subscripted text Defines superscripted text Defines inserted text Defines deleted text Deprecated.

</h2> <h3> . . . </p> </body> </html> Heading Elements <h1>Largest Heading</h1> <h2> . . . . . </h4> <h5> . .<td> <caption> <colgroup> <col> <thead> <tbody> <tfoot> Defines a table cell Defines a table caption Defines groups of table columns Defines the attribute values for one or more columns in a table Defines a table head Defines a table body Defines a table footer HTML Basic Document <html> <head> <title>Page Title</title> </head> <body> <p>Body of the Page to be displayed on Web Browser. </h5> <h6>Smallest Heading</h6> Text Elements <p>this is a paragraph</p> <br> (line break) <hr> (horizontal rule) <pre>this text is preformatted</pre> 9 . </h3> <h4> . .

com/"><img src="URL" alt="Alternate Text"></a> <a href="">This is a Link</a> <a href="http://www.example. and Image Elements <a href="http://www.example.Logical Styles <em>this text is emphasized</em> <strong>This text is strong</strong> <code>This is some computer code</code> Physical Styles <b>This text is bold</b> <i>This text is italic</i>">Send e-mail</a> A named anchor: <a name="tips">Useful Tips Section</a> <a href="#tips">Jump to the Useful Tips Section</a> Unordered list <ul> <li>First item</li> <li>Next item</li> </ul> Ordered list <ol> <li>First item</li> <li>Next item</li> </ol> Definition list 10 . Anchors.

example.75%"> <frame src="page1.htm"> <frame src="page2.asp" method="post/get"> <input type="text" name="lastname" value="Nixon" size="30" maxlength="50"> <input type="password"> <input type="checkbox" checked="checked"> <input type="radio" checked="checked"> <input type="submit"> <input type="reset"> 11 .htm"> </frameset> Forms <form action="<dl> <dt>First term</dt> <dd>Definition</dd> <dt>Next term</dt> <dd>Definition</dd> </dl> Tables <table border="1"> <tr> <th>someheader</th> <th>someheader</th> </tr> <tr> <td>sometext</td> <td>sometext</td> </tr> </table> Frames <frameset cols="25%.

<input type="hidden"> <select> <option>Apples <option selected>Bananas <option>Cherries </select> <textarea name="Comment" rows="60" cols="20"></textarea> </form> 12 .

). in which the semicolons that terminate statements can be omitted. One partial exception is scoping: C-style block-level scoping is not supported (instead. supports block-level scoping with the let keyword. changed. and much more.INTRODUCTION TO JAVA SCRIPT What is JavaScript? • • • • • • JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. communicate with the server.7. • JavaScript supports much of the structured programming syntax from C (e. JavaScript has a small number of built-in objects such as Function and Date.g.x = 10 and obj['x'] = 10 are equivalent. JavaScript makes a distinction between expressions and loop. JavaScript 1. One syntactic difference from C is automatic semicolon insertion.. • JavaScript is almost entirely object-based. JavaScript objects are associative arrays. or deleted at run-time. switch statements. JavaScript has function-level scoping). validate forms. Most properties of an object (and those on its prototype inheritance chain) can be enumerated using a for. Properties and their values can be added. 13 .. augmented with prototypes (see below). the dot notation being syntactic sugar. however. if statements. Like C. JavaScript is a scripting language. A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) • JavaScript is used in billions of Web pages to add functionality. while loops.. Object property names are string keys: obj. etc.

• An indefinite number of parameters can be passed to a function. and . The function can access them through formal parameters and also through the local arguments object. What can a JavaScript Do? • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool – HTML authors are normally not programmers.depending on the browser . but JavaScript is a scripting Language with a very simple syntax! • JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page A JavaScript statement like this: document. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element • JavaScript can read and write HTML elements A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element • JavaScript can be used to validate data A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page • JavaScript can react to events – A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.load another page specifically designed for that browser 14 . This saves the server from extra processing • JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser – A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.

in print. including elements such as the layout. CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation. CSS 2. Currently there are profiles for mobile devices. colors. CSS 3. provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics. printers. such as on-screen. CSS has various levels and profiles. 15 . readers can use a different style sheet. perhaps one on their own computer. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML. and television sets. It can also be used to allow the web page to display differently depending on the screen size or device on which it is being viewed. and fonts. enable multiple pages to share formatting. CSS can also allow the same markup page to be presented in different styles for different rendering methods. by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser or screen reader) and on Braille-based. typically adding new features and typically denoted as CSS 1. Profiles are typically a subset of one or more levels of CSS built for a particular device or user interface.Introduction to CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. to override the one the author has specified.[1] This separation can improve content accessibility. which were added in CSS 2. tactile devices. While the author of a document typically links that document to a CSS style sheet. and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content (such as by allowing for table less web design). Each level of CSS builds upon the last. and CSS 4. Profiles should not be confused with media types.

.] } /* comment */ 16 . . a semi-colon (.Syntax of CSS CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties.[4] Selectors may be combined in many ways. especially in CSS 2. or to elements depending on how they are placed relative to. which identifies content only when the user 'points to' the visible element. usually by holding the mouse cursor over it. a colon (:). It is appended to a selector as in a:hover or #elementid:hover. selectors are used to declare which part of the markup a style applies to. An often-used example of a pseudo-class is : hover.) must be inserted to separate each declaration. A pseudo-class classifies document elements. A declaration-block consists of a list of declarations in braces... or nested within. . A style sheet consists of a list of rules. In CSS. [property2: value2. Selectors may apply to all elements of a specific type. whereas a pseudoelement makes a selection that may consist of partial elements. such as: firstline or :first-letter. to achieve great specificity and flexibility.1. If there are multiple declarations in a block. a kind of match expression. and a value.] [:pseudo-class] { property: value. Each declaration itself consists of a property. such as :link or :visited. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information that is outside the document tree. to elements specified by attribute. Each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors. selector2. and a declaration block. Here is an example using the above rules: selector [.. others in the document tree.

will specify the style once for a range of HTML elements selected by class. as well as providing the ability to tailor a page or site to different target devices. This has advantages for accessibility.Advantages of CSS CSS facilitates publication of content in multiple presentation formats based on nominal parameters. Before CSS. devices not able to understand the styling still display the content. If the situation arises that the styling of the elements should need to be changed or adjusted. further reducing data transfer over a network. this sort of maintenance was more difficult. these changes can be made by editing rules in the global style sheet. Nominal parameters include explicit user preferences. This is much more efficient than repeating style information inline for each occurrence of the element. Page reformatting With a simple change of one line. and can therefore be used on multiple pages without being reloaded. the type of device being used to view the content (a desktop computer or mobile Internet device). type or relationship to others. like HTML tables 17 . different web browsers. An external style sheet is usually stored in the browser cache. Site-wide consistency When CSS is used effectively. expensive and time-consuming." a global style sheet can be used to affect and style elements site-wide. a different style sheet can be used for the same page. internal or external. Furthermore. the geographic location of the user and many other variables. Accessibility Without CSS. Bandwidth A style sheet. web designers must typically lay out their pages with techniques that hinder accessibility for vision-impaired users. in terms of inheritance and "cascading.

Data flow diagram. A key question is that what must be done to solve a problem? One aspect of analysis is defining the boundaries of the system and determining whether or not a candidate system should consider other related system.ANALYSIS Analysis is a detailed study of various applications performed by a system and relationships within and outside of system. Analysis include following:• • • Planning Initial investigation Structured analysis Planning:The first step in analysis is planning. to be solved and constrained that exists for its solution. Initial investigation The first step in initial investigation is to define the problem that the user request. Given user identification of the need. forms etc. It must state the objective the user is trying to achieve and the result the user wants to see. 18 . The definitive problem statement should include a description of the present situation and the goals to be achieved by the new system. Some logical model and tools are used in analysis. the analyst proceeds to propose the strategies by asking. data are collected on the available files. Planning in s/w project development means to prepare. Understood and agree upon the user and analyst. The problem must be stated clearly. a concise statement of the problem. decision points and transitions handled by the present system. interviews. During analysis. in the customer technology.

data dictionary. 19 . Tools used in structured analysis are data flow diagram. The analyst can also use prototyping for this purpose. structured English. Structured analysis:- Structured analysis is a set of techniques and graphical tools that allow the analyst to develop a new kind of system specification. These are easily understandable to the user. and decision tables. Structured analyses consider new goals and structured tools for analysis.electing and gathering information from existing manual system.

process diagrams and other documentation. tables of business rules.DESIGNING In systems design the design functions and operations are described in detail. These design elements are intended to describe the software in sufficient detail that skilled programmers may develop the software with minimal additional input design. For each requirement. and/or prototype efforts. The output of this stage will describe the new system as a collection of modules or subsystems. 20 . and a complete entity-relationship diagram with a full data dictionary. a set of one or more design elements will be produced as a result of interviews. including screen layouts. business rules. workshops. business process diagrams. The design stage takes as its initial input the requirements identified in the approved requirements document. pseudocode. and generally include functional hierarchy diagrams. screen layout diagrams. Design elements describe the desired software features in detail.

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26 . The abstract test suite cannot be directly executed against the system under test because it is on the wrong level of abstraction. Unit. The picture on the right depicts the former approach. MODEL-BASED TESTING:Model-based testing is the application of Model based design for designing and optionally executing the necessary artifacts to perform software testing. Iteration is not generally part of the waterfall model. Models can be used to represent the desired behavior of the System under Test (SUT). or recording feedback from customers). but usually some occur at this stage. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task: defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. General model-based testing setting A model describing the System Under Test (SUT) is usually an abstract. This is done by mapping the abstract test cases to concrete test cases suitable for execution. In the testing the whole system is test one by one. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product (by inspection. Therefore an executable test suite must be derived from the abstract test suite that can communicate with the system under test.The code is tested at various levels in soft+-ware testing. These test cases are collectively known as the abstract test suite. TYPES OF TESTING • • • • Defect tracking Model-based testing System testing Black-box testing DEFECT TRACKING:In engineering. and making new versions of the product that fix the defects. This is a grey area as many different opinions exist as to what the stages of testing are and how much if any iteration occurs. system and user acceptance testings are often performed. or to represent the desired testing strategies and testing environment. testing. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds or thousands of defects: managing. partial presentation of the system under test's desired behavior.

they move opportunities to mold the system according to their priorities and business requirements. Scope Analysis. System implementation generally benefits from high levels of user involvement and management support. Customizations. Many implementations may exist for a given specification or standard. Technical Analysts. User Training and Delivery. These steps are often overseen by a Project Manager using Project Management Methodologies set forth in the Project Management Body of Knowledge. or other computer system through programming and deployment. and more opportunities to control the outcome. web browsers contain implementations of World Wide Web Consortium-recommended specifications. User participation in the design and operation of information systems has several positive results. First. they are more 27 . Systems Integrations. and software development tools contain implementations of programming languages. Second. if users are heavily involved in systems design. Solutions Architect. Implementation refers to post-sales process of guiding a client from purchase to use of the software or hardware that was purchased. and Project Managers. User Policies. This includes Requirements Analysis.IMPLEMENTATION An implementation is a realization of a technical specification or algorithm as a program. software component. Software Implementations involve several professionals that are relatively new to the knowledge based economy such as Business Analysts. For example.

Incorporating user knowledge and expertise leads to better solutions. The relationship between users and information systems specialists has traditionally been a problem area for information systems implementation efforts. interests. 28 . This is referred to as the user-designer communications gap. These differences lead to divergent organizational loyalties.likely to react positively to the change process. and priorities. approaches to problem solving. Users and information systems specialists tend to have different backgrounds. and vocabularies.

Key findings of his research include that maintenance is really evolutionary development and that maintenance decisions are aided by understanding what happens to systems (and software) over time. However. investigate it and propose a solution. his research led to the formulation ofLehman's Laws (Lehman 1997). Software maintenance and evolution of systems was first addressed by Meir M. such as the conception and creation of the maintenance plan. The process acceptance of the modification. • • The process considering the implementation of the modification itself. which is executed once the application has become the responsibility of the maintenance group. and.SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE Software Maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults. obtain all the required authorizations to apply the modifications. confirm it (by reproducing the situation) and check its validity. As they evolve. the preparation for handling problems identified during development. Lehman demonstrated that systems continue to evolve over time. one study indicated that the majority. to improve performance or other attributes. they grow more complex unless some action such as code refactoring is taken to reduce the complexity. document the request and the solution proposal. of the maintenance effort is used for noncorrective actions (Pigosky 1997). A common perception of maintenance is that it merely involves fixing defects. and the follow-up on product configuration management. by confirming the modified work with the individual who submitted the request in order to make sure the modification provided a solution. Over a period of twenty years. finally. Lehman in 1969. • The problem and modification analysis process. SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE PROCESSES This section describes the six software maintenance processes as: • The implementation processes contains software preparation and transition activities. over 80%. 29 . The maintenance programmer must analyze each request. This perception is perpetuated by users submitting problem reports that in reality are functionality enhancements to the system.

com www. If the software must be ported to another platform without any change in this process will be used and a maintenance project team is likely to be assigned to this 30 .com www. and is not part of daily maintenance tasks.csstricks. for example) is exceptional.w3schools. • Internet & Web Technology Bibliography • • • • www.• The migration process (platform migration.