You are on page 1of 19

Rigveda From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the collection of Vedic hymns.

For the manga series, see RG Veda. Part of a series on Vedic scriptures

Vedas[show] Vedangas[show] Upanishads[show] Puranas[show] Hindu Astrology[show] Itihasa[show] Other scriptures[show] Scripture classification[show] Timeline[show]




The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise, verse"[1] and veda "knowledge") is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic

and ancient prayers for life. roughly between 1700–1100 BC[5] (the early Vedic period). often associated with the early Andronovo and Sintashta-Petrovka cultures of c. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent. There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian Avesta.2 Rigveda Aranyakas • • 5 Medieval Hindu scholarship 6 In contemporary Hinduism o o 6. etc.2 Recensions 1. at religious functions and other occasions.1 Hindu revivalism 6. deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times.[2] It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts ( śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas. hymns praising the gods.[3] Some of its verses are still recited as Hindu prayers. prosperity. putting these among the world's oldest religious texts in continued use.1 Organization 1.Sanskrit hymns.4 Manuscripts • • • 2 Contents 3 Dating and historical context 4 Ancillary texts o o 4. The Rigveda contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world.1 Rigveda Brahmanas 4. Contents [hide] • 1 Text o o o o 1. [4] It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language.3 Rishis 1. 2200 – 1600 BC.2 "Indigenous Aryans" debate • 7 Translations .

[8] The oral tradition still continued into recent times. and the Samhitapatha that combines words according to the rules of sandhi (the process being described in the Pratisakhya) and is the memorized text used for recitation. 50 (1994). The Padapatha and the Pratisakhya anchor the text's fidelity and meaning[7] and the fixed text was preserved with unparalleled fidelity for more than a millennium by oral traditionalone. by which time the Brahmi script had become widespread (the oldest surviving manuscripts date to the Late Middle Ages). 1888).• • • • 8 Notes 9 Bibliography 10 See also 11 External links Text The surviving form of the Rigveda is based on an early Iron Age (c. This redaction also included some additions (contradicting the strict ordering scheme) and orthoepic changes to the Vedic Sanskrit such as the regularization of sandhi (termed orthoepische Diaskeuase by Oldenberg. most importantly the Padapatha that has each word isolated in pausa form and is used for just one way of memorization. The Rigveda was probably not written down until the Gupta period (4th to 6th centuries AD). co-eval with the redaction of the other Vedas. the redacted text has been handed down in several versions. dating several centuries after the hymns were composed. are the oldest part of the Rigveda and the shortest books. vol. The "family books": mandalas 2–7.[9] Organization The text is organized in 10 books. involving breaking down the Sanskrit compounds into stems and inflections. ordered by author. account for 15% . The eighth and ninth mandalas. In order to achieve this the oral tradition prescribed very structured enunciation. The original text (as authored by the Rishis) is close to but not identical to the extant Samhitapatha. deity and meter [6]) and a later redaction. they are arranged by length and account for 38% of the text. 10th century BC) collection that established the core 'family books' (mandalas 2–7. as printed in the Harvard Oriental Series. This interplay with sounds gave rise to a scholarly tradition of morphology and phonetics. but metrical and other observations allow to reconstruct (in part at least) the original text from the extant one. of varying age and length. known as Mandalas. as well as certain permutations. comprising hymns of mixed age. As with the other Vedas.

.. Rishis See also: Anukramani . e. c .4d yáthā vaḥ súsahā́sati Recensions The major Rigvedic shakha ("branch". making a total of 1025 regular hymns for this śākhā.[18] while the metrical text of van Nooten and Holland (1994) has a total of 395. The most common numbering scheme is by book. The sūktas in turn consist of individual stanzas calledṛc ("praise". adhyāya ("chapter") and varga ("class").191. viraj (10). and an appendix of 11 vālakhilyahymns[14] which are now customarily included in the 8th mandala (as 8. respectively.563 syllables (or an average of 9..1.552 ṛcs. Each mandala consists of hymns called sūkta (su-ukta.93 syllables per pada). pl.and 9%.1a agním īḷe puróhitaṃ "Agni I invoke. "well recited. hymn and stanza (and pada a.[17] In the 1877 edition of Aufrecht. accounting for 37% of the text. trishtubh(11). if required). which modern publishers often omit. The Shatapatha Brahmana gives the number of syllables to be 432. called anuvāka ("recitation"). the first pada is • 1.49–8.g.. ṛcas). The meters most used in the ṛcas are the jagati (a pada consists of 12 syllables). the housepriest" and the final pada is • 10. of 191 suktas each. recension) that has survived is that of Śākalya. Another shakha that may have survived is the Bāṣkala.[13] The Śākala recension has 1. the 1028 hymns of the Rigveda contain a total of 10. the Khilani.017 regular hymns.[10][11][12] The surviving padapatha version of the Rigveda text is ascribed to Śākalya. [15] The Bāṣkala recension includes 8 of these vālakhilya hymns among its regular hymns. although this is uncertain. which are further analysed into units of verse called pada ("foot"). Another scheme divides the entire text over the 10 mandalas into aṣṭaka ("eighth"). counting the number of syllables is not straightforward because of issues with sandhi and the post-Rigvedic pronunciation of syllables like súvar as svàr.[16] In addition. i.59). they are also the longest books. For pedagogical convenience. or 39. gayatri and anushtubh (8). Some publishers give both classifications in a single edition. the Bāṣkala recension has its own appendix of 98 hymns. each mandala is synthetically divided into roughly equal sections of several sūktas. eulogy") intended for various sacrificial rituals. The first and the tenth mandalas are the youngest. b. E.831 padas. for a total of 1028 hymns. literally.000.

10 families of rishis account for more than 95% of the ṛcs.13 Vasishth VII.3 da Agastya Bharata 401 (Mandala 2) I. They are in the Sharada and Devanagari scripts. The "family books" (2–7) are so-called because they have hymns by members of the same clan in each book.188 316 X. The oldest of .5 a 9) Grtsama II. the then Rajaputana. In all. Pune. used for animal sacrifice in the soma ritual). originating from different parts of India.[19] Most sūktas are attributed to single composers. 30 manuscripts of Rigveda at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. collected in the 19th century by Georg Bühler. Family Angiras Āprī Ṛcas[20] I. but other clans are also represented in the Rigveda. for each of them the Rigveda includes a lineagespecific āprī hymn (a special sūkta of rigidly formulaic structure. including Kashmir. written on birch bark and paper.2 1276 (Mandala 7) a Vishvami III. Central Provinces etc. for example. in the late 19th century. Gujarat. Franz Kielhorn and others.142 3619 (especially Mandala 6) 1315 (especially Mandala 8) Kanva I.70 170 Manuscripts There are.4 983 (Mandala 3) tra Atri Bhrgu V.Tradition associates a rishi (the composer) with each ṛc of the Rigveda. They were transferred to Deccan College.11 473 0 Kashyap 415 (part of Mandala IX.5 885 (Mandala 5) X.

At least 5 manuscripts (MS. notably the struggle between the early Vedic people (known as Vedic Aryans. . Rudras. phenomena and items. Equally prominent gods are the Adityas or Asura gods Mitra–Varuna and Ushas (the dawn). Agni.[21][22] Of these 30 manuscripts. Vac (the word). Prithivi (the earth. the sacrificial fire. 13 contain Sayana's commentary. Apas (the waters). and contain fragmentary references to possible historical events. as well as from some other sources. 1/A1879-80. hence the total number of extant manuscripts known then must surpass perhaps eighty at least[23] Contents See also: Rigvedic deities The Rigvedic hymns are dedicated to various deities. and the Vishvadevas ("all-gods") as well as the "thirty-three gods" are the groups of deities mentioned. while the Pune Edition used over five dozen manuscripts. The 30 manuscripts of Rigveda preserved at theBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. written on birch bark in bold Sharada. the Paṇi (the Bactrian Parna). a subgroup of the Indo-Aryans) and their enemies. MS no.them is dated to 1464. no. the sacred potion or the plant it is made from. 331/1883-84 and 5/Viś I) have preserved the complete text of the Rigveda. Parjanya (the thunder and rain). and Soma. 1/A1881-82. 5 have the padapatha in addition. the Dasa or Dasyu and their mythical prototypes. Mother Earth). 9 contain the samhita text. 5/1875-76. Müller used 24 manuscripts then available to him in Europe. persons. chief of whom are Indra. The hymns mention various further minor gods. but the editors of Pune Edition could not procure many manuscripts used by Müller and by the Bombay Edition.Vayu or Vata (the wind). Rudra. Rbhus.Brihaspati or Brahmanaspati. many rivers (notably the Sapta Sindhu. The Adityas. Maruts. Ashvins. a heroic god praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra. and the Sarasvati River). Pushan. was only in part used by Max Müller for his edition of the Rigveda with Sayana's commentary. Also invoked are Savitr. Pune were added to UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2007. Vishnu. Father Heaven ). Surya (the sun god). as well as deified natural phenomena such as Dyaus Pita (the shining sky. Sadhyas. Vasus.

the first line has the opening words of RV. Usas. iḷe . mainly to Agni and Indra. The remaining hymns are mainly addressed to Agni and Indra. Mandala 2 comprises 43 hymns. Usas.. Vayu. early 19th century. the Ashvins. TheVedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.. Mandala 4 comprises 58 hymns. devaṃ . and all the Gods. Vayu. Hymn 1. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the atri clan. Surya. Most hymns in this book are attributed to vāmadeva gautama. the Visvedevas ("all the gods'). It is chiefly attributed to the Rishi gṛtsamada śaunahotra. etc.1.10 has great importance in Hinduism as the Gayatri Mantra. the twin-deityMitra-Varuna and the Asvins. • Mandala 1 comprises 191 hymns. and his name is the first word of the Rigveda.1.1 is addressed to Agni. puraḥ-hitaṃ .62. • • • • .Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. mainly to Agni and Indra. Rbhus. ṛtvijaṃ)."). Aum(3) . as well as Varuna. Brhaspati. Two hymns each are dedicated to Ushas (the dawn) and to Savitr. Ashvins. Mandala 5 comprises 87 hymns. Most hymns in this book are attributed to viśvāmitra gāthinaḥ. Mandala 3 comprises 62 hymns.1 (agniṃ . Visnu. Heaven and Earth. the Maruts. mainly to Agni and Indra as well as the Rbhus. After a scribal benediction ("śrīgaṇéśāyanamaḥ . the Maruts. Rudra. The verse 3. mainly to Agni and Indra and the Vishvedevas. Mitra. Brhaspati. yajñasya .

etc. It also contains the Nasadiya sukta (10. . Usas. Most hymns in this book are attributed to vasiṣṭha maitravaruṇi. addressed to Agni. frequently in later language. Ashvin. entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana. Indra and various other deities. Indra-Varuna. all the gods. The marriage hymns (10. Mandala 9 comprises 114 hymns.59 are the apocryphal vālakhilya. the Maruts. It contains the Nadistuti sukta which is in praise of rivers and is important for the reconstruction of the geography of the Vedic civilization and the Purusha sukta which has great significance in Hindu social tradition.129). Mitra-Varuna. Hymns 8. Indra. the extent of theSwat and Cemetery H cultures are also indicated. which deals with creation. Vayu (the wind). probably the most celebrated hymn in the west. the rest to other (Angirasa) poets.85) and the death hymns (10. Mandala 10 comprises additional 191 hymns. Ushas. the Asvins. Mandala 8 comprises 103 hymns to various gods. and to others. Pusan.10–18) still are of great importance in the performance of the corresponding Grhya rituals. mainly to Agni and Indra. to Agni. • • • • Dating and historical context Geography of the Rigveda. the cleansing of the sacred potion of the Vedic religion.49 to 8.• Mandala 6 comprises 75 hymns. with river names. the Visvadevas. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the bārhaspatya family of Angirasas. Mandala 7 comprises 104 hymns. Varuna. Hymns 1–48 and 60–66 are attributed to the kāṇva clan. two each to Sarasvati (ancient river/goddess of learning) and Vishnu.

[24] The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (s. the mountains are relatively remote but still visible and reachable (Soma is a plant found in the high mountains. Nevertheless. The geography described is consistent with that of the Greater Punjab: Rivers flow north to south. the hymns must post-date the Indo-Iranian separation. with horse-drawn chariots. padapatha). semi-nomadic culture. Aufrecht and Max Müller.[31][32] often associated with the early Andronovo culture (or rather. and the entire Rigveda was preserved in shakhas for another 2. the texts were preserved and codified by an extensive body of Vedic priesthood as the central philosophy of the Iron Age Vedic civilization. This redaction would have been completed around the 6th century BC.[34] Exact dates are not established. with the oldest (not preserved) . The Brahma Purana and the Vayu Purana name one Vidagdha as the author of the Padapatha.[26] A reasonable date close to that of the composition of the core of the Rigveda is that of the Indo-Aryan Mitanni documents of c. Some Rigveda commentaries may date from the second half of the first millennium CE. IndoIranian languages. 306) gives 1500–1000 BC. the Sintashta culture within the early Andronovo horizon) of c. For this reason.500 years from the time of its redaction until the editio princeps by Rosen. [33] The text in the following centuries underwent pronunciation revisions and standardization (samhitapatha.v. Writing appears in India around the 3rd century BC in the form of the Brahmi script.[35] The Rk-pratishakhya names Sthavira Shakalya of the Aitareya Aranyaka as its author. oxen-drawn wagons. and metal (bronze) weapons. and it has to be purchased from tribal people). The Rigveda records an early stage ofVedic religion. they were written on birch bark or palm leaves. dated to roughly 2000 BC. While written manuscripts were used for teaching in medieval times. After their composition. p. 2000 BC. The hymns were thus preserved by oral tradition for up to a millennium from the time of their composition until the redaction of the Rigveda. There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian Avesta. the hymns were certainly composed over a long period. Its composition is usually dated to roughly between 1700–1100 BC. it was in the center of attention of western scholarship from the times of Max Müller and Rudolf Roth onwards. but they fall within the pre-Buddhist period (400 BC).[30] deriving from theProto-Indo-Iranian times. but texts of the length of the Rigveda were likely not written down until much later. until the advent of the printing press from the 16th[dubious – discuss] century CE.[25] Being composed in an early IndoAryan language. making it one of the few examples with an unbroken tradition.The Rigveda's core is accepted to date to the late Bronze Age. [27] Other evidence also points to a composition close to 1400 BC [28][29] The Rigveda is far more archaic than any other Indo-Aryan text. 1400 BC. which decompose fairly quickly in the tropical climate.[36] The Rigveda describes a mobile.

[40] The peafowl (mayura).(or Sankhayana-) brahmana evidently have for their groundwork the same stock of traditional exegetic matter. The Iron Age in northern India begins in the 10th century in the Greater Punjab. The horse (ashva). lion (Simha). There is a widely accepted timeframe for the initial codification of the Rigveda by compiling the hymns very late in the Rigvedic or rather in the early post-Rigvedic period. Similarly. They differ. shifting the center of Vedic culture east from the Punjab into what is now Uttar Pradesh.elements possibly reaching back to times close to the split of Proto-IndoIranian (around 2000 BC)[37] Thus there was some debate over whether the boasts of the destruction of stone forts by the Vedic Aryans and particularly by Indra refer to cities of the Indus Valley civilization or whether they rather hark back to clashes between the early Indo-Aryans with the BMAC in what is now northernAfghanistan and southern Turkmenistan (separated from the upper Indus by the Hindu Kush mountain range. There are also references to the elephant (Hastin. as the followers of the Rigveda are called. buffalo (Mahisa). wolf. While it is highly likely that the bulk of the Rigvedic hymns were composed in the Punjab. . including the arrangement of the individual hymns in ten books. occurred during the later Brahmana period.). The fixing of the samhitapatha (by keeping Sandhi) intact and of the padapatha (by dissolving Sandhi out of the earlier metrical text). rasabha). suggesting that Vedic culture only penetrated into the plains of India after its completion. camel (Ustra. ass (khara. even if based on earlier poetic traditions. coeval with the composition of the younger Veda Samhitas. "possessed of many verses"). two have come down to us. especially in Mandala 8). namely those of the Aitareyins and the Kaushitakins.[39] The "black metal" (kṛṣṇa ayas) is first mentioned in the post-Rigvedic texts (Atharvaveda etc. This time coincides with the early Kuru kingdom. there is no mention of either tigers or rice[38] in the Rigveda (as opposed to the later Vedas).e. Some of the names of gods and goddesses found in the Rigveda are found amongst other belief systems based on Proto-Indo-European religion. and some 400 km distant). hyena. The Aitareya-brahmana[41] and the Kaushitaki. Ancillary texts Rigveda Brahmanas See also: Brahmana Of the Brahmanas that were handed down in the schools of the Bahvṛcas (i. Varana). while words used share commonroots with words from other Indo-European languages. cattle. there is no mention of iron as the term ayas occurring in the Rig Veda refers to useful metal in general. sheep and goat play an important role in the Rigveda. mountain goat (sarabha) and to the gaur in the Rigveda. the goose (hamsa) and thechakravaka (Anas casarca) are some birds mentioned in the Rigveda.

of a rival school. like its Brahmana (and . treating of the ceremony called mahavrata. doubtless of later origin. The Aitareyaranyaka is not a uniform production. however. whom his father Ajigarta sells and offers to slay. the first and the last two.. that chapters 7– 10 contain the practical ceremonial and 11–30 the recitations ( shastra) of the hotar. It consists of thirty chapters ( adhyaya). or offerings of rice. composed in sutra form. the recital of which formed part of the inauguration of kings. Rigveda Aranyakas See also: Aranyaka Each of these two Brahmanas is supplemented by a "forest book". Again. is. Sayana. considerably as regards both the arrangement of this matter and their stylistic handling of it. ascribed. are purely speculative. however. 5th century BC). divided into eight books (or pentads. The Kaushitaka is. one of his grammatical sutras. it is just what one of the manuscripts calls it—the Brahmana of Sankhayana (composed) in accordance with the views of Kaushitaki. it would seem. The last of these books. of five chapters each. as seems probable. refers to these two works. in the introduction to his commentary on the work. Probably.however. consisting of thirty and forty adhyayas. with the exception of the numerous legends common to both. and is. whereupon follows the Soma sacrifice in this way. etc. upon the whole. the Kaushitaka. and generally in opposition to the Paingya—the Brahmana. except that the opinion of the sage Kaushitaki is frequently referred to in it as authoritative. indeed.e. if. pancaka). in its first six chapters. milk. the Paingins. It consists of five books (aranyaka). are of a liturgical nature. ascribed by Hindu authorities either to Shaunaka or to Ashvalayana. therefore. While the Aitareya deals almost exclusively with the Soma sacrifice. but not in the Kaushitaki-brahmana) of Shunahshepa. also mentioned elsewhere as a philosopher. ghee. three of which. the last four chapters of the second book are usually singled out as the Aitareyopanishad. The last ten adhyayas of the latter work are. There is also a certain amount of material peculiar to each of them. or great vow. The second and third books. far more concise in its style and more systematic in its arrangement features which would lead one to infer that it is probably the more modern work of the two. and are also styled the Bahvrca-brahmana-upanishad. treats of the several kinds of haviryajna. or Aranyaka. and it seems likely enough that this person arranged the Brahmana and founded the school of the Aitareyins. regulating the formation of the names of Brahmanas. ascribes the Aitareya to the sage Mahidasa Aitareya (i. clearly a later addition though they must have already formed part of it at the time of Pāṇini (c. In this last portion occurs the well-known legend (also found in the Shankhayana-sutra. in which the discrepancy is comparatively slight. on the other hand. while the Aitareya has forty. Regarding the authorship of the sister work we have no information. son of Itara).

The authors of the Brāhmana literature discussed and interpreted the Vedic ritual. c. and a partial commentary on the Rigveda. and the third book is also referred to as the Samhita-upanishad. whilst the four adhyayas usually inserted between them constitute the highly interesting Kaushitaki (brahmana-) upanishad.the first book). [43] Starting 1877. the first two (treating of the mahavrata ceremony) and the 7th and 8th of which correspond to the 1st. some reformers like Swami Dayananda Saraswati. Sāyana wrote an exhaustive commentary on it. Contrary to common understanding. founder of the Arya Samaj and Sri Aurobindo have attempted to reinterpret the Vedas to conform to modern and established moral and spiritual norms. Medieval Hindu scholarship According to Hindu tradition. the internal Agnihotra. and the spiritual[citation needed]. Yaska was an early commentator of the Rigveda by discussing the meanings of difficult words. As regards the Kaushitaki-aranyaka. respectively. Venkata-Madhava (pre-Sayana. he was adamant that Vedas were monotheistic and that they did not sanction idol worship.. . among others. 5th.[42] In contemporary Hinduism Hindu revivalism Since the 19th and 20th centuries. this work consists of 15 adhyayas. This statement stresses the underlying philosophy of the Vedic books that there is a connection (bandhu) between the astronomical. he intended to publish commentary on the four vedas but completed work on only the Yajurveda. ending with the vamsha. the Rigvedic hymns were collected by Paila under the guidance of Vyāsa. including the commentaries by Skandasvamin (pre-Sayana. Dayananda considered the Vedas (which he defined to include only the samhitas) to be source of truth. and 3rd books of the Aitareyaranyaka. etc. The remaining portions (9–15) of the Aranyaka treat of the vital airs. or succession of teachers. who formed the Rigveda Samhita as we know it.000. Udgitha(pre-Sayana). of which we possess two different recensions. an abbreviated version of Sayana's commentary). the number of syllables in the Rigveda is 432. totally free of error and containing the seeds of all valid knowledge. Dayananda's work is not highly regarded by Vedic scholars and Indologist Louis Renou. equalling the number of muhurtas (1 day = 30 muhurtas) in forty years. to Mahidasa Aitareya. roughly of the Gupta period). A number of other commentaries bhāṣyas were written during the medieval period. In the 14th century. the physiological. [citation needed] According to the Śatapatha Brāhmana. 10th to 12th centuries) and Mudgala (after Sayana.

Some writers out of the mainstream claim to trace astronomical references in the Rigveda. and in his The Arctic Home in the Vedas (1903) even argued that the Aryans originated near the North Pole and came south during the ice age. London 1830).[48] Translations The first published translation of any portion of the Rigveda in any Western language was into Latin. instances of animal sacrifice were not seen by them as literal slaughtering. [49] Wilson's version was based on the commentary of Sāyaṇa. Ralph T. In 1889.[dubious – discuss] For example. together with Vedic Sanskrit. in his "The Orion" (1893) had claimed presence of the Rigvedic culture in India in the 4th millennium BC. Wilson was the first to make a complete translation of the Rig Veda into English. Subhash Kak (1994) claimed that there is an "astronomical code" in the organization of the hymns. also based on astronomical alignments in the Rigveda. but as transcendental processes. by Friedrich August Rosen (Rigvedae specimen. Delhi. extremely aberrant) interpretation in the social and political sense. Talageri's The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis. In 1977. H. "a vigorous (and from our point of view.dismissed it as. published in six volumes during the period 1850–88. 1990). H. D. notably in books published by Voice of India. "Indigenous Aryans" debate Further information: Indigenous Aryans and Out of India theory Questions surrounding the Rigvedic Sarasvati River and the Nadistuti sukta in particular have become tied to an ideological debate on the Indo-Aryan migration (termed "Aryan Invasion Theory") versus the claim that Vedic culture. addressed for example by K. 2nd ed. are mostly taking place outside of scholarly literature. Debate on alternative suggestions on the date of the Rigveda. Wilson's edition was enlarged by Nag Sharan Singh (Nag Publishers." [44][45] Dayananda and Aurobindo moved[clarification needed] the Vedantic perception of the Rigveda from the original ritualistic content to a more symbolic or mystical interpretation. Predating Müller's editio princeps of the text.H.[47] Publications to this effect have increased during the late 1990s to early 2000s in the context of historical revisionism in Hindu nationalism.[46] a date well within the Indian Neolithic. Griffith published his translation as The Hymns of the Rig Veda. a topic of great significance in Hindu nationalism. typically much earlier dates. Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Rosen was working from manuscripts brought back from India by Colebrooke.[50] . published in London (1889). dating it to as early as 4000 BC. Sethna and in Shrikant G. originated in the Indus Valley Civilization (termed "Out of India theory").

^ derived from the root ṛc "to praise". Joshi. In 2004 the United States' National Endowment for the Humanities funded Joel Brereton and Stephanie W.[51] Geldner's translation was the philologically best-informed to date. along with critical apparatus.19.A German translation was published by Karl Friedrich Geldner. cf. Harvard Oriental Studies. and a Russian translation based on Geldner's[citation needed] by Tatyana Elizarenkova was published by Nauka1989–1999[52] A 2001 revised edition of Wilson's translation was published by Ravi Prakash Arya and K. 1922). Allahabad. MonierWilliams translates "a Veda of Praise or Hymn-Veda" 2. L. covering books 3–5). Dhātupātha 28. • • • • • Notes 1. 1917). A partial Hindi translation by Govind Chandra Pande was published in 2008 (by Lokbharti Booksellers and Distributors. Notable examples include: • A. Hymns from the Rigveda (Calcutta. along with a critical apparatus. A Vedic Reader for Students (Oxford. Jamison as project directors for a new original translation to be issued by Oxford University Press. Macdonell. 1995 ISBN 963-85349-1-5 Hymns of the Rig-Veda Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty issued a modern selection with a translation of 108 hymns. Langlois. Rig-véda. ou livre des hymnes. London. . giving the English translation along with the original Sanskrit text in Devanagari script. A bibliography of translations of the Rig Veda appears as an Appendix that work. [56] A new German translations of books 1 and 2 was presented in 2007 by Michael Witzel and Toshifumi Goto (ISBN 978-3-458-70001-2). vols. [54][55] Numerous partial translations exist into various languages. ^ "Rig Veda". Rigvéda – Teremtéshimnuszok (Creation Hymns of the Rig-Veda).[53] The revised edition updates Wilson's translation by replacing obsolete English forms with more modern equivalents. Budapest. 33–37 (Cambridge. French: A. A. Massachusetts: 1951-7). Paris 1948–51 ISBN 27200-1029-4 Hungarian: Laszlo Forizs. Der Rig-Veda: aus dem Sanskrit ins Deutsche Übersetzt.

69. Curzon Press.1888. A metrically restored text. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100 6. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 57. Peter Edwin Hook. p. which once existed. ^ Maurice Winternitz (History of Sanskrit Literature. and texts like the Aitareya-Brahmana are not considered "part of the Rigveda" but rather "associated with the Rigveda" in the tradition of a certain shakha. Indian Linguistic Studies: Festschrift in Honor of George Cardona.). ^ Michael Witzel says that "The RV has been transmitted in one recension (the śākhā of Śākalya) while others (such as the Bāṣkala text) have been lost or are only rumored about so far. 9.. Rig Veda. ^ B. 11. 2005. Prolegomena. vol. Holland. New Delhi: Motilal 2004 7. 235. Oldenberg. "Making of Pāṇini". ISBN 81-2081885-7. 8. the oldest known manuscript preserving a Vedic text was written in the 11th century in Nepal (catalogued by the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project. p. transl. 1926. 5. "Vedas and Upaniṣads". ^ There is some confusion with the term "Veda". van Nooten and G. such as Brahmanas or Upanishads. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are more uncertain. 1. 57) says that "Of the different recensions of this Saṃhitā. Cambridge: Harvard Oriental Series 1994 10. Karel (1994). In English usage. p. Earlier manuscripts are extremely rare. Revised English Translation Edition. ^ H. Gavin Flood (ed. A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism. The Benares Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript of the 14th century. ^ The oldest manuscript in the Pune collection dates to the 15th century. note 1) that this refers to the "recension of the Śākalaka-School." Michael Witzel. ^ Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. ISBN 0-7007-1049-3. which is traditionally applied to the texts associated with the samhita proper. the term Rigveda is usually used to refer to the Rigveda samhita alone. in: The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. 4. Engl. only a single one has come down to us. ^ K.3. ^ Werner." He adds in a note (p. Oberlies (p." . In George Cardona. Madhav Deshpande. Hamburg. Meenakshi (2002). Motilal Banarsidass.

^ equalling 40 times 10. 17. Motilal Banarsidass. ^ 23. all regular hymns make up the akhila or "the whole" recognised in a śākhā. 283. ^ Sures Chandra Banerji (A Companion To Sanskrit Literature. see references. 20. although khila hymns have sanctified roles in rituals from ancient times). 14. we have got only two. Oberlies (p. ^ Maurice Winternitz (History of Sanskrit Literature. the number of bricks used for the uttaravedi: the number is motivated numerologically rather than based on an actual syllable count.800. UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. ^ Mantras of "khila" hymns were called khailika and not ṛcas (Khila meant distinct "part" of Rgveda separate from regular hymns. p. 24. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are far more uncertain. Delhi.12.92 in the regular series. Compare Max Müller's statement "the hymns of the Rig-Veda are said to date from 1500 BC" ('Veda and . 1926. 15. ^ hinduism. Śākala and Vāṣkala. 300–301) says that "Of the 21 recensions of this Veda. ^ cf. 19. pp. p.Kāshikar in Volume-5 of Pune Edition of RV (in references). ^ "Rigveda". Griffith's translation has these 11 at the end of the 8th mandala. signifying lack of certainty.about. ^ Hermann Grassmann had numbered the hymns 1 through to 1028. ^ Philological estimates tend to date the bulk of the text to the second half of the second millennium. ^ In a few cases. 22. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100 25. viz. 18.33 21. ^ Talageri (2000). Revised English Translation Edition. ^ Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. 1989. that were known at one time. 1. vol. Preface to Khila section by C. after 8. more than one rishi is given. Second Edition. Editorial notes in various volumes of Pune Edition. 16. putting thevālakhilya at the end." 13. ^ These Khilani hymns have also been found in a manuscript of the Śākala recension of the Kashmir Rigveda (and are included in the Poone edition).

Roth. There seems to be economic and religious interaction and perhaps rivalry operating here. 2000.. Adams. P. ^ Bryant 2001:130–131 "The oldest part of the Avesta.uidaho. ^ Oldenberg 1894 (tr." .Vedanta'. Douglas Q. Witzel. 26. ^ The Vedic People: Their History and Geography. Fitzroy Dearborn. but also the verses. there is a close resemblance between them in metrical form. ^ Mallory 1989 "The identification of the Andronovo culture as IndoIranian is commonly accepted by scholars.. 28. which justifies scholars in placing the Vedic and Avestan worlds in close chronological. which mentions four of the major Rgvedic gods: mitra. out of which the soul of Vedic poetry appears to speak. in fact. ^ "As a possible date ad quem for the RV one usually adduces the Hittite-Mitanni agreement of the middle of the 14th cent.. B. geographical and cultural proximity to each other not far removed from a joint Indo-Iranian period. not only correct Vedic words and phrases. is linguistically and culturally very close to the material preserved in the Rigveda. Shrotri). varuNa. In addition. then this may often give." 33. 27.. Early Sanskritization – Origin and development of the Kuru state. in their overall poetic character. World Treasures of the Library of Congress Beginnings by Irene U. If it is noticed that whole Avesta verses can be easily translated into the Vedic alone by virtue of comparative phonetics. ^ Mallory. "Indo-Iranian Languages". (1997). Rajesh Kochar.. ^ Mallory 1989 p. Chambers. p." 32. J. Michael S. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture 30. ISBN 81-250-1384-9 29.. ^ Rigveda and River Saraswati: class.14 "The Vedic diction has a great number of favourite expressions which are common with the Avestic. Orient Longman.36 "Probably the least-contested observation concerning the various Indo-European dialects is that those languages grouped together as Indic and Iranian show such remarkable similarities with one another that we can confidently posit a period of Indo-Iranian unity." 31. 7th lecture in India: What Can It Teach Us: A Course of Lectures Delivered Before the University of Cambridge .. though not with later Indian diction. indra and the nAsatya azvin)" M.

42. 40. "From interpretation to reform: Dayanand's reading of the Vedas". Lal 2005 41. has been published by Th. Hindu iconoclasts: Rammohun Roy. 379) places it near the end of the Brahmana period. at least in later texts. The EIEC (p. 1863). stretching for about the 10th to 6th centuries.Y: State University of New York Press. p. The Brahmana period is later than the composition of the samhitas of the other Vedas. Motilal Banarsidas. ^ among others.K. 45. "Dayananda Saraswati". 4. the Rigveda must date to the late 2nd millennium at the earliest. ^ Jha 1992[page needed] 37. with extracts from the commentary. 46. In Patton. Macdonell and Keith. The Early Use of Iron in India (1992) Oxford University Pressargues that it may refer to any metal. anxiety. ^ Renou. 35. seeing that the older Brahmanas still contain pre-normalized Rigvedic citations. ISBN 0-88920-419-5. 36. 43. N. 235–252. Puro-das and Odana in the Rigveda. Authority. ^ The term "ayas" (=metal) occurs in the Rigveda. pp. Dayananda Sarasvati and Nineteenth-Century Polemics Against Idolatry. ^ [page needed]. pp. ^ summarized by Klaus Klostermaier in a 1998 presentation . 44. If ayas refers to iron. ^ Edited. 306) gives a 7th-century date. with an English translation. and canon: essays in Vedic interpretation. terms that. The Shatapatha Brahmana refers to a Vidagdha Shakalya without discussing anything related to the Padapatha. An edition in Roman transliteration. ^ minority opinions name dates as early as the 4th millennium BC. 1879). The destiny of the Veda in India. ^ Llewellwyn. Louis (1965). John (1994). ^ Oldenberg (p. ^ edited in 8 volumes by Vishva Bandhu. (2004). 1963–1966. Haug (2 vols. ISBN 0-7914-1937-1. Laurie L. ^ There is however mention of ApUpa. Aufrecht (Bonn. ^ Salmond. This would mean that the redaction of the texts as preserved was completed in roughly the 6th century BC. "The Aryan Non-Invasionist Model" by Koenraad Elst 38. and Talageri 2000.34. refer to rice dishes. by M. Bombay. usually translated as "bronze".. see Talageri (2000) 39. Noel A. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. although Chakrabarti. Albany. D. 65– 91.

L. (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-517918-8 56. English Translation. ^ e. ^ they reached a peak when the academic Journal of Indo-European Studies waived peer-review in a 2002 issue in order to give a platform to the views of N. ^ reprinted Delhi 1973. Notes & Index of Verses. Mallory described this exceptional issue as motivated by a "sense of fair play". ^ neh. H. Wendy Doniger. ^ extended from a partial translation Rigveda: Izbrannye Gimny. (Penguin Books: 1981)ISBN 0-14-044989-2 . Edwin and Laurie L. Routledge/Curzon. ^ reprint: Harvard Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies Harvard (University Press) (2003) ISBN 0-674-01226-7 52. 2-volume set. O'Flaherty. Elst. 5 (1999). 45. ISBN 81215-0041-9 51. 48. 2002. P.. Michael Witzel. (Parimal Publications: Delhi. retrieved 22 March 2007. (London. 2003) 49. reprinted by Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers: 1999. nine highly critical reviews by referees published in reply and a "final response" by Kazanas (Journal of Indo-European Studies 30.g. Joshi. Ṛig-Veda-Sanhitā: A Collection of Ancient Hindu Hymns . The journal's editor J. Koenraad (1999). ISBN 81-86471-77-4. Journal of Indo-European Studies 31. ^ See Appendix 3. The debate consisted of an article by Kazanas. 2003 reprint: 81-7020-070-9 54. Complete revised and enlarged edition. Kazanas. ^ Ravi Prakash Arya and K. Jamison. The Rig Veda: Translation and Explanatory Notes. Parimal Sanskrit Series No. Ṛgveda Saṃhitā: Sanskrit Text. H. EVJS Vol. 55. 1850–88). 6 vols. suggests a date as early as 3100 BC. ^ Wilson. Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. Patton (2005) The Indo-Aryan Controversy. repring: Cosmo Publications (1977) 50.47. ^ Joel Brereton and Stephanie W. published in 1972. Bryant. The Pleiades and the Bears viewed from inside the Vedic texts. Aditya Prakashan. 2001) ISBN 81-7110-138-7 (Set of four volumes). The Rig Veda. issue 2 (December) [1].