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COMSOL Multiphysics The MEMS Module

Jarmo Ritola COMSOL 3. June 2008

• What is the MEMS Module? • What is MEMS? • Application areas of the the MEMS Module

FSI sensor

• Physics and application modes covered by the MEMS Module • What can you do, and how do you work with the MEMS Module application modes?

What is the MEMS Module?
• The MEMS Module is an add-on to COMSOL Multiphysics • Collection of additional tools for modeling MEMS devices, microfluidics systems, and physics phenomena common to MEMS • Collection of MEMS-specific modeling examples • The MEMS Module seamlessly integrates with all other COMSOL products
– – – – – COMSOL Multiphysics and all other modules Material Library COMSOL Script (incl. Signals and Systems Lab, Optimization Lab) Reaction Engineering Lab CAD Import module

What is MEMS?
• MEMS is short for
– – – – Micro: in the microscale Electro: electromagnetic phenomena Mechanical: moving or deforming parts Systems: all in the same device

• MEMS in COMSOL Multiphysics
– – – – – Modeling of microscale devices and physics that affect their operation Structural mechanics Piezoelectric effects Electrostatic fields Microfluidics with electrokinetic effects and reactions

Applications From Single Physics …


Electrical Fluid flow

… to Multiphysics Applications

Fluid flow




temperature dependent material properties Electroosmosis.MEMS Module Application Fields • • Structural mechanics. Microfluidics Electro-mechanical – – – Electrostatic actuation Piezoelectric effect Piezoresistive effect Resistive heating Temperature dependent electric material properties Thermal expansion Thermo-elastic damping • Fluid-structure – – Solid-fluid interaction Solid-pressure coupling Buoyancy. Electrical fields. electrophoresis. … Surface reactions • Fluid-thermal – • Electro-thermal – – • Electrokinetic – • Thermo-mechanical – – • • Fluid-chemical – • Electro-thermo-mechanical Electro-thermo-mechano-fluidic Work Flow • • • • • Model Navigator Geometry Physics settings Solve the model Post processing Space dimension Add several modes to the model Application mode and analysis type . dielectrophoresis.

Geometry Modeling • Use the built-in CAD tool of the COMSOL Multiphysics • Import your CAD-files into the model • Use SolidWorks Live Interface • Use COMSOL Script to automate geometry generation • Details of the geometry form the basis for successful analysis Subdomain Settings • Define material with application specific user interfaces Material models Material library Coordinate systems .

import Spice net list. … • Solver settings – Tune solver operation for best operation in multiphysics applications . multigeometry couplings.Boundary. Edge and Point Settings • Define settings on all domain levels with application specific user interfaces Constraint condition Define groups Boundary selection Properties and Settings • Application mode properties – Tune application mode operation • Coupling variables – Integration. … • Global equations – ODEs. control equations.

Postprocessing and Visualization The Inkjet model The MEMS Module Application Modes .

– You can run several tests on the model by simply changing the analysis type • Structural damping – time dependent. parametric. orthotropic.Structural Mechanics Application Modes • Continuum Mechanics – No simplifying assumptions – Stress strain relation applied directly to the material – Plane Stress. Loads Initial stress and strain effects Large deformation (geometrical nonlinearity). nearly incompressible formulation • • • • Coordinate systems define material orientation Thermal expansion. frequency response. elastoplastic – hyperelastic. Axial symmetry and 3D formulations • Several Material models available – Isotropic. stress stiffening Structural Mechanics Application Modes • Several analysis types available – Static. eigenfrequency. Plane Strain. …. Frequency response. damped eigenfrequency • Contact and friction analysis • Follower loads • Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) . anisotropic.

Model: Prestressed Micromirror Introduction • During the manufacturing process materials may gain either compressive or tensile residual stress. which will affect the operation of any MEMS Device • Residual stress can also be an intended property • Using a parametric analysis this model studies the deformation of a micromirror for different prestress levels .

Model Definition Tensile stress (blue) Fixed Fixed Compressive stress (red) Physics Settings Compressive stress .

Solver Parameters Sweep variable and the parameter list Results .

• Formulation for slide film damping and squeezes film damping • Special relative flow rate coefficients allow modeling of applications where continuum assumption does not hold • Time dependent and Frequency response analysis • Predefined coupling: Structural with film damping. Model: MEMS Gyroscope .Film Damping Application Mode • The modified Reynolds equation models the damping effect of a thin gas film that surrounds a vibrating object.

the eigenfrequency solver is used. • To calculate the Q factor. • The quantity of interest is the “Q factor”. which is a measure of the ratio of stored energy to energy lost per cycle.Introduction • This is a 3D model of a MEMS gyroscope. The Q factor can be calculated from the eigenvalue according to: Model Definition Applied load in x-direction Fixed Fluid damping on underside of device .

Physics Settings Work with predefined groups Results • A sharp resonance peak is observed at 4. .338x105Hz.

Piezoelectric Application Modes • Fully coupled piezoelectric equations for linear piezoelectricity • Direct and inverse effects • Stress-Charge and Strain-charge formulations • Several analysis types – Static. frequency response. eigenfrequency and damped eigenfrequency • Structural damping . time dependent analysis.Results • Plot of total displacement for the third eigenvalue.

Piezoelectric Application Modes • Piezo-component modeling – Piezoelectric material – Decoupled isotropic and anisotropic structural and electrical material • Static and time-harmonic electric fields • Floating potential boundary condition for floating electrodes • Compatibility with Structural Mechanics and AC/DC Module application modes • Applications: BAW and SAW resonators. ultrasonic transducers. … Model: Piezoelectric Effects . piezoelectric actuators and sensors.

• Piezoelectric materials have a strong two-way coupling between electrostatics and structural mechanics. • The model allows us to determine the eigenfrequencies of the structure.Introduction • This is a 3D model of a piezoelectric transducer.5V Ground . Model Definition Adhesive (green) Aluminum (blue) Piezoelectric material 0. • Extruded meshes are used to keep the number of degrees of freedom to a minimum.

06e5Hz. .Physics Settings Use Material model to define Piezoelectric or Decoupled material Results • Plot of mechanical displacement at a frequency of 1.

Electrostatics Application Mode • Solves the electric field and electric potential distribution in non-conducting media • Three constitutive formulations • Infinite elements allow approximation of infinite domains • Electromagnetic force and torque calculations • Several boundary conditions. • Peaks indicate the eigenfrequencies.Results • Plot of the absolute value of the susceptance of the transducer. with – Port boundary condition to compute the capacitance matrix – Floating potential condition for floating conductors (electrodes) .

• The moving mesh application mode is used to track the deformation. . structural mechanics and moving mesh application modes. • The model uses electrostatics. • This creates an electrostatic force on the beam which leads to deformation of the structure.Model: ALE Cantilever Beam Introduction • This is a 3D model of a cantilever beam. • A potential difference is applied between a ground plate and a beam.

Model Definition Polysilicon beam (blue) Air box (red) Electrostatic force cause the deflection of the beam. 56V Ground Physics Settings .

Conductive Media CD • Solves the electric current and electric potential distribution in conductive materials: solids or fluids • Infinite elements allow approximation of infinite domains • Resistive heating and temperature dependent conductivity • Several boundary conditions with: – – – – Port condition to compute the impedance matrix Floating potential for floating electrodes Circuit terminal for easier connection to Spice network Periodic condition .Results • The arrows indicate the electric field. the boundary shows the total displacement of the beam. • The beam deflection is approximately half its thickness for an applied voltage of 45V.

Model: Microresistor Beam Model Geometry Upper surfaces are ”free” Surface attached to the base of the device .

Problem Definition. Electric Current DC current balance for conductive media Fixed potentials to generate a potential difference ∆V Physics Settings Temperature dependent conductivity .

Problem Definition. Thermal Analysis Convection conditions flux out: h*(T-Tamb) Inside the material: Thermal flux balance with the electric heating as source: Q = s|ÑV|2 Fixed temperature T0 Physics Settings Resistive heating .

Structural Analysis Force balance with the thermally induced stress as volume load Fixed to the base plate Physics Settings Thermal expansion .Problem Definition.

Temperature Field Maximum temperature .Results. Electric Potential Distribution Potential profile [V] Results.

Laminar • Several application modes for modeling of laminar flow • Navier-Stokes and Stokes equations • Incompressible and weakly compressible formulations • Microscale effects – – – – Electroosmotic flow Viscous slip (viscous non-continuum effect) Thermal creeping flow Laminar inflow/outflow • Artificial Diffusion methods – improved convergence – Allows linear-element multigrid hierarchy for large models .Results. Single Phase. Deformation Fluid Flow Modeling.

Model: Electroosmotic Micropump Model Definition Gel anode (salt bridge) Inlet + + + Modeled geometry Outlet One wide channel 800 µm Stack of thin channels - - - Gel cathode (salt bridge) .

Subdomain Settings Boundary Settings .

droplets ink-jets.Results Fluid Flow Modeling. Two-phase Flow • The Level Set method – Solves the interface between two fluids • Fully integrated with all laminar flow application modes – Level Set Two-Phase Flow. … . self assembly of microparts. Laminar • Applications – capillary flow.

θ θ Water Axial symmetry.Model: Capillary Flow Model Definition • This model investigates how the surface tension drives the fluid up into the vertical capillary Air Wetting angle. r = 0 .

Physics Settings • Define properties for the two fluids Results .

predefined coupling for easier flow and transport modeling • Transport of charged particles under applied electric field and fluid flow – Electrokinetic Flow • Connection to the Reaction Engineering Lab – Design the reaction equations in the Reaction Engineering Lab – Export equations to COMSOL Multiphysics – Solve the transport problem in the true geometry Model: Separation in Micro H-cell .Transport Modeling • Transport of diluted species within fluid flow – Convection and Diffusion – Flow with Species Transport.

c = c0 Physics Settings Concentration dependent viscosity Fluid velocity . c = 0 Outlet B Outlet A Inlet A.Model Definition • Coupled flow and mass transfer • This model studies transport of species with different diffusivity – Separation of species – Transport from inlet A to Outlet B Inlet B.

Results Predefined Couplings • Structural with Film damping • Structural with Thermal expansion • Fluid-Structure interaction • Electroosmotic flow • Flow with species transport • Joule heating • Each module provides additional predefined couplings • You can couple any application modes with each other .

pull-in). dielectrophoresis. resistive heating effects. thermoelastic damping. material parameters. … • AC/DC Module: Time harmonic electric currents – Time harmonic electric fields in electrolytes: AC-electoosmosis. … • COMSOL: Heat transfer by convection and conduction – Joule heating.MEMS Related Features • COMSOL: Deformed Mesh (ALE) – Geometry effects in electrostatic fields (capacitance. thermo-electrokinetic effects. fluid-structure interaction. … • COMSOL Script – Save your model as m-file and run parametric analyses of geometry. … Thank You! . … • COMSOL: Heat transfer by conduction – Thermal effects in solids.