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STEP 1 Content Outline

Introduction General Principles Skin and Related Connective Tissue Musculoskeletal System Respiratory System Cardiovascular System Gastrointestinal System Renal/Urinary System Reproductive System Endocrine System Hematopoietic and Lymphoreticular Systems Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

Step 1 consists of multiple-choice questions prepared by examination committees composed of faculty members, teachers, investigators, and clinicians with recognized prominence in their respective fields. Committee members are selected to provide broad representation from the academic, practice, and licensing communities across the United States and Canada. The test is designed to measure basic science knowledge. Some questions test the examinee's fund of information per se, but the majority of questions require the examinee to interpret graphic and tabular material, to identify gross and microscopic pathologic and normal specimens, and to solve problems through application of basic science principles. Step 1 is constructed from an integrated content outline that organizes basic science content according to general principles and individual organ systems. Test questions are classified in one of these major areas depending on whether they focus on concepts and principles that are important across organ systems or within individual organ systems. Sections focusing on individual organ systems are subdivided according to normal and abnormal processes, principles of therapy, and psychosocial, cultural, and environmental considerations. Each examination covers content related to the traditionally defined disciplines of anatomy, behavioral sciences, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and physiology, as well as interdisciplinary areas including genetics, aging, immunology, nutrition, and molecular and cell biology. While not all topics listed in the content outline are included in every examination, overall content coverage is comparable in the various examination forms that will be taken by different examinees. The Step 1 Content Outline describes the scope of the examination in detail, but it is not intended as a guide for curriculum development or examinee preparation. It provides a flexible structure for test construction that can readily accommodate

new topics, emerging content domains, and shifts in emphasis. The categorizations and content coverage are subject to change. Broadly based learning that establishes a strong general understanding of the concepts and principles in the basic sciences is the best preparation for the examination. For a detailed description of examination content areas, select any of the topic areas shown under STEP 1 Content Outline from the menu above.

Endocrine System
Normal processes embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes organ structure and function - hypothalamus, posterior and anterior pituitary gland - thyroid gland - parathyroid glands - adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla - pancreatic islets - ovary and testis - adipose tissue cell/tissue structure and function (eg, hormone synthesis, secretion, action, and metabolism) - peptide hormones - steroid hormones, including vitamin D - thyroid hormones - catecholamine hormones - renin-angiotensin system repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal processes infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders (eg, subacute thyroiditis, Graves' disease, sarcoidosis) traumatic and mechanical disorders neoplastic disorders (eg, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets, neural crest, pheochromocytoma) metabolic and regulatory processes (eg, diabetes mellitus, pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic islet disorders, adrenal disorders) vascular disorders (eg, pituitary apoplexy) systemic disorders affecting the endocrine system (eg, hemochromatosis)

and society occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg.hormones and hormone analogs . and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial.female function (eg. psychogenic polydipsia) influence on person. fetal maturation. compliance in diabetes mellitus. thiouracils) . and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg. family.hormone antagonists .potentiators of hormone action (eg.male structure . sulfonylureas) .male function (eg. lactation. puberty) .antiobesity agents (eg. puberty. dexfenfluramine) other therapeutic modalities (eg. occupational. surgery. and perinatal changes organ structure and function . cultural.female structure (including breast) . placenta) cell/tissue structure and function (including hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. demeclocycline) . menopause) .idiopathic disorders (eg.stimulators of hormone production (eg.pregnancy (including labor and delivery. and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the endocrine system . gestational uterus. use. and gestational hormones) reproductive system defense mechanisms and normal flora Abnormal processes . radiation exposure. radiation) Gender. iodine deficiency) gender and ethnic factors Reproductive System Normal processes embryonic development. sex steroids. ethnic. thiazolidinediones. the puerperium. factitious use of insulin.intercourse. spermatogenesis.inhibitors of hormone production (eg. hirsutism) Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action. menstrual cycle. orgasm (male and female) .

menopausal syndrome . renal failure) disorders relating to pregnancy.fertility drugs . female reproductive. cirrhosis. toxic shock syndrome. varicocele) neoplastic disorders (eg.estrogen and progesterone antagonists. macrosomia) Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action.antepartum. breast [male and female. and immunologic disorders (eg. orgasmic dysfunction. postpartum hemorrhage. female incontinence.stimulants and inhibitors of labor .female reproductive tract .obstetric problems (eg.abortifacients .disorders associated with the puerperium (eg. condoms) . prematurity. polycystic ovaries. cord compression. gestational diabetes. eclampsia.estrogen. autoimmune hypogonadism.male (eg. delayed and premature puberty) . inflammatory. sepsis. and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the reproductive system and management of normal reproductive function . torsion of testis. depression) . thyroid disorders) . trophoblastic disease) metabolic and regulatory processes . intrapartum. third trimester bleeding) .infectious. postpartum disorders of the fetus (eg. progestogen replacement . obesity.male reproductive tract . other methods of contraception (eg. breast abscess. ectopic pregnancy.complications affecting other organ systems (eg.gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin replacement .benign prostatic hyperplasia systemic disorders affecting reproductive function (eg. impotence. and the postpartum period .androgen replacement and antagonists . including fibrocystic disease].female (eg. male reproductive. cystic mastitis) traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg. orchitis. infertility. gynecomastia. delayed and premature puberty) . use.fertility drugs .oral contraception.stimulators and inhibitors of lactation . treatment of menopause . the puerperium. sexually transmitted diseases. postmaturity. endometriosis. infertility. anovulation. myotonic dystrophy.

radiation) family planning and pregnancy (eg. renal metabolism and oxygen consumption. papillary necrosis) . tampons. family.antineoplastics . libido effects of traumatic stress syndrome. violence.antimicrobials .glomerular filtration and hemodynamics . inflammatory. sexually transmitted diseases) influence on person.upper urinary tract (eg. sexual orientation. and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal processes infectious. anabolic steroids) Gender. infertility) occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg.inflammatory and immunologic disorders .glomerular disorders (eg.infectious disorders .urinary concentration and dilution . rape. bladder. urethritis) .restoration of potency other therapeutic modalities affecting the reproductive system (eg. regeneration. including transport processes and proteins . cultural.. pyelonephritis. child abuse Renal/Urinary System Normal processes embryonic development. urethra .lower urinary tract (eg. fetal maturation. and immunologic disorders .renal mechanisms in acid-base balance .kidneys. ethnic.micturition cell/tissue structure and function (eg. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. cystitis. and perinatal changes organ structure and function . and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors(eg. and society (eg. unwanted) gender identity. occupational. hormones produced by or acting on the kidney) repair.renal mechanisms in body fluid homeostasis . nephrotic syndrome) .tubular reabsorption and secretion. ureters. sexuality. glomerulonephritis.

urinary tract infections Gastrointestinal System Normal processes embryonic development. use. renal transplantation) Gender. and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the renal and urinary system . motility. and antineoplastic drugs other therapeutic modalities (eg. transplant rejection.renal calculi vascular disorders (eg. dialysis.endocrine and neural regulatory functions. disease progression. renal. heavy metals) gender and ethnic factors (eg. living related kidney donation. salivary glands and exocrine pancreas. interstitial nephritis. obstructive uropathy) neoplastic disorders (eg. diabetes mellitus. Wegener's granulomatosis) Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action. urinary bladder and collecting system. including GI hormones) . hemodialysis. digestion and absorption) cell/tissue structure and function .diuretics.drugs and fluids used to treat volume.tubular interstitial disease (eg. alimentary canal. and perinatal changes organ structure and function (eg. and acid-base disorders . ethnic. hepatitis. cultural. renal artery stenosis) systemic diseases affecting the renal system (eg. and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg. metastases) metabolic and regulatory disorders . amyloidosis.tubular and collecting duct disorders (eg. transplants) occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg. occupational. liver and biliary system. drug-induced interstitial nephritis. nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) . IgA nephropathy) traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. acute and chronic (acute tubular necrosis) . antimicrobial. immunosuppressive.drugs used to enhance renal perfusion (eg.renal failure. systemic lupus erythematosus. fetal maturation. family. electrolyte. Fanconi's syndrome.anti-inflammatory.. renal tubular acidosis. and society (eg. dopamine) . antidiuretic drugs . diet) influence on person.

mucosal protective agents. hemorrhoids. traveler's diarrhea. annular pancreas. Meckel's diverticulum) neoplastic disorders (benign and malignant) metabolic and regulatory disorders (eg. portal hypertension.immunologic disorders (eg. motility drugs. inflammatory. esophagitis. antidiarrheal drugs. antibiotics) . peritonitis. immunosuppressive. feeding tubes) ..inflammatory disorders (eg. antineoplastic. use. volvulus. hepatic secretory products (eg. intussusception. post-surgical obstruction) . antacids. and changes associated with stage of life gastrointestinal defense mechanisms and normal flora Abnormal processes infectious. peptic ulcer. gastritis. gingivostomatitis.drugs to alter gastrointestinal motility (eg. Crohn's disease. motility disorders. and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal system .malocclusion .infectious disorders (eg. ulcerative colitis) traumatic and mechanical disorders .treatment and prophylaxis of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux (eg. cholelithiasis) vascular disorders (eg. hepatitis. bile salts) and processes . oral rehydration) .inguinal. femoral. antisecretory drugs. malabsorption. enzymes. drugs to dissolve gallstones) . pancreatitis) .drugs for treatment of hepatic failure (eg. cholecystitis. esophageal atresia. and immunologic disorders .salivary. antiemetic drugs. angiodysplasia) systemic disorders affecting the gastrointestinal system Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action. cathartics.pancreatic replacement therapy and treatment of pancreatitis .perforation of hollow viscus and blunt trauma .fluid replacement (eg. stents. pancreatic. and antimicrobial drugs other therapeutic modalities (eg. ischemia.esophageal and colonic diverticula (eg. and abdominal wall hernias . regeneration. gastrointestinal.anti-inflammatory. lactulose) and biliary disease (eg. prokinetic drugs) . food poisoning) .synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes repair. surgical procedures.obstruction (eg.hiatus hernia . proteins. hepatic failure.

diets) Respiratory System Normal processes embryonic development. Goodpasture's syndrome) . and society (eg. Monday morning stomach) influence on person.autoimmune disorders (eg. encopresis. inflammatory. gas exchange) . empyema) . and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg. surfactant formation. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. and perinatal changes organ structure and function . ethnic. peptic ulcer. family. inflammatory bowel disease. ventilation. and immunologic disorders . alveolar structure) repair.airways (eg. Wegener's granulomatosis. chlorine gas/smoke inhalation) . irritable bowel disease.pneumoconioses . bronchiectasis.obstructive pulmonary disease . adult respiratory distress syndrome. chronic laxative abuse) occupational and other environmental risk factors gender and ethnic factors (eg.acute and chronic alveolar injury (eg.allergic and hypersensitivity disorders (eg. and changes associated with stage of life pulmonary defense mechanisms and normal flora Abnormal processes infectious.inflammatory disorders .immunologic disorders . pancreatitis and alcohol. regeneration. idiopathic fibrosis) .infectious diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract and pleura and their complications (eg.restrictive pulmonary disease (eg. fetal maturation. sarcoidosis.pleura cell/tissue structure and function (eg. cultural. occupational. mechanics and regulation of breathing) .Gender.lung parenchyma (eg. abscess. asthma) . perfusion.

ventilation-perfusion imbalance. occupational. surgical procedures. oxygen therapy. and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg. and perinatal changes organ structure and function . fetal maturation. cardiac output . neonatal respiratory distress syndrome) vascular and circulatory disorders (eg. atelectasis. bronchogenic carcinoma. lung cancer) Cardiovascular System Normal processes embryonic development. valves . thromboembolic disease. pulmonary. cultural. family. mucolytics bronchodilator drugs. family smoking) occupational and other environmental risk factors gender and ethnic factors (eg. protective parents. antimicrobial agents.traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg. including transplantation) Gender. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. mechanical ventilation. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. sarcoidosis. use. expectorants. disorders of gas exchange. sleep apnea) neoplastic disorders (eg.hemodynamics (systemic. asthma. smoking. regulatory. nasal CPAP. polyps. pulmonary hypertension. aspiration. metastatic tumors) metabolic. mesothelioma. ethnic. mechanics. physical therapy. school issues. hypoventilation. coronary) and blood volume . allergies) influence on person. antineoplastic agents) other therapeutic modalities (eg. and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the respiratory system (eg. pets. anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic drugs. pulmonary edema. and structural disorders (eg. decongestants. heart sounds. and society (eg. cough suppressants. substance abuse.cardiac cycle. pneumothorax. tuberculosis. pleural effusion) systemic disorders affecting the respiratory system Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action.circulation in specific vascular beds .chambers.

and blood volume.inflammatory and immunologic disorders (eg.antiarrhythmic drugs . vasculitis.cell/tissue structure and function . pericarditis) . and lymph flow . microcirculation. valves.drugs affecting cholesterol and lipid metabolism . pacemakers. myocardial infarction. aneurysms. regeneration. metabolism. transplant rejection. biochemistry. myocarditis. systemic lupus erythematosus. thrombolytic agents . amyloidosis. low.measures used to combat hypotension and shock . oxygen consumption.coronary and peripheral vasodilators .infectious disorders (eg. ischemic heart disease. hemochromatosis. systemic hypotension. and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal processes infectious. atrial natriuretic peptide) . tamponade.and high-output heart failure. and secretory function (eg. systemic hypertension.antihypertensive drugs . grafts. systolic and diastolic dysfunction. and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system .inotropic agents and treatment of heart failure . and tissue metabolism repair.drugs to treat peripheral arterial disease other therapeutic modalities (eg.neural and hormonal regulation of the heart. dysrhythmias. atherosclerosis) systemic diseases affecting the cardiovascular system (eg. angioplasty. cor pulmonale. scleroderma) congenital disorders of the heart and central vessels Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action.mechanisms of atherosclerosis . shock) vascular disorders (eg. temporal arteritis) traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg. other . exercise.endothelium and secretory function. including responses to change in posture. use.immunosuppressive and antimicrobial drugs . inflammatory. valvular disease. acute rheumatic fever. and immunologic disorders .drugs affecting blood coagulation. vascular smooth muscle. varicosities. aortic dissection with Marfan syndrome. blood vessels. endocarditis. occlusions.heart muscle. subaortic stenosis) neoplastic disorders metabolic and regulatory disorders (eg.

surgical procedures) Gender. osteogenesis imperfecta. occupational. rheumatoid arthritis. ischemic heart disease. and structural disorders (eg. osteoarthritis) Principles of therapeutics . fetal maturation.infectious disorders (eg. gout) vascular disorders (eg. dwarfism. disc disease. and immunologic disorders . cultural. Paget's disease) degenerative disorders (eg. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. hypertension Musculoskeletal System Normal processes embryonic development. Lyme disease. systemic lupus erythematosus. osteodystrophy.exercise and physical conditioning repair. and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal processes infectious.immunologic disorders (eg. family. dermatomyositis. ankylosing spondylitis. polyarteritis nodosa. altered lifestyle) occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg. regulatory. diabetes mellitus) idiopathic disorders (eg. synovitis. and perinatal changes organ structure and function cell/tissue structure and function . diet) influence on person. inflammatory. dislocations. tendons. bone infarcts) systemic disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system (eg. osteomyelitis) . joints. ethnic. smoking. osteosarcoma. polymyalgia rheumatica) traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg. Dupuytren's contracture. stress) gender and ethnic factors (eg. obesity. metastatic disease) metabolic. alcohol. fibrositis. tenosynovitis) . regeneration. fractures. exercise. strains. septic arthritis. repetitive motion injuries) neoplastic disorders (eg. sprains. scoliosis. polymyositis. and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg. osteomalacia. skeletal muscle . osteoporosis.biology of bones. and society (eg.inflammatory disorders (eg.

allopurinol. exercise. bicycle helmets) influence on person. bone mass) General Principles Biochemistry and molecular biology gene expression: DNA structure. athletes.DNA structure: single. replication. colchicine. osteoporosis. degradation. cytotoxic agents) . stabilizing forces.nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs . RNA degradation . supercoiling . and inactivation . and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system . and exchange . transcription factors. RNA. and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg.DNA replication. splicing gene expression: translation (including defects) .recombination.plasmids and bacteriophages gene expression: transcription (including defects) . and society (eg. seat belts. enhancers. estrogen analogs) other therapeutic modalities (eg. diet. gold. repair.and double-stranded DNA.regulation: cis-regulatory elements. rehabilitation) Gender. hybridization .drugs affecting bone mineralization (eg. use. ethnic. conjugation) cross-over.analysis of DNA: sequencing. uricosuric drugs) . recombination. casts. diphosphonates. insertion sequences. transduction. fractures in elderly. surgery.antigout therapy (eg.immunosuppressive drugs (eg. PCR amplification. telomere . family. repressants. fractures) occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg. chromosomes. glucocorticoids. enzymatic reactions. mutation.mechanisms of genetic exchange (transformation. alcohol abuse. transposons . and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. centromere.muscle relaxants . promoters. calcitonin. restriction analysis. occupational. linkage .mechanisms of action.gene structure and organization. silencers.transcription of DNA into RNA. cultural. radiation. musicians) gender and ethnic factors (eg.

homocystinuria) . glycogenesis. plasma membrane.voltage.and ligand-gated channels and receptors cell components (eg.structure and function of ribosomes . and essential amino acids. ketogenesis.generation of energy from carbohydrates. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome) . fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis . glycogenolysis . adrenogenital syndromes) . reaction mechanisms . fatty of energy: gluconeogenesis.structural and regulatory proteins: ligand binding.enzymes: kinetics.principles of protein structure and folding . chemical equilibria and group transfer potential.protein degradation structure and function of proteins . lysosomal storage disease). addition of CHO units) .biosynthesis and degradation of lipids (eg. and proteoglycans Biology of cells signal transduction: second messenger systems . pentose phosphate pathway.the genetic code . complex carbohydrates (eg. modifications (phosphorylation.thermodynamics: free energy. glycoproteins. nucleus) cytoskeleton (including cell movement and intracellular transport) secretion and exocytosis.. self-assembly .regulation of translation .protein synthesis . glycolysis. carnitine deficiency.regulatory properties energy metabolism (metabolic sequences and regulation) and disorders . meiosis.biosynthesis and degradation of porphyrins biosynthesis and degradation of other macromolecules and associated abnormalities.structure and function of tRNA . mitosis.biosynthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides (eg. transcytosis cell cycle. tricarboxylic acid cycle. endoplasmic reticulum. electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. structure and regulation of spindle apparatus. dyslipidemias. gout. energetics of ATP and other high-energy compounds metabolic pathways of small molecules and associated diseases . control .biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids (eg.

vascular response to injury (including mediators) . tissue differentiation and morphogenesis. prenatal diagnosis. occurrence and recurrence risk) population genetics: Hardy-Weinberg law. genetic counseling/ethics. fibronectins. smooth.acute inflammation and mediator systems . gene therapy) Biology of tissue response to disease inflammation (cells and mediators) . fever.inflammatory cell recruitment (adherence and cell migration) and phagocytosis . mendelian inheritance. hemostasis. patterns of anomalies.points epithelial cells (including surface specialization. homeotic genes congenital abnormalities: principles. fibrosis.wound healing. and repair: thrombosis.regenerative processes neoplasia . excitation-contraction coupling adaptive cell response to injury (eg. metaplasia) mechanisms of cell injury and necrosis (including free radical mediated cell injury) apoptosis (programmed cell death) Human development and genetics embryogenesis: programmed gene expression. annexins muscle cells (cardiac. and desmosomes) fibroblasts. and mesenchymal cells: basement membrane. multifactorial diseases clinical genetics (including genetic testing. angiogenesis. dysmorphogenesis principles of pedigree analysis (inheritance patterns. proteoglycans.chronic inflammation reparative processes . intercellular junctions. hypertrophy.clinical manifestations (including pain. extracellular matrix. granulation tissue. leukocytosis. leukemoid reaction. adhesion molecules. newborn screening. founder effects. endothelial cells.bactericidal mechanisms and tissue injury . gap junctions. skeletal): structure and regulation of contractile elements. mutation-selection equilibrium genetic mechanisms: chromosomal abnormalities. scar/keloid formation . and chills) .

tumor immunology .birth-related issues .family and cultural factors. ethnicity. histologic diagnosis .paraneoplastic manifestations of cancer .invasion and metastasis . and staging of neoplasms . and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial.personality traits or coping style (coping mechanisms) .adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress and illness (eg. jurisprudence.physician-patient relationships (eg.communicating bad news . menopause) . sleep deprivation) . cultural.hereditary neoplastic disorders .issues related to patient participation in research .cell biology. referral) .cancer epidemiology and prevention Gender. ethical conduct.death and dying . confidentiality) . drugseeking behavior.patient adherence (general and adolescent) patient interviewing.sexual development (eg. oncogenes. related past experience . and social and interpersonal development . and environmental) progression through the life cycle (birth through senescence) . and gender .interactions with other health professionals (eg. puberty.approaches to patient education . transference) . ethnic. language.psychodynamic and behavioral factors. altered cell differentiation.influence of developmental stage on physician/patient interview psychologic and social factors influencing patient behavior .classification.multicultural ethnic characteristics medical ethics.establishing and maintaining rapport .enticing patients to make life-style changes . anxious or angry patients) .interactions between the patient and the physician or the health care system ( gathering . motor skills."difficult" interviews (eg.consent and informed consent to treatment .grading. consultation. and professional behavior . including socioeconomic status. and interactions with the family . and molecular biology of neoplastic cells: transformation..cognitive. occupational. biochemistry. and proliferation .

disease. bulimia) temperature regulation adaptation to environmental extremes (including occupational exposures) . gender.protein-calorie malnutrition .individual factors altering pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (eg. and storage of energy at the whole-body level . hypoalimentation .functions of nutrients (essential. protein.vitamin deficiencies and/or toxicities .and dose-effect relationships (eg. heavy metals. burns. expenditure.physical and associated disorders (eg. temperature. smoke inhalation. signal transduction . distribution.sexuality and the profession. vapors.. toxicology . alkalosis) Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes general principles . other "boundary" issues . cholesterol) . compliance.drug side effects. high altitude sickness.mechanisms of drug action. acidosis. principles of poisoning and therapy) fluid. volatile organic solvents. pharmacogenetics) . gases. structure-activity relationships. receptors. and acid-base balance and disorders (eg. potency).eating disorders (eg. calories.generation. metabolism. anorexia. transfatty acids.pharmacokinetics: absorption. electrolyte. types of agonists and antagonists and their actions . efficacy. overdosage. radiation. tolerance. increased water pressure) . body weight. obesity. dosage intervals .mineral deficiencies and toxicities .chemical (eg.organization and cost of health-care delivery Multisystem processes nutrition . decreased atmospheric pressure. excretion.assessment of nutritional status across the life span (eg. dehydration.ethics of managed care . age. essential nutrients. metabolic proficiency.concentration. agricultural hazards.

principles of cultivation.structure.epidemiology and ecology .pathogenesis and epidemiology parasites and parasitic diseases . and laboratory diagnosis viruses and viral diseases .structure.regulatory issues (eg.pathophysiology of infection . physiology.nature and mechanisms of action of virulence factors . biogenic amines.molecular basis of pathogenesis . drug development. and laboratory diagnosis .drug interactions .latent and persistent infections . scheduling) general properties of autacoids (including peptides and analogs.structure and composition .. approval. drug effects on rapidly dividing mammalian cells Microbial biology and infection microbial classification and its basis bacteria and bacterial diseases . cultivation. physiology.physical and chemical properties .pathogenesis and epidemiology principles of sterilization and pure culture technique Immune responses .oncogenic viruses fungi and fungal infections .principles of cultivation.pathophysiology of infection .genetics .replication . physiology. prostanoids and their inhibitors. and laboratory diagnosis .metabolism.epidemiology . and smooth muscle/endothelial autacoids) general principles of autonomic pharmacology general properties of antimicrobials (including mechanisms of action and resistance) general properties of antineoplastic agents and immunosuppressants. and regulation .genetics . assay. and laboratory diagnosis . assay.

combined immunodeficiency disease .hypersensitivity (types I-IV) .autoimmune disorders . transplantation immunizations: vaccines.immunopathogenesis immunologic principles underlying diagnostic laboratory tests (eg. fatality rates) . classic and alternative complement pathways. complement fixation. T lymphocyte receptors production and function of B lymphocytes and plasma cells. macrophages production and function of T lymphocytes. hemolytic disease of the newborn .associations (correlation or covariance) . graft-versus-host disease) .T or B lymphocyte deficiencies . ELISA. protective immunity alterations in immunologic function . risk differences and ratios) . transfusion (eg. chemokines immunogenetics.HIV infection/AIDS and other acquired disorders of immune responsiveness .drug-induced alterations in immune responses. immunopharmacology immunologically mediated disorders . agglutination) Quantitative methods fundamental concepts of measurement . MHC structure and function.disease outcomes (eg.transplant rejection .risks of transplantation. impact (eg. RIA. central tendency. tolerance and clonal deletion immunologic mediators: chemistry.deficiencies of phagocytic cells .distribution.production and function of granulocytes.scales of measurement . erythrocyte antigens. natural killer cells. II molecules. immunoglobulin and antibodies: structure and biologic properties antigenicity and immunogenicity. class I. variability. cytokines.disease prevalence and incidence . antigen presentation. probability . molecular biology. cell activation and regulation.

cohort.viral infections (eg. eccrine function) repair.sampling and sample size . inflammatory. male pattern baldness. clinical trials. case series. case-control. (eg.types of observational studies (eg. community surveys) . chickenpox. alopecia. predictive values fundamental concepts of study design . regeneration. dermatomyositis.fungal infections. psoriasis. measles.types of experimental studies (eg. community intervention trials) . barrier functions. rubella.confidence intervals . postmenopausal hair changes) skin defense mechanisms and normal flora Abnormal processes infectious. discoid lupus erythematosus. thermal regulation. abscess. stratification. allergic dermatosis) . fetal maturation.statistical power and type II error Skin and Related Connective Tissue Normal processes embryonic development.outcome assessment . and immunologic disorders . lice) . systematic assignment) . carbuncle. and changes associated with stage of life or ethnicity (eg. scleroderma. randomization. senile purpura.parasitic infections (eg. selfselection.bacterial infections. tinea) . and perinatal changes organ structure and function cell/tissue structure and function (eg.immune and autoimmune disorders (eg. including mycoses. acne. scabies. gangrene) .internal and external validity fundamental concepts of hypothesis testing and statistical inference .. dermatophytosis (eg. roseola. verrucae) . herpes infections. specificity.statistical significance and type I error . cross-sectional. cellulitis. necrotizing fasciitis. urticaria.subject selection and exposure allocation (eg.sensitivity.

actinic keratosis. Kaposi's sarcoma) . antimicrobial agents. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. decubitus ulcers. acne) influence on person. basal cell carcinoma. hyperhidrosis) vascular disorders (eg. family. and society (eg. steroids.production and function of erythrocytes. emollients. ichthyosis) . fetal maturation. laser. regulatory. sun exposure. sunscreen. thermal injury. skin appendage tumors) metabolic. melanoma. tattoo removal. hemangiomas. antihistamines). T-cell lymphoma. methotrexate. vasculitis.melanocytes (eg. squamous cell carcinoma) . ethnic. and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the skin and connective tissue (including anti-inflammatory agents (eg. Marfan's syndrome) Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action. occupational. cryotherapy) Gender.keratinocytes (eg. keratinolytics) other therapeutic modalities (eg. effects of ultraviolet light and radiation) neoplastic disorders . hemoglobin. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. and structural disorders (eg. psoriasis) occupational and other environmental risk factors gender and ethnic factors (eg. and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg. retin-A. nevi. vitamin deficiencies. seborrheic keratosis. keloid) Hematopoietic and Lymphoreticular Systems Normal processes embryonic development. O2 and CO2 transport. cultural. use. cytotoxic therapy (eg.traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg. hypervitaminosis. and perinatal changes organ structure and function cell/tissue structure and function .vascular neoplasms (eg. Raynaud's disease) systemic disorders affecting the skin (eg.other (eg. PUVA. .

iron deficiency anemia. and lymphatics . TTP.bleeding secondary to platelet disorders (von Willebrand's) vascular and endothelial disorders (eg.treatment of anemia.transport proteins . use. Coombs' positive hemolytic anemia. thrombolytic drugs .anemia of chronic disease .anemias and cytopenias (eg. hemolytic-uremic syndrome) systemic disorders affecting the hematopoietic and lymphoreticular system (eg. hemoglobinopathies.drugs stimulating leukocyte production (eg. reticuloendothelial system. DIC) . regeneration. ITP) . hypersplenism. splenic rupture) neoplastic disorders (eg. G-CSF.cythemia . multiple myeloma) metabolic and regulatory disorders (acquired and congenital) .acquired disorders of immune deficiency .production and function of platelets . and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system . coagulopathies.production and function of leukocytes and the lymphoreticular system . inflammatory. and immunologic disorders . systemic lupus erythematosus) idiopathic disorders Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action. and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal processes infectious.anticoagulants. mechanical injury to erythrocytes. drugs stimulating erythrocyte production (eg.transfusion complications. transplant rejection traumatic and mechanical injury (eg. effects and complications of splenectomy. hereditary spherocytosis) .hemorrhagic and hemostatic disorders (eg. leukemia. cryoglobulinemias.allergic and anaphylactic reactions and other immunopathologic mechanisms . erythropoietin) . GM-CSF) .autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases (eg.infections of the blood. lymphoma.production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors repair. nutritional deficiencies. pernicious anemia.blood and blood products .

limbic system and emotional behavior. childhood leukemia) occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg. family. and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg. depression and immune responses. cognition. lead) gender and ethnic factors (eg.autonomic nervous system . balance.. neural tube derivatives. anti-HIV) . vision. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial. "blood doping" among athletes) influence on person. taste. and society (eg.spinal cord (including gross anatomy. hydrocarbons. hearing. antimalarials. language.brain (including gross anatomy and blood supply. diet. heavy metals. cerebral ventricles.brain stem (including cranial nerves and nuclei. and blood supply) . herbal treatments with bone marrow depression) Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Normal processes embryonic development. basal ganglia and cerebellum) . plasmapheresis) Gender.antiplatelet drugs .motor systems (brain and spinal cord. occupational. ethnic.drugs used to treat acquired disorders of immune responsiveness other therapeutic modalities (eg. cultural. pain. splenectomy. neural crest derivatives) organ structure and function . reticular formation.antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs .sensory systems (including proprioception. hypothalamic function. memory. chelating agents. and olfaction) .peripheral nerves cell/tissue structure and function . fetal maturation. and perinatal changes (eg. circadian rhythms and sleep. gross anatomy. radiation therapy for lymphomas.antimicrobials (eg. and control of eye movement) . and spinal reflexes) . blood supply.

delirium. axons and dendrites. parasomnias) disorders of special senses (eg. peripheral neuropathy. learning disorders) . meningitis.somatoform disorders .schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders . and sleep disorders including narcolepsy. neural tube defects.early-onset disorders (eg.personality disorders . reuptake. regeneration and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal processes infectious. Parkinsons disease. multiple sclerosis. inflammatory.axonal transport . including metabolic (eg.brain metabolism . venous sinus thrombosis.brain homeostasis: blood-brain barrier. processes and their evaluation . Alzheimer's dementia. blindness. hemorrhage) systemic disorders affecting the nervous system (eg. lupus. cerebrospinal fluid formation and flow. headache. and degradation of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators . restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement. cerebral palsy.anxiety disorders . including channels . amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) paroxysmal disorders (eg. trophic and growth factors . and immunologic disorders (eg. myelin .. Reye's syndrome) vascular disorders (eg.excitable properties of neurons.synthesis. peripheral nerve injury) neoplastic disorders (primary and metastatic) acquired metabolic and regulatory disorders (eg. deafness) psychopathologic disorders. epilepsy. myasthenia gravis) traumatic and mechanical disorders (subdural and epidural hematomas.and postsynaptic receptor interactions. cerebrovascular occlusion. release. arterial aneurysms.pre. choroid plexus repair. cord compression.glia.disorders related to substance use . diabetic neuropathy) idiopathic disorders affecting the nervous system congenital disorders. storage.mood disorders . circadian rhythm disorders. pain syndromes. Down's syndrome) degenerative disorders (eg. Huntington's disease. mental retardation.

anticholinesterases) other therapeutic modalities (eg. and environmental) emotional and behavioral factors (eg.antiparkinsonian drugs . occupational. dissociative. and society (eg. family. anxiolytics. and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention (including psychosocial.physical and sexual abuse of children. and elders . posttraumatic stress disorder) Principles of therapeutics mechanisms of action. impulse control. antipsychotic agents. nutrition. cultural. botulinum toxin . sleep deprivation. CFS shunting.drugs used to decrease intracranial pressure (eg. accident prevention. surgery) Gender.anticonvulsants .antimigraine agents . mannitol. seizures. pets) influence on person. dementia. generational reversal. developmental disabilities. mood-stabilizing agents) .anesthetics . and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the nervous system .. dementia.neuromuscular junction blocking agents .hypnotics .skeletal muscle relaxants. use. adults. high-dose glucocorticoids) .analgesics . drug abuse. sleep disorders) occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg. amphetamines .stimulants. antidepressants.psychopharmacologic agents (eg.other disorders (eg. ethnic. radiation. carbon monoxide exposure) gender and ethnic factor .antiglaucoma drugs .drugs affecting autonomic nervous system (eg. boxing.