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Dye penetrant inspection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dye penetrant inspection
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials, although for ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is often used instead for its subsurface detection capability. LPI is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface defects such as hairline cracks, surface porosity, leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components.

1 History 2 Principles 3 Materials 4 Inspection steps 5 Advantages and disadvantages 6 Standards 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

1. Section of material with a surfacebreaking crack that is not visible to the naked eye. 2. Penetrant is applied to the surface. 3. Excess penetrant is removed. 4. Developer is applied, rendering the crack visible.

The oil and whiting method used in the railroad industry in the early 1900s was the first recognized use of the principles of penetrants to detect cracks. The oil and whiting method used an oil solvent for cleaning followed by the application of a whiting or chalk coating, which absorbed oil from the cracks revealing their locations. Soon a dye was added to the liquid. By the 1940s, fluorescent or visible dye was added to the oil used to penetrate test objects. Experience showed that temperature and soak time were important. This started the practice of written instructions to provide standard, uniform results. The use of written procedures has evolved, giving the ability for design engineers and manufacturers to get the high standard results from any properly trained and certified liquid penetrant testing technician.

DPI is based upon capillary action, where low surface tension fluid penetrates into clean and dry surfacebreaking discontinuities. Penetrant may be applied to the test component by dipping, spraying, or brushing. After adequate penetration time has been allowed, the excess penetrant is removed, a developer is applied. The developer helps to draw penetrant out of the flaw where an invisible indication becomes visible to the inspector. Inspection is performed under ultraviolet or white light, depending upon the type of dye used fluorescent or nonfluorescent (visible).
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material being tested and the size of flaws sought. Note that if media blasting is used. One must also assure that the test chemicals are compatible with the sample so that the examination will not cause permanent staining. The ventilated test area. 2 of 5 01-May-13 12:38 PM . the surface finish of the specimen.Wikipedia. some lint free cloths. or hydrophilic post-emulsifiable are the common choices. because this can remove the penetrant from the Materials Penetrants are classified into sensitivity levels. dry. If excess penetrant is not properly removed. or degradation. The end goal of this step is a clean surface where any defects present are open to the surface. this may also produce false indications severely hindering your ability to do a proper inspection. wash. Emulsifiers represent the highest sensitivity level. This technique can be quite portable. removal method is controlled by the type of penetrant used. because in its simplest form the inspection requires only 3 aerosol spray cans. and an etching bath is recommended as a post-blasting treatment. Excess Penetrant Removal: Application of the penetrant to a part in a The excess penetrant is then removed from the surface. In addition. and represent the lowest sensitivity. and free of contamination.Dye penetrant inspection . smaller flaws require a longer penetration time. it may "work over" small discontinuities in the part. 3. this material is more sensitive to defects. Visible penetrants are typically red in color. Inspection steps Below are the main steps of Liquid Penetrant Inspection: 1. grease or any loose scale that could either keep penetrant out of a defect. The dwell time mainly depends upon the penetrant being used. or media blasting. The penetrant is allowed "dwell time" to soak into any flaws (generally 5 to 30 minutes). solvent-removable. Due to their incompatible nature one must be careful not to apply solvent-based penetrant to a surface which is to be inspected with a water-washable penetrant. 2. vapor degreasing. the free encyclopedia http://en. including the environment under which the test will be performed. are more costly and complicated. paint. and chemically interact with the oily penetrant to make it removable with a water spray. and development stations. As expected. Stationary systems with dedicated application.wikipedia. lipophilic post-emulsifiable. or cause irrelevant or false indications. When using solvent remover and lint-free cloth it is important to not spray the solvent on the test surface directly. Application of Penetrant: The penetrant is then applied to the surface of the item being tested. Fluorescent penetrants contain two or more dyes that fluoresce when excited by ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation (also known as black light). and the excited dyes emit brilliant yellow-green light that contrasts strongly against the dark background. but result in better sensitivity and higher samples through-put. Cleaning methods may include solvents. When selecting a sensitivity level one must consider many factors. Since fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed in a darkened environment. alkaline cleaning steps. and adequate visible light. Pre-cleaning: The test surface is cleaned to remove any dirt. and the size of defects sought. it may leave a background in the developed area that can mask indications or defects. oil. once the developer is applied. Water-washable.

Disadvantages include the detection of only surface flaws. orientation and possible types of defects on the surface. Also. Post Cleaning: The test surface is often cleaned after inspection and recording of defects.[citation needed] Standards International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO 3059. When using non-aqueous wet developer (NAWD) or dry 4. Penetrant testing. even coating on the surface.[1] Limited training is required for the operator — although experience is quite valuable. Proper cleaning is necessary to assure that surface contaminants have been removed and any defects present are clean and dry. isopropyl alcohol. Application of Developer: After excess penetrant has been removed a white developer is applied to the sample. or a propellant that is a combination of the two. Inspection: The inspector will use visible light with adequate intensity (100 foot-candles or 1100 lux is typical) for visible dye penetrant. Several developer types are available. dry powder.Wikipedia. Water-washable penetrant should be considered here if no other option is available.Viewing conditions ISO 3452-1. and may employ acetone. and water soluble. Hans Kurt Advantages and disadvantages The main advantages of DPI are the speed of the test and the low cost. such-as "as-welded" welds. will make it difficult to remove any excessive penetrant and could result in false indications. Ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation of adequate intensity (1. including: non-aqueous wet developer. Choice of developer is governed by penetrant compatibility (one can't use water-soluble or suspendable developer with water-washable penetrant). General principles 3 of 5 01-May-13 12:38 PM . Non-destructive testing.000 micro-watts per centimeter squared is common). Non-destructive testing . the sample must be dried prior to application.Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing . The inspector may observe the sample for indication formation when using visible dye. and the inspection should be on a smooth clean surface where excessive penetrant can be removed prior to being Mr. Part 1. water suspendable. along with low ambient light levels (less than 2 foot-candles) for fluorescent penetrant examinations. Interpreting the results and characterizing defects from the indications found may require some training and/or experience [the indication size is not the actual size of the defect] 5. while soluble and suspendable developers are applied with the part still wet from the previous step. commonly known as bleed-out. skin irritation. so acid etching to remove metal smearing and re-open the defect may be necessary. Conducting the test on rough surfaces. the free encyclopedia http://en. Some cleaning methods have been shown to be detrimental to test sensitivity. This time delay allows the blotting action to occur. NAWD is commercially available in aerosol spray cans. depends of product kind. on certain surfaces a great enough color contrast cannot be achieved or the dye will stain the workpiece. It is also good practice to observe indications as they form because the characteristics of the bleed out are a significant part of interpretation characterization of flaws.Dye penetrant inspection . Any areas that bleed-out can indicate the location. The developer draws penetrant from defects out onto the surface to form a visible indication. especially if post-inspection coating processes are scheduled. Inspection of the test surface should take place after 10 to 30 minute development time. and by inspection conditions. Developer should form a semi-transparent. 6.wikipedia.

International Atomic Energy Agency. Founding .iastate.Part 1: Sand. May be replaced by EN ISO 3452-1. ISBN p. Anthony Lawrence (1997). Boiler operator's guide (http://books. McGraw-Hill Professional.wikipedia. Liquid Penetrant Examination ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Non-destructive testing . Art.Part 2: Investment castings EN 2002-16. 240.Wikipedia. 24 Standard Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination SE-165 (identical with ASTM E-165) See also Nondestructive testing References 1. Non-destructive testing .Metallic testing . article on how to perform a sensitive visible dye penetrant examination 4 of 5 01-May-13 12:38 PM . 6.Penetrant testing . Non-destructive testing of welds .asnt.Part 3: Reference test blocks ISO 3452-4. test methods . 2.Part 4: Equipment ISO 3452-5.htm) .pdf:Liquid). Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section V.).Part 11: Liquid penetrant testing of seamless and welded steel tubes for the detection of surface imperfections ASTM International (ASTM) ASTM E 165. External links Penetrant and Magnetic Particle Testing at Level 2 (http://www-pub. the free encyclopedia http://en.Acceptance levels European Committee for Standardization (CEN) EN 571-1.Penetrant testing . Non-destructive testing of steel forgings . Non-destructive testing . Non-destructive testing . penetrant testing EN 10228-2.iaea. [1] ( (4th ed.5 MB).Liquid penetrant inspection .technical reports summarizing fluorescent penetrant inspection research efforts [2] (http://www. Non-destructive testing of steel tubes .Part 1: General principles.Part 16: Non-destructive testing. Aerospace series . ^ Kohan.Penetrant testing .Penetrant testing . Section V.Penetrant testing . EN 1371-1.cnde.htm) . Founding .google. Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry ASTM E 1417. 2000 (pdf. Non-destructive testing .org/wiki/Dye_penetrant_inspection ISO 3452-2.Dye penetrant inspection .Part 2: Penetrant testing EN 10246-11. Non-destructive testing .Penetrant testing of welds .Part 2: Testing of penetrant materials ISO 3452-3.Liquid penetrant inspection .org/MTCD/publications /PDF/TCS-11.Penetrant testing . Non-destructive testing .Vocabulary ISO 23277. gravity die and low pressure die castings EN 1371-2.Part 5: Penetrant testing at temperatures higher than 50 °C ISO 3452-6.Part 6: Penetrant testing at temperatures lower than 10 °C ISO 12706.

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