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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies


Research Paper

Dr. S.K. Dubey1*, Prakash Sangamnerkar2, Prabhat Soni3

*Professor, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, 2Design Cell M. P. Housing Board, Head Office Bhopal, 3M. Tech Scholar, MANIT, Bhopal. ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this study is to analyze the steel roof truss under the normal permeability condition of wind according to Indian Standard Code IS: 875(Part 3)-1987, in which, intensity of wind load is calculated considering different conditions of class of structure ,Terrain, height and structure size factor, topography factor, permeability conditions and compare the results so obtained with the calculations made in SP-38(S&T):1987; Handbook for typified designs for structures with steel roof trusses, in which there is no consideration for different conditions as mentioned above. Because of this, there are large variations in calculated results for wind loads and design forces in members of truss. Analysis of trusses called A-shaped truss is addressed KEYWORDS: A shaped truss, roof terrain, topography permeability condition


Address for Correspondence

INTRODUCTION A roof truss is basically a framed structure formed by connecting various members at their ends to form a system of triangles, arranged in pre-decided pattern depending upon the span, type of loading and functional requirements .In industrial buildings, steel trusses are commonly used. A-shaped truss: This is a type of truss that has a certain general shape resembling the letter “A”. The steel truss has been designed as simply supported on columns. The analysis of A-type truss has been done on the basis of relevant Indian Standards for the following different parameters: • Span length of A-type trusses (metres) = 12 • Spacing between trusses (metres) = 6.0 • Roof slope=1 in 3, • Column height = 9(metres) • Wind zones = I, II and III • Permeability = Normal • Class of structure = A,B,C • Terrain category = 1,2,3,& 4 Truss Configuration – A configuration which is compound of (a) Fink or fink fan, (b) N-truss has been used and A-type truss has been analyzed. 4. ANALYSIS The steel trusses have been analyzed as simply supported on columns. The support at one end is assumed to be hinged and the other end on rollers for the purpose of analysis. The truss has been analyzed for dead load, live load and wind load according to IS: 875(Part 3)-1987. 5. METHOD Wind load calculation according to IS: 875(Part 3)1987 Design Wind Speed (Vz) - Design Wind Speed depends upon a) Risk level (b) Terrain roughness, height and size of structure; and c) Local topography. It can be mathematically expressed as follows: VZ = Vb.K1.K2.K3 Where,
Vz = design wind speed at any height z in m/s, Vb=basic wind speed in m/s K1= probability factor (risk coefficient) given in Table 1 of IS: 875(Part 3)-1987, K2= terrain, height and structure size factor and K3= topography factor.

Basic Wind Speed (Vb) - Basic wind speeds have been worked out for a 50 year return period.

TERRAIN, HEIGHT AND STRUCTURE SIZE FACTOR (K2) The buildings/structures are classified into the following three different classes depending upon their size: Class A- Structures and/or their components such as cladding, glazing, roofing, etc, having maximum dimension (greatest horizontal or vertical dimension) less than 20 m. Class B - Structures and/or their components such as cladding, glazing, roofing, etc, having maximum dimension (greatest horizontal or vertical dimension) between 20 and 50 m. Class C - Structures and/or their components such as cladding, glazing, roofing, etc, having maximum dimension (greatest horizontal or vertical dimension) greater than 50 m. Terrain: Category 1 - Exposed open terrain with few or no obstructions and in which the average height of any object surrounding the structure is less than 1.5 m. Category 2 - Open terrain with well scattered obstructions having heights generally between I.5 to 10 m. Category 3- Terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of building-structures up to 10 m in height with or without a few isolated tall structures. Category 4 - Terrain with numerous large high closely spaced obstructions. TOPOGRAPHY FACTOR (K3) - The effect of topography will be significant at a site when the upwind slope (θ) is greater than about 30, and below that, the value of K3 may be taken to be equal to 1.0. The value of K3 is confined in the range of 1.0 to 1.36 for slopes greater than 30. It may be noted that the value of K3 varies with height above ground level, at a maximum near the ground, and reducing to 1.0 at higher levels. Design Wind Pressure (Pz) - The design wind pressure at any height above mean ground level shall be obtained by the following relationship between wind pressure and wind velocity: Pz = 0.6 Vz2

IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept., 2012/08-12

it is necessary to know the internal pressure as well as the external pressure.88kN • No. Basic wind pressure = 1.0 m Roof slope = 1 in 3. acting in a direction normal to the individual structural element or cladding unit is: F= (Cpe – Cpi). DESIGN EXAMPLE Plan area = 12. On other hand for Terrain Category (3) & (4) calculated wind forces are lesser than values as per SP38:1987. terrain conditions. A =6*6. of Panels= 10 • Load acting on one intermediate panel = 28. Dead load is taken as = 2.58kN/m2 Load calculations • Dead loads: • (Calculated) Total Dead load =28. and permeability conditions.Pz • • Wind Load on one panel point = {(CpeCpi).79kN • Wind loads: • Total wind load = 1. topography factor.2) x 1.0 m Roof truss span = 12.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies Where.2 x 6 x 6.Pz Where Cpe = external pressure coefficient.0 m Roof slope=1 in 3 Height of column = 9.0 • Basic wind speed (m/s) Vb =47 (For Delhi).C.A.10kN Wind Load Calculations according to IS:875(Part 3)-1987 Wind Load = (Cpe-Cpi).5kN/ m2 Weight of roofing materials = 0.89kN • So. • Live loads: • (Calculated) Total live load = 27. WIND PRESSURES AND FORCES ON BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES Wind Load on Individual Members – For clad structures. calculated wind forces are greater than values as per SP38:1987. Cpi = internal pressure coefficient.17kN/sq-m (including extra weight due to overlaps and fasteners) The roof slope of 1 in 3 and spacing of 6.88/10 =2. of panels = 10 CONCLUSION It is observed from Table (1) & (2) that in case of Terrain Category (1) and (2).0 m X 42.A.6 + 0..4350 – 100) = 0.9kN • Load acting on one intermediate panel point = 2. Pz}/10. Sheeting Location of shed = Delhi Type of truss = A-type Permeability= Normal TRUSS ANALYSIS Analysis of truss according to wind load calculations given in SP: 38-1987: Basic parameters for the analysis areSpacing of trusses = 6. and Vz = design wind velocity in m/s at height z.0 m give the minimum weight of truss as observed from Tables 148 to 150 of SP:38-1987 Governing wind pressure = (0.32*2 Total wind load = (Cpe-Cpi).9kN/node.035kN/ m2 Live load = 75-2x (18. 2012/08-12 . it can be concluded that analysis made in SP38:1987 cannot be followed without considering various conditions of class of structures.5 For design with normal permeability = 1. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept.0 m Type of roofing = A.01kN • Load acting on one intermediate panel point = 9. no. A = surface area of structural element or cladding unit.32 x 2 = 91. Then the wind load. Pz = design wind pressure in N/m2 at height z.2kN/ m2 Miscellaneous loads =0. F. In view of above results.A.Pz • • Risk coefficients (K1) = Topography factor (K3) = 1.A. risk coefficient. IJAERS/Vol. and Pz = design wind pressure E-ISSN2249–8974 5.

. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept. 2012/08-12 .International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974 Table: 1 Design forces on one panel point Table: 2 Design forces on one panel point IJAERS/Vol.

I/ Issue IV/July-Sept.. 2012/08-12 .International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies Table: 3 Design forces on one panel point E-ISSN2249–8974 Table: 4 Design forces on one panel point IJAERS/Vol.

T. Dubey. Design & Construction).C. Durmaz & Daloglu. “Tata McGrawHill: Chapter 9: Roof Trusses 10. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept. 2012/08-12 . Indian Standards IS: 875-1987(Part1): Code of Practice for Design Loads 8. “Structural Performance of Light-Frame Truss-Roof Assemblies. 1996. Proceedings of National Conference on Advances in steel structures(Analysis. pp.I. 3.. Mahmoud & Saitou. E-ISSN2249–8974 IJAERS/Vol.B. 2.”Lakshmi Publications: Chapter 16: Design of Roof Trusses 1.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies REFERENCES Togan.V. Design of Steel Structures by Dr. 2006. 1089-1096 5. New Orleans. Ronald Wolfe.Punmia. Engineering Structures. 3: 263-268. SP38(S &T):1987-Handbook of typified designs of structures with steel roof trusses (with or without cranes) Based on IS Codes 7.” Proceedings of the international engineering conference.N. 1019-1027. IS: 1893-2002 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures 9.”Optimization of roof trusses under snow loads given in Turkish Codes.”Design optimization of NShaped roof trusses. Design of Steel Structures by L S Negi. 28. Hamza.organized by S. Sangamnerkar & Soni.”Design optimization of steel roof trusses”.November 2011. Louisiana State University: Vol. PART 3: Wind Loads 6. Surat(Gujarat).” Real World Applications. 4. Indian Standards IS: 875(Part 3)-1987: Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake).