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R/3 System Release 4.6A/B

SAP Labs, Inc. Palo Alto, California

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© 2000 by SAP AG. All rights reserved. Neither this documentation nor any part of it may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means or translated into another language, without the prior consent of SAP AG. SAP AG makes no warranties or representations with respect to the content hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. SAP AG assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. SAP AG reserves the right to make any such changes without obligation to notify any person of such revision or changes. SAP AG makes no commitment to keep the information contained herein up to date.

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SAP, the SAP logo, R/2, R/3, ABAP, and other SAP-related products mentioned herein are registered or unregistered trademarks of SAP AG. All other products mentioned in this document are registered or unregistered trademarks of their respective companies.

Simplification Group SAP Labs, Inc. 3475 Deer Creek Road Palo Alto, CA 94304 www.saplabs.com/simple simplify-r3@sap.com

Printed in the United States of America. ISBN 1-893570-43-6

This book uses EcoFLEX™ lay-flat binding. With this lay-flat feature—developed by and exclusively available at Johnson Printing Service (JPS)—you can open this book and keep it open without it snapping shut on you. You need not worry about breaking the spine. EcoFLEX makes books like this one easier to use.

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System Administration Made Easy

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Contents at a Glance

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$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV [L[ ,QWURGXFWLRQ  [[L What Is This Guidebook About?........................................................................ xxii Who Should Read This Book?........................................................................... xxii Prerequisites.......................................................................................................... xxiii
User ........................................................................................................................ xxiii System.................................................................................................................... xxiv

How to Use This Guidebook .............................................................................. xxv
Organization ............................................................................................................xxv

What’s New .......................................................................................................... xxv
Content ....................................................................................................................xxv

Conventions........................................................................................................... xxvi Special Icons...................................................................................................... xxvii &KDSWHU  5 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ %DVLFV ² Overview............................................................................................................... 1–2 Roles of an R/3 System Administrator.............................................................. 1–2 Within R/3 .............................................................................................................. 1–2 External to R/3....................................................................................................... 1–3 Traits of an R/3 System Administrator.............................................................. 1–4 R/3 System Guidelines........................................................................................ 1–4 Protect the System ................................................................................................ 1–5 Do Not Be Afraid to Ask for Help........................................................................... 1–5 Network with Other Customers and Consultants.................................................. 1–6 Keep It Short and Simple (KISS)........................................................................... 1–7 Keep Proper Documentation................................................................................. 1–7 Use Checklists....................................................................................................... 1–8 Use the Appropriate Tool for the Job .................................................................... 1–9 Perform Preventive Maintenance.......................................................................... 1–9 Do Not Change What You Do Not Have To........................................................ 1–10 Do Not Make System Changes During Critical Periods...................................... 1–11 Do Not Allow Direct Database Access................................................................ 1–12 Keep all Non-SAP Activity Off the R/3 Servers................................................... 1–12 Minimize Single Points of Failure ........................................................................ 1–13 Corollaries to Murphy’s Law ............................................................................ 1–13 Special Definitions ............................................................................................ 1–14
Database server ................................................................................................... 1–14 Application server ................................................................................................. 1–14 Instance ................................................................................................................ 1–14 System.................................................................................................................. 1–14

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System Administration Made Easy

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Detailed Table of Contents

Overview............................................................................................................... 2–2 What Is a Disaster? ............................................................................................... 2–2 Why Plan for a Disaster? .................................................................................... 2–3 Planning for a Disaster ....................................................................................... 2–4 Creating a Plan...................................................................................................... 2–4 What Are the Business Requirements for Disaster Recovery? ............................ 2–4
Who will provide the requirements?.............................................................................. 2–4 What are the requirements?......................................................................................... 2–4

When Should a Disaster Recovery Procedure Begin? ......................................... 2–5 Expected Downtime or Recovery Time................................................................. 2–5
Expected Downtime................................................................................................ 2–5 Recovery Time........................................................................................................ 2–6

Recovery Group and Staffing Roles ..................................................................... 2–6 Types of Disaster Recovery .................................................................................. 2–7
Onsite ..................................................................................................................... 2–7 Offsite ..................................................................................................................... 2–7

Disaster Scenarios ................................................................................................ 2–8 Three Common Disaster Scenarios ...................................................................... 2–8
A Corrupt Database................................................................................................ 2–8 A Hardware Failure................................................................................................. 2–8 A Complete Loss or Destruction of the Server Facility........................................... 2–9

Recovery Script ................................................................................................... 2–10 Creating a Recovery Script ................................................................................. 2–10 Recovery Process ............................................................................................... 2–10
Major Steps........................................................................................................... 2–10

Crash Kit.............................................................................................................. 2–11 Business Continuation During Recovery ............................................................ 2–14 Offsite Disaster Recovery Sites .......................................................................... 2–15 Integration with your Company’s General Disaster Planning ............................. 2–15 When the R/3 System Returns............................................................................ 2–15 Test your Disaster Recovery Procedure......................................................... 2–15 Other Considerations........................................................................................ 2–16 Other Upstream or Downstream Applications..................................................... 2–16 Backup Sites........................................................................................................ 2–17 Minimizing the Chances for a Disaster ........................................................... 2–17 Minimize Human Error......................................................................................... 2–17 Minimize Single Points of Failure ........................................................................ 2–18 Cascade Failures ................................................................................................ 2–18 &KDSWHU  %DFNXS DQG 5HFRYHU\ ² Overview............................................................................................................... 3–2 Restore ................................................................................................................. 3–2 Strategy ................................................................................................................. 3–2
Testing Recovery.................................................................................................... 3–3

Backup.................................................................................................................. 3–3 What to Backup and When ................................................................................... 3–3
Database ................................................................................................................ 3–3 Transaction Logs .................................................................................................... 3–5 Operating System Level Files................................................................................. 3–6

Backup Types........................................................................................................ 3–6
What Is Backed Up................................................................................................. 3–7 How the Backup Is Taken....................................................................................... 3–8

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When the Backup Is Made ..................................................................................... 3–9

Backup Strategy Design........................................................................................ 3–9
Supplementary Backups....................................................................................... 3–10

General Procedures ............................................................................................ 3–10
Backup.................................................................................................................. 3–10 Transaction Log Backup....................................................................................... 3–10 Verifying Backups ................................................................................................. 3–10 Monitoring/Controlling........................................................................................... 3–11 Database Integrity ................................................................................................ 3–11 Roles and Responsibilities ................................................................................... 3–11

Design Recommendations .................................................................................. 3–12
A Strategy Checklist ............................................................................................. 3–12 Backup Procedures and Policies.......................................................................... 3–13

Tape Management ............................................................................................. 3–13 Tracking and Documenting ................................................................................. 3–13
Labeling ................................................................................................................ 3–13 Tracking ................................................................................................................ 3–15 Handling................................................................................................................ 3–16

Retention Requirements...................................................................................... 3–17
Recommendations................................................................................................ 3–18

Storage ................................................................................................................ 3–18
Offsite ................................................................................................................... 3–18 Onsite ................................................................................................................... 3–19

Performance....................................................................................................... 3–20 Backup................................................................................................................. 3–20 Backup Options ................................................................................................... 3–21
Back Up to Faster Devices ................................................................................... 3–21 Parallel Backup..................................................................................................... 3–22 Backing Up to Disks, Then to Tape ...................................................................... 3–22

Recovery ............................................................................................................. 3–23 Restore Options................................................................................................... 3–23 Useful SAP Notes .............................................................................................. 3–24 &KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG 'DLO\ 7DVNV² Overview............................................................................................................... 4–2 Critical Tasks ....................................................................................................... 4–3 The R/3 System.................................................................................................... 4–4 Database............................................................................................................... 4–6 Operating System................................................................................................ 4–6 Other ..................................................................................................................... 4–7 Notes..................................................................................................................... 4–7 The R/3 System.................................................................................................... 4–8 Critical Tasks ....................................................................................................... 4–9 Verify that R/3 Is Running ..................................................................................... 4–9 Verify that the Backups Ran Successfully ............................................................ 4–9 Users (Transaction AL08) ................................................................................... 4–10 OS Monitor (Transaction OS06).......................................................................... 4–11 Select Background Jobs/Graphical Job Monitor (Transaction SM37/RZ01)...... 4–11 CCMS Alert Monitor (Transaction RZ20) ............................................................ 4–11 Users (Transactions SM04) ................................................................................ 4–11 Lock Entry List (Transaction SM12).................................................................... 4–12

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Update Records (Transaction SM13) ................................................................. 4–12 System Log (Transaction SM21)......................................................................... 4–13 Batch Input (Transaction SM35) ......................................................................... 4–13 Work Processes (Transactions SM50 and SM51).............................................. 4–14 Spool (Transaction SP01) ................................................................................... 4–14 Tune Summary (Transaction ST02).................................................................... 4–14 Workload Analysis of <SID> (Transaction ST03) ............................................... 4–14 Database Performance Analysis (Transaction ST04)......................................... 4–15 ABAP Dump Analysis (Transaction ST22).......................................................... 4–15 &KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG :HHNO\ 7DVNV ² The R/3 System.................................................................................................... 5–2 Database............................................................................................................... 5–3 Operating System................................................................................................ 5–3 Other ..................................................................................................................... 5–3 Notes..................................................................................................................... 5–4 Database Performance (Transaction DB02)......................................................... 5–4 CCMS Alert Monitor (Transaction RZ20) .............................................................. 5–4 Spool (Transaction SP01) ..................................................................................... 5–4 TemSe (Transaction SP12)................................................................................... 5–5 Transaction STMS (TMS System) ........................................................................ 5–5 &KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG 0RQWKO\ 7DVNV² The R/3 System.................................................................................................... 6–2 Database............................................................................................................... 6–2 Operating System................................................................................................ 6–3 Other ..................................................................................................................... 6–4 Notes..................................................................................................................... 6–5 Database Performance (Transaction DB02)......................................................... 6–5 &KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG 4XDUWHUO\ 7DVNV ² The R/3 System.................................................................................................... 7–2 Database............................................................................................................... 7–3 Operating System................................................................................................ 7–3 Other ..................................................................................................................... 7–4 Notes..................................................................................................................... 7–4 Edit System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10)............................................ 7–4 Select Background Jobs (Transaction SM37)....................................................... 7–5 User Maintenance (Transaction SU01)................................................................. 7–5 &KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG $QQXDO 7DVNV ² The R/3 System.................................................................................................... 8–2 Database............................................................................................................... 8–3 Operating System................................................................................................ 8–3 Other ..................................................................................................................... 8–4 Notes..................................................................................................................... 8–4 Transaction SA38/SE38 ........................................................................................ 8–4 Transaction SE03/SCC4 ....................................................................................... 8–4 Transaction SM01 ................................................................................................. 8–5

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0XOWL5ROH 7DVNV² Starting the R/3 System ...................................................................................... 9–2 Start R/3—NT ........................................................................................................ 9–3 Stopping the R/3 System.................................................................................... 9–5 Tasks to Be Completed Before Stopping the System........................................... 9–6
System Message (SM02) ....................................................................................... 9–6 Check that No Active Users Are on the System (AL08/SM04) .............................. 9–9 Check for Batch Jobs Running or Scheduled (SM37).......................................... 9–11 Check for Active Processes on All Systems (SM51)............................................ 9–15 Check for External Interfaces ............................................................................... 9–15

Stopping R/3........................................................................................................ 9–16
STOP R/3—NT ..................................................................................................... 9–16

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5 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ ² Overview............................................................................................................. 10–2 Major System Monitoring Tools....................................................................... 10–2 CCMS Central Alert Monitor (Transaction RZ20) ............................................... 10–2
Accessing the CCMS Alert Monitor (RZ20).......................................................... 10–4 Current View and Alert View................................................................................. 10–5 Switching Between the Current and Alert Views .................................................. 10–6 Finding an Alert .................................................................................................... 10–7 Configuring the Batch Job to Collect Historical Data (RZ21) ............................. 10–10 View the Alerts.................................................................................................... 10–12 Analyze the Alert ................................................................................................ 10–13 Acknowledge the Alert........................................................................................ 10–14 Provide System Configuration Information (Transaction RZ20)......................... 10–15 Maintaining The Alert Thresholds for RZ20........................................................ 10–17 Hiding SAP Standard Monitor Sets .................................................................... 10–19 Create a New Monitor Set .................................................................................. 10–23 Add a Monitor to the Monitor Set........................................................................ 10–24

System Administration Assistant (Transaction SSAA)...................................... 10–28 Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview .................................................. 10–32 Failed Updates (Transaction SM13) ................................................................. 10–32
Managing Update Terminates ............................................................................ 10–35 User Training ...................................................................................................... 10–37

System Log (Transaction SM21)....................................................................... 10–38 Locks (Transaction SM12) ................................................................................ 10–41 Active Users (Transactions SM04 and AL08)................................................... 10–43
Single-Instance System (Transaction SM04) ..................................................... 10–44 Multi-Instance System (Transaction AL08) ........................................................ 10–45

Work Processes (Transactions SM50 and SM51)............................................ 10–46
For a System with Application Servers............................................................... 10–46 For a System Without Application Servers......................................................... 10–47

ABAP Dump Analysis (Transaction ST22)........................................................ 10–48
Simple Selection ................................................................................................. 10–49 Free Selection..................................................................................................... 10–49

System Message (SM02)................................................................................. 10–51 Creating a Message .......................................................................................... 10–52 Editing a Message............................................................................................. 10–54 ABAP Editor (SE38) .......................................................................................... 10–55
For Information About a Program or Report....................................................... 10–56

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6HFXULW\ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ ² Overview............................................................................................................. 11–2 What is Security? ................................................................................................ 11–2
Keeping Unauthorized People out of the System................................................. 11–2 Keeping People out of Places Where They Should Not Be ................................. 11–2 Safeguarding the Data from Damage or Loss...................................................... 11–3 Complying with Legal, Regulatory, and Other Requirements .............................. 11–3

Audits.................................................................................................................. 11–4 Financial Audit..................................................................................................... 11–4 Security Audit ...................................................................................................... 11–5 Audit Considerations ........................................................................................... 11–5 Security Layers.................................................................................................. 11–6 Access Security ................................................................................................... 11–7
Physical Security .................................................................................................. 11–7 Network Security .................................................................................................. 11–8 Application Security .............................................................................................. 11–9

Operational Security............................................................................................ 11–9 Data Security ..................................................................................................... 11–10 Application or R/3 Security ................................................................................ 11–11
Controlling Access to R/3 ................................................................................... 11–11 Prevent Multiple User Logins.............................................................................. 11–11

Preventing Changes in the Production System ................................................ 11–11
Setting the Production System to “Not Modifiable” (Transactions SE03, SCC4)11–13 Client-Independent Changes (Transaction SE03).............................................. 11–14 Client-Independent and Client-Dependent Changes (SCC4) ............................ 11–15

Verifying that Dangerous Transactions Are Locked ......................................... 11–17
To List Locked Transactions............................................................................... 11–24

Operational Security ....................................................................................... 11–25 Segregation of Duties........................................................................................ 11–25 Restricting Access to SAP* or DDIC ................................................................. 11–26 Change Management........................................................................................ 11–27
Sharing of User IDs ............................................................................................ 11–27

Password Issues and Tasks ............................................................................. 11–28
Setting Password Standards Using Transaction RZ10 ...................................... 11–29 Eliminating Some Easy Passwords .................................................................... 11–29 Maintaining a Table of Prohibited Passwords .................................................... 11–30 Recording System Passwords............................................................................ 11–31 Operating System Level ..................................................................................... 11–35 NT ....................................................................................................................... 11–35 UNIX ................................................................................................................... 11–36 Databases........................................................................................................... 11–36 DB2..................................................................................................................... 11–36 Informix ............................................................................................................... 11–36 Microsoft SQL Server ......................................................................................... 11–36 Oracle/UNIX........................................................................................................ 11–36 Oracle/NT ........................................................................................................... 11–37

Audit Tools....................................................................................................... 11–37 Audit Information System (Transaction SECR) ................................................ 11–37
Complete Audit ................................................................................................... 11–38 User Defined Audit ............................................................................................. 11–42

Security Audit Log (SM20) ................................................................................ 11–44
Running the Audit Log ........................................................................................ 11–46

Setting Security Audit Log Parameters (SM19) ................................................ 11–47

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Define Filter Group 1 .......................................................................................... 11–49 Define Filter Group 2 .......................................................................................... 11–50

User Security Audit Jobs ................................................................................... 11–54 Audit Tasks ...................................................................................................... 11–57 Review that all Named Users are Valid ............................................................ 11–57 Reviewing Profiles for Accuracy and Permission Creep................................... 11–58 &KDSWHU  8VHU $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ ² Overview............................................................................................................. 12–2 User Groups ........................................................................................................ 12–2 Profile Generator ................................................................................................. 12–2 Recommended Policies and Procedures ....................................................... 12–3 User Administration ............................................................................................. 12–3 System Administration......................................................................................... 12–5 New User Setup ................................................................................................. 12–7 Prerequisites........................................................................................................ 12–7
General Process or Procedure ............................................................................. 12–7 The User’s Desktop .............................................................................................. 12–7 Network Functionality ........................................................................................... 12–7 For Installation of SAP GUI .................................................................................. 12–7 Recommended Prerequisite for the GUI Installation ............................................ 12–7

Installing the Frontend Software–SAP GUI......................................................... 12–8
Installing SAP GUI from a File Server .................................................................. 12–8 How to Install the SAP GUI .................................................................................. 12–8 Installing SAP GUI from the Presentation CD .................................................... 12–14

Adding Additional Systems ............................................................................... 12–15
To Add Additional Systems in the SAP Logon ................................................... 12 –15

Setting Up a New User (SU01) ......................................................................... 12–16
Copying an Existing User (SU01)....................................................................... 12–16 Creating a New User (SU01).............................................................................. 12–21

Maintaining a User (SU01).............................................................................. 12–24 Resetting a Password (SU01) ........................................................................ 12–26 Locking or Unlocking a User (SU01)............................................................. 12–27 User Groups..................................................................................................... 12–29 How to Create a User Group (SU01) ................................................................ 12–30 Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04)............................................ 12–32 How to Terminate a User Session .................................................................... 12–33 Active Users (Transactions SM04 and AL08)................................................... 12–34
Single-Instance System (Transaction SM04) ..................................................... 12–35 Multi-Instance System (Transaction AL08) ........................................................ 12–36

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'DWDEDVH $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ ² 0LFURVRIW 64/ 6HUYHU² Overview............................................................................................................. 13–2 Starting and Stopping the Database ............................................................... 13–2 Starting the Database.......................................................................................... 13–2 Stopping the Database........................................................................................ 13–3 Database Performance ..................................................................................... 13–4 Overview.............................................................................................................. 13–4 Database Activity (ST04)..................................................................................... 13–4 Database Allocation (DB02)................................................................................ 13–7 Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13)................................................................ 13–9

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Determining the Tape (Label) Necessary for a Backup.................................... 13–13 Deleting an Entry from the Planning Calendar (DB13)..................................... 13–14 Checking the Database Backup (DB12)........................................................ 13–15 Initializing Backup Tapes ............................................................................... 13–18 Database Backups with Microsoft Tools ...................................................... 13–19 Online Backup – Using SQLserver 7.0 Enterprise Manager ............................ 13–19 Offline Backup – Using NTBackup.................................................................... 13–24 Database Error Logs ....................................................................................... 13–28 R/3 – ST04 ........................................................................................................ 13–28 Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 - Enterprise Manager............................................... 13–28 Verify Database Consistency......................................................................... 13–29 Run Update Statistics ..................................................................................... 13–29 System passwords.......................................................................................... 13–30 SQL server ........................................................................................................ 13–30 &KDSWHU  2XWSXW 0DQDJHPHQW ² Contents ............................................................................................................. 14–1 Printer Setup (SPAD) ........................................................................................ 14–2
How to Set Up the Printer in the R/3 System ....................................................... 14–2

Check the Spool for Printing Problems (Transaction SP01)........................ 14–9 Check that Old Spools are Deleted (SP01)................................................... 14–12 Printing the Output (SP01) ............................................................................. 14–15 Printing the Screen ......................................................................................... 14–18 Check Spool Consistency (SPAD)................................................................. 14–21 Check TemSe Consistency (SP12)................................................................ 14–23 &KDSWHU  1HWZRUN266HUYHU $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ² Overview............................................................................................................. 15–2 Operating System Tasks .................................................................................. 15–2 Operating System Alert (AL16) ........................................................................... 15–2 System Logs (OS06) ........................................................................................... 15–3
NT Event Logs ...................................................................................................... 15–5

Checking File System Space Usage (RZ20) ...................................................... 15–6 Changing the Alert Threshold (RZ20) ................................................................. 15–9 Cleaning Out Old Transport Files...................................................................... 15–11 Other Tasks...................................................................................................... 15–12 Clean the Tape Drive ........................................................................................ 15–12 Uninterruptible Power Supply............................................................................ 15–13
Check the Uninterruptible Power Supply............................................................ 15–13 Check your UPS Shutdown Process .................................................................. 15–13

Check Maintenance Contracts .......................................................................... 15–14 Review Hardware or a System Monitor Paging System................................... 15–15 &KDSWHU  2SHUDWLRQV ² Overview............................................................................................................. 16–2 Check that All Application Servers Are Up (Transaction SM51).................. 16–2 Background (Batch) Jobs ................................................................................ 16–3 Regularly Scheduled Jobs .................................................................................. 16–4
Performance ......................................................................................................... 16–4

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Housekeeping Jobs .............................................................................................. 16–4 Others ................................................................................................................... 16–5

Performance Factors for Background Jobs ........................................................ 16–5 Creating and Scheduling a Batch Job (SM36).................................................... 16–8 Background Jobs (SM37) ............................................................................... 16–15
Checking the Job Log......................................................................................... 16–17 Using the Job Tree ............................................................................................. 16–18

Graphical Job Monitor (Transaction RZ01)....................................................... 16–19 Batch Input Jobs, New or Incorrect (SM35) ...................................................... 16–20 Operation Modes ............................................................................................. 16–21 To Define the Operation Mode (RZ04) ............................................................. 16–23 Assign an Instance Definition to an Operation Mode (RZ04) ........................... 16–25
The First Time You Generate an Instance Operation Mode .............................. 16–25 Adding a New Operation Mode .......................................................................... 16–26

Defining Distribution of Work Processes (RZ04) .............................................. 16–29 Assigning Operation Modes (SM63) ................................................................. 16–32 Backups............................................................................................................ 16–36 Periodic Archivals.............................................................................................. 16–36 Backup the Database ........................................................................................ 16–36 Performing a Full Server Backup ...................................................................... 16–36 Checking the Backups (DB12 & DB13) ............................................................ 16–38
Database ............................................................................................................ 16–38 Operating System Level Backups ...................................................................... 16–40 UNIX ................................................................................................................... 16–40 NT ....................................................................................................................... 16–40

Checking Consumable Supplies ................................................................... 16–42 &KDSWHU  &KDQJH 0DQDJHPHQW ² Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31).......................................................... 17–2 Creating an Entry in the Table (SM31) ............................................................... 17–2 Deleting an Entry from a Table (SM31) .............................................................. 17–6 Change Control.................................................................................................. 17–9 Managing SAP Notes ........................................................................................ 17–9 Change Control (Managing Transports) ....................................................... 17–12 Transporting Objects ...................................................................................... 17–15 Transports into the Production System............................................................. 17–15 Transporting Objects ......................................................................................... 17–15
TMS Method ....................................................................................................... 17–16 Operating System Method.................................................................................. 17–16

Standard Transport Process ............................................................................. 17–17
Importing the Entire Import Buffer ...................................................................... 17–18

Special Transports from SAP............................................................................ 17–18 Releasing a Request (Transport) ...................................................................... 17–19 TMS Method of Transporting ............................................................................ 17–24
The Main TMS Screen........................................................................................ 17–24 Adding a Special Transport into the Import Buffer ............................................. 17–25 Using TMS to Import a Transport Request......................................................... 17–27 Check the Transport Log .................................................................................... 17–32

OS Method of Transporting............................................................................... 17–34
Adding a Special Transport Into the Import Buffer ............................................. 17–34 Importing the Transport ...................................................................................... 17–34 Checking the Transport Log (Transaction SE10) ............................................... 17–35

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........ 20–14 Registering a Developer or Object ....................................................................6A/B .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20–8 Entering Customer Messages......................................... 20–3 Online Services .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17–36 &KDSWHU  7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ ² Overview................... 18–3 Evaluate the Alternatives.................. 18–3 Get the Complete Error Message ............................. 19–3 R/3 . 20–15 Developer Requests Developer Key .......................................................................................... 18–2 Basic Troubleshooting Techniques ..................... 20–13 Viewing Customer Messages ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20–16 Registering a Developer ............................................................................................................................ 20–5 Customer Messages ........................................................................... 20–4 Solving a Problem with SAPNet ................................................................................................................................................. 20–16 The System Administrator Gets the Access Key.................................................................. 20–19 Developer Requests Object Key ........................................................................................................................................................................... 20–20 xiv Release 4...................................................................................................................................................... 19–15 &KDSWHU  6$31HW³:HE )URQWHQG² Overview.......................... 19–11 Operating System Monitor (OS07)............................................................................. 18–4 Get the SAP Patch Level............. 18–6 &KDSWHU  3HUIRUPDQFH ² Overview............................................................................................................................................................ 18–5 Determining What Support Packages Have Been Applied............................................................................................... 18–2 Gather Data .. 19–15 Memory....... 19–10 Database....... 19–8 Memory Defragmentation................................................................ 18–3 Document the Changes............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20–9 How........................ 18–3 Make only One Change at a Time......................................... 20–20 The System Administrator Gets the Access Key:.............................. 20–11 Viewing Customer Messages................................................. 20–17 Enter the Developer Key ...Detailed Table of Contents Checking the Transport Log ................................................................................................................................................ 19–4 Workload Analysis of the System (Transaction ST03) .............. 19–2 Priority of Evaluation ......................................... 19–2 Critical Assumption.................................................... 20–19 Registering an Object............................ 20–15 Registering a Developer........... 19–3 General Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18–2 Analyze the Problem ............................................................................................................................ 19–4 Buffers (ST02) ............................................................................... 19–11 Hardware ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19–15 CPU and Disk ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20–18 Deleting a Developer............................. 20–2 Logging on to SAPNet ....... 20–5 Searching for SAP Notes ................. 19–11 Operating System...........................

............................................................................................ 21–3 Connecting to SAPNet–R/3 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 21–22 Registering a Developer............... 20–24 Getting the Latest SPAM version .............................................................................................................................................................. 21–30 &KDSWHU  5HPRWH 6HUYLFHV ² Overview.......................................................... 22–13 Unpacking a File .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 –28 Downloading Suppor Packages ... 22–14 EarlyWatch Session ................................................................... 21–18 Confirm ...................................................................................... 21–16 Display Long Text............................. 22–10 Unpacking a CAR File ...................... 22–6 Navigating in SAPSERV4.................................................... 22–2 Retrieving Files from SAP.............................................. 21–6 Entering Customer Messages (Problems) into SAPNet-R/3 ................................. 21–6 Finding Notes in the SAPNet-R/3.................................................................................................................... 21–2 Useful SAP Notes ....... 20–25 Downloading Support Packages ................................................... 22–3 An Example of an FTP Client.......................................................... 21–26 Developer Requests Object Key .......................................... 20–27 Specific Support Package-Related Notes ................................ 20–23 Delete an Object................................................................ 21–21 Registering a Developer or Object .......................................Detailed Table of Contents Enter the Object Key ..................................... 22–6 Connecting at the Command Prompt.......................... 23–2 Support Packages ...................................................................................................... 21–10 Getting Status on Your Message ............ 22–14 &KDSWHU  6SHFLDO 0DLQWHQDQFH ² Overview................................................. 21–25 Registering an Object.................................................................................................................................. 21–3 Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3................................ 21–15 Review the Action Log....... 23–11 System Administration Made Easy xv xv ......................................................................................................... 22–13 Special SAPNet Notes ........................................................................................... 20–30 &KDSWHU  6$31HW²5 )URQWHQG ² Overview...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21–22 Developer Requests Developer Key ........................................................................................... 20–23 Online Correction Support .................................................................... 21–30 Order of Access to Systems ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21–17 Reopen .................................................................. 21–23 The System Administrator Gets the Access Key.. 21–26 The System Administrator Gets the Access Key............................................................................... 21–29 Opening a Service Connection .............................................................................................................. 22–2 Connecting to SAPSERV4 Using a GUI (NT)............................................ 22–6 Downloading Files .......... SAPSERV4.......................................................................... 22–4 Connecting to SAPSERV4 Using the Command Prompt ........................................................................................................... 22–9 Partial Organization of SAPSERV4............................................................... 21–27 Enter the Object Key ..................................... 21–23 Enter the Developer Key ............................................................ 23–2 Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10)............

.............................................................................................................................. 23–17 To View a Specific Note ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................B–2 SAP Resources ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23–41 Restart Option 2 ................................................................ 23–24 Uploading the Support Package from a CD or SAPNet–Web .............. 23–15 To View All Notes .. B–3 CDs.................................................................................................A–2 Transaction Code Table ......................... 23–52 Deleting a Client ............... 23–58 Disadvantages ..................................... 23–39 Useful SAPNet – R/3 Frontend Notes................................................................................. 23–39 Kernel Upgrade....................................... B–4 $SSHQGL[ % xvi Release 4.................. 23–26 Updating SPAM............................... 23–57 Disadvantages ................................................................................................................................................................ 23–54 Production Refresh Strategies ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23–43 Creating a Client................. 23–57 Disadvantages .................................................................................................................. 23–52 Delete Client Transaction ................................................................................................................................................. 23–29 Applying the Support Package.... 23–58 Advantages.............................................................................................................................................. 23–50 Post-Client Copy Tasks................................................................................................................................................................... 23–12 High-Level Process of Applying Support Packages ................................................................................................................................................................ 23–44 Copying a Client ........................................................................................................................................................................................................6A/B ............................................................. 23–42 Useful SAP Notes ....................................... B–4 Training Classes .................................................... 23–40 Restart Option 1 ......... 23–47 Copying on the Same System/SID............................................................................................................................... 23–53 Reviewing the Client Copy Log ...... 23–56 Database Copy of Production System ... 23–57 Client Copy of the Production System with Data ............................................... 23–42 Special Notes..................................................................... 23–12 Determining What Support Packages Have Been Applied................................... 23–57 Client Copy of the Production System – Without Data ................................................... 23–25 Support Package Collection CD ............. 23–21 Requesting SPAM or a Support Package from SAPNet–R/3................................................................... 23–41 Client Copy....... 23–22 Downloading a Support Package (Hot Package) – SAPNet–R/3 ............... 23–37 Regression Testing ...... 23–57 Benefits...............................................................................A–2 8VHIXO 5HVRXUFHV DQG 3URGXFWV  %² Other System Administration Resources...................................................................A–2 Transaction Code Switches ..................................................... 23–57 Advantages................................................... 23–13 Getting Information on the Support Package from SAPNet–R/3.......................................................................... 23–58 $SSHQGL[ $ 8VHIXO 7UDQVDFWLRQV $² Useful Transactions ......................................... 23–43 Processing Notes ........................... 23–26 SAPNet–Web...............B–2 Books.................................................................................................................................................................................... 23–31 Object Conflicts ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Detailed Table of Contents Strategy .................................... 23–47 Copying to a Different System/SID.......

....................................................................B–12 Other Resources ....................................................................................C–8 Database Notes .................... B–10 Other Topics ............................................................................... B–5 White papers....................................................C–2 R/3 Notes .......................C–13 System Administration Made Easy xvii xvii ..........................................................................................................................................................................................B–7 Books:.............................................................................................................C–12 Oracle ........................................................................B–13 Operating System ..........B–14 Backup.....B–16 $SSHQGL[ & 8VHIXO 6$3 1RWHV  &² Overview............................................................................. B–5 SAPNet........................................................................................C–2 Operating System Notes...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Both UNIX and NT.............. B–14 Monitor........................................................................... B–7 R/3 ..............C–6 Common to Multiple Operating Systems ............................................................................................................................. B–13 Database ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... B–14 Monitor.................................................................................................................... B–14 Other.................................................................................................................................................. B–9 DB2......................................................................................... B–13 Other Helpful Products: Contributed by Users.C–9 MS SQL server .................. Selected Items of Interest ....................................................................................................... B–14 Remote Control .....................................................................................................................................................C–6 UNIX .................................................................. B–11 SAP Affiliated............................. B–12 Third Party ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. B–14 NT ...................................... B–12 Internet News Groups ............................................................................................... B–8 NT ................................................ B–11 Helpful Third-Party Information............................................. B–14 Scheduler............. B–15 Scheduler..................................................................................................................................................... B–9 Microsoft SQL Server ..................................Detailed Table of Contents Other.......................B–14 Backup............................................................................................. B–15 Other........................................................................................................................................................................................... B–5 Third-Party Resources ............................................................................................................................................................. B–8 OS/400..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................B–15 Network ............................................................................................................................................................................................................C–11 Informix...................................................................................................................................B–11 SAP......................................B–13 UNIX .......................... B–10 Oracle .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. B–14 Spool Management ....................................................................... B–9 Informix ......................... B–15 Spool Management ................................................................................... B–10 Magazines: .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................C–8 AS-400......................................................................................C–9 DB2 / UDB . B–15 Common......................................................................................................C–6 NT ....................................................... B–7 UNIX .............................. B–11 Web Sites ............................................

..........D–4 ....................................D–3 Hardware .........................................................D–3 Software Issues.................................................................................................................................................D–3 Other Considerations.......² xviii Release 4.........D–2 Upgrade Issues.......................................................D–3 Performance ..................................................................................................................................................................QGH[ ..........................Detailed Table of Contents $SSHQGL[ ' 8SJUDGH 'LVFXVVLRQ  '² Upgrade Discussion............................................6A/B ....................................................................................................................................................................D–2 When to Upgrade .....................................................D–2 Reasons Not to Upgrade.....................

Arnold Klingert. Acuson. TransAlta. Lance Pawlikowski. Patrick McShane. Stephen Corbett. Agilent/HP. SAP Labs: Dr. e. Dr.coetry/Chaptec. Joerg Schmidt. Laura Shieh. Jackie Wang. Rudolf Marquet.coetry. 2000 System Administration Made Easy xix . Stefan Fuchs. Utilx. SAP AG: Andreas Graesser. Dr. Hanumantha Kasoji. Thomas Brodkorb. Paul Wiebe. Nihad AlFtayeh. Lynne Lollis. Wulf Kruempelman. Gert Rusch. Timothy Rogers. SAP America: “Casper” Wai-Fu Kan. Dr. Celanese Acetate. Joyce Courtney.coetry. Fabian Troendle. Marc Punzalan. Gary Nakayama. e. Daniel-Benjamin Fig Zaidspiner. HP. HP. John Muir Mt Diablo Health System. Richard Doctor. Gary Canez. Bramasol. Steelcase. QA testers: Brad Barnes. material. Udesh Naicker. Dr. Sue McFarland. SAP America. Sam Yamakoshi.6A/B guidebook possible: Customers and partners: Bill Robichaud. Dr. Kerry Ek. Jaideep Adhvaryu. Herbert Stegmueller. Thomas Arend. Thomas Besthorn. John Wu. Ernst & Young. Carsten Thiel. Uwe Inhoff.$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV The combined experience in SAP and general systems administration of those who contributed to this book is measured in decades. XXX. Nicholai Jordt. Dr. Inc. Michael Schuster. Meinolf Block. Maria Gregg. Heat and Control. Chad Horwedel. Kitty Yue. Motorola. SAP America. Dr. Documentation and production: Rekha Krishnamurthy. expertise. “Jody” Honghua Yang. Claudia Helenius. Doris Steckel. Peter Aeschlimann. NCUA. Philippe Timothee. Uwe Hommel. Otto Boehrer. John Kanclier. Ceridian. I hope that I am able to share with you some of their wisdom. Thomas Beam. Infineon. Bridgestone/Firestone. John Blair. Tony Schollum. Michael Demuth. SAP UK: Peter Le Duc. and resources which helped make the Release 4. Kurt Wolf. Jerry Forsey. Dr. Otis Barr. Finteck.. Contributing authors: Patricia Huang. Arnold Niedermaier. Jeff Orr. Lynne Lollis. CPA SAP Labs. e. and Dr. Georg Chlond. Daniel Kocsis. I also wish to express appreciation to the following individuals who provided time.

6 A/B .xx xx Release 4.

..........................................xxv Special Icons ...................................................xxvii System Administration Made Easy xxi .............................................................xxii Who Should Read This Book?................................................................................................................xxv What’s New ...................xxii How to Use This Guidebook ............................................................................................................................QWURGXFWLRQ &RQWHQWV What Is This Guidebook About? ............................................

:KDW .Introduction What Is This Guidebook About? :KDW . The primary focus is the importance of the on-going nature of system administration. 2UJDQL]DWLRQ We have tried to group items and tasks in job role categories. stranger than fiction.0 version. Some of the examples we have used may seem improbable. :KR 6KRXOG 5HDG 7KLV %RRN" The target audience for this guidebook is: < The customer person or team where: Œ The R/3 administrator is from a small to mid-size company with a small (one to three people) technical team. where all installation tasks have been completed. We assume that your SAP consultant has completed these tasks. Installation and related tasks. these chapters are only introductions to the subjects. Installation tasks are not presented. some of the statements in this book are blunt and direct. Œ Each team member in the team has multiple job responsibilities.6 A/B . it is by no means comprehensive. but “facts can be.6 of the System Administration Made Easy Guidebook continues in the direction of the 4. Œ The system administrator has a basic knowledge of the operating system and database.V 1RW 3URYLGHG Although there are chapters on problem solving and basic performance tuning. The junior consultant < xxii xxii Release 4. This guidebook is not meant to be a trouble shooting or performance tuning manual. which are usually performed once. which allows this guidebook to be a better reference book. and are.” Because system administration is such a large area. Because of this perspective. Certain chapters can be expanded into several books [two examples are the chapters on disaster recovery (chapter 2) and security (chapter 11)]. have not been included in this guidebook. This book is written for an installed system. it is difficult to reduce the volume to what can be called “Made Easy.V 7KLV *XLGHERRN $ERXW" 3KLORVRSK\ Release 4.” Although material in this book has been carefully chosen. &RQWHQW Real world practical advice from consultants and customers has been integrated into this book.

Introduction Who Should Read This Book? Senior consultants. 8VHU We assume that you have a baseline knowledge of R/3. System Administration Made Easy xxiii xxiii . and DBAs may find portions of this guidebook very elementary. 3UHUHTXLVLWHV To help you use this guidebook. significant differences exist between these versions.” navigating by transaction codes is faster and more efficient than menus. and to prevent this guidebook from becoming as thick as an unabridged dictionary. we recommend that you consult the many books and training classes that specifically address your operating system and database. we defined a baseline for user knowledge and system configuration. In the “real world. You should know how to complete the following tasks at the: < R/3 System level: Œ Be able to log on to R/3 Œ Know how to navigate in R/3 using menus and transaction codes There are screens that do not have menu paths and the only way to access them is by using the transaction codes. Operating system level: Œ Be familiar with the file and directory structure Œ Be able to use the command line to navigate and execute programs Œ Set up a printer Œ Perform a backup using standard operating system tools or third-party tools Œ Perform basic operating system security Œ Copy and move files Œ Properly start and stop the operating system and server Database level Œ Properly start and stop the database Œ Perform a backup of the database < < R/3 runs on more than five different versions of UNIX. the operating system. If you lack knowledge in any of the following points. experienced system administrators. but hopefully useful. Review these sections to determine how you and your system match. These differences contributed to our decision to not go into detail at the operating system level. The two sections below (User and System) define this baseline. This book is also written with certain assumptions about your knowledge level and the expectation that particular system requirements have been met. and the database. In many cases.

most of these tasks have already been completed.QIUDVWUXFWXUH < < Is the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) installed? Is a server or system monitor available? 6RIWZDUH < < Are the following utility software installed (as appropriate)? Œ Backup program Œ Hardware monitors Œ System monitors Œ UPS control R/3 System Œ Is R/3 installed according to SAP’s recommendation? Œ Is the TPPARAM file configured? (In Release 4. If you can log on to your R/3 System. xxiv xxiv Release 4.) Œ Is the TMS/CTS configured? Œ Is the SAProuter configured? Œ Is the OSS1 transaction configured? Œ Is the ABAP workbench configured? Œ Has initial security been configured (default passwords changed)? Œ Are the NT sapmnt share or UNIX NFS sapmnt exports properly configured? Œ Is the online documentation installed? Can users log on to R/3 from their desktops? < 'HVNWRS For optimal results.6 GUI displays better with 64K colors. we recommend that the minimum screen resolution be set as follows: < < For the users.Introduction Who Should Read This Book? 6\VWHP For an ongoing productive environment. we assume that the: < < R/3 System is completely and properly installed Infrastructure is set up and functional The following checklist will help you determine if your system is set up to the baseline assumptions of this book. 800 × 600 For the system administrator. 1024 × 768 and a minimum color depth of 256 colors The Release 4.6 A/B . +DUGZDUH Is the backup equipment installed and tested? . TMS creates a file to be used as the TPPARAM file.6.

where related tasks are placed together. The four appendices cover useful transactions. and a discussion on upgrades.Introduction How to Use This Guidebook +RZ WR 8VH 7KLV *XLGHERRN This guidebook is organized in the following fashion: < < The first two chapters provide a high-level view of disaster recovery and backup and recovery. SAPNet R/3–Frontend notes. These chapters also provide helpful transaction codes and where in the book these codes are found. &RQWHQW The new features of the Release 4. Chapters 4-8 are helpful checklists that help the system administrator complete various tasks. weekly. 2UJDQL]DWLRQ All the task procedures are classified in one section and by job roles. Chapters 10-13 involve the following topics: Œ R/3 administration Œ Security administration Œ User administration Œ Database administration (SQL Server) The rest of the book covers subjects such as operations. Send us your comments. including daily.6 guidebook are: < < System Administration Assistant (transaction SSAA). remote services. Regardless of the job schedule. all jobs related to a job role are grouped in one place. and yearly. < < Chapter 9 discusses how to stop or start the R/3 System. troubleshooting. chapter 10 New chapters on: Œ Security (chapter 11) Œ Microsoft SQL Server / Windows NT (chapter 13) Œ Basic problem solving (chapter 17 ) Œ Basic performance tuning (chapter 22) System Administration Made Easy xxv xxv . other resources. :KDW·V 1HZ This guidebook evolved from the previous versions of this guidebook and incorporates customer and consultant comments. and SAPNet R/3–Frontend (formerly known as OSS). change management. so we can make future versions better meet your needs.

6 Screen Menu Bar Standard Toolbar Screen Title ♦ Application Toolbar User menu SAP standard menu ♣ Workplace Menu Workplace Status Bar ♦ Application toolbar: xxvi xxvi Release 4. Regardless of the job schedule.0B guidebook has become a role-oriented section.Introduction What’s New The procedures to perform regularly-scheduled tasks have been moved to the Roles section. Therefore. you will find some of the text conventions used throughout this guide. and Name2 is the item on the menu Sample R/3 Release 4. screen text. fields. all jobs related to a job role are grouped in one place. all the task procedures are classified in one section and by job roles. This change accommodates customers who perform scheduled tasks at times other than the times presented in this guidebook. The unscheduled tasks section from the 4. where related tasks are placed together.) User input (text the user types verbatim) Menu selection Name1 is the menu name. &RQYHQWLRQV In the table below.6 A/B . Column Title Sans-serif italic Monospace Name1 → Name2 Column Title Screen names or on-screen objects (buttons. etc.

see Authorizations Made Easy guidebook Release 4. To match our settings. An explanation of why you should be careful is included. your workplace menu may look different from screenshots in this guide which are based on SAP_ALL. 1RWH In this guidebook. Depending on your authorizations. The User menu and SAP standard menu buttons provide different views of the workplace menu. System Administration Made Easy xxvii xxvii . ♣ Workplace menu: Depending on your authorizations. This information helps you understand the topic in greater detail. Below are brief explanations of each icon: Exercise caution when performing this task or step. These messages provide helpful hints and shortcuts to make your work faster and easier. 6SHFLDO . some of the buttons on your application toolbar may not be available.6A/B. choose Extras → Settings and select Show technical names. we show the technical names of each transaction. It is not necessary to know this information to perform the task. To learn how to build user menus.FRQV Throughout this guide special icons indicate important messages.Introduction Special Icons The screenshots shown in this guide are based on full user authorization (SAP_ALL).

6 A/B .Introduction Special Icons xxviii xxviii Release 4.

...................................................1–4 R/3 System Guidelines ............................................1–4 Corollaries to Murphy’s Law..................................................................1–2 Traits of an R/3 System Administrator .1–2 Roles of an R/3 System Administrator .............................................................................................................................................................................1–14 System Administration Made Easy 1–1 ........1–13 Special Definitions .....................................................................................&KDSWHU  5 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ %DVLFV &RQWHQWV Overview ....................................................................................

and roles: < < < Company size Available resources (the size of the Basis group) Availability of infrastructure support for: Œ Desktop support Œ Database Œ Network Œ Facilities The R/3 system administrator may wear many hats both in or directly related to. Sample guidelines include: < < < Keep it short and simple (KISS) Use checklists Do not allow direct database access 5ROHV RI DQ 5 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWRU Depending on the size of the company and available resources. In a larger company. These roles cross all functional areas. however. and the number and intensity of the tasks depends on the size of the company. At the end of this chapter is a list of 14 R/3 System guidelines.6A/B . R/3 administrator(s) may range from one person to several specialized people in several departments. :LWKLQ 5 < < User administrator Set up and maintain user accounts Security administrator Œ Create and maintain SAP security profiles Œ Monitor and manage security access and violations 1–2 Release 4.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics Overview 2YHUYLHZ This chapter is about the roles that a system administrator plays. R/3 and indirectly or external to R/3. one person can be the entire system administration department. In a small company. This chapter is a list of commonly used system administration terms and their definitions. staffing. which a system administrator must be aware of while working with the system. this person is probably part of a team. The purpose of this “definition” is to help clarify the roles of a system administrator. Factors that affect an R/3 system administrator’s tasks.

and execute the SAP disaster recovery plan Programmer Apply SAPNet R/3 note fixes to programs Data Dictionary (DDIC) manager Change the Data Dictionary (when applicable) Data Base Administrator (DBA) ([WHUQDO WR 5 < DBA for the specific database on which the system is running Œ Manage database specific tasks Œ Maintain the database’s health and integrity Operating system administrator Œ Manage the operating system access and user IDs Œ Manage operating system specific tasks Network administrator Œ Manage network access and user IDs Œ Manage network support and maintenance Server administrator Manage the servers < < < Desktop support Supports the user’s desktop PC Printers Facilities Manages facilities-related support issues. test.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics Roles of an R/3 System Administrator < System administrator Œ Maintain the system’s health Œ Monitor system performance and logs Transport administrator Œ Transport changes between systems Œ Manage change requests Batch scheduler Create and manage the scheduling of batch jobs Backup operator Schedule. run. such as: Œ Power/utilities Œ Air conditioning (cooling) < < < System Administration Made Easy 1–3 . and monitor backup jobs of the SAP database and any required operating system level files < < < < < < < Disaster recovery technical manager Create.

the IS staff. Œ You must also take responsibility for your own training and education. Œ Be willing to work the hours required to support the system Certain tasks must be done after hours or on weekends to avoid disrupting normal business operations. users. The weakness is not knowing when to get help and getting into trouble.6A/B . and others to successfully complete the necessary tasks. < < 5 6\VWHP *XLGHOLQHV When working on an R/3 System: < < < < < < < < < < < < < Protect the system Do not be afraid to ask for help Network with other customers and consultants Keep it short and simple (KISS) Keep proper documentation Use checklists Use the appropriate tool for the job Perform preventive maintenance Do not change what you do not have to Do not make changes to the system during critical periods Do not allow direct database access Keep all non-SAP activity off the SAP servers Minimize single points of failure 1–4 Release 4. Be a team-player The system administrator will have to work with various functional groups. whether your company pays for it or not. The system administrator is the guardian of the system. Be technically competent Œ When necessary. the company must invest in training for the Basis staff.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics Traits of an R/3 System Administrator Œ Physical server access 7UDLWV RI DQ 5 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWRU An R/3 system administrator should: < Have a proper attitude Œ Protect and safeguard the system. Œ Know when to call for help The ability to know when you need to get help is a strength.

incorrect decisions could be made based on invalid data. your company could be out of business. The only way to learn is to ask. If you are unsure which task to complete or how to complete it. you could make a mistake and cause a larger problem. professional attitude. which reduces the chances for a successful recovery). +RZ < < < SAPNet R/3 notes Various web sites and news groups Consultants Also see the section in this chapter that covers networking with other customers and consultants. The company may not survive if the system crashes and cannot be recovered. This attitude helps to ensure that administrators focus on maintaining the integrity of the system. < The system must be protected from internal and external sources. There are no dumb questions—only dumb reasons for not asking them. critical tasks may not be properly completed (for example. 'R 1RW %H $IUDLG WR $VN IRU +HOS :K\ < R/3 is so large and complex that one person cannot be expected to know everything. < < Mistakes within the system can be expensive. < System administrators should maintain a “my job is on the line” attitude.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines 3URWHFW WKH 6\VWHP :KDW Everything you do as a system administrator should be focused on protecting and maintaining the system’s integrity. If the system cannot be recovered after a disaster. :K\ < < If the system’s integrity is compromised. If the system administrator has less than this attitude. System Administration Made Easy 1–5 . backups may not be taken as scheduled and backup logs may not be checked.” and once set. +RZ < The system administrator must have a positive. Certain things cannot be “undone. are set forever. One problem today is employees “poking around” in the network.

NT. the better your chances of finding someone to help you solve a problem. The more people you know.6A/B . such as those for Microsoft SQL Server. Informix. such as those for UNIX (the various versions).” Decades ago. Customers who help each other reduce their consulting expenses. The more you participate. of people in your area of specialty. Set the goal of collecting “at least” ten business cards. or OS390) Participate in professional organizations Where to network: < < Participation means getting involved in the organization. the more people you meet and get to know. < < Whenever you attend an event. :K\ < < < Other customers may be able to provide solutions to your problems. AS400. Do not forget to ask the “old-timers. or IBM (AIX. especially those in your specialty area Others using your operating system or database Training classes SAP events Œ Technical Education Conference (TechEd) Œ SAPPHIRE Participate in user groups: Œ Americas SAP Users Group (ASUG) Œ Regional SAP users groups Œ Database user groups. DB2. the mainframe community may have solved many of the issues and problems you now face. meet: < < < < Other SAP customers and consultants.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines 1HWZRUN ZLWK 2WKHU &XVWRPHUV DQG &RQVXOWDQWV :KDW Get to know the R/3 Basis and system administrators in other companies. carry a stack of business cards. or Oracle Œ Operating system user groups. 1–6 Release 4. :KHQ :KHUH DQG +RZ When you have the opportunity.

W 6KRUW DQG 6LPSOH ..Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines .HHS .66.

If you are sick or unavailable. errors. write it all down. A process with 27 steps has 27 chances to fail. At some point. checks performed. which happens with short-term memory. :K\ < As time passes. debug. Documentation helps train new people. If in doubt about what to document. Explaining a complex task on the telephone increases the chance that what is said will not be properly understood and an error will be made. If the error is severe. +RZ < < Keep tasks as simple as possible. System Administration Made Easy 1–7 . configuration changes. hardware changes. Employee turnover must be planned for. Proper documentation makes the training and transition of new employees easier and faster. complete documentation can help someone else do the job. and maintain. you can quickly forget the information in minutes. < < It is difficult to train people for complex tasks. If the process is complex. problems. you may have a disaster on your hands. you will know exactly what needs to be done to complete this task. < < < < < If you violate the KISS principle. In an extreme situation. Test . complete documentation reduces the chance of errors. you will forget the details of a process or problem. :K\ < Complex tasks are more likely to fail as situations change. because complex tasks are difficult to create. procedures. you may not remember anything about the process or problem.HHS 3URSHU 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ :KDW Document processes. complete documentation becomes even more important. etc. If changes need to be undone.

time. so details are not forgotten. size. if you were to use a checklist every time you drive a car. and screenshots to clarify documentation. Use graphics. Re-read older documentation to see where improvements can be made. or the task may never get done. occur. error log entries. without assistance. Keep a log for everything done remotely to any of the servers. Document items clearly and sufficiently so that. etc. such as run times. as it is being done. and security violations. a qualified person can read what you have written and perform the task.). which may later become important.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines :KHQ Documentation must be changed when: < Documented items change. Do not postpone writing documentation. Obvious items get “fuzzy” over time and are no longer obvious. Keep a log for other related items.6A/B . Each step requires an acknowledgement of completion (a check) or an entry (date. flowcharts. then you would remember to turn off your headlights when you park your car. < < Changes are made to the system. < Checklists force you to document events. 1–8 Release 4. 8VH &KHFNOLVWV :KDW A checklist lists the steps required to complete a task. For example. such as hardware failures. Inaccurate documentation could be dangerous because it describes a process that should not be followed. :KHUH < < < Keep a log (notebook) on each server and record everything that you do on the servers. Record everything that is done to the system—as it is being done. :K\ < Checklists enforce a standardized process and reduce the chance that you will overlook critical steps. or you would not drive off with your parking brake still set. “Hot” projects or emergencies tend to take precedence over writing documentation. Problems. +RZ < < < < Record everything done to the system.

if the log file space goes down to zero (0). 3HUIRUP 3UHYHQWLYH 0DLQWHQDQFH :KDW Preventive maintenance is the proactive monitoring and maintenance of the system. the database will stop. a paper-and-pencil solution may work better and be more cost effective than a computerized solution. Until sufficient file space is cleared. Depending on the situation. Done for the first time Done infrequently It is difficult to remember how to do a complicated task that you do only once a year. Paper and pencil still works during a power failure. An extreme situation is that the entire system is down until a particular task is completed (for example. rather than have it develop into an “emergency” situation. and when least disruptive to your users. R/3 will not run and certain business operations. 8VH WKH $SSURSULDWH 7RRO IRU WKH -RE Sometimes a low-tech solution is best. may stop). :K\ < < It is less disruptive and stressful if you can plan a convenient time to do a task. :KHQ < < Checking for problems should be a part of your regular routine. inability to restore the database). and then R/3 also stops. < < +RZ See examples in Scheduled Tasks. +RZ < < < < Monitor the various logs and event monitors Obtain additional disk storage before you run out of room Regularly clean the tape drive(s) Check the database for consistency and integrity System Administration Made Easy 1–9 . the result could be serious (for example.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines :KHQ Checklists are especially useful for tasks that are: < Complex or critical If a step is missed or done incorrectly. Fix a potential problem before it negatively impacts the system and company operations. such as shipping. Scheduling tasks to fix a problem should be based on your situation.

If the hardware or software release is no longer supported by the vendor. This really is not an option. everything still works as it is supposed to. Legal requirements call for an update. A fix is unavailable in a patch or an “advance release. Quality Assurance system 4. resources. there is a chance that something else may break. A business need exists. and consulting. etc. Production system Even if your company does not have all the above-mentioned systems. the key is to maintain the general order. test the change in the following order: 1. make certain you can recover to a before-thechange condition. The associated penalties can be expensive. Fixing a major problem requires an upgrade. If you do not keep up you will not be complying with legal requirements. All changes must be regression tested to make sure that nothing else has been affected by the change. Quality Assurance 3. In other words. Development 2.” :KHQ < < < < < +RZ < < If the change fails or causes problems. :K\ < < Risk When something changes. Development system 3. Do not change something just to upgrade to the latest version. if your company does not have a test system.6A/B . The new release offers a specific functionality that offers added business value to your company. Cost Upgrading is expensive in terms of time. Production < 1–10 Release 4.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines 'R 1RW &KDQJH :KDW <RX 'R 1RW +DYH 7R :KDW < < If the system works. Stage the change and test it in the following order: 1. leave it alone. Test system (a “Sandbox” system) 2. For example. Regression testing of R/3 involves the functional team and users.

Note the following sequence of events: 1. 5. 4. you should be comfortable that nothing will break. :KHQ A critical period is any time where the users and the company may be “severely” impacted by a system problem. R/3 cannot send output to the new printer. The following are “real” examples of critical periods: < < < < At end of the month.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines By the time you reach the production system. 3. These periods differ depending on the particular industry or company. when Sales and Shipping are booking and shipping as much as they can. Plan all potentially disruptive systems-related activities during quiet periods when a problem will have minimal user impact. :K\ If a problem occurs during a critical period. such as Finance and Order Entry. The company cannot ship their products. 'R 1RW 0DNH 6\VWHP &KDQJHV 'XULQJ &ULWLFDO 3HULRGV :KDW A critical period is when system disruptions could cause severe operational problems. Different user groups in the company. Revenue for the month is reduced. when Finance is closing the prior month During the last month of the year. the business maybe severely impacted. What is a critical period for one company may not be critical for another company. when Finance is closing the books for the prior year and getting ready for the financial audit +RZ < Always coordinate potentially disruptive system events with the users. The users cannot print shipping documents. 2. < System Administration Made Easy 1–11 . to maximize the revenue for the year During the beginning of the year. A system administrator changes a printer in Shipping at the end of the month. may have different quiet periods that need to be coordinated. when Sales and Shipping are booking and shipping as much as they can. to maximize revenue for the month At the beginning of the month.

Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics R/3 System Guidelines 'R 1RW $OORZ 'LUHFW 'DWDEDVH $FFHVV :KDW Direct database access means allowing a user to run a query or update directly to the database without going through R/3. No access also means that user cannot look at confidential or sensitive information. Programs running on the R/3 servers will contend for the same resources that R/3 is using. With direct database access.HHS DOO 1RQ6$3 $FWLYLW\ 2II WKH 5 6HUYHUV :KDW < Do not allow users to directly access (telnet. etc. Performance Using the production R/3 sever as a file server creates resource contention. missing a single table may corrupt the database by putting the tables out of sync with each other. < Do not run programs that are not directly related to R/3 on an R/3 server.6A/B . :K\ < < By not going through R/3. 1–12 Release 4. < Do not use the R/3 server as a general file server. +RZ < When R/3 writes to the database. :K\ < Security Not allowing users to have access to the R/3 server reduces the chance of files from being accidentally deleted or changed. which affects the performance of R/3. there is the risk of corrupting the database. < +RZ Use other servers to perform functions unrelated to R/3. it could be writing to many different tables. where performance is a primary concern. rather than a read. < . Directly updating the database could put the database out of sync with the R/3 buffers. remote access. a user could accidentally execute an update or delete. If a user writes directly to the tables.) the R/3 server(s).

and will remove it from your server. Systems configured with a built-in backup Redundant equipment. Disaster will strike at the worst time. When disaster strikes. you cannot back up your database. you find out that the battery in your UPS is dead. it will fail. :K\ Each place where a single-point failure could occur increases the chances of a system failure or other critical event. For example. If you have only one tape drive. you will be out of town or unavailable . and you are on vacation. and do not have a UPS. or activity causes the system to fail or creates a critical event.” The following are some corollaries to Murphy’s Law: < < < < < < < < < Without telling you. such as dual power supplies On-hand spares Sufficient personnel On-call consultants Cross-training Outsourcing To guard against a single-point failure. task. the task will not be completed until you return (or you will be “on call” while on vacation). Problems always happen at 2:00 AM.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics Corollaries to Murphy’s Law 0LQLPL]H 6LQJOH 3RLQWV RI )DLOXUH :KDW A single-point failure is when the failure of a single component. someone will change something in the infrastructure and crash the system. The one thing that you did not test is “where” the problem is. You are the only one who can complete a task. Problems come in clusters. if: < < < You only have one tape drive and it fails. consider the following options: < < < < < < < &RUROODULHV WR 0XUSK\·V /DZ Murphy’s Law states: “Whatever can go wrong will go wrong. the server will crash during a power failure and possibly corrupt the database. Someone will need a network jumper cable. When the power fails. System Administration Made Easy 1–13 . You rely on utility line power.

To prevent confusion. When you need to send an alpha page. You will need a tape from the backup that failed.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics Special Definitions < < < < < < < < < < < The latest full backup tape will be bad. The two types of instances are central. The one time you did not check the backup log will be the time when the backup fails. What you did not write down. and you need to be found. The computer room will be destroyed—along with all your backup tapes. More than one instance could exist on a physical server. you will be out of the pager or cell phone coverage area. the battery in your pager or cell phone will be dead. 1–14 Release 4. When a disaster strikes. they are defined below: 'DWDEDVH VHUYHU This is where R/3 and the database resides. this would be combined on the database server. $SSOLFDWLRQ VHUYHU This is where R/3 application runs. batch processing or a mix. . The Peter Principle will strike. a link in the e-mail system will fail. The system clock of the database server is the master clock for the R/3 system. A shortcut is the longest distance between two points. 6\VWHP The complete R/3 installation for a System ID (SID). and forgot. is what you need to know.QVWDQFH An installation of R/3 on a server. Application servers can be dedicated to online users. User transparent.6A/B . and you need to be contacted. 6SHFLDO 'HILQLWLRQV There are terms used in this guidebook that have very specific meanings. On a two-tiered system. This physically consists of the database server and application servers for that SID. When a disaster strikes. is not. for example PRD. and dialog. A system logically consists of the R/3 central instance and dialog instances for the SID.

Oracle A two-tiered configuration combines the application and database layers on a single server. System Administration Made Easy 1–15 . DB2. ADABAS.Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics Special Definitions Three-tiered R/3 Configuration Layers Presentation Application Physical Devices Desktop PC—many Application Server —N/A —many R/3 Instance N/A Dialog What Runs on Each Layer SAP GUI R/3 Database Database server – only one Central Database: SQL Server. Informix.

6A/B .Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics Special Definitions 1–16 Release 4.

.................................2–2 Why Plan for a Disaster?.....................2–4 Test your Disaster Recovery Procedure .....2–16 Minimizing the Chances for a Disaster .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................2–15 Other Considerations .................................2–3 Planning for a Disaster.................................................&KDSWHU  'LVDVWHU 5HFRYHU\ &RQWHQWV Overview ..................................................2–17 System Administration Made Easy 2–1 ....................................................................................................

Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Overview 2YHUYLHZ The purpose of this chapter is to help you understand what we feel is the most critical job of a system administrator—disaster recovery.6 A/B . This chapter is not a disaster recovery “how to. the destruction of the building due to natural disaster. :KDW . Examples include: < Database corruption. and refine.V D 'LVDVWHU" The goal of disaster recovery is to restore the system so that the company can continue doing business. For example when test data is accidentally loaded into the production system. For example.” The faster you begin planning. The ultimate responsibility of a system administrator is to successfully restore R/3 after a disaster. A complete loss of the R/3 System and infrastructure.” It is only designed to get you thinking and working on disaster recovery. We included this chapter at the beginning of our guidebook for two reasons: < To emphasize the importance of the subject Disaster recovery needs to be planned as soon as possible. To emphasize the importance of being prepared for a potential disaster < Murphy’s Law says: “Disaster will strike when you are not prepared for it. This happens more often than people realize. disaster recovery planning could take more than a year to 2–2 Release 4. because it takes time to develop. Disaster recovery planning is a major project. < < A serious hardware failure. The administrator’s goal is to prevent the system from ever reaching the situation where the ultimate responsibility is called upon. The ultimate consequence of not restoring the system is that your company goes out of business. test. the more prepared you will be when a disaster does happen. A disaster is anything that results in the corruption or loss of the R/3 System. Depending on your situation and the size and complexity of your company.

Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Why Plan for a Disaster? prepare. Unpleasant surprises could be fatal to the recovery process. If you are interested in this topic. management should invest in: < < Equipment. There are different degrees of HA. so customers need to determine which option is right for them. HA is an advanced topic beyond the scope of this guidebook. This chapter helps you start thinking about and planning for disaster recovery. During a disaster recovery. contact an HA vendor. test. :K\ 3ODQ IRU D 'LVDVWHU" < < A system administrator should expect and plan for the worst. Here are some of the reasons to develop a disaster recovery plan: < < < < < < < < < Will business operations stop if R/3 fails? How much lost revenue and cost will be incurred for each hour that the system is down? Which critical business functions cannot be completed? How will customers be supported? How long can the system be down before the company goes out of business? Who is coordinating and managing the disaster recovery? What will the users do while R/3 is down? How long will the system be down? How long will it take before the R/3 System is available for use? If you plan properly. and then hope for the best. and refine. nothing should be done for the first time. System Administration Made Easy 2–3 . If the recovery downtime is unacceptable. facilities. The plan could fill many volumes. because you know that the system can be recovered and how long this recovery will take. and personnel High availability (HA) options HA options can be expensive. you will be under less stress.

etc. &UHDWLQJ D 3ODQ Creating a disaster recovery plan is a major project because: < < It can take over a year and considerable time to develop. A bad plan (that will fail) is worse than no plan. < The business units’ needs drive the specific detailed requirements. test. what does (or does not) happen? Œ What is the cost (or lost revenue) of an hour or a day of R/3 downtime? The justification should be a concrete objective value (such as $20. the cost for disaster recovery increases.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster 3ODQQLQJ IRU D 'LVDVWHU This chapter is not a disaster recovery “how to.6 A/B .000 an hour).) of having the R/3 System down. The documentation may be extensive (literally thousands of pages long).” It is only designed to get you thinking and working on disaster recovery. Define the cost (per hour. :KDW $UH WKH %XVLQHVV 5HTXLUHPHQWV IRU 'LVDVWHU 5HFRYHU\" Who will provide the requirements? < Senior management needs to provide global (or strategic) requirements and guidelines. These units should understand that as the requirement for the recovery time decreases. because it provides a false sense of security. or if the funds come from an administrative or IT budget. get the assistance of an expert. What are the requirements? Each requirement should answer the following questions: < < < < Who is the requestor? What is the requirement? Are other departments or customers affected by this requirement? Why is the requirement necessary? Œ When R/3 is offline. If you do not know how to plan for a disaster recovery. the units should support it. 2–4 Release 4. per day. and document. The units should budget for it.

it is important to find out if there are alternate processes that can be used while the R/3 System is being recovered. Management must approve this cost. Why: At that point. such as the loss of the building containing the R/3 data center. Downtime may mean that no orders can be processed and no products shipped. permanent customer loss begins. System Administration Made Easy 2–5 . :KHQ 6KRXOG D 'LVDVWHU 5HFRYHU\ 3URFHGXUH %HJLQ" Ask yourself the following questions: < < < What criteria constitute a disaster? Have these criteria been met? Who needs to be consulted? The person must be aware of the effect of the disaster on the company’s business and the critical nature of the recovery. This inability to recreate lost transactions may result in lost sales and upset customers. ([DPSOH  Œ Œ What: The system cannot be offline for more than three hours. so it is important that they understand that downtime are potential business costs. this cost is the expected minimum time before R/3 can be productive again. Why: The cost (an average of $25.000 per hour) is the inability to book sales.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster ([DPSOH  Œ Œ What: No more than one hour of transaction data may be lost. ([DPSOH  Œ Œ Œ What: In the event of disaster. this situation can be critical. Why: The cost is 1. ([SHFWHG 'RZQWLPH RU 5HFRYHU\ 7LPH ([SHFWHG 'RZQWLPH Expected downtime is only part of the business cost of disaster recovery.000 transactions per hour of lost transactions that are entered in R/3 and cannot be recreated from memory. For defined scenarios. Other: There must be an alternate method of continuing business. If the lost orders are those that the customer quickly needs. To help business continue. the company can only tolerate a two-day downtime.

In a smaller company. Changing the business requirements to accept the longer recovery time and accepting the consequences.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster The following costs are involved with downtimes: < The length of time that R/3 is down. payment would be due to vendors. The number of employees performing these roles will vary depending on your company size. the recovery time is only an estimate.6 A/B . An extreme (but possible) example: A company cannot afford the cost and lost revenue for the month it would take one person to recover the system. < 2–6 Release 4. a guess. When customers cannot be serviced or supported. the mismatch needs to be communicated to the appropriate managers or executives. the recovery manager and the communication liaison could be the same person. Resolving this mismatch involves: < < Investing in equipment. The time to recover must be matched to the business requirements. Titles and tasks will probably differ based on your company’s needs. for example. Communication liaison Handles user phone calls and keeps top management updated with the recovery status. All recovery activities and issues should be coordinated through this person. and facilities to reduce the recovery time. senior management needs to allocate resources to reduce the recovery time to an acceptable level. the longer the catch-up period when it is brought back up. and bills would not be collected. The transactions from the alternate processes that were in place during the disaster have to be applied to the system to make it current. During that time. In this situation. they may be lost to a competitor. If this time is greater than the business requirements. One person handling all phone calls allows the group doing the technical recovery to proceed without interruptions. the competition would take away customers. This situation is more critical in a high-volume environment. Different disaster scenarios have different recovery times. or worse. processes. 5HFRYHU\ 7LPH Unless you test your recovery procedure. The longer the system is down. We defined the following key roles: < Recovery manager Manages the entire technical recovery. The duration of acceptable downtime depends on the company and the nature of its business. 5HFRYHU\ *URXS DQG 6WDIILQJ 5ROHV There are four key roles in a recovery group. < < A downed system is more expensive during the business day when business activity would stop than at the end of the business day when everyone has gone home. which are based on what needs to be done to become operational again.

the rest of the department must be able to perform a successful recovery.” Without this person. a flood. The infrastructure usually remains intact. A major consideration is that once the original facility has been rebuilt and tested. < < If the disaster is a major geographical event (like an earthquake). the original plan may have to be modified. You should expect and plan for these situations. To reduce interruption of the recovery staff. This role must manage the changes and coordinate the technical recovery. The timing is just as critical as the disaster. System Administration Made Easy 2–7 . < Review and certification manager Coordinates and plans the post-recovery testing and certification with users. This issue may become vital during an actual disaster. In this scenario. The status board should list key points in the recovery plan and an estimate of when the system will be recovered and available to use. or an earthquake. we recommend you maintain a status board.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster < Technical recovery team Does the actual technical recovery. key personnel could be injured or killed. A final staffing role is to plan for at least one staff member to be “unavailable. 7\SHV RI 'LVDVWHU 5HFRYHU\ Disaster recovery scenarios can be grouped into two types: < < Onsite Offsite 2QVLWH Onsite recovery is disaster recovery done at your site. While the system is being recovered. As the recovery progresses. 2IIVLWH Offsite recovery is disaster recovery done at a disaster recovery site. The worst case scenario is a recovery done on a backup system. Plan for staff from other geographic sites to be flown in and participate as disaster recovery team members. Depending on the disaster. a second restore must take place back to the customer’s original facility. all hardware and infrastructure are lost as a result of facility destruction such as a fire. your local staff will be more concerned with their families—not the company. The best case scenario is a recovery done on the original hardware. While this second restore can be planned and scheduled at a convenient time to disrupt as few users as possible. The new servers must be configured from scratch. it is down.

2. 5. You must replace the sample downtimes with the downtimes applicable to your environment. and you will never account for all of them. If the test scenario(s) cannot be adapted. 3. 4. In the event of a disaster. The disaster scenarios are made up of: < < < Description of the disaster event High level plan of major tasks to be performed Estimated time to have the system available to the users To create your final scenario: 1. Œ A bad transport into production.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster 'LVDVWHU 6FHQDULRV There are an infinite number of disaster scenarios that could occur. Use the Three Common Disaster Scenarios section below as a starting point. To make this task manageable.6 A/B . $ &RUUXSW 'DWDEDVH < A corrupt database could result from: Œ Accidentally loading test data into the production system. which results in the failure of the production system. by creating different test disasters and determining if (and how) your scenario(s) would adapt to an actual disaster. 7KUHH &RPPRQ 'LVDVWHU 6FHQDULRV The following three examples range from a best-to-worst scenario order: The downtimes in the examples below are only samples. Prepare three to five scenarios that cover a wide range of disasters that would apply to you. It would take an infinite amount of time to plan for them. The “sample” downtime is eight hours. The following types of items may fail: Œ A system processor Œ A drive controller < < < $ +DUGZDUH )DLOXUH 2–8 Release 4. Create a high-level plan (are made up of major tasks) for each scenario. Repeat the process. you should plan for at least three and no more than five scenarios. modify or develop more scenarios 6. Test the planned scenario. Such a disaster requires the recovery of the R/3 database and related operating system files. you would adapt the closest scenario(s) to the actual disaster. Your downtimes will be different.

16 hours of actual work time The following items can be lost: Œ Servers Œ All supporting infrastructure Œ All documentation and materials in the building Œ The building A complete loss of the facility can result from the following types of disasters: Œ Fire Œ Earthquake Œ Flood Œ Hurricane Œ Tornado Œ Man-made disasters. an alternate facility is obtained and an emergency (minimal) network is constructed One day to integrate into the emergency network System Administration Made Easy 2–9 .Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster Œ Multiple-drives in a drive array. such as the World Trade Center bombing Such a disaster requires: Œ Replacing the facilities Œ Replacing the infrastructure Œ Replacing lost hardware Œ Rebuilding the server and R/3 environment (hardware. this purchase could take longer if your suppliers were also affected by the disaster.) Œ Recovering the R/3 database and related files The “sample” downtime lasts eight days and comprises: Œ At least five days to procure hardware. Œ Œ Œ $ &RPSOHWH /RVV RU 'HVWUXFWLRQ RI WKH 6HUYHU )DFLOLW\ < < < < Two days to rebuild the NT server (one person). operating system. have an out-of-area alternate supplier. Use national vendors with several regional distribution centers and. In a regional disaster. as a backup. so that the drive array fails < < Such a disaster scenario requires: Œ Replacing failed hardware Œ Rebuilding the server (operating system and all programs) Œ Recovering the R/3 database and related files The “sample” downtime is seven days and comprises: Œ Five days to procure replacement hardware Œ Two days to rebuild the NT server (one person). 16 hours actual work time As the hardware is procured and the server is being rebuilt. database. etc.

anticipate a recovery by: < < < < Collecting facts Recalling the latest offsite tapes Recalling the crash kit (see page 2–11 for more information). &UHDWLQJ D 5HFRYHU\ 6FULSW Creating a recovery script requires: < < < A checklist for each step A document with screenshots to clarify the instructions. affected key users. if the flow of steps or activities is critical or confusing 5HFRYHU\ 3URFHVV To reduce recovery time. infrastructure support. Calling all required personnel These personnel include the internal SAP team. 5HFRYHU\ 6FULSW :KDW A recovery script is a document that provides step-by-step instructions about: < The process required to recover R/3 < < < Who will complete each step The expected time for long steps Dependencies between steps :K\ A script is necessary because it helps you: < < Develop and use a proven series of steps to restore R/3 Prevent missing steps Missing a critical step may require restarting the recovery process from the beginning. facilities. If the primary recovery person is unavailable. a recovery script helps the backup person complete the recovery. if needed Flowcharts. 2–10 Release 4. IT.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster < Complete loss or destruction requires a recovery back to a new facility. During a potential disaster.6 A/B . which delays the recovery. etc. on-call consultants. define a process by: < < Completing as many tasks as possible in parallel Adding timetables for each step 0DMRU 6WHSV 1.

&UDVK . finance. Stopping all additional transactions into the system Waiting too long could worsen the problem Collecting transaction records that have to be manually reentered Analyzing the problem Fitting the disaster to your predefined scenario plans Modifying the plans as needed What are the criteria to declare a disaster. Once completed. Conduct a postmortem debriefing session. Define when to initiate a disaster recovery procedure. and shipping) for alternate procedures for key business transactions and processes. this step should require an additional sign-off.LW :KDW A crash kit contains everything needed to: < < < Rebuild the R/3 servers Reinstall R/3 Recover the R/3 database and related files :K\ During a disaster. 5. Notify the users that the system is ready for normal operations. In a major disaster you may not even have that opportunity. If you have to evacuate the site. Declare the disaster. who will use a criteria checklist to determine that the system has been satisfactorily recovered should perform the testing. and have they been met? Who will make the final decision to declare a disaster? 2. 7. Test and sign off on the recovered system. everything that is needed to recover the R/3 environment is contained in one (or a few) containers. Begin the planning process by: 4. Minimize the effect of the disaster by: < < < < < < < 3. Catch up with transactions that may have been handled by alternate processes during the disaster. Use the results from this session to improve your disaster recovery planning. 9. 6. Key users. System Administration Made Easy 2–11 . 10. Perform the system recovery. 8.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster < Preparing functional organizations (sales. hoping that you get everything you need. gathering the items at the last minute. you will not have the time to run around.

LW The crash kit should be physically separated from the servers. You will need to add or delete items for your specific environment. If the seal is broken. This inventory list is organized into the following categories: < < Documentation Software à 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ An inventory of the crash kit should be taken by the person who seals the kit. replace the outdated items in the crash kit with updated items that have been tested. this kit is lost. The inventory list below must be signed and dated by the person checking the crash kit. Some crash kit storage areas include: < < < Commercial offsite data storage Other company sites Another secure section of the building +RZ The following is an inventory list of some of the major items to put into the crash kit.6 A/B . items may have been removed or changed. making the kit useless in a recovery. and the server room is destroyed. A service contract is a perfect example of an item that requires this type of review. :KHUH WR 3XW WKH &UDVK .Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster :KHQ When a change is made to a component (hardware or software) on the server. If it is located in the server room. The following documentation must be included in the crash kit: < < Disaster recovery script Installation instructions for the: Œ Operating system Œ Database Œ R/3 System Special installation instructions for: Œ Drivers that have to be manually installed Œ Programs that must be installed in a specific manner < 2–12 Release 4. A periodic review of the crash kit should be performed to determine if items need to be added or changed.

you might consider upgrading the equipment. and patches System Administration Made Easy 2–13 . which are not included in the installation kit Œ Service packs. Over time. an alternate parts list will have to be prepared.) Œ SAP hotline Œ Offsite data storage Œ Security department or personnel Œ Service agreement contacts Œ Hardware vendors 6RIWZDUH < Operating system: Œ Installation kit Œ Drivers for hardware. < < File system layout Hardware layout You need to know which: Œ Cards go in which slots Œ Cables go where (connector-by-connector) Labeling cables and connectors greatly reduces confusion < Phone numbers for: Œ Key users Œ Information services personnel Œ Facilities personnel Œ Other infrastructure personnel Œ Consultants (SAP. this list should be in sufficient detail to purchase or lease replacement hardware. etc. if original parts are no longer available. These should be part of a regular schedule task. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) or a SCSI controller. < < < Instructions to recall tapes from offsite data storage List of personnel authorized to recall tapes from offsite data storage This list must correspond to the list maintained by the data storage company. At this point.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster < Copies of: Œ SAP license for all instances Œ Service agreements (with phone numbers) for all servers Ensure that maintenance agreements are still valid and check if the agreements expired. A parts list If the server is destroyed. network. updates.

It includes: < < < < < < Cash collection Order processing Product shipping Bill paying Payroll processing Alternate locations to continue doing business :K\ Without an alternate process.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Planning for a Disaster < < < < Database: Œ Installation kit Œ Service packs. a tax package) Other software for the R/3 installation: Œ Utilities Œ Backup Œ UPS control program Œ Hardware monitor Œ FTP client Œ Remote control program Œ System monitor %XVLQHVV &RQWLQXDWLRQ 'XULQJ 5HFRYHU\ Business continuation during a recovery is an alternate process to continue doing business while recovering from a disaster. your company would be unable to do business. updates. to automate the database recovery For R/3: Œ Installation kit Œ Currently installed kernel Œ System profile files Œ tpparam file Œ saprouttab file Œ saplogon.6 A/B . and patches Œ Recovery scripts.ini Other R/3 integrated programs (for example. Some of the problems you would encounter include: < < < Orders cannot be entered Product cannot be shipped Money cannot be collected 2–14 Release 4.

< Test to find out if: Œ Your disaster recovery procedure works Œ Something changed. network. including: < < Manual paper-based Stand alone PC-based products 2IIVLWH 'LVDVWHU 5HFRYHU\ 6LWHV < < < Other company sites Commercial disaster recovery sites Share or rent space from other companies . Once you have actual times (not guesses or estimates). actual recovery times can only be determined by testing. Older hardware is no longer available Here.QWHJUDWLRQ ZLWK \RXU &RPSDQ\·V *HQHUDO 'LVDVWHU 3ODQQLQJ Because there are many dependencies. alternate planning is needed. Since many factors affect recovery time. or updated Œ There are steps that need clarification for others The information that is clear to the person documenting the procedure may be unclear to the person reading the procedure. the R/3 disaster recovery process must be integrated with your company’s general disaster planning. You may have to upgrade your hardware to be compatible with currently available equipment. etc. your disaster planning Œ System Administration Made Easy 2–15 .Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Test your Disaster Recovery Procedure +RZ There are many alternate processes. you do not know if you can actually recover your system. :KHQ WKH 5 6\VWHP 5HWXUQV How will the transactions that were handled with the alternate process be entered into R/3 when it is operational? 7HVW \RXU 'LVDVWHU 5HFRYHU\ 3URFHGXUH Unless you test your recovery process. A test is a simulated disaster recovery which verifies that you can recover the system and exercise every task outlined in the disaster recovery plan. product deliveries. mail. was not documented. This process includes telephone.

everyone will know what to do. 2–16 Release 4. the chaos of a disaster will be reduced. facilities. Generate a random disaster scenario. If you have multiple recovery sites. 2. You do not want to discover that you cannot recover at a site after a disaster occurs. since they may be needed to perform the recovery during an actual disaster. This way. These people will fill in for unavailable personnel. when a disaster occurs. The applications should be accounted for and protected in the company-wide disaster recovery planning. :KHUH < The disaster recovery test should be done at the same site that you expect to recover. The equipment.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Other Considerations becomes more credible. other up (or down) stream applications also need to be recovered with R/3. Some of these applications may be tightly associated with R/3. This procedure duplicates a real situation in which a key person is seriously injured or killed. If the procedure is practiced often. and configuration may be different at each site. < Personnel at other sites Integrate these people into the test. Execute your disaster plan to see if it handles the scenario. :KHQ A full disaster recovery should be practiced at least once a year. 2WKHU &RQVLGHUDWLRQV 2WKHU 8SVWUHDP RU 'RZQVWUHDP $SSOLFDWLRQV For the company to function. A backup onsite server Another company site At another company where you have a mutual support agreement A company that provides disaster recovery site and services < < < < :KR 6KRXOG 3DUWLFLSDWH < Primary and backup personnel who will do the job during a real disaster recovery A provision should be made that some of the key personnel are to be unavailable during a disaster recovery. Execute your disaster recovery plan on a backup system or at an offsite location. perform a test recovery at each site. A test procedure might involve randomly picking a name and declare that person unavailable to participate. Document all specific items that need to be completed for each site.6 A/B . +RZ 1. 3.

Such tasks include: Œ Deleting the test database Check that the delete command specifies the Test. not an existing drive with data on it. you may not have a site to recover to. if others have booked it before you. such as an earthquake or flood. get a second opinion before you start. Œ Œ System Administration Made Easy 2–17 . %DFNXS 6LWHV Having a contract with a disaster recovery site does not guarantee that the site will be available. In a regional disaster. not the Production. Some of these ideas seem obvious. If you have to do a dangerous task. 0LQLPL]H +XPDQ (UURU Many disasters are caused by human error. Formatting a new drive Verify that the drive to be formatted is the new drive. database. but it is these ideas that are often forgotten. Reduced performance and transaction throughput must be considered. < Dangerous tasks should be scripted and checkpoints included to verify the steps. In this situation. Examples: < < A reduced batch schedule of only critical jobs Only essential business tasks will be done while on the recovery system 0LQLPL]LQJ WKH &KDQFHV IRU D 'LVDVWHU There are many ways to minimize chances for a disaster. file. many other companies will be competing for the same commercial disaster sites. The emergency backup site may not have equipment of the same performance level as your production system. such as a mistake or a tired operator. Do not attempt dangerous tasks when you are tired.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Minimizing the Chances for a Disaster Applications located on only one person’s desktop computer must be backed up to a safe location. Moving a file Verify that the target file (to be overwritten) is the old. not the new.

If the circuit breaker opens. A power failure in the air conditioning system causes an environmental (air conditioning) failure in the server room. The hardware failure causes a database corruption. which increases the complexity of a problem. If the data center is destroyed. the backup server is also destroyed. &DVFDGH )DLOXUHV A cascade failure is when one failure triggers additional failures. In this case. ([DPSOH $ &DVFDGH )DLOXUH 1. The overheating causes a hardware failure in the server. 3. To minimize single-point failure: < < < Identify conditions where a single-point failure can occur Anticipate what will happen if this component or process fails Eliminate as many of these single points of failure as practical. a system that monitors the air conditioning system or the temperature in the server room could alert the appropriate employees before the temperature in the server room becomes too hot. 4. 2–18 Release 4. and all the servers will crash. In addition. such as: Œ Network equipment Œ Phone system Œ Other servers The recovery becomes complex because: < < Fixing one problem may uncover other problems or damaged equipment. Certain items cannot be tested or fixed until other equipment is operational. overheating can damage many things. Without cooling. The recovery involves the coordinated fixing of many problems. the temperature in the server room rises above the equipment’s acceptable operating temperature. All the R/3 servers are on a single electrical circuit.6 A/B . Types of single points of failure include: < < The backup R/3 server is located in the same data center as the production R/3 server. everything on that circuit loses power.Chapter 2: Disaster Recovery Minimizing the Chances for a Disaster 0LQLPL]H 6LQJOH 3RLQWV RI )DLOXUH A single-point failure is when the failure of one component causes the entire system to fail. Practical is defined as the level of work involved or cost compared to the level of risk and failure. 2.

...................................................................................................................................................3–24 System Administration Made Easy 3–1 ........3–2 Backup ......................................................3–20 Useful SAP Notes.......................................................................&KDSWHU  %DFNXS DQG 5HFRYHU\ &RQWHQWV Overview ........................3–2 Restore..............................................3–3 Tape Management....................................................................................3–13 Performance ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

see chapter 23. This way. problem identification. There are many situations other than disk failures that may require a restore and recovery. Procedures. and handling must be well documented so all individuals clearly understand their roles and required tasks.) The business requirement for speed in a restore is driven by the need to get the system quickly operational after a disaster. the company can continue to do business. This process entails a restore of all. This chapter discusses backup and restore of your system.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Overview 2YHUYLHZ The most important aspect of a technical implementation is establishing an effective backup and recovery strategy. 5HVWRUH Usually a restore is done to: < < < Recover after a disaster Test your disaster recovery plan Copy your database to another system (For additional details on the first two items. 6WUDWHJ\ Business recovery time is the result of the time needed to: < < < < < < < < Find the problem Repair the damage Restore the database Business cost of downtime to recover Operational schedule Global or local users Number of transactions an hour Budget Factors that affect the chosen restore strategy include: 3–2 Release 4. The details of a specific database are covered in the database administration chapter(s). of the database after hardware or software errors and a recovery during which the system is updated to a point just before the failure. or part. see chapter 2. and for details on the last item. This strategy should also not adversely impact daily business. The information in this chapter will help you better understand the concepts that enhance your operating environment and access the methods that best suit your needs. Your backup strategy should be as uncomplicated as possible. Complications in backup strategy can create difficult situations during restoration and recovery.6A/B .

or be missing other files. Work with your DBA or consultant to test and document the restore process for your system. database recovery must be regularly maintained and tested. contact a specialist or your Basis consultant. 'DWDEDVH :KDW This is the core of the R/3 system and your data. you cannot recover the system. it can backup the database and the transaction log. If a restore must be done. using the SAP DBA Calendar DB13 for on Microsoft SQL Server. All the logs for each day (since the full backup) must now be applied to bring the system current. 7HVWLQJ 5HFRYHU\ Since the restore procedure is one of the key issues of the R/3 System. %DFNXS Backup is like insurance. :KHQ The frequency of a full database backup determines how many days back in time you must go to begin the restore: < < If a daily full backup is done. See chapter 2. There may be special data that you must record about your database to recover it. This critical task has specific system dependencies. Only logs since yesterday’s backup need to be applied to bring the system current. Disaster Recovery. Example. and we leave it to a specialist to teach. If a weekly full backup is done. :KDW WR %DFNXS DQG :KHQ There are three categories of files to backup: < Database < < Log files Operating system files Note. you will need last week’s full backup. Without the database backup.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup The actual process to restore R/3 and the database will not be covered in this book. you will need yesterday’s full backup. If the restore is not done properly and completely. you may need to use different tools to backup all the files. Some tools may only be able to backup one or two of the three categories of files that need to be backed up. System Administration Made Easy 3–3 . Work with your specialist to identify and document this data. With proper training. you should be able to do the restore. but not the operating system files. You only need a backup if you need to restore your system. it could fail and must be restarted.

is 80 minutes (1.3 hours). This step lengthens the recovery process time and increases the risk of not being able to recover to the current time.6A/B . As you can see. the weekly backup takes four times longer to recover than a daily backup. we recommend that you do a full monthly database backup in addition to the full daily backups. ([DPSOH  :HHNO\ %DFNXS A restore from last night’s full backup < < < < There are maximum of 10 logs a day. It takes 30 minutes to restore the log file from tape to disk (10 log x 3 minutes per log). is 320 minutes (5. because so many logs need to be applied. This backup reduces the risk of not getting a current database backup because of a “bad” (unusable) log file. It takes 50 minutes to restore the log files to the database (10 logs x 5 minutes per log). It takes 120 minutes to restore the log file from tape to disk (40 log x 3 minutes per log). These examples show that the time it takes to do a log restore depends on how many days back you have to go to get to the last full backup. Also consider maintaining two backup cycles of the logs on disk to reduce the need to restore these logs from tape. For additional safety. A total of 40 logs (10 logs per day × 4 days) need to be restored. It takes 200 minutes to restore the log files to the database (40 logs x 5 minutes per log). excluding database files. The total time to do the restore. Increasing the frequency of the full backup (with less days between full backups) reduces the recovery time.3 hours). A point may be reached when it would take too long to restore the logs. If a daily full backup is not done. < < < < < There are 10 logs a day.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup A daily full backup reduces the number of logs that need to be applied to bring the database current. The total time to do the restore. 3–4 Release 4. more logs would need to be applied. ([DPSOH  :HHNO\ %DFNXS A restore from last week’s full backup that was done four days ago. excluding database files.

These logs contain a record of the changes made to the database.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup 7UDQVDFWLRQ /RJV :KDW Transaction logs are critical to the database recovery. You can only recover to the last good log on Tuesday. Back up the backup of the transaction logs on both servers (the R/3 server and the offsite backup file server) to tape each day along with the other operating system-level files. and no further processing can be done in the database (and consequently) in R/3. This backup file server should ideally be in another building or in another city. Transaction log is stored in a directory. If your transaction volume is high. 3. a log on Tuesday is corrupt. which must not be allowed to become full. System Administration Made Easy 3–5 . :KHQ The frequency of the log backups is a business decision based on: < < < < Transaction volume Critical period(s) for the system Amount of data senior management is willing to lose Resources to perform the backups and take them offsite Also see the examples in the database section above. If you have to restore and one log is corrupted. the database will stop. decrease the time interval between log backups. Everything after that is lost. you cannot restore past the corrupt log. This reduced time interval decreases the amount of data that could be lost in a potential data center disaster. It is important to be proactive and periodically back up the transaction logs. Refer to the chapter specific to your database for more information. A separate location increases the chance that the log files will be preserved if the primary data center (containing the R/3 servers) is destroyed. 2. If the transaction log fills the available filespace. Copy the backup of the transaction log to an offsite backup file server. Backup the transport log to disk. which is used to roll forward (or back) operations. It is critical to have a complete chain of valid log backups. Weekly Full Backups If the system crashes on Thursday. +RZ To back up transaction logs: 1.

are for: < < Operating environment (for example.6A/B . :KHQ The frequency of the operating system level backup depends on the specific application. which must also be backed up. back up the transaction log backups to tape after each log backup and immediately send the tape offsite. If a data center disaster occurs. An example of this situation is a tax program that stores its sales tax data in files external to the R/3 database. the above list should only require several hundred megabytes to a few gigabytes of storage. some of the data could be “static” and may not change for months. Use the sample schedule below to determine your backup frequency: %DFNXS 7\SHV Backup types is like a three-dimension matrix. These files must be in sync with the sales orders in the system. < The amount of data is small in relation to the R/3 database. à 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP /HYHO )LOHV :KDW Operating system level files. If these application files must be kept in sync with the R/3 System. you can back up those files to tape. This process minimizes file downtime. if stored at the operating system level (system profile: rspo/store_location = G) Œ Change management transport files located in /usr/sap/trans Other R/3 related applications Œ Interface or add-on products.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup If you do not have an offsite backup server. Depending on how your system is used. system and network configuration) R/3 files Œ Spool files. the tape with all these logs will be lost. from the second server. they must be backed up at the same frequency as the log backup files. Do not back up the logs to the tape drive in “append” mode and append multiple backups on the same tape. that store their data or configuration outside the R/3 database. A simple and fast method to back up operating system files is to copy all data file directories to disk on a second server. where any combination can be used: < < < What is backed up: full database vs incremental of the logs How the backup taken: online vs offline When the backup is made: scheduled vs nonscheduled (ad-hoc) 3–6 Release 4. such as those used for EDI or taxes. In addition.

to do a differential backup you must execute the differential backup using Microsoft SQL Server tools. A differential backup is a backup of only what has changed since the last full backup. Disadvantages: Œ Takes longer to run than an incremental log backup. Disadvantages: A full backup is needed. Because of the longer backup window there is more impact on the users while the backup is running. a full backup on the weekend and incremental backups during the week. as a starting point to restore the database. A full database backup is still required on a periodic basis. Advantages: Œ The entire database is backed up at once. a full backup on the weekend and differential backups during the week. there is less impact to the users. A full database backup is still required on a periodic basis. then all log backups since the full backup. Œ To restore the database takes significantly longer and is more complicated than restoring a full backup. The usual arrangement is. The last full database backup must be restored. < Incremental backup of the transaction logs A backup of the transaction logs. you must use other tools to perform a differential backup. This can be many logs if for example the system crashed on Friday. System Administration Made Easy 3–7 . There are less logs that need to be applied to bring the restored database current. Differential backup Œ < Depending on your database and operating system.V %DFNHG 8S < Full database backup A backup of the entire database. Advantages: Œ The exposure to a corrupt log backup is reduced. Each differential backup is backing up all the changes to the database since the last full backup. you may (or may not) have a third option. making the restore of the database easier and faster. Œ If one log cannot be restored. Differential backup is not supported from within R/3 using DB13. all the logs after that point cannot be restored.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup :KDW . The usual arrangement is. Œ Disadvantages: Like the incremental log backup. Advantages: Œ Much faster than a full database backup. a full backup is needed as the starting point. Œ Microsoft SQL Server. Because of the smaller backup window. then the logs from Monday through Friday have to be applied.

< Online An online backup is taken with the database and R/3 running. Therefore. Since buffers are not flushed. Œ Related operating system level files may be out of sync with the R/3 database.6A/B . Œ Backup time is increased because processes such as R/3 are running and competing for system resources. Advantages: Œ R/3 is available to users during a backup. there is no impact on performance. If you are using online backups. Advantages: Œ An offline backup is faster than an online backup. the transaction logs are critical to successfully recovering the database. the related operating system files will be in sync with the R/3 database. It starts as being short (just after the full backup) and gets longer as more data is changed. 3–8 Release 4.V 7DNHQ < Offline An offline backup is taken with the database and R/3 System down. Œ Data may change in the database while it is being backed up.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup Œ The backup window for a differential is longer than a transaction log backup. the transaction logs become critical to a successful recovery. This process will impact performance until the buffers are populated. Disadvantages: Œ An online backup is slower than an offline backup (a longer backup time). Disadvantages: Œ R/3 is unavailable during an offline backup. Œ The buffers are not flushed. Œ If the files are backed up at the same time. +RZ WKH %DFNXS . there is no issue with data changing in the database. This is needed where the system is running and used 24 hours a day and seven days a week. once the backup is complete. Œ Online performance is degraded while the backup is running. Œ During the backup. Œ Buffers for R/3 and the database are flushed.

there are additional tools you can use to administer backup and restores. configure a scheduled backup. It also has the ability to process essential database checks and update statistics. it is more common to use tools at the database level such as Enterprise Manager (Microsoft SQL Server) or SAPDBA (Oracle and Informix). provides historical information to review backup statistics and tape management information. The DBA Planning Calendar (transaction DB13) is designed for scheduling backups. such as daily or weekly.V 0DGH < Scheduled Scheduled backups are those that are run on a regular schedule. or on-demand. Backups that are controlled directly by an operator. can be performed either by the DBA Planning Calendar (transaction DB13). such as for an R/3 upgrade. (The more coverage you want. you should achieve the following goals: < < < < Provide a reliable backup that can be restored. the more the System Administration Made Easy 3–9 . At the operating system or database level. Reduce the number of dependencies required for operation. Automated backups should use the DBA Planning Calendar (transaction DB13). The other tool. It is done before a major change to the system. It is difficult to define the concept of acceptable outage. at the database. Although the DBA Planning Calendar can schedule backups for periodic use. time. Regardless of the chosen backup method. the status of the backups can be viewed using Backup Logs overview (transaction DB12). For normal operations. Determine the recovery requirements based on an acceptable outage. spent on recovery. The cost of what is an outage includes productivity loss. Provide the above items with little or no impact to business units. In general. or at operating system level. money. backups and other processes configured here can be viewed in the Batch Processing Monitors (transaction SM37). This calendar provides the ability to set up and review backup cycles. Depending on the operating platform. the CCMS Monitoring tool (transaction DB12). etc.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup :KHQ WKH %DFNXS . it can also be used to perform an immediate backup. You can also set up CCMS to process the backup of transaction logs. These tools include SQL Enterprise Manager (Microsoft SQL Server) and SAPDBA (Oracle and Informix). To design your backup procedures: 1. For an on-demand backup. %DFNXS 6WUDWHJ\ 'HVLJQ SAP provides tools under CCMS-DB Administration in R/3 to assist in implementing your strategy. < On-demand On-demand backup is done on an ad hoc basis. This cost should be evaluated in a manner similar to insurance. Keep the backup simple. because “acceptable” is subjective and will vary from company to company.

In CCMS. 7UDQVDFWLRQ /RJ %DFNXS If transaction log backup is performed during normal system operation. Review the section on performance to decide which method is best. the faster the recovery time requirements. year-end).Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup insurance will cost. but more importantly. No special archiving is required for offline backup. not just the ones you think might be used. the database remains in a consistent state. 2. should be performed offline. who should perform various tasks. 4. *HQHUDO 3URFHGXUHV %DFNXS The unattended backup is performed based on the backup frequency table. Test your recovery procedures by creating various failure situations. Determine what hardware. This information will aid further evaluation and capacity planning decisions and provide useful comparison information as needed. 3–10 Release 4. Extra backups. Ensure that you get results from all types of backup that could be used in your environment. The scheduling functionality of the R/3 CCMS is used to schedule the backup. you will not know that you have properly backed up everything onto tape. (Since the backup is performed offline. 6XSSOHPHQWDU\ %DFNXSV Supplementary backups are made on special days (month-end. Follow the “Keep It Simple” (KISS) rule.) 9HULI\LQJ %DFNXSV Backups must be verified following a regular schedule. the required tapes can be listed by choosing theVolumes Needed button on the backup scheduling screen. who should be notified. You can also find the tapes needed by choosing Volumes Needed. Testing is not a one-time event. etc.6A/B . so that you can restore the database to a previous state. It should occur regularly. Test your backup procedures by implementing the hardware and reviewing the actual run times and test results. such as the monthly and yearly backup. 3. with additional tests as hardware or software components change. Document all aspects of the recovery including the process. software and process combinations can deliver the desired solution. there is no user impact. Unless the backup is verified. make sure your method is reliable. Remember that a recovery will be needed when you least expect it so be prepared. the more expensive the solution. Transaction DB13 and other backup utilities provide buttons such as Verify Backup to perform this task.) Therefore.

but the “append” switch was not properly set for second and later files. 'DWDEDVH . the database must be checked at least once during a retention period.QWHJULW\ An integrity check of the database must be performed in one retention period to ensure that no corrupted blocks exist in the database. it would not detect that the previous file was erased. all logs must be printed and placed in the folder. inconsistent database. If it was done after each file. File verify has to be done after all files have been backed up.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup ([DPSOH A backup of several files was done. 0RQLWRULQJ&RQWUROOLQJ For each system. the tape was rewound and the backed up. These blocks may go unrecognized during backup (see the chapter written for your database for more information). Consequently. To avoid backing up a hidden. The end result was that only the last backed up file was on the tape. after backing up the database and finishing the archives. for each file. rather than appending the files one after the other. System DEV QAS PRD Frequency of DB Checks Every 2 weeks Every 2 weeks Every week 5ROHV DQG 5HVSRQVLELOLWLHV Task Backup Database Backup Archives Verifying Backups Monitoring/Controlling Database check Role Operator Operator Operator/DBA Operator/DBA DBA System Administration Made Easy 3–11 .

Similarly. a full backup should be taken weekly. they must be backed up with the same frequency and at the same time as the database and log backups. and a Finance department that closes at 10:00 p.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Backup 'HVLJQ 5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV < Database Assuming the size of your database and backup window permits it. < Transaction Logs Backing up the transaction logs is critical. $ 6WUDWHJ\ &KHFNOLVW It is important to set up a proper procedure to back up the valuable system information. you would need to extend the start and end times. which stops R/3. if you have a Shipping department that opens at 3:00 a.m. and 9:00 p. < Operating System Level Files The frequency of the operating system level backup depends on the application. decide where (in CCMS or elsewhere). If the filespace is used up. An option for a non-sync-critical situation is to back up these operating system level files once a day. and database authorizations Create a volume labeling scheme to ensure smooth operations Decide on a backup retention period Determine tape pool size (tapes needed per day × retention + 20 percent) Allow for growth and special needs. we recommend that you back up these logs at least every three hours. A company with high transaction volume carries higher risk and would increase the frequency accordingly.m. operating system.6A/B . Procedures should be defined as early as possible to prevent possible data loss. Initialize tapes Determine physical tape storage strategy Decide whether to use unattended operations If using unattended operations.. Provide ample disk space for the transaction log directory Consider using DBA Planning Calendar (DB13) to schedule transaction log backups Set the appropriate R/3. If these files must be kept in sync with R/3. For databases that are too large for daily full database backup.m.. perhaps to every hour. we recommend a full database backup be taken every day. Document backup procedures in operations manual Train operators in backup procedures 3–12 Release 4.m. Resolve the following list of backup issues before you go live: < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < Decide how often to perform complete database backups Decide whether partial or differential backups are necessary Decide when to perform transaction log backups Have the ability to save a day’s worth of logs on the server. the database will stop. Between 6:00 a.

and PRD is a production system. you must use the label specified by the software. Three simple methods are described in the examples below. QAS is a quality assurance system.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Tape Management < < < Implement a backup strategy Perform a test restore and recovery Define an emergency plan and determine who to contact in case of an emergency %DFNXS 3URFHGXUHV DQG 3ROLFLHV Backup policies and procedures should be defined as early as possible to prepare for potential data loss during an implementation.) < Hardware Components The hardware listed in the table below is to backup and restore the database and transaction logs: System Name DEV QAS PRD Backup Hardware 1 x DLT 7000 35/70 GB. Third-party backup management software may assign their own tracking number for the labels. DEV is a development system. Some examples of policies and procedures are included below: < System Environment In the three-system landscape. you need to track and document them. 2 DDS-3 12/24 7DSH 0DQDJHPHQW 7UDFNLQJ DQG 'RFXPHQWLQJ To easily retrieve tapes from storage. CCMS backs up and restores the software components. 1 DDS-3 12/24 1 x DLT 7000 35/70 GB. Two of these methods are used by R/3 and are important if you use DB13 to schedule your backups. 1 DDS-3 12/24 2 x DLT 7000 35/70 GB. System Administration Made Easy 3–13 . In this case. The issues are: < < < < Labeling Tracking Handling Retention requirement /DEHOLQJ Tapes should be clearly labeled using one of many labeling methods. (In the three-system landscape in this guidebook.

5 had a different naming convention.) PRDB25 PRD (Production db) + B (Brbackup/Database) + 25 (tape number 25) 3–14 Release 4.0. Each label has the following data: < What is backed up: R = R/3 database or transaction log M = msdb database S = master database C = combination Type of backup: L = transaction log D = database F = file G = file group + = differential Day of the month (01-31) Parallel or Sequential backup (P or S) Sample Label: < < < RD06S R (R/3) + D (database) + 06 (6th day of the month) + S (sequential) ([DPSOH  This six-character naming convention is used by SAPDBA and BRBACKUP (Oracle).Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Tape Management ([DPSOH  This five-character naming convention is used by DB13 on Microsoft SQL Server 7.6A/B . Microsoft SQL server 6. (see SAP note 141118). starting from 1 and is unrelated to the date. Each label has the following data: < < System ID <SID> What is backed up B = database A = log O = operating system files Sequence number of the tape Sample Label: < (This number is a sequential tape number.

for all of above naming conventions. An example of a color scheme is: < < < PRD = orange QAS = green DEV = white 7UDFNLQJ Tapes should be logged to track where they are stored. tapes should be tracked and documented when they are: < < < < < < < Used Sent to offsite storage Returned from offsite storage Moved to a new location Date of backup Database Tape number To help you track and retrieve the offsite backup. log the: System Administration Made Easy 3–15 . the first tape) If DB13 is not used. A color scheme is one more indicator to help identify the tape and reduce confusion. Each label has the following data: < < System ID <SID> What is backed up db = database tl = transaction log os = operating system files Day of the month Multiple tape indicator for a single day (can be omitted if only one tape is used) Sample Label: < < PRD-db-06-a PRD (Production database) + db (database) + 06 (6th day of the month) + a (tape “a”.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Tape Management ([DPSOH  This method is more visual. where the length of the label name is less of a limitation. use a different color label for each system. additional codes can be used to indicate additional types of files that are backed up. so you can locate them when you need them. In addition to tracking and documenting tapes when tape locations change. In addition to the naming schemes.

Insert it in the collection box. When changing tapes. so that they can track them internally to their system and facility. Remove the tape cartridge from the tape drive. or the backup program will reject the tape. Remove the next tape. The backup program reads the tape header for the 3–16 Release 4.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Tape Management < < < < Tape storage company’s number Some storage companies label the cartridges with their own tracking label. We recommend that you use two boxes. carry them in a protected box to minimize damage and potential data loss if they are accidentally dropped. 4. The second box should be empty when you finish changing tapes. you must use the correct tape for that day. If you are using preinitialized tapes. The box should have foam cutouts for each tape cartridge you use. After all tapes have been removed. One box should collect the tapes to be sent offsite. 3. an ideal tape collection device is a small or medium-sized plastic tool box with a foam insert that has cutouts for each tape cartridge. Plastic is used because it is nonmagnetic. For a small company.6A/B . and a second box should contain the new backup tapes. 2. to avoid confusion: < Handle one tape cartridge at a time < Follow the same procedure each time To change tapes: 1. OS level backup tape number Date sent offsite Date returned The table below is an example: Date Volume Label Purpose Notes Storage Company Label X7563 X7564 Out Back 7/15/98 7/15/98 +DQGOLQJ PRDB01 PRDO23 Database Operating Sys 7/15/98 7/15/98 7/30/98 8/15/98 When you transport tape cartridges. insert the new tapes in the drive in the same manner.

it might be overwritten by another program that ignores the tape header. However. How far back you go depends on the level of corruption. Retention is related to your backup cycle. If this is a significant amount of time. When you initialize a tape. < Since R/3 is an online real-time system. The tape cannot be overwritten by that same program before the expiration date. it is unlikely that the backup can be restored without excessive cost—if at all.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Tape Management initialization information (which includes the tape label name) and compares it to the next label in the sequence. and the R/3 System have each been upgraded twice since the backup. the number of logs could be tremendous. Therefore. The practical side of data retention is that you may be unable to realistically restore an old backup. Check with your company’s legal department on complying with federal. database. and local data retention requirements. The next section discusses the importance of retention requirements. It is important to have several generations of full backups and all their logs because: < < If the database is corrupted. Keep track which tape cartridges: < < < Have been used Are to be sent offsite Are to be loaded in the drives It is easy to accidentally put the wrong tape cartridge in a drive and destroy the recent backup or cause the next backup to fail. Complying with these requirements should be discussed with your legal and finance departments. If the operating system. System Administration Made Easy 3–17 . and consultants. you must apply all the logs since that backup. to recover the database from a full database backup. the number of logs you may need to apply is a practical constraint to how far back you can recover. 5HWHQWLRQ 5HTXLUHPHQWV There are legal requirements that determine data retention. some programs write an expiration date on the tape. you will have to return to the last full backup before the database corruption. external auditors. The retention requirement should then be documented. state. If the last full backup is corrupted. you will have to return to the previous full backup before the corruption or disaster and roll forward using the backup of the logs from that backup until the corruption.

Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Tape Management 5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV < < If a full database backup is taken each day. :K\ An offsite storage safeguards the backups if your facility is destroyed. but the administrator must comply with the final decision. To determine the retention period. If the disaster is confined to the building where the data center is located. 6WRUDJH 2IIVLWH :KDW The offsite storage site is a separate facility (building or campus) from the R/3 data center. we recommend that you keep at least two weeks of backups and all the logs for these weeks. If a full database backup is taken weekly.) for extended periods. As a policy. < Tape Retention Period Even if one tape (backup/archive) is damaged or lost. administrators must consult the departments that are impacted. as defined by your legal department and auditors. year-end. etc. System Name DEV QAS PRD Regular Backup 14 days 14 days 31 days Month-End Backup Quarter-End Backup Year-End Backup Archives 31 days 31 days 31 days 24 months 2 years 4 years System administrators cannot determine tape retention periods on their own. 3–18 Release 4. such as accounting and legal. :KHUH The magnitude of the disaster will determine what is considered adequate protection: < Sending tapes to a separate location in the building or another building in the campus will be sufficient. quarter-end. There is room for some negotiation.6A/B . the tape retention period assures the ability to recover the database. you should go back at least three generations. this decision must be written down. The traditional three generations of backup are: Œ Grandfather Œ Father Œ Son Store selected backup sets (month-end.

If not. a flood or earthquake) adequate protection means sending tapes to a distant location several hundred miles away. The problem is determining if there is a strong magnetic field near the tape storage location.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Tape Management < If the disaster is local or regional (for example. All the tapes used in a daily backup should be considered as a set. If there is a data center disaster and the backup tapes are destroyed. The offsite data storage facility or vendor should have a certified data storage site. +RZ Tape cartridges should be properly stored. send the tapes offsite immediately. System Administration Made Easy 3–19 . following the tape manufacturer’s storage requirements. if operating system files are not restored with database and log files. Offsite data storage can be at a separate company facility or a commercial data storage company. everything since this backup is lost. it is critical to send the tapes offsite immediately. comprising backups for: < < < Database Logs Operating system files Tapes and files in a set need to be restored as a set. 2QVLWH :KDW Onsite storage means storing your data in the same facility as your data center. Once the backup is complete. keep all related tape cartridges together. A vacuum cleaner motor or a large electric motor on the opposite side of the wall from where the data tapes are stored can generate a magnetic field strong enough to damage tapes. the operating system files will not be in sync with the database and critical information will be missing. you can only recover to the last full backup that you have offsite. For example. The most difficult requirement to comply with is magnetic fields. For log backups. When storing tape cartridges. Data tapes have different handling and storage requirements than paper.

< Hardware throughput This variable limits how fast the backup can run and is defined by the slowest link in the backup chain such as: Œ Database drive array Œ I/O channel that is used Œ Tape drive 3–20 Release 4. Additional performance can always be purchased. The key is to reduce backup time. This window is driven by the need to minimize the impact on users. certain company operations may not occur. which in turn reduces the impact on the users. Œ An online backup The backup window for this backup type is defined as the time when there are the fewest users on the system and is usually done early in the morning. Œ An offline backup The backup window for this backup type is defined by when and for how long R/3 can be brought down and is usually done during the weekend. Backup window The backup window is the time allocated for you to take the regular backups of the system. To increase performance: 1. 2. When doing a backup. This iterative process is subject to cost considerations. Eliminate the bottleneck. This determines how long the R/3 system will be down and not available for use. the longer it will take to back up. There are three major variables that affect performance: < < Database size The larger the database. %DFNXS All of the backup performance items that follow also apply to restoring the database. Identify the bottleneck or device that is limiting the throughput. especially if the system is global or used 24 hours a day. which is almost always a business cost justification exercise. With R/3 down.6A/B . Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the performance is adequate or the additional cost is no longer justified.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Performance 3HUIRUPDQFH The most important performance target is the time required to restore the database. it is important to minimize the impact on users. Backup performance is important.

so will the tape space requirement.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Performance %DFNXS 2SWLRQV Our backup options assume that the backup device is local to the database server. As technology advances. you will need to provide tape space for the entire 20 GB database.4 20 / 34 35 / 60 40/68 1. We recommend that you investigate what is currently available at the time of your purchase. Although technically possible.1 3. as opposed to the typical 2x compression ratio.2 18 / 30. A 20 GB database with only 9 GB of data will only require 9 GB of tape space. %DFN 8S WR )DVWHU 'HYLFHV All of the backup options attempt to eliminate the bottleneck at the backup device. and traffic. If a backup is done over the network. is the throughput-limiting device. these values will become obsolete.8 12 / 20. a two-hour backup of a 60 GB database to a DLT7000). performing a backup over a network is beyond the scope of this guidebook.1 5. Advantages: Faster and larger capacity tape drives allow you to back up an entire database on a single tape cartridge in a reasonable period of time (for example. The actual compression ratio and rate depends on the nature of the file and how much it can be compressed. A backup performed over a network will be affected by network topology. System Administration Made Easy 3–21 . usually a tape drive.7 The compressed capacity values in this table assume the use of hardware compression and use a more conservative 1.6 / 6.6 21.4 / 9. The backup device. However. if you are backing up at the operating system level. overhead. The table below contains capacity and throughput values to help you plan tape drive selection: Type DAT (DDS-2) DAT (DDS-3) DLT 4000 DLT 7000 DLT 8000 Capacity (GB) (native/compressed) Rate (GB/hr) (native/compressed) 4 / 6.6/36. As the volume of data in the database increases. it will decrease performance for other network users. and the capacity and throughput of tape drives increases. Rarely is the full capacity of the network available. the entire file is being backed up. Therefore.8 / 3.7x ratio.

and not the live database. In certain environments. The more tapes you have in a set. total performance is significantly faster than if you were using a single tape drive. and I/O bus. you are limited to the maximum capacity of the tape cartridge. Not all databases and backup tools support tape changers or libraries. < Unless an automated changer or library is used. %DFNLQJ 8S WR 'LVNV 7KHQ WR 7DSH Advantages: < For the database. R/3 System performance is minimally affected. This subsystem includes the tape drive(s). is required. Because the tape backup is made from the disk copy. < Until the backup to tape is completed. If one tape is bad. < Disadvantages: < Significant additional disk space. all the tapes in the set must be readable. To restore a parallel backup. Once the backup has been made to disk. 3–22 Release 4. This additional space makes this option the most expensive. CPU. With sufficient tape drives in parallel.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Performance Disadvantages: < A backup to a single tape drive is the slowest option. up to the same amount of space as the database. make certain that these tools are compatible before purchasing them. the recovery can be done from the on-disk backup. controller(s). the entire backup set will not be usable. During an onsite disaster recovery to the same equipment. in which several tape drives are written to in parallel. but Microsoft SQL Server Enterprise Manager and NT Backup do not. the backup to tape is not competing with database activity for significant system resources. one for onsite storage and one for offsite storage). the greater the chance that one tape will be bad. a controller or bus is the limiting factor. You must consider the performance of each subsystem when using tape drives in parallel. Under most situations. you are vulnerable to a data center disaster. this option is the fastest. For example. the bottleneck can be shifted from the tape drives to another component. individual tablespaces or files are simultaneously backed up to separate tape drives.6A/B . you can back up to disk faster than to tape. In many configurations. like Oracle. Because you are writing to multiple tape drives in parallel. SAPDBA supports tape changers. without manually changing the cartridge. 3DUDOOHO %DFNXS Backing up to multiple tape drives uses a RAID-0 (stripe) array. < < This option allows you to make several identical backup copies (for example. especially for a large database.

only one tablespace or file is written to the drive. you do not have head contention writing another tablespace to the same drive. This process increases the time to recover the system. 5HVWRUH 2SWLRQV To increase database restore performance. In most cases. all of the above database backup options are valid. The option also exists to restore to a faster disk array with a higher data-write throughput. RAID type Mirrored stripe (RAID 0+1) is faster than RAID5. The goal is to restore the database and related files to make the system quickly available for general use. There are different ways to restore to a faster disk array: < Dedicated drives In conjunction with parallel backups. the greater the impact on your business. then execute the database recovery from the files on disk. but this speed depends on the specific hardware.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Performance < In a major disaster recovery. There are other options available for a faster backup. the task of computing the parity data for the parity drive (RAID5) takes more time than it would to write all the data twice (RAID 0+1). The longer this restore takes. such as the various High Availability options. Recovery performance determines how quickly the system will be available for use and how soon business can continue. restoring files and tablespaces to individually dedicated disk drives makes the process faster. This option is expensive because the usable capacity is 50 percent of the total raw capacity— significantly less than RAID5: Œ RAID 0+1 = [single_drive_capacity × (number_of_drives/2)] Œ RAID5 = [single_drive_capacity × (number of drives – 1)] Drives with faster write performance Drive array “system” with faster write performance < < < System Administration Made Easy 3–23 . Because at any one time. but these options are beyond the scope of this guidebook. 5HFRYHU\ The performance requirement for a recovery is more critical than for backup. you have to first restore the files to disk.

6A/B .0 Configuration Parameter for Microsoft SQL 7.new command line option –analyze ORA-00020: max number of processes exceeded SAPDBA .0 2UDFOH 68059 43499 43491 43486 43484 42293 34432 31073 21568 16513 15465 04754 03807 02425 01042 SAPDBA .new command lines -next.option -next with tablespace list All collective notes concerning DBA Tools Collective note: SAPDBA – Command line options Collective note: General SAPDBA Collective note: General DBA SAPDBA .shrinking a tablespace Buffer synchronization in centralized systems Tablespace PSAPROLL.Chapter 3: Backup and Recovery Useful SAP Notes 8VHIXO 6$3 1RWHV SAPNet – R/3 Frontend Note # Description 0LFURVRIW 64/ 6HUYHU 141118 102467 50990 142731 28667 128126 111372 126808 New Scheduling calendar in the CCMS (DB13) SQL Server 7 Online documentation for SQL Server with SAP DB-Backup/Restore of Microsoft SQL Server DBCC checks for SQL Server 7 Microsoft SQL Specific Profile Parameters Database Connect for external tools Standby Database for Microsoft SQL 7. -analyze SAPDBA: Warning: only one member of online redo File system is full—what do I do? SAPDBA . rollback segments too small Function of tablespaces/DBspaces on the database ORACLE TWO_TASK connect failed 3–24 Release 4.

.....................................&KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG 'DLO\ 7DVNV &RQWHQWV Overview ........................................................4–3 The R/3 System ..................................................4–7 The R/3 System ...............................................................................4–6 Operating System ......................4–9 System Administration Made Easy 4–1 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4–8 Critical Tasks..................................................................................................................................4–7 Notes ..................................................................4–2 Critical Tasks...................................................4–4 Database .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................4–6 Other..........

The checklists provided for your convenience include: < Critical tasks < < < < < R/3 System Database Operating system Other Notes 4–2 Release 4.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Overview 2YHUYLHZ We have provided sample checklists that you may use and modify depending upon your specific needs.6A/B .

Database backup run time.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks &ULWLFDO 7DVNV System: __________ Date: ____/____/____ Admin: _____________________ Task Check that the R/3 System is up. Check off/Initial System Administration Made Easy 4–3 . DB12 – Backup Logs: Overview 13 Transaction Chapter Procedure Log onto the R/3 System Check database backup. Check that daily backups executed without errors. Check operating system level backup Operating system backup run time.

Check work processes (started from SM51).0) SM50 – Process Overview SM13 – Update Records Chapter 16 & 10 10 Procedure Check that all servers are up. Check the CCMS alert monitor (4. 4–4 Release 4. Transaction SM51 – SAP Servers RZ20 – CCMS Monitor (4. Look for alerts. Look for any failed updates (update terminates). Check for: < Errors < Warnings < Security messages < Abends < Database problems < Any other different event Review for cancelled jobs. 10 Enter an asterisk (*) for the user ID.” 10 Check system log. SM21 – System Log 10 Set date and time to before the last log review. Check off/Initial 16 & 10 All work processes with a “running” or a “waiting” status < Set date to one year ago < Enter * in the user ID < Set to “all” updates Check for lines with “Err. 16 Enter an asterisk (*) in User ID.0+). Verify that all critical jobs were successful.6A/B . Check for “old” locks.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks The R/3 System 7KH 5 6\VWHP Task Check that all application servers are up. SM37 – Select Background jobs SM12 – Lock entry list.

Check off/Initial Check for users on the system. Look for dumps of an unusual nature.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks The R/3 System Task Transaction Chapter Procedure Check for entries for prior days. System Administration Made Easy 4–5 . SP01 – Spool: Request Screen SM35 – Batch input: Initial Screen SM50/SM51 Processes ST22 – ABAP Dump Analysis 14 Check job log. 16 & 10 10 Look for an excessive number of dumps. 16 Check work processes. 19 Review workload statistics. SMO4 – Users AL08 . Look for spool jobs that have been “in process” for over an hour. Review and resolve dumps. This task should be done several times a day. Check for: < New jobs < Incorrect jobs Check for spool problems. STO3 – Workload: Analysis of <SID> ST02 – Tune Summary Review buffer statistics. 19 Look for swaps.Users 10 Review for an unknown or different user ID and terminal.

Look for errors or failures. Check for failed logon attempts to the SAP servers. Where AL02 – Database (DB) alert ST04 – DB Performance Analysis 13 Chapter Procedure Check off/Initial 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP Task Review system logs for problems. Procedure Check off/Initial NT application log 15 4–6 Release 4.6A/B . NT system log NT system log Chapter 15 15 15 15 Review operating system log Look for any errors or failures.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Database 'DWDEDVH Task Review error log for problems. Transaction AL16 – OS Alerts OS06 – OS Monitor Review NT system logs for problems.

Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Other 2WKHU Task Check the uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Where UPS program log Chapter 15 Procedure Review for: < Events < UPS self test < Errors Check off/Initial 1RWHV Problems Action Resolution System Administration Made Easy 4–7 .

Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks The R/3 System System: __________ Date: ____/____/____ Admin: _____________________ 7KH 5 6\VWHP These tasks are done several times a day. Transaction Chapter 10 Procedure < Set date to one year ago < Enter * in the user ID < Set to “all” updates Check for lines with “Err. Review for an unknown or different user ID and terminal. RZ01 – Graphical job monitor Check users on system SM04 – Users AL08 – Users 16 10 Same as for SM37. Check for: < Errors < Warnings < Security messages < Abends < Database problems Any other different event Review for cancelled and critical jobs SM37 – Select Background jobs 16 Enter * in User ID Verify that all critical jobs were successful. This task should be done several times a day.System Log 10 Set date and time to before the last log review.6A/B . Task Look for any failed updates (update terminates). Review any cancelled jobs.” Check System Log SM21. Check off/Initial SM13 – Update Records 4–8 Release 4.

If you can log on. If the answer to either question is “no. you could lose all the data since your most recent good backup.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks &ULWLFDO 7DVNV There are a few critical tasks that should be completed every morning. Backups of the R/3 database and related nondatabase operating system level files are essential to recover the R/3 System. no work can be done. :K\ If the system is not running. the test is successful. log on with the SAP GUI. If the backups failed. 9HULI\ WKDW WKH %DFNXSV 5DQ 6XFFHVVIXOO\ :KDW You need to verify that the backups that were supposed to run last night.” then the situation must be resolved quickly because: 9HULI\ WKDW 5 . As a basic level check. ran successfully. Transport files Inbound and outbound interface files Externally stored print files System Administration Made Easy 4–9 . your users will be calling to find out what happened and when the system will be up again. if you can connect to the R/3 System. and a disaster occurs. Types of nondatabase files include: < < < < < Database log dumps Data files for third-party applications that do not store their data in the system Examples of such files are external tax files. the following questions are answered: < < Is the R/3 System working? Is the network between you and the R/3 System working? +RZ From a workstation. These tasks answer the following questions: < Is the R/3 System running? < < < Did the backups execute and complete successfully? If the R/3 System is down.V 5XQQLQJ Your first task of the day is to perform a high-level check to see if the R/3 System is running.

Once the problem has been fixed. if it does not significantly impact performance. the backup check should be done once the backup job is complete. Any failed backup must be immediately investigated and resolved. For additional information on these transactions. :KHQ These critical tasks need to be done first thing in the morning. At the operating system level. you will have to recover using the last successful backup. the problem needs to be quickly resolved. you have another day without a backup. to 7:00 a.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks :K\ If there is a problem with any of the backups. This step gives you a more recent backup. The “graveyard” shift is the third shift of the day and is typically from 10:00 p. If that backup fails. If you do not have a good (usable) backup. external tax files that need to be in sync with the system data or the tax systems reports will not match the R/3 reports). In chapters 4–8.m. and the last backup failed. If there is a “graveyard” operations shift. we have included a list of transactions like the one below. If a database failure occurs that requires a restore. your company may make it policy to run the online backup. Restoring the R/3 System without these files results in an incomplete (unusable) restore (for example. see the chapter referenced in each checklist. execute an online backup.m. Even if it impacts performance. some of these files may need to be in sync with the R/3 database. 8VHUV 7UDQVDFWLRQ $/. This list contains basic information about the transactions in the checklist. you will have to go to an older backup. Do not maintain a “we will just run the backup again tonight and see if it works” attitude. This process requires applying more logs the further back you go and increases the time required to restore the database and bring it current.

A user is logged on to more than one terminal may indicate that the user ID is being used or shared by more than one person. :KDW This transaction displays all the users who are currently logged on to the system. It shows both the user’s ID and terminal name. :K\ In a smaller company. This step may indicate that someone—other than the designated user—is using that user ID.6A/B . 4–10 Release 4. the administrator can recognize user IDs logged on to unfamiliar terminals.

Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks 26 0RQLWRU 7UDQVDFWLRQ 26.

there may be multiple logs. 6HOHFW %DFNJURXQG -REV*UDSKLFDO -RE 0RQLWRU 7UDQVDFWLRQ 605=. a hard drive generating errors or a failing drive that needs to be replaced). Depending on the operating system. :KDW The system logs are where the operating system and some applications write event records. :K\ There may be indications of a developing problem (for example.

because there may be other processes. :K\ If you are running critical jobs. :KDW Background jobs are batch jobs scheduled to run at specific times during the day. &&06 $OHUW 0RQLWRU 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5=. activities. or tasks that are dependent on these jobs. you need to know if the job failed.

If there is an alert. If not contained. production. :KDW Transaction RZ20 is a centralized alert monitor and is new with Release 4. you can monitor the servers in your landscape. 8VHUV 7UDQVDFWLRQV 60.0. QA. You no longer have to individually log into each system to search for alerts. etc. such as development. testing. :K\ An alert indicates a potentially serious problem that should be quickly resolved. these problems could degenerate into a disaster. the monitor will link to many of the other transactions later in this chapter. With this transaction.

:K\ In a smaller company. System Administration Made Easy 4–11 . indicating that someone—other than the designated user—is using that user ID. :KDW These transactions display all the users who are currently logged on to the system and show the user’s ID and terminal name. the administrator can recognize user IDs logged on to “unfamiliar” terminals.

Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks A user logged on to more than one terminal indicates that the user ID is being: < < Used by someone else Used or shared by several people /RFN (QWU\ /LVW 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.

The easiest way to locate them is to look for locks from prior days. :KDW A lock is a mechanism that prevents other users from changing the record on which you are working. Unless cleared. :K\ There may be old locks still in place from transactions that did not release. An example that illustrates the importance of using this function follows. You save your change first. Someone else is changing the customer’s telephone number at the same time. these locks prevent access or change to the record until the system is cycled. or from when the user was cut off from the network. ([DPSOH You are changing a customer mailing address. This parameter defines an automatic logout of the user if there is no activity for the set number of minutes. The other person’s change overwrites your change. then the other person saves their change. 8SGDWH 5HFRUGV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60. and your change will be lost. We presume that the profile parameter rdisp/gui_auto_logout has been set.

and gets hurt. or an “update terminate. the clerk falls. :KDW A failed update. The file clerk gives the secretary a receipt (similar to the R/3 document number). These failed updates occur when a user entry or transaction is not entered or updated in the database. On the way to the file cabinet. In this mode. the user continues to work while the system takes over the update process and waits for the 4–12 Release 4. For performance reasons. 3. A secretary gives a file clerk a folder (similar to a save).6A/B . the database update is done in asynchronous mode. The following analogy should help clarify this concept: 1. The end result is the folder is not in the cabinet—even though the secretary has the receipt.” is an update to the failed database. The folder in not put into the cabinet (this is the failed update). 2. 4.

the customers would not get their order and no trace of it would be found in the system! 6\VWHP /RJ 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60. In synchronous mode. unless the order is reentered. users would have to wait until the database successfully updated before they could continue to work.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks database update to complete. :K\ The users probably received a document number. if a failed update occurred. the entry is not in the system. however. so they assume that the entry is in the system. In a customer order.

errors. and other system messages. :KDW The system log is the R/3 System’s log of events. :K\ The log is important because unexpected or unknown warnings and errors could indicate a serious problem. problems.QSXW 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60. %DWFK .

the data will not post to the system. < System Administration Made Easy 4–13 . The danger is that only a portion of the job may have posted to the system. If not processed. and jobs with errors that need to be resolved. as only part of the data is in the system. Incorrect These are jobs that have failed due to an error. a posting from an interface file). :K\ This transaction is important because it alerts you to batch input jobs that are: < New These are jobs that are waiting to be processed (for example. This increases the potential for data corruption of a different sort. :KDW This transaction shows jobs that need to be processed or started.

Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks :RUN 3URFHVVHV 7UDQVDFWLRQV 60 DQG 60.

6SRRO 7UDQVDFWLRQ 63. SM51 starts transaction SM50 for each application server. :KDW These transactions allow users to view the status of work processes and monitor for problems. if all the batch work processes are in use. If batch jobs are not running. Transaction SM51 is a central transaction from which you can select the instance to monitor. :K\ Transaction SM51 is one place to look for jobs or programs that may be “hung. transaction SM50 may provide a hint of the problem. Transaction SM50 is used for systems without application servers.” (indicated by long run times).

7XQH 6XPPDU\ 7UDQVDFWLRQ 67. :K\ There may be problems with the printer at the operating system level. shipping documents. etc. Data sent to the printer is sent to the R/3 spool and then sent to the operating system to print.) or there may be an operational impact. :KDW The spool is the R/3 System’s output manager. checks. Active spool jobs that have been running for over an hour could indicate a problem with the operating system spool or the printer. These problems need to be resolved immediately for time-critical print jobs (for example. invoices.

Look under Swaps for red entries.'! 7UDQVDFWLRQ 67. :KDW The buffer tune summary transaction displays the R/3 buffer performance statistics. Regularly check these entries to establish trends and get a feel of the buffer behavior. :K\ The buffer is important because significant buffer swapping reduces performance. :RUNORDG $QDO\VLV RI 6. It is used to tune buffer parameters of R/3 and. to a lesser degree. the R/3 database and operating system.

4–14 Release 4.6A/B . :KDW Workload analysis is used to determine system performance.

'DWDEDVH 3HUIRUPDQFH $QDO\VLV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 67. Understanding the system when it is running well helps you determine what changes may need to be made when it is not.Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks +RZ Check statistics and record trends to get a feel for the system’s behavior and performance.

:K\ This transaction provides the ability to: < Monitor the database in relation to: ΠGrowth ΠCapacity ΠI/O statistics ΠAlerts Drill down for additional information. Monitor the database without logging on to it. < < $%$3 'XPS $QDO\VLV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 67. :KDW A high-level database performance monitor.

The system records the error in the system log (transaction SM21) and writes a snapshot (dump) of the program termination to a special table. and take corrective action. :K\ You use an ABAP dump to analyze and determine why the error occurred. System Administration Made Easy 4–15 . :KDW An ABAP dump (also known as a short dump) is generated when a report or transaction terminates as the result of a serious error. This transaction can also be called from the system log (transaction SM21).

Chapter 4: Scheduled Daily Tasks Critical Tasks 4–16 Release 4.6A/B .

........................................................................................5–4 System Administration Made Easy 5–1 ..5–3 Other....................................................................................................................................................................................5–3 Notes .............................................................................................................................................5–2 Database ...........................................................&KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG :HHNO\ 7DVNV &RQWHQWV The R/3 System .........................................................5–3 Operating System ...............................

or TP Chapter Procedure 13 Record free space. TemSe Consistency check Review Security Audit Log. 14 17 All properly approved transports imported into PRD. SP12 SM20 5–2 Release 4.Spool STMS. Transport into PRD. Delete inconsistencies. Column Title Monitor database growth. Check spool for problems and that spool is properly cleared. SP01 . 13 Record database space history. Transaction DB02 – DB Performance: Database Allocation DB02 – DB Performance: Database Allocation.6A/B .Chapter 5: Scheduled Weekly Tasks The R/3 System 7KH 5 6\VWHP System: __________ Date: ____/____/____ Admin: _____________________ Task Check database for free space.

Clean tape drive. Where Chapter Procedure 10 Review space usage and that sufficient free space exists in the file systems. Check for successful completion of update stats job. Test e-mail. Where Chapter 15 Procedure Review for any events that should be added or deleted. Test paging. Check off/initial RZ20 – CCMS Alert Files system 2WKHU Task Check system monitoring systems for update. Check off/initial System monitor System monitor 15 System Administration Made Easy 5–3 . Tape drive 15 Clean using cleaning cartridge. Check off/initial Run MS-SQL server update statistics.Chapter 5: Scheduled Weekly Tasks Database 'DWDEDVH Task DBCC Where Chapter 13 Procedure Check output from DBCC job for errors (SQL Server). 13 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP Task Check file system for adequate space. Check system monitor alert mechanisms.

For additional information on these transactions. we have included a list of transactions like the one below. This list contains basic information about the transactions in the checklist. 'DWDEDVH 3HUIRUPDQFH 7UDQVDFWLRQ '%.Chapter 5: Scheduled Weekly Tasks Notes 1RWHV Problem Action Resolution In chapters 4–8. see the chapter referenced in each checklist.

:KDW This screen provides a way to examine database allocation. :K\ This transaction allows you to monitor items such as: < < DB space history DB Analysis From this screen. you can view database history by dates and times. &&06 $OHUW 0RQLWRU 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5=.

testing. If not contained. :K\ An alert indicates a potentially serious problem that should be quickly resolved. You no longer have to individually log into each system to search for alerts.0. 6SRRO 7UDQVDFWLRQ 63. If there is an alert. you can monitor the servers in your landscape. etc. With this transaction. these problems could degenerate into a disaster. production (PRD). the monitor will link to many of the other transactions later in this chapter. such as development (DEV). quality assurance (QAS). :KDW Transaction RZ20 is a centralized alert monitor and is new with Release 4.

Data sent to the printer is first sent to the R/3 spool and then to the operating system to print.6A/B . 5–4 Release 4. :KDW The spool is the R/3 System’s output manager.

etc. invoices.Chapter 5: Scheduled Weekly Tasks Notes :K\ There may be problems with the printer at the operating system level. These long-running jobs could indicate a problem with the operating system spool or the printer. These problems need to be resolved immediately for time-critical print jobs (for example. checks. shipping documents. 7HP6H 7UDQVDFWLRQ 63. You should check for active spool jobs that have been running for over an hour.) or there may be an operational impact.

batch input logs. TemSe contains temporary objects such as job logs. Report RSTS0020 performs the consistency check. spool requests. tests for workflow. :KDW A TemSe (Temporary Sequential) database consistency check compares data in TST01 (TemSe objects) and TST03 (TemSe data) tables. :K\ The relationship between the object and data in the TemSe may be destroyed as a result of: < < < < Restore from backups Copying databases Copying clients using improper tools Deleting clients without first deleting their objects 7UDQVDFWLRQ 6706 706 6\VWHP. and personnel administration temporary data.

A transport starts in DEV. System Administration Made Easy 5–5 . and is finally moved into PRD. is transported to QAS where it is tested. :KDW This transaction helps you perform transports. :K\ To move objects and configuration between systems or clients in the production pipeline.

Chapter 5: Scheduled Weekly Tasks Notes 5–6 Release 4.6A/B .

.........................................6–3 Other................................................................................................................................6–2 Database ............................6–4 Notes ........................6–5 System Administration Made Easy 6–1 ................................................................................6–2 Operating System ...................&KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG 0RQWKO\ 7DVNV &RQWHQWV The R/3 System ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Chapter 6: Scheduled Monthly Tasks The R/3 System 7KH 5 6\VWHP System: __________ Date: ____/____/____ Admin: _____________________ Task Defragment the memory Transaction Chapter Procedure Cycle the R/3 System. Check off/initial 6–2 Release 4. Check off/initial 'DWDEDVH Task Plot database growth.6A/B . Transaction DB02—DB Performance: Tables Chapter Procedure 13 Record usage and plot.

Plot usage.Chapter 6: Scheduled Monthly Tasks Operating System 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP Task Backup file server. Is additional storage space needed? Is “house cleaning” needed? Check off/initial System Administration Made Easy 6–3 . Where Chapter 13 Procedure Perform a full server backup. Review file system usage. Record file system usage.

< DAT DLT Spare data cartridges available for removable media devices: < Zip® < MO (MagnetoOptical) < CD (Recordable) Preprinted forms: < Shipping documents < Invoices < Checks Special supplies. Normal supplies: < Laser printer toner < Paper (for printers) < Batteries < Diskettes < Pens. Where Chapter 16 Procedure Spare tape cleaning cartridge available for all tape drives. such as magnetic toner cartridge. and so on Check off/initial 6–4 Release 4. < DAT < DLT Spare tape cartridges available for all drive types.Chapter 6: Scheduled Monthly Tasks Other 2WKHU Task Check consumable supplies.6A/B .

For additional information on these transactions. we have included a list of transactions like the one below.Chapter 6: Scheduled Monthly Tasks Notes 1RWHV Problem Action Resolution In chapters 4-8. see the chapter referenced in each checklist. This list contains basic information about the transactions in the checklist. 'DWDEDVH 3HUIRUPDQFH 7UDQVDFWLRQ '%.

:KDW This screen provides a way to examine database allocation. you can view database history by dates and times. :K\ This transaction allows you to monitor items such as: < < DB space history DB Analysis From this screen. System Administration Made Easy 6–5 .

6A/B .Chapter 6: Scheduled Monthly Tasks Notes 6–6 Release 4.

.................................................................................................................................................7–4 System Administration Made Easy 7–1 ...................&KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG 4XDUWHUO\ 7DVNV &RQWHQWV The R/3 System .....................................................................................................................................................................................7–3 Operating System ..................................................................................................................................................7–2 Database ...............................7–4 Notes .....................7–3 Other...............

Review all scheduled jobs to determine if they are still appropriate. Check off/Initial Security review SM31—Table Maintenance RZ10—Edit System Profile Review scheduled jobs SM37— Background Jobs 19 20 16 7–2 Release 4. Review system profile parameters for password standards.Chapter 7: Scheduled Quarterly Tasks The R/3 System 7KH 5 6\VWHP System: __________ Date: ____/____/____ Admin: _____________________ Task Archive quarterly backup Transaction Chapter Procedure Send quarter-end backup tapes to long-term offsite storage.6A/B . SU01—User Maintenance 12 Review user ID for terminated users that should be locked or deleted. Review list of “prohibited” passwords (Table USR40).

dba Check off/Initial Archive old transport files. Test the restored database. Review all scheduled jobs to determine if they are still appropriate. data. cofiles SAPDBA cleanup 15 Cleanup SAPDBA logs (Oracle) System Administration Made Easy 7–3 . Maintain init<SID>. Restore database to a test server. Check off/Initial Review all scheduled jobs SM37 16 Test database recovery process 2&3 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP Task Archive quarterly backup Where Chapter 3 Procedure Send quarter-end backup tape to longterm offsite storage. Archive the old transport files. Transport directories.Chapter 7: Scheduled Quarterly Tasks Database 'DWDEDVH Task Archive quarterly backup Where Chapter 3 Procedure Send quarter-end backup tape to longterm offsite storage. log.

see the chapter referenced in each checklist. Check off/Initial 1RWHV Problem Action Resolution In chapters 4-8. For additional information on these transactions. Check for usage changes. (GLW 6\VWHP 3URILOH 3DUDPHWHUV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5=. we have included a list of transactions like the ones below.Chapter 7: Scheduled Quarterly Tasks Other 2WKHU Task Check maintenance contacts Where Procedure Check for expiration date. This list contains basic information about the transactions in the checklist.

Œ The length of time that auditors recommend is thirty (30) days. The following is a list of the most important password parameters: < Minimum password length: login/min_password_lng A longer password is more difficult to break or guess. Release 4. :KDW There are security parameters for the user’s password (for example.6A/B < < 7–4 . Password expiration time: login/password_expiration_time This is the length of time before the user must change their password. Password lockout: login/fails_to_user_lock This parameter locks out users after attempting to log in with an invalid password for a defined number of times. Œ The maximum that should be used is ninety (90) days. and so on). Œ The standard is to lock a user after three (3) failed attempts. Œ The standard for many companies is five (5) characters. the time interval that the user must change their password. the minimum password length.

Chapter 7: Scheduled Quarterly Tasks Notes :K\ Properly assigned parameters will make it more difficult to break into the system. 6HOHFW %DFNJURXQG -REV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.

or tasks that are dependent on these jobs. :KDW Background jobs are batch jobs scheduled to run at specific times during the day. you need to know if the job failed because there may be other processes. 8VHU 0DLQWHQDQFH 7UDQVDFWLRQ 68. :K\ If you are running critical jobs. activities.

< System Administration Made Easy 7–5 . or is on leave. is assigned to a different group. the user ID remains locked. unless the access is required. With the lock function. This function is ideal for temporary personnel or consultants where. the user’s ID should be locked and the user assigned to the user group “term. (An incorrect logon is usually the result of a forgotten password.” :K\ < Locking a user If an employee leaves the company. :KDW The lock/unlock function is part of the logon check.) The administrator must unlock the user ID and more than likely reset the user’s password. the user’s ID and security profile remain on the system but the user cannot log on. they are automatically locked out of the system. their R/3 access should be removed. For terminated users. Unlocking a user If users incorrectly log on more that the allowed number of times. which allows or prevents the user from logging onto the R/3 System.

6A/B .Chapter 7: Scheduled Quarterly Tasks Notes 7–6 Release 4.

............................................................&KDSWHU  6FKHGXOHG $QQXDO 7DVNV &RQWHQWV The R/3 System .......................................................8–4 System Administration Made Easy 8–1 ....................8–2 Database ............................................................................................8–3 Operating System .....................................................................................................................................................................8–4 Notes ..............................................................................................................................8–3 Other........................................

11 11 With report RSUSR102 Audit user IDs SAP* and DDIC. SU02 – Security Profile Maintenance SU03– Security Authorization Maintenance Review segregation of duties. SA38 (or SE38) – Execute ABAP program SE03 – Workbench Organizer Tools SCC4– “Clients”: Overview 11 Run user audit reports. Run SAP user audit reports. Check changeable status for applicable client 11 8–2 Release 4. Transaction Chapter 3 Procedure Send year-end backup tapes to long-term offsite storage.Chapter 8: Scheduled Annual Tasks The R/3 System 7KH 5 6\VWHP System: __________ Date: ____/____/____ Admin: _____________________ Task Archive year-end backup. Check that the system is set to Not modifiable. 11 Verify that system is set to Not modifiable. 11 With report RSUSR101 Check off/Initial Audit user security. Can also be done with report RSUSR100 Audit profiles and authorizations.6A/B . Review users security authorization forms against assigned profiles.

Check off/Initial 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP Task Archive year-end backup Where Chapter 3 Procedure Send year-end backup tapes to long-term offsite storage.Chapter 8: Scheduled Annual Tasks Database Task Check locked transactions Transaction SM01 – Transaction codes: Lock/Unlock Chapter 11 Procedure Check against your list of locked transactions. Check off/Initial 'DWDEDVH Task Archive year-end backup Where Chapter 3 Procedure Send year-end backup tapes to long-term offsite storage. Column Title System Administration Made Easy 8–3 .

see the chapter referenced in each checklist. For additional information on these transactions. :K\ Proper audit control requires that a user who no longer has a valid business need to access R/3 should not be allowed to keep that access. Periodic review assures the task of locking or deleting has been completed.Chapter 8: Scheduled Annual Tasks Other 2WKHU Task Perform disaster recovery. we have included a list of transactions like the one below. these should be set to Not modifiable. 7UDQVDFWLRQ 6(6&& :KDW There are switches that prevent changes from being made in the system. you limit access to only those users who should have access to R/3. 8–4 Release 4. 7UDQVDFWLRQ 6$6( :KDW All users who have left the company should have their R/3 access terminated immediately. This list contains basic information about the transactions in the checklist. Deleting or locking these user IDs also prevents anyone who had been using the terminated user ID from accessing the system under that ID. Where Chapter 2&3 Procedure Restore entire system to disaster recovery test system Test business resumption Check off/Initial 1RWHV Problem Action Resolution In chapters 4–8. In the production system.6A/B . By locking or deleting these user IDs.

they could corrupt or destroy the R/3 System. Created in the development system 2. only the critical ones need to be locked. the integrity of the pipeline is preserved. Your functional consultants should supply you with any additional critical transactions in their modules. In the development pipeline. However. and functional key users could have access to the transactions depending on the system they are on. test. :K\ Objects should not be modifiable in the quality assurance or production systems. Standard security normally prevents access to these transactions. < Certain transactions should be locked in the production system. Transported from the test system to the production system Using this procedure. System Administration Made Easy 8–5 . Tested in the test system 5. without first being tested. In these cases. changes are properly tested and applied to the systems in the pipeline. Access to dangerous transactions is more critical in the production system than the development or test systems. consultants. This is because of live data and the fact that the company’s operations are dependent on the R/3 System. the transaction lock provides a second line of defense. Tested in the development system 3. By setting the production system to Not modifiable. To make it manageable.000 English transaction codes in the R/3 System. or training systems. but not in the development. This rule is to protect the production system from object and configuration changes being made. There are over 48. changes are: 1.Chapter 8: Scheduled Annual Tasks Notes The purpose of setting the production system to Not modifiable is to make sure that changes are made using the development pipeline. Transported from the development system to the test system 4. programmers. some administrators. 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60 :KDW “Dangerous transactions” are transactions that could do the following: < < < Damage or corrupt the system Present a security risk Adversely impact performance :K\ < If a user accidentally accesses these transactions.

6A/B .Chapter 8: Scheduled Annual Tasks Notes 8–6 Release 4.

..................................................................9–5 System Administration Made Easy 9–1 .............................................9 –2 Stopping the R/3 System.........................&KDSWHU  0XOWL5ROH 7DVNV &RQWHQWV Starting the R/3 System...........................................

enter startsap r3. 5. 9–2 Release 4.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Starting the R/3 System 6WDUWLQJ WKH 5 6\VWHP To start the R/3 System in a productive environment: 1. 3. the last stop entry is 19:26:xx and the first start entry is 19:27:xx. Check the R/3 System log. However. This step is optional because starting the R/3 System also starts the database. 2. Start the operating system (if required). If not automatically started. Start the database. Check the operating system logs to verify a good start.6A/B . manually starting the database allows you to review the database log before starting the R/3 System. use the SQL Server Service Manager to start the database. Check the R/3 System log (SM21) to verify a good start. Check the database logs to verify a good start. 7. < < < NT/SQL: NT/Oracle: UNIX: If not automatically started. at the restart. Start R/3 on the application instances. 4. wait for 60 seconds before you change the server’s clock. To start the R/3 System. At the command prompt. enter startsap db. The application servers would be started any time after step 2. use SAPDBA to start the database. where time is reported as hh:mm:ss. For example. Start R/3 on the central instance. 6. This step makes it easier to read the system log. UNIX: At the command prompt. < < NT: Use the SAP Management Console. Problems at this point may require you to cycle (stop and start) the system. 8.

Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Starting the R/3 System 6WDUW 5³17 1. and choose Start. Tools such as QuickSlice and Perfmon allow you to monitor the activity of the server and know when it is OK to logon to the system. Start the Central Instance (on the database server). Right click on the <database server> (for example. The status indicators for the database server change color to green. 4a 4b System Administration Made Easy 9–3 . double-click SAP R3 Management Console. 3. pa100767). The following two items indicate that the database instance has started and that R/3 has completed the start process: a. 2. The Status for both processes indicates Running. Click on the nodes (+) to drill down to the <servers>. Wait a few minutes because startup activity is still occurring on the server. b. 3 4. On the NT desktop.

The Status for the process indicates Running. b. pal002840). 1. The status indicators for the application server change color to green. 2a 2b 9–4 Release 4.6A/B . The following two items indicate that the database instance has started and that R/3 has completed the start process: a. Wait a few minutes because startup activity is still occurring on the server. 3. and choose Start.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Starting the R/3 System The steps below are applicable only if you have an application server: Start the dialog instance (on the application server). 1 2. Click on the nodes (+) to drill down to the <application server> (for example.

The following tasks must be completed before the R/3 System is stopped: Check that there are no active users on the system (SM04 and AL08). coordinate and plan this stoppage with all users or their representatives. Check for active external interfaces. Date Initial System Administration Made Easy 9–5 . Stopping a system at “your convenience” is unprofessional and usually causes considerable operational issues with users who need (and expect) the system to be up and running.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System 6WRSSLQJ WKH 5 6\VWHP < < When you stop R/3. 6WRS 5 &KHFNOLVW Task The following tasks must be completed well before the R/3 System is stopped: Coordinate the shutdown with all affected parties. To stop the R/3 System: Stop the application server instance(s). Check that there are no active background jobs running (SM37). Stop the database (optional). such as: < Finance < Shipping < Sales < Other Reschedule/cancel jobs that would be running or starting during the scheduled shutdown (SM37). Create a system message announcing the planned shutdown (SM02). Stop the central instance. Check for active processes (SM50 and SM51).

) are a different matter. etc. If you are the cause of the emergency. 6\VWHP 0HVVDJH 60. Create a system message announcing the planned shutdown. a daily job cannot exist several days in advance. He had a date that evening and did not want to stay late. could have some transactions posted and some not yet posted. there are several checks that need to be made.” Before stopping the system.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System 7DVNV WR %H &RPSOHWHG %HIRUH 6WRSSLQJ WKH 6\VWHP < Coordinate the shutdown with all effected parties. which results in stopping R/3. Recovery could then become an issue. if interrupted. There may be little—if any—negotiating. The CFO said. having it fill up. In other words. week.) has run. < Reschedule or cancel jobs that will be running or starting during the scheduled shutdown. “Yeah. file system full. they may or may not be able to reschedule. An example of an emergency is not monitoring the file system. ([DPSOH An IT person in a company rebooted a server in the middle of the day without telling anyone. The purpose is to determine that there is no activity on the system when the system is stopped. be prepared to take the consequences. Certain activities (such as a large posting job). Œ Watch for repeating jobs. you need to shutdown immediately and users need to accommodate you. Emergency or priority shutdowns (for example. You may have to reschedule your shutdown around them and shutdowns are usually negotiated activities. he’ll have a date with the unemployment line. equipment failure. log full. These jobs are not created until the job for the prior period (day. etc. If an organization has planned to do something and expects the system to be operational. In these instances. such as daily or weekly jobs. Œ Check SM37 for these jobs and cancel or reschedule them to run after the shutdown.

6A/B . This window appears after a new message has been created or when users move between screens. :KDW < < A system message is a popup that users see when they first log on to the R/3 System. 9–6 Release 4.

enter the message’s expiration date and time. always enter the specific time. time zone. 0230 PDST-Mon–Jun 8.m. If you are only shutting down one server. Entering vague information. When referencing the time for the shutdown. choose and select the instance on which the message should appear. In Expiry on. enter transaction SM02 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. and date (for example. Choose . To enter this text. enter your message. 2 In System message text.1998). Choose Create. choose Tools → Administration → Administration → SM02-System messages). you may also enter text in the Server field.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System *XLGHG 7RXU In the Command field. such as “in 15 minutes” creates possible confusion as to when and where an event has been scheduled. or p.?) Monday (of which week?) 6 3 4 5 System Administration Made Easy 9–7 .m. Some examples of confusion that may arise include: < < < < 15 minutes (from when?) 0230 (where? Corporate offices or where the user is?) 6:00 (a.

9–8 Release 4.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System The message in the status bar indicates that your message has been saved. This screen shows the message as the user would see it.6A/B .

Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System &KHFN WKDW 1R $FWLYH 8VHUV $UH RQ WKH 6\VWHP $/60.

Contact the users and have them log off. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM04-User overview). 3. Deleting a User’s Session. System Administration Made Easy 9–9 . If users cannot be contacted. delete their session as described in chapter 12. 2. In the Command field. *XLGHG 7RXU For a system without application servers: 1. enter SM04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.

Contact the users to have them log off. 9–10 Release 4. Scroll down the transaction screen to see all the servers in the system and the users on those servers. If the users cannot be contacted. 4. In the Command field. 2.6A/B . delete their session as described in chapter 12. choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → Performance menu → Exceptions/users → Active users → AL08-Users global). enter AL08 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Deleting a User’s Session. 3. You cannot delete a user from transaction AL08. You must log into the individual instance and use transaction SM04 to delete the user session.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System For systems with application servers: 1.

Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System &KHFN IRU %DWFK -REV 5XQQLQJ RU 6FKHGXOHG 60.

2. Under Job status. Enter * in User name. select the following: < Planned < Released < Ready < Active 4. 7. 6. and 6 7 2 3 4 5 System Administration Made Easy 9–11 . Check for any batch jobs that are running or are scheduled to run during the shutdown. Change the Fr (from) date back a year. 5. In or after event. choose select *. 3. Change the To date to a date beyond the shutdown period. enter SM37 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Command field. Choose Execute. choose Tools → CCMS Jobs → SM37-Maintenace). *XLGHG 7RXU 1.

9. On the field selection screen. choose Job → Change.6A/B . 10 9–12 Release 4. Choose Start condition. From the menu bar. Choose a job to review (for example. 10. GARY-TEST). to the displayed fields on the left. 9 8 Change the display to show the planned start date and time. move the planned start date and planned start time from the hidden fields on the right. on the screen above.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System 8. choose Settings → Display variant → Current. From the menu bar.

12. 14. Verify the new start date. Choose Save. Change the Scheduled start date. Choose Save. to a date after the shutdown.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System 11. 14 13 System Administration Made Easy 9–13 . 11 12 13.

repeat the initial job selection to verify that there are no jobs scheduled during the system shutdown. A message indicates that the job was saved. As a final step.6A/B . 16. 9–14 Release 4.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System 15. Repeat the steps for each of the other jobs that need to be moved. 15 17.

Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System &KHFN IRU $FWLYH 3URFHVVHV RQ $OO 6\VWHPV 60.

QWHUIDFHV External interfaces are interfaces where data is being moved to or from the R/3 System. System Administration Made Easy 9–15 . 7. and implemented. Checking for active interfaces depends on the specific interface and how it has been designed. The developer or consultant can help you determine if the interface is active. 6. Choose Back and return to the SAP servers transaction (SM51). 2. 3. built. Review for activities. enter transaction SM51 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 2 3 4. Ã *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 6 5 &KHFN IRU ([WHUQDO . This screen lists all instances in the system. Select an instance. In the Command field. Choose . choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM51-Servers). The screen that appears is the transaction SM50 screen for that server. Repeat steps 2 to 5 for each instance. 5.

6A/B . Stopping a system at “your convenience” is unprofessional and usually causes considerable operational issues with users who need (and expect) the system to be up and running. Unlike the start process. stop the instance on the application server(s). If needed. 9–16 Release 4. check your specific installation. 6723 5³17 1. stopping the system does not also stop the database. On the NT desktop. 2. At the command prompt. The database must be stopped separately. Stop R/3 only after all checks have been made and you are certain that there is no activity on the system. Use SAPDBA to stop the database. < < < NT/SQL: NT/Oracle: UNIX: Use SQL Server Service Manager to stop the database. stop the database. To stop the R/3 System: 1.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System 6WRSSLQJ 5 < < When you bring down or stop R/3. coordinate and plan this event with all the R/3 users or their representatives. If needed. Use either SAPDBA or the stopsap script to stop the database. stop the operating system. If there are application servers in the system. Stop the instance on the database server. < < NT/SQL: UNIX: Use the SAP Management Console. double-click SAP R3 Management Console. 3. enter stopsap This script may also stop the database. 4.

<SID> (for example. Choose Yes. <servers> (for example. pa100767 and pal002840). pal002840). Right click on the <application server> and choose Stop. Stop the R/3 dialog instance (on the application server). The status indicators change color to gray. The Status indicates Stopped. Drill down to the: a. SAS). 2. b. 4b 4a System Administration Made Easy 9–17 . Click on the nodes (+) to drill down to the <application server> (for example.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System 2. 2a 2b 2b The following steps are applicable only if you have application servers. 1 3 4. 1. b. 3. When R/3 stops: a.

Click on the nodes (+) to drill down to the <database server> (for example. pa100767). Right click on the <database server> and choose Stop. 2. The status indicators change color to gray. The Status indicates Stopped.Chapter 9: Multi-Role Tasks Stopping the R/3 System Stop the R/3 central instance (on the database server). Choose Yes. 1 3. b. 1. 3 4. 4a 4b 9–18 Release 4.6A/B . When R/3 stops: a.

........................10–51 System Administration Made Easy 10–1 ....................................................................&KDSWHU  5 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ &RQWHQWV Overview ......10–2 Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview ..........................................................................................10–2 Major System Monitoring Tools ...............................10–32 System Message (SM02) ..........................................................................................................

the reader will learn about the following items: < < < < Some CCMS tools Major tasks Specific transactions System messages 0DMRU 6\VWHP 0RQLWRULQJ 7RROV The major tools of system monitoring provide a quick mechanism to monitor your system. It is crucial that a system administrator gets a quick overview of the system status and is quickly notified of critical situations. &&06 &HQWUDO $OHUW 0RQLWRU 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5=. these major tools provide a quick overview of the system status and notify you of critical situations that warrant your immediate attention. If you have time constraints. the CCMS Central Alert Monitor and the System Administration Assistant (SAA). The two major tools. perform two different functions. The SAA is a control panel from which you can directly access the specific monitoring tools and be notified of any alerts. In this chapter. The CCMS Central Alert Monitor is primarily an alert monitor.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Overview 2YHUYLHZ This chapter will help you understand how to monitor your system.

from the menu bar.6A/B . Help → SAP Library. The Central Alert Monitor is not a replacement for examining the other checklist tasks. BC-Computing Center Management System → the Alert Monitor. SAP Library → Basis Components → Computing Center Management System (BC-CCM) → BC-Computing Center Management System 3. QA. If there is an alert. 2. production. etc. testing. :KDW Transaction RZ20 is a centralized alert monitor. 10–2 Release 4. the monitor will link to many of the other transactions in this guidebook. To find Alert Monitor documentation. such as Microsoft SQL Server and TMS have not yet been integrated into the Central Alert Monitor. With this transaction. such as development. You can do many of your system monitoring tasks with the Central Alert Monitor. you can monitor the servers in your landscape. You no longer have to individually log into each system to search for alerts. Certain alerts. choose: 1.

System Administration Made Easy 10–3 . If not contained. choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → RZ20-Alert monitor). We will be using this monitor set display. We will use a modified display with most of the monitor sets suppressed. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. enter transaction RZ20 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. See the configuration section later in the RZ20 section to learn how to configure your display. In the Command field. This screen is the standard display. these problems could deteriorate into a disaster.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools :K\ An alert indicates a potentially serious problem that should be quickly resolved.

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6A/B . To load the monitor. To modify them. 1. 5. Click the node (+) to expand the monitor sets. In this example. 4. This step allows us to modify the monitor. there are predefined monitors to use 6 as your starting point. (In this example. Select a monitor. 3. we have the display with only two monitor sets: < SAP-delivered SAP CCMS Monitor Templates < User-created SystemAdmin docu 2. copy them into a customer monitor set and modify the monitor there. These monitor templates cannot be modified. choose . 4. 5 3 4 10–4 Release 4. we copied the Entire system monitor from the SAP CCMS Monitor Template into SystemAdmin docu. we selected Entire system.) 6. In the SAP CCMS Monitor Templates. From the CCMS Alert Monitor screen.

Open alerts This mode shows alerts that have been generated but not yet “acknowledged. the central instance b. The recommended process is to look for: 1. Prior or transient problems (open alerts) System Administration Made Easy 10–5 . the application server 7 8 8a 8b &XUUHQW 9LHZ DQG $OHUW 9LHZ The display has two modes: < < The current system status This mode shows the alert situation right now. pal101003_SAS_00. Immediate problems (current system status) 2.” 7. Here. we can see the application servers in that system. pa100767_SAS_00. The monitor contains the alerts for a single system/SID.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools This is the “monitor screen. Here we show the following: a. 8.” In this mode. alerts are collected over time.

choose Current status. To view alerts. choose Open alerts. 1 2.6A/B . to return to the current status view.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 6ZLWFKLQJ %HWZHHQ WKH &XUUHQW DQG $OHUW 9LHZV On the View: Current system status screen: 1. On the View: Open Alerts screen. 2 10–6 Release 4.

Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools )LQGLQJ DQ $OHUW From the monitor screen: 1. Drill down to the bottom node. 3. Look for red node text. 4 3 2 5. 4. Choose . there is an alert somewhere below that text. Scroll to the bottom of the screen or choose . Here. If a node text is highlighted in red. Select the node text. 5 System Administration Made Easy 10–7 . 2. the alert node is Percentage Used of the file system on drive H.

9 10–8 Release 4. At the bottom of the detail screen are two tables. 8. Choose .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 6. 8 7 The graphical display shows how the values changed over a 24-hour period. These table show the alert values over the last: < 30 minutes < 24 hours These tables can be of significant value in troubleshooting. Select the table to use (for example. last 24 hours). 6 6 To display a graph of a timetable: 7.6A/B . 9. Choose Back when you have finished.

The default is that the job will not run.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 10. 13. 14 10 11. But. 12 System Administration Made Easy 10–9 . Choose Performance history. 12. Choose . 13 running this job will add more data to the database and affect database growth. Choose . Enter a “from” and “to” period in any of the time frames. 14. which returns you to the screen above. Select the history items to display. For more information. The batch job that collects historical data must be running. see Configuring the Batch Job to Collect Historical Data (RZ21) on the following page.

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Do not run this batch job unless you want performance history data (RZ20). 2. 1. But. The batch jobs provide the data for the performance history option above. The batch job that collects historical data must be running. In the Command field.6A/B . 10–10 Release 4. enter transaction RZ21 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. choose Tools → CCMS → Configuration → RZ21-Alert Monitor). choose Technical infrastructure → Performance Database → Define Background Job. running this job will add more data to the database and affect database growth. The default situation is that the job will not run. From the menu bar.

Choose Save. Choose Back. 7 System Administration Made Easy 10–11 . 7. This user ID is the user ID that was used to log in. 6. 5. 3 4 5 6 This screen shows the second of the two jobs that will be scheduled. Choose Next step. 4. Enter the time to run the job. The job will run every six hours.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 3.

1 2.6A/B . 10–12 Release 4. Choose Display alerts. The alerts are listed in order of priority (Red at the top and yellow below).Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 9LHZ WKH $OHUWV 1.

Select the alert. 2. Choose . The specific analysis tool that is started is node dependent.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools $QDO\]H WKH $OHUW 1. System Administration Made Easy 10–13 . If no tool is assigned. (In this case it is the OS Monitor. you will get a “No method assigned” message.) These tools that are individually covered in the remainder of this guidebook. 2 1 3.

From the detail screen. Note the message at the bottom of the screen. 2 3 4. Acknowledging the alert only means that you received the alert notification. 5. 2. 10–14 Release 4.6A/B . Select the alert to acknowledge. 1 This screen is the same screen where you start to analyze an alert (see previous page). Choose Complete alert. There is one less alert displayed. 5 4 You still have to perform a task based on the alert. 3. choose Display alerts.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools $FNQRZOHGJH WKH $OHUW 1.

Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 6.QIRUPDWLRQ 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5=. the alert will change color to green. 6 3URYLGH 6\VWHP &RQILJXUDWLRQ . When all alerts and warnings are acknowledged.

Under the SAP CCMS Monitor Templates. 2. Choose . 2 1 System Administration Made Easy 10–15 . 1. select System Configuration.

Note that this monitor has been configured to monitor the following systems: < SAS < RW8 < BSK 10–16 Release 4.6A/B .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools The various nodes will provide a variety of information about: < Clients < SAP license < Database As shown here. a monitor can be configured to display multiple systems.

Click the node (+) of the specific alert that you want to change the threshold. 1 3 2 System Administration Made Easy 10–17 .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 0DLQWDLQLQJ 7KH $OHUW 7KUHVKROGV IRU 5= :KDW The alert threshold is the point where the alert indicator changes color from: < < < < Green to yellow Yellow to red Red to yellow Yellow to green :K\ Each installation is different. so the point at which an alert changes color depends on the individual installation. 2. The only file on a drive may be the database file. 3. +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. A “filesystem full” alert on that particular drive is of no concern. because the database would have been configured to take up the whole drive. which is completely filling the drive. but it is expected on the development system. Sample situations where you would want to change the threshold levels when: < < A high amount of paging is a cause for concern on the production system. Choose Properties. Select an alert.

not just the selected drive. an indicator field will appear in the screen. Individual: From the menu bar. choose Edit → Properties → Use from MTE class/group. To switch to group or individual: < Group: From the menu bar. Choose .6A/B . If the displayed values are for a group.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 4. choose Edit → Properties → Use for individual Monitoring Tree Element (MTE). In this case the group indicator means that the values displayed apply to all drives. The threshold value field will change color from grey to white. 7. 6 10–18 Release 4. 5. 4 5 < 6.

These threshold values are specific to the alert you indicated. Enter new values for when the alerts will change (for example. an information screen will 8 appear. 1. 98). Choose . On the CCMS alert monitor screen. 11.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 8. 1 System Administration Made Easy 10–19 . 9 10. choose Extras → Activate maintenance function. Choose Save. 11 10 +LGLQJ 6$3 6WDQGDUG 0RQLWRU 6HWV The monitor sets that are being “hidden” are not usually needed. 9. If the transaction is set to group mode. from the menu bar.

4 3 5.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 2. select a monitor set (for example. 6. Deselect Public (visible for all users). 3. 5 6 10–20 Release 4.6A/B . Under Public sets. Expand all the monitor sets. 4. Choose . Choose . SAP Business Communication).

The monitor set will disappear from My favorites and Public sets.” 8 System Administration Made Easy 10–21 .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 7. this set could be “unhidden. 8. Therefore. The set still exists under SAP. if it is needed.

this screen shows how the CCMS monitor sets will look. 9 Once the extra monitor sets disappear. Repeat the steps until the only SAP standard set remaining is SAP CCMS Monitor Template.6A/B .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 9. 10–22 Release 4.

Under Monitor set. from the menu bar. 3. On the CCMS alert monitor screen. Select Public (visible for all users). 6. 1 2. choose Extras → Activate maintenance function. 4 5 6 System Administration Made Easy 10–23 . SysAdmin 2). 3 2 4. Choose .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools &UHDWH D 1HZ 0RQLWRU 6HW 1. 5. Select Public sets. Choose . enter a name for the new monitor set (for example.

6A/B .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 7. from the menu bar. 1 10–24 Release 4. 9 $GG D 0RQLWRU WR WKH 0RQLWRU 6HW 1. choose Extras → Deactivate maintenance function. To turn off maintenance. From the menu bar. The new monitor set (SysAdmin 2) now appears on the screen. choose Extras → Activate maintenance function. 8 7 7 9. The new monitor set is in the Public sets and My favorites. 8.

Choose . 3. 3 2 4. Choose Save. Expand the monitor design tree. SysAdmin 2). 5. 6. Select the Monitor set (for example. 6 5 5 System Administration Made Easy 10–25 . Select the nodes (+) that you want to include in the monitor (for example. Background under both RW8 and SAS).Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 2.

Expand the monitor set to see the new monitor. 11 10 10–26 Release 4.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 7. 8. enter a relevant name for the new monitor (for example background-SAS+RW8). 11. choose Extras → Deactivate maintenance function. 8 7 9. The monitor definition is saved. Choose . To turn off maintenance. Under Monitor. from the menu bar. 9 10.6A/B .

This new monitor shows only the nodes you selected. 15. Choose . 13. 15 15 System Administration Made Easy 10–27 . 13 12 14. Select the new monitor. Expand the monitor tree.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 12. This monitor is monitoring background service on two different systems (SAS and RW8).

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+RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. and non-critical.6A/B . In the Command field. :KDW The System Administration Assistant (SAA) was developed as part of the Ready-to-RunR/3 project. The SAA lists all the R/3 administrative tasks and tracks tasks that need to be done. 2 10–28 Release 4. :K\ It helps the system administrator track work by providing a point of reference for all relevant system administration transactions. enter transaction SSAA and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → SSAA-System Administration Assistant). Choose Entire View tab. 2. alerts. It also provides documentation on each task and displays critical. The core of the SAA has been brought into standard R/3 and is now available.

4 System Administration Made Easy 10–29 . Choose . 3 4.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 3. Choose .

R/3: Checking Background Jobs). To execute the task.6A/B . choose on that line (for example. a red square will appear next to it.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 5. From the menu bar. choose View → Transaction code to display the transaction codes on the right side. 7. If a task needs to be performed. 5 6. 6 7 10–30 Release 4.

choose List Current Alerts. choose Back. The list is updated. The specific transaction code selected is node dependent. 9 10. 11 10 System Administration Made Easy 10–31 . The task to execute the transaction will be specific to the started transaction.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Major System Monitoring Tools 8. When you have finished. 11. To see if there are any alerts in each task. and the task has a green circle indicating that it has been performed. The associated transaction is started. 9.

Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview 12. Critical and noncritical in each task are displayed. alerts 12 6SHFLILF 7UDQVDFWLRQ 0RQLWRULQJ 2YHUYLHZ )DLOHG 8SGDWHV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.

4. On the way to the file cabinet. The file clerk gives the accountant a receipt (similar to the R/3 document number). This same end result occurs in an update environment.6A/B . 10–32 Release 4. The folder in not filed in the cabinet (the failed update). These terminates occur when a user entry or transaction is not entered or updated in the database. The end result is that the folder is not in the cabinet—even though the accountant has the receipt. 2. the clerk falls and gets hurt. the document is not in the R/3 System—even though the user has a document number. The accountant gives a file clerk a folder (similar to the “save” in a transaction). 3. :KDW An update terminate (or failed update) is an update to the database that failed. The following example should help clarify this concept: ([DPSOH 1.

the more difficult it is for users to remember what they did when the update terminate occurred. The longer you wait after the update terminate has occurred. ([DPSOH Even though a sales order document number is generated.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview For performance reasons. On Windows NT. During a dayshift. customers would not receive their order. there were over 600 update terminates that occurred in a 30-minute period. Even if the users received a document number. the database update is done in an asynchronous mode. because of the update terminate. and when you can get to the user. When things go wrong. they can really go wrong. You might consider configuring an “event log monitor” to page you when an update terminate occurs. when you find out about it. the user continues to work while the system takes over the update process and waits for the database update to complete. Therefore. This step reduces the need to constantly check transaction SM13. from R/3 Release 3. the order does not exist. But it is not. For example. users would have to wait until the database has successfully updated before they could continue to work. Therefore. :KHQ Check the system for failed updates several times a day. normal business transactions continued to be entered and each one was terminated. the checks can be distributed: < < < < First thing in the morning Late morning Early afternoon Late afternoon If you have a global operation. the user will not remember. in one situation. It also reduces the exposure between the time the update terminate occurs. In a synchronous mode. no trace of it exists in the system. system log entries are written to the NT event log. :K\ Users assume that when they receive a document number. The following message appears: “You have express mail in you inbox. the entry is in the system.” This message means that an update terminate has occurred on the user’s transaction. and no trace of the order would exist in the system. The system administrators were not alerted to the problem so prompt action was not taken. your schedule should be adjusted to account for other time zones and someone in that time zone should participate in the monitoring. System Administration Made Easy 10–33 . If you wait too long. In this mode.0F and higher.

enter transaction SM13 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Command field. In User enter *. change the date to a year ago (for example. If you have failed updates. 4. Under Status. In the Status column. look for entries with an Err.6A/B . Managing Update Terminates. 5. 3.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview *XLGHG 7RXU 1. These entries are failed updates or update terminates. Choose . You may also see other entries listed without the Err status. 2. select All. 7 10–34 Release 4. If you have no failed updates. stop here. continue with the next section. 09/07/1998). 6. 6 2 3 4 5 7. In From date. In Client enter *. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → SM13-Update).

3. it will appear. This screen shows in what module (Mod. 4 System Administration Made Easy 10–35 . 2 3 4.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview 0DQDJLQJ 8SGDWH 7HUPLQDWHV 1. If a short dump exists. 1 2.ID) that the update terminate occurred.name) and where in the process (Mod. Choose ABAP short dump. Double-click on the entry with an Err status. Double-click on an entry with an Err status.

Do not attempt to reapply the failed update! There are conditions under which this reapplication can lead to corruption of the database. If you have an ABAP dump. After choosing ABAP short dump in the previous screen. Always advise users to reenter the transaction.6A/B . If a short dump does not exist. b.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview 5. you will see: < A dialog box (titled Update Status). you will see one of the following screens: a. 10–36 Release 4. < The message No ABAP/4 short dump exists which appears either in the inactive Update Modules window or a separate dialog box. you will see this screen.

The users should check for the missing entry and reprocess the missing transaction.” usually signals a problem. if the terminate occurred in the FI posting of an SD transaction.) Update terminate occurring in a batch job There is no indication of which batch job (by job name) caused the update terminate. (For example. You may recognize a pattern of characters as a part number. The ability to read a short dump comes with experience and practice. Some of the content is only useful to the developer. Short dump with little usable information Update terminate occurring “downstream” from the actual transaction The data in the short dump may be of little value in finding the root of the update terminate. The users need to be contacted. 7. you will not know which SD transaction document caused the problem. It is during this “window” (immediately after the error has occurred) that the user has the best chance of correcting the problem. System Administration Made Easy 10–37 . etc. vendor code. 8VHU 7UDLQLQJ When a user receives the following message. SAP is aware of the inability to identify the batch job which was the source of an update terminate.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview Some of the problems that can occur with an update terminate include: < No short dump In this case. R/3 uses “express mail” to notify the user of a failed update. < < < < 6. document number. “You have express mail in your inbox. the only clues you have are the: Œ User ID Œ Date Œ Time Œ Transaction Difficulty reading the short dump Do not be discouraged because you cannot understand a short dump. The user should immediately stop and get assistance to determine what happened.

Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview 6\VWHP /RJ 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.

You can get more information on certain entries.” Proceed to step 4. Over time. errors. :K\ The log is important because unexpected or unknown warnings and errors could indicate a serious problem. and other system messages. and recognize the unusual ones that need investigation. you will become familiar with what log entries “normally” appear in your system log. In the Command field. 2 10–38 Release 4. :KHQ You should check the system log several times a day. If you select Problems only. The ability to properly monitor the system log comes with experience. enter transaction SM21 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. choose Tools → Administration → Monitoring → SM21-System log). double-click on the “short dump.6A/B . you will see this screen. problems. In this example. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. :KDW The system log is the R/3 System’s log of events. 2.

System Administration Made Easy 10–39 . increase the video color depth to 256 colors to see the alerts in color. To minimize the video processing overhead. 3. before you can recognize the unusual entries. < Column MNo for the error status Errors are in red and pink. On these servers. you will see this screen. you will need to become familiar with “normal” entries. or view the log from a computer that has the video set to at least a color depth of 256 colors. Notice that the warning messages on this screen (indicated by the yellow highlight under the column MNo).Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview If you select All messages. 3 What to look for: < Unusual entries For your installation for a specific system. and warnings are in yellow. These entries may have been examined when you did the Alert Monitor (RZ20). and the text Perform rollback) did not appear in the previous screen. many NT servers are configured with a video color depth of 16 colors.

10–40 Release 4. You can access this screen using transaction ST22. Choose Analyze runtime errors.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview 4. 4 This screen is the short dump.6A/B .

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these locks prevent access or change to the record until the system is cycled. System Administration Made Easy 10–41 . Finance) log in to specific instances (for example. and your change will be lost. You first save your change. It is also an item for which your external auditors may test. while someone is simultaneously changing the customer’s telephone number. or from when the user was cut off from the network. The example below illustrates the importance of using this function. The other person’s change overwrites your change. The only way to have different logout times for different groups of users is to have specific groups (for example. the Finance application server) where this parameter is set in the instance profile of that instance. :KDW A “lock” is a mechanism that prevents other users from changing the record on which you are working. The parameter is a global setting that applies to all users on the instance. You cannot have different logout times for different groups of users on the same instance. :K\ There may be “old” locks still in place from transactions that did not release. The easiest way to locate these locks is to look for locks from prior days. This parameter defines an automatic logout of the user if there is no activity for the set number of minutes. We presume that the profile parameter rdisp/gui_auto_logout has been set. ([DPSOH You are changing a customer mailing address. Unless cleared. Setting the auto_logout parameter is recommended for security. then the other person saves his or her change.

10–42 Release 4. Clear the User name field. 5 Deleting a lock is a dangerous task. In Client enter *. enter transaction SM12 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. look for locks from previous days.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 3.6A/B . Do not delete a lock without checking first to see if it is being used. The presence of a lock from a previous day could mean that the user was “disconnected” from the network and the R/3 System. you risk corrupting the database. Choose . In the Command field. If you delete a lock that is in use. 4. 4 2 3 5. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → SM12-Lock entries). In the Time column. 2.

From the menu bar. may clear the lock. delete their sessions as described in chapter 9. alone. Also see the Background Jobs section in this chapter. 2. Clear only one lock entry at a time. you could corrupt the database. $FWLYH 8VHUV 7UDQVDFWLRQV 60 DQG $/. Do not use the mass delete option. Also see Failed Updates section in this chapter. If you delete the wrong lock. This option will delete all the locks. This step. Select the lock entry for deletion. Deleting a User’s Session. not just the ones for the user you have selected. but transaction SM04 shows them on the system. < < < Double-check the user ID of the entry that you selected to delete. Are there are processes running under the user ID? < < Are there batch jobs running under the user ID? Are there updates in process for that user ID? < < Transaction SM50 Transaction SM51 Transaction SM37 Transaction SM13 Also see the Processes section later in this chapter. choose Lock entries→ Delete.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview The following process should be followed before deleting a lock: Task Is the user logged on any of the servers? Transaction Code that Completes this Task < < Transaction SMO4 (without application servers) Transaction AL08 ( with application servers) If the user is not on the system. Once you know that there is no activity using the user’s ID: 1.

System Administration Made Easy 10–43 . :KDW These transactions display all the users who are currently logged on to the system. the administrator can recognize user IDs logged on to “unfamiliar” terminals. :K\ In a smaller company. They show both the user’s ID and terminal name. An unfamiliar terminal may indicate that someone—other than the designated user—is using that user ID.

< < Release 4. This situation makes the problem difficult for you to fix and prevent from happening again. Users who turn off their computer without logging off from the R/3 System.QVWDQFH 6\VWHP 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60. Prudent security practices do not allow for the sharing of user IDs.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview A user logged on to more than one terminal may indicate that the ID is being used: < < Used by someone else Used/shared by several people Here are some reasons not to share user IDs: < If a problem arises. Your external auditors may also perform this test to test your security. This condition can be caused by one of the following: < < A network failure. 6LQJOH. which cuts off the user. you will not know who created the problem. Because the user session was not properly closed. the system “thinks” that the user is still logged on.6 allows you to prevent concurrent sharing of user IDs by activating the disable_mult_gui_login system profile. We recommend that you activate this parameter. 3UREOHPV Transaction SM04 may show a user as active. when the user has actually logged off.

2. In the Command field. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. enter transaction SM04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 3 2 10–44 Release 4. Choose Sessions. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM04-User overview). GARYN) to view the session the user has opened. 3.6A/B . Select the user ID (for example.

4. Choose .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview The Overview of Sessions screen shows what sessions the user has opened. 4 0XOWL.QVWDQFH 6\VWHP 7UDQVDFWLRQ $/.

because you can simultaneously see all users in all instances on the system. 2. 1. choose Goto → Global users overview. The Current Active Users screen shows all the instances in your system. a list of the users logged onto that instance/ application server is also provided. 4. 3. enter transaction AL08 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. using AL08 is easier. 3 3 4 3 4 System Administration Made Easy 10–45 . From the menu bar. In the Command field. For each instance. choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → SM66-All work processes. If you have several instances in your system.

Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview :RUN 3URFHVVHV 7UDQVDFWLRQV 60 DQG 60.

2. Transaction SM51 is a central transaction from which you can select the instance to monitor. if all the batch work processes are in use. Choose . pawdf071_Q99_75).” which maybe indicated by long run times. Select the instance you want to view (for example. SM51 starts transaction SM50 for each application server. 2 3 10–46 Release 4. )RU D 6\VWHP ZLWK $SSOLFDWLRQ 6HUYHUV *XLGHG 7RXU 1. :K\ Transaction SM51 is one place to look for jobs or programs that may be “hung. If batch jobs are not running. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM51-Servers). transaction SM50 may provide a hint of the problem. which is used for a system without application servers. 3. enter transaction SM51 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Command field. :KDW Process overview transactions allow users to view the status of work processes and monitor for problems.6A/B .

which sometimes start dialog work processes. b a System Administration Made Easy 10–47 . Dialog work processes (DIA) that have long Time values. )RU D 6\VWHP :LWKRXW $SSOLFDWLRQ 6HUYHUV *XLGHG 7RXU Ã In the Command field. enter transaction SM50 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Status column. What to look for: a. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM50-Process overview). These values could indicate a problem or a long running step in batch programs. b.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview This screen shows the Process Overview transaction (SM50) for that instance. can sometimes be a problem because a process may have stalled or failed. work processes that say stopped. The columns are defined in the table below.

Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview Column Text No Ty PID b Definitions Work process number Type of work process OS PID (Process ID) number Current status of the work process Number of detected errors in the work process Cumulative CPU time that the current process is taking Cumulative “wall” time that the current process is taking Name of the ABAP program Client number User ID that is using the work process Table that the action is being performed on Status Err CPU a Time Program Clie User Table $%$3 'XPS $QDO\VLV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 67.

This transaction can also be called from the system log (transaction SM21). The system records the error in the system log (transaction SM21) and writes a snapshot (dump) of the program termination to a special table. 10–48 Release 4. :KDW An ABAP dump (also known as a short dump) is generated when a report or transaction terminates as the result of a serious error. :K\ An ABAP dump is used to analyze and determine why the error occurred and take corrective action.6A/B .

Choose . 5 System Administration Made Easy 10–49 . In the Command field. There are two selection methods to display the list of dumps: < < For a simple selection. of short dumps. Today or Yesterday (proceed to step 2) For a free selection (proceed to step 5) 6LPSOH 6HOHFWLRQ 2. Select Today. 4 3 2 Proceed to step 8. enter transaction ST22 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Under No. 3. if you see a value other than zero (0) in Today or Yesterday. )UHH 6HOHFWLRQ 5. Choose Selection. 4. dumps have occurred that need to be examined. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → ST22-Dump analysis).Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview *XLGHG 7RXU 1.

8 10–50 Release 4. Enter your selection criteria in the ABAP Dump Analysis screen.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview 6. Choose .6A/B . 7. 7 6 8. Double-click on the dump you want to analyze.

rather than fax the entire dump.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration System Message (SM02) This screen shows the “short dump.” Despite being called a “short dump. We recommend you save the dump locally and print out only the portion you need. 6\VWHP 0HVVDJH 60. it is easier to e-mail or upload the file (see SAP note 40024).” ABAP dumps may be more than 75 pages long. If the SAP hotline asks for a copy of the short dump.

m. October 23 to 12:00 p. “You are logging into QAS. This information is recommended for systems other than the production system. copy of PRD as of Nov-1-98 at 0100 PST”). < System Administration Made Easy 10–51 . test. “SAP will be down for scheduled maintenance from 6:00 p. (for example. such as development.m.”). October 24. sandbox. PST Saturday. training. etc. :KDW A system message is a popup that users see when they: < < First log on to the R/3 System Move between screens :K\ < To send a broadcast message to everyone on the system (for example. To inform the user about the system they are logging on to. PST Friday.

enter the message’s expiration date and time. 5. you may also enter text in the following fields: a. 3 4a 4b 5 6 10–52 Release 4. In Client. choose and select the instance on which the message should appear. 6. In Server. enter transaction SM02 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. for a client specific message. enter the client number. 2. b. 4.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration System Message (SM02) &UHDWLQJ D 0HVVDJH *XLGHG 7RXU 1. choose Tools → Administration → Administration → SMO2-System messages). 2 3. Optionally. In the Command field. Enter your message in System message text. In Expiry on. Choose .6A/B . Choose Create.

always enter the specific time. Entering vague information (such as “in 15 minutes”). System Administration Made Easy 10–53 . enter a date several years in the future.m. time zone.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration System Message (SM02) To prevent the message from expiring.1998). When referencing the time for an event. Some examples of confusion that may arise includes: < < < < 15 minutes (from when?) 0230 (which time zone?) 6:00 (a. 0230 PDST-Mon–Jun 8. The message in the status bar indicates that your message has been saved. creates confusion as to when and where an event has been scheduled.?) Monday (of which week?) 7. or p. and date (for example. 7 The System Messages popup window will appear.m.

2. Enter your changes. choose Tools → Administration → Administration → SM02-System messages).6A/B . Choose Change. 4. choose Delete. 4 5a 5b 5c 6 10–54 Release 4. Select the message. If necessary. change the following: a. ServerName b. enter transaction SM02 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Client c. Expiry on 6. not Change. Choose . 3.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration System Message (SM02) (GLWLQJ D 0HVVDJH *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 3 2 To delete the message from this screen. 5. In the Command field.

The message in the status bar indicates that your message has been changed. Check the changed message.Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration System Message (SM02) 7. 8 7 $%$3 (GLWRU 6(. 8.

RSPARAM). In the command field. choose Tools→ ABAP workbench → Development → SE38-ABAP Editor). enter the report or program name (for example. :KDW An R/3 system administrator will need to execute certain reports and programs to apply a note or in relation to everyday duties and tasks. 3. In Program. Choose . Make sure you are executing the correct program. 2. enter transaction SE38 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. System Administration Made Easy 10–55 . 3 2 Be careful when executing reports and programs because it may affect and change your system. and you know what the program is going to do. +RZ 1.

Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration System Message (SM02) 4. 5. Choose Back.QIRUPDWLRQ $ERXW D 3URJUDP RU 5HSRUW 1. 3.6A/B . 7 )RU . In this case. enter RSPO0041. Choose Display. The report is run. In the Program. 1 2 3 10–56 Release 4. Select Documentation. This program has a variant screen where you can indicate whether you want parameters that cannot be substituted to also be listed. 7. 2. Choose . 5 6. the report displays the profile parameters.

System Administration Made Easy 10–57 .Chapter 10: R/3 System Administration System Message (SM02) The screen displays information about the program RSPO0041.

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..............................&KDSWHU  6HFXULW\ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ &RQWHQWV Overview ...........................................................................................................................11–25 Audit Tools ....................................11–57 System Administration Made Easy 11–1 .....................................................................................................................................................................11–4 Security Layers ......................11–37 Audit Tasks.....................11–2 Audits ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11–6 Operational Security...................................

operating system and network logon security. These responsibilities include: < Protecting the R/3 System < Preparing you for a computer security audit When an audit is performed on an R/3 System. 11–2 Release 4. and others) who might be affected by system security.6A/B . so we cannot prepare you for everything. .HHSLQJ 3HRSOH RXW RI 3ODFHV :KHUH 7KH\ 6KRXOG 1RW %H This area covers users having access to more parts of the system and to more data than they need to perform their job. . Each auditing firm has their own audit procedures and may look at many different items. The data may not be damaged but accessing and revealing this data could be equally damaging. internal auditors. This chapter is only an introduction to computer security and its importance. :KDW LV 6HFXULW\" Security is more than the R/3 authorization (or keeping “undesirables” out of the system). This chapter is an attempt to prepare you for these audits. regulatory. and physical security.Chapter 11: Security Administration Overview 2YHUYLHZ The purpose of this chapter is to make you aware of your responsibilities as the R/3 system administrator(s) for security. legal department. we will try to prepare you for the core group of items that all firms normally look at. However. Although an entire book can be written on this subject. and other requirements Each of these areas can be further divided. Some of the areas covered include: < < < < Keeping unauthorized people out of the system Keeping people out of places that they should not be Safeguarding the data from damage or loss Complying with legal. It is concerned with the following issues regarding data: < < < Protecting it from hardware problems Maintaining its integrity Restoring it in the event of a disaster Security is a broad topic and can be organized in many different ways.HHSLQJ 8QDXWKRUL]HG 3HRSOH RXW RI WKH 6\VWHP This area is what we usually think about as security and includes the R/3 authorization concept. even that would be insufficient. finance department. the administrator(s) will be responsible for responding to the audit findings. We recommend that you contact and work with all the parties (external auditors.

Œ A hardware failure. vendors. Financial performance data. and it has legal implications. There are strict SEC rules governing insider trading (see below for a definition of insider trading). it could affect the stock price. Insider knowledge or inside information means you have information. hurricane. tornado. < &RPSO\LQJ ZLWK /HJDO 5HJXODWRU\ DQG 2WKHU 5HTXLUHPHQWV :KDW Other reasons for security are defined by laws. Before defining insider trading. Insider trading is using inside information to buy or sell stock and make a profit or reduce a loss. unfortunately. Œ Arson Œ A flood. Items specified in contracts with customers. we have to first define insider knowledge or inside information. Security is a sensitive issue. Œ A hacker who deletes or damages files from the system. such as quarterly financial statements. This situation happens. This information could be used by a competitor. you could be held liable. One good example of security is insider trading. < 6DIHJXDUGLQJ WKH 'DWD IURP 'DPDJH RU /RVV There are two major sources of damage: < Accidental. Œ A fire that destroys the data center. or other parties. which is not known or available to the general public. more often than people admit. or other regional natural disasters. and sales volume. Your employees’ personnel data. If the information is known to the general public. contracts and other parties. Deliberate. contacts. Even if you do not profit from the sale. System Administration Made Easy 11–3 .Chapter 11: Security Administration Overview Examples of this sensitive data include: < < < Your company’s customer list. such as: Œ Loading test data into the production system. There are privacy laws that protect this type of data. earthquake. such as: Œ A disgruntled employee who deletes or damages files from the system.

This opinion essentially states that the financial statement represents fairly the financial position of the company. the audit is required by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the U. then sold the stock at a profit after the earnings announcement. an employee’s spouse passed on inside information to a relative. well before this information was made public. $XGLWV As a system administrator. and the IS director did not need to access the production R/3 System. Access to financial information is typically on a “need-to-know” or “need-to-access” basis. therefore. A financial audit is usually not an option. you will be affected by two audits: < Security < Financial )LQDQFLDO $XGLW :KDW A financial audit is a review of your company’s financial statements by a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) in the U. a financial audit could be required by creditors.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audits ([DPSOH  In one company. As a part of the financial audit. The purpose of the security audit is to determine how much reliance can 11–4 Release 4.6A/B .. or their equivalent in other countries.S. who then made the profit on the sale of the stock. “Red flags” went up when he started asking about financial performance information (quarterly earnings).. the CPA will typically do a security audit of R/3 and the associated systems. The purpose of the audit is to issue an opinion on the company’s financial statements. If your company’s stock is traded on the stock market. If your company is private. The spouse was guilty of providing insider information to the relative. or its equivalent in other countries. Both. He was asking for insider information. Ã +RZ You will need the assistance of your company’s legal department. This request raised the concern of the accounting/finance department. The SEC fined the spouse and the relative. ([DPSOH  The IS director of a company asked for authorization to log into the production R/3 System. That relative made a profit by buying the stock before the earnings announcement (insider trading). were guilty of insider trading. who purchased the stock.S.

or a computer security audit. will be quite upset. Your external auditors will evaluate your system security to determine what audit tests to perform and how much testing they will have to do. The purpose of the security audit is to determine how much reliance can be placed on the data in the R/3 System. Is your resume updated? 6HFXULW\ $XGLW :KDW A security audit is performed specifically to test the security of the R/3 environment. the chief financial officer (CFO). In a worst case scenario. :K\ As a security audit. The audit is also done to test the security of confidential data. This situation is really bad. they may need to increase the scope of their audit. Because of the effect on the stock price (down) that this inability to issue an opinion will probably cause. such as: < < < < Financial information Customer data Product information Company personnel data (from the HR module) $XGLW &RQVLGHUDWLRQV :KDW Audit considerations are the things that auditors will look at when they do the financial audit. It can also be done by your company’s internal audit group. :K\ If their evaluation results are not good. As a part of the financial audit. and likely the president. This increased scope also increases the cost of the audit.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audits be placed on the data in the R/3 System. and the extra work could delay the completion of the audit. Some of these considerations are: < < Physical security Network security System Administration Made Easy 11–5 . This audit is usually done as a part of the financial audit or to comply with government or other regulatory agencies. they could determine that the security is so weak that they cannot issue an opinion on the company’s financial statements. Your external auditors will evaluate your system security to determine what audit tests to perform and how much testing they will have to do. the CPA will typically do a security audit of R/3 and the associated systems.

and protect the system. to review your system and bring it up to acceptable standards for the audit.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers < < User administration procedures Œ Adequate segregation of duties Œ Proper training Œ Passwords Data security Œ Protection from hardware failure. Without knowing what the auditors will look for. It uses the following three major layers of security: Data Security Access security < Access security Œ Physical security Œ Network security Œ Application security Operational security Data security Operational Security < < 11–6 Release 4.6A/B . 6HFXULW\ /D\HUV To make security more manageable. mirrored drives. fail-over. It is only to make you aware of some of the things that could be reviewed as part of a security audit. Œ Backup and recovery procedures Œ Protecting the production system from unauthorized changes Œ Locking dangerous transactions :K\ These tasks are done to support the financial or security audit. RAID. we have chosen to use the security layer model. one of the many existing security models. you cannot properly prepare yourself. HA. 1RWH This section is not an all-inclusive SAP security audit. We recommend that you work with your auditors before the financial audit. etc.

the intruder must electronically access the system through the network. an intruder must penetrate the outer circles as follows: < < < Onto the property or site Into the building Into the areas of the building where the users are or where the equipment is located Œ Finance Œ MIS Œ Computer operations Into the specific equipment rooms within these areas of the building Œ Server room Œ Wiring closet Œ Network room < :K\ This layer is probably the most important. When this layer is bypassed: < < < < Equipment can be physically damaged or destroyed. The periodic review of the access log may be an item for which auditors will test. Data could be hacked. to get to the inner circle. If you have electronic card key access. It is crucial to control who is allowed access to the server room.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers $FFHVV 6HFXULW\ 3K\VLFDO 6HFXULW\ :KDW Physical security controls the physical access to R/3 and network equipment. +RZ The R/3 equipment should be located in a secured room. If an intruder can physically access your equipment. all your other security layers can be bypassed. Without physical access to the equipment. Access to the room should be only through a locked door. Equipment can be removed. Like the graphic on the previous page. The system can be accessed from the operators console (and could bypass strong network security). periodically audit the access log for the server room. System Administration Made Easy 11–7 .

The goal of this security type is to control the following types of access to the network: < External < Logon This type controls on-site and remote access and where on the network users can go once they gain access. the NT domain).6A/B . but the SAP domain does not trust other domains. Some of these points of control are: < Outside access Œ Dial-in access Œ Internet access Œ Other remote access methods. Other domains where users will log onto. trust the SAP domain. Œ Router tables This table can be used to control (by IP address) which users can access the SAP servers.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers 1HWZRUN 6HFXULW\ :KDW Network security also has sublayers of security. :K\ If intruders access your network. they could have an electronic link to your computers. Access to portions of the network. +RZ Use network security specialists to properly configure the various access points into your network and. 11–8 Release 4. once users are on the network. such as VPN Network login access This access method is the actual logon to the network (for example. Œ NT domains < < 1RWH We recommend that you have: < < A dedicated SAP domain where only the administrators are allowed to directly log onto. control their movements.

such as during lunch or at the end of day System Administration Made Easy 11–9 . :K\ These are organizational and people issues. Because it is primarily procedures and control. limiting the user to company 001 and cost center 200)] R/3 security functions at this layer. The problem is. application security has sublayers of security. which are always a problem. there are few computer or systems issues related at this level. for more information. see Authorizations Made Easy) Audit Information System (transaction SECR. +RZ Using R/3 application tools such as: < < < < Profile Generator (transaction PFCG. of course. see page 11–44) Delete Old Audit Logs (transaction SM18) 2SHUDWLRQDO 6HFXULW\ :KDW This layer is security at the operational or user level. that some people never want to comply with guidelines. see page 11–37) Security Audit Log (transaction SM19/SM20. such as logging into R/3 Where a user can go in the application What a user can do in the application What a user can do based on the system data in the application [such as the R/3 System (for example. because people need to comply with guidelines and rules. read (not change) accounting data for only cost center 200 in company 001]. +RZ Some of the methods of operational control are: < < < < Segregation of duties Preventing sharing of user IDs Password standards Log off when away from the computer.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers $SSOLFDWLRQ 6HFXULW\ :KDW Like the other layers. which controls: < < < < The ability to log into the application. :K\ This layer provides the fine or specific security of what a user can do [for example.

:K\ < It is easier to be proactive and prevent a problem than to recover from it. +RZ < Data on the servers The goal is to prevent or minimize loss of data in a disaster. because disaster recovery is an integral part of data security. This protection is accomplished in various ways. see chapter 2. Some of the items below can be referred to as High Availability (HA) items: Œ RAID arrays for drives Œ Redundant equipment Œ Using reliable equipment and vendors Œ Premium hardware support agreements for the production system The following are facilities-related items: Œ Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) Œ Fire detection and prevention devices 11–10 Release 4. Ensure that. The backup tapes must be stored safely to: Œ Preserve the backup tapes in the event of a disaster Œ Protect the backup tapes from theft Disaster Recovery For more information on disaster recovery. The first place to do it is on the server. To remain proactive: < Reduce the chances of losing data. The goal is to prevent or minimize loss of data in a disaster. if there is a disaster. :KDW Data security is the protection of the data. < Data on the servers Here we are protecting the data on the server from damage or loss. the system be completely recovered.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers 'DWD 6HFXULW\ This layer is closely knit to the material in chapter 2. < < Protect backup data from damage or loss.6A/B . < Backup data The goal of this security layer is to preserve application data (usually on tape) so that the system can be recovered.

You can “allow” specific users to log on multiple times by entering their user IDs in the parameter login/multi_login_users separated by commas and no spaces. Tapes at both the off-site backup and the on-site tape storage facilities must be secured to prevent the theft of the backup tapes. 3UHYHQWLQJ &KDQJHV LQ WKH 3URGXFWLRQ 6\VWHP :KDW The production system should be set to Not modifiable. System Administration Made Easy 11–11 . :K\ If several people share a user ID: < < You do not know who created a problem. $SSOLFDWLRQ RU 5 6HFXULW\ &RQWUROOLQJ $FFHVV WR 5 Also see the Password section in this chapter. If the backup tapes were stolen. Preventing multiple user logons is not allowing more than one R/3 logon from one user ID. Multiple user logons is when several users are sharing a user ID. The purpose for this setting is to ensure that all changes are completed in a controlled manner. or someone is using a user’s ID without the user’s knowledge. off-site data storage facility. The “locks” on the system should be set so that configuration changes (client-independent and client-dependent) cannot be made directly into the production system. +RZ Set the disable multi-login parameter (login/disable_multi_gui_login) in the system profile. the data can be restored and hacked. Using database tools. 3UHYHQW 0XOWLSOH 8VHU /RJLQV :KDW This process prevents users from logging onto the system multiple times. Œ This step protects the backup data from damage or destruction a disaster. This situation is an audit security issue. most R/3 security could be bypassed by directly reading the tables.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers Œ Œ Intrusion alert Environmental alerts < Backups Œ Backup tapes should be sent to a secure.

Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers

In the development pipeline, changes are: 1. Made in the development system 2. Tested in the development system 3. Transported from the development system to the test system 4. Tested in the test system 5. Transported from the test system to the production system This procedure ensures that changes are properly tested and applied to the systems in the pipeline. (A pipeline is the environment where development is moved from the development system to the quality assurance system, and finally to the production system.)
:K\

Configuration changes should not be made directly into the production system. This restriction maintains the integrity of the production system. If changes are made directly into the production system, it may “break” because the change: < < Was not tested Is not the same as the one made in the development system

The goal is to protect the production system from changes, without the changes being properly tested and to preserve the integrity of the pipeline. If changes are made into the production system, the development and testing pipeline could become out of sync with the production system. If the pipeline is out of sync, it get difficult to develop and test with any certainty that things will not be different in the production system. All changes should be made in the development system and then transported through the pipeline into production. In this way, all systems get the same changes. A common excuse is that making changes directly into the production system, “takes too long to transport the fix.” By making changes directly into the production system, you: < < Create an “out of sync” landscape, where the change made to the production system is not the same as the changes made to the development or test systems. Allow emergency transports to occur at any time, with coordination.

([FHSWLRQV

Infrequent exceptions occur when: < < There is no mechanism to transport the changes. An SAP note requires the direct change.

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When a change cannot be transported, the following procedure should be used: 1. Verify that the change cannot be transported. Some objects may use an ABAP program to transport the object. 2. “Unlock” the system (to make it modifiable). 3. Make the change. 4. Immediately re-lock the system. 5. Make the same changes to all other systems. Use this procedure only if a change cannot be transported.

Manual entry always increases the chance of making an error.

6HWWLQJ WKH 3URGXFWLRQ 6\VWHP WR ´1RW 0RGLILDEOHµ 7UDQVDFWLRQV 6( 6&&

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There are switches that prevent changes from being made in the system. In the production system, these switches should be set to Not modifiable. The purpose of this setting in the production system is to make sure that changes are made using the development pipeline. With this procedure, changes are properly tested and applied to the systems in the pipeline.
:K\

Objects should not be modifiable in the production system. This rule protects the production system from object and configuration changes before being tested. By setting the production system to Not modifiable, before the integrity of the pipeline is preserved.
+RZ

There are two transactions (SE03 and SCC4) that you will use to set the system to Not modifiable. (These transactions can also be used for other tasks.)

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&OLHQW,QGHSHQGHQW &KDQJHV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 6(

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*XLGHG 7RXU

1. In the Command field, enter transaction SE03 and choose Enter. The menu path to access this screen is extremely complicated, which is why it is not included. 2. Select Set System Change Option. 3. Choose .
3

2

4. Under Global setting, choose : a. To lock the system, select Not modifiable. b. To unlock the system, select Modifiable (selected in this example). 5. Choose .
5

4

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&OLHQW,QGHSHQGHQW DQG &OLHQW'HSHQGHQW &KDQJHV 6&&

Ã

*XLGHG 7RXU

1RWH This method also locks the client-dependent changes. 1. In the Command field, enter transaction SCC4 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu, choose Tools → Administration → Administration → Client administration → SCC4-Client maintenance). 2. Choose .

2

3. To continue, choose

.

3

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4. Select the client number (for example, 500). 5. Choose .
5

4

To Lock a Client (Not modifiable): 6. Under Changes and transports for client-dependent objects, select No changes allowed. 7. Under Client-independent object changes, choose and select No changes to Repository and clientindependent custom obj. 8. Under Protection: Client copier and comparison tool, choose and select Protection level 2: No overwriting, no external availability. 9. Choose Save.
9

6

7

8

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To Unlock a Client (Modifiable): 6. Under Changes and transports for client-dependent objects, select Automatic recording of changes. 7. Under Client-independent object changes, choose and select Changes to Repository and client-ind. Customizing allowed. 8. Under Protection: Client copier and comparison tool, choose and select Protection level 0: No restriction. 9. Choose Save.
6 9

7

8

9HULI\LQJ WKDW 'DQJHURXV 7UDQVDFWLRQV $UH /RFNHG
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“Dangerous transactions” could: < < < Damage or corrupt the system Present a security risk Adversely impact performance

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If users accidentally access these transactions, they could corrupt or destroy the R/3 System. < In a production system: Access to dangerous transactions is more critical in the production system than the development or test systems. This criticality is because of live data and the company’s operational dependency on the R/3 System. In a developmental system: Certain transactions should be locked in the production system, but not in the development, test, or training systems. Standard security normally prevents access to these transactions, but some administrators, programmers, consultants, and functional key users could access them depending on which system they are. In these cases, the transaction lock provides a second line of defense.

<

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There are over 48,000 English transaction codes in the R/3 System. To manage such a large number of transactions, lock only the critical ones. Your functional consultants should supply you with any additional critical transactions in their modules. The table below is organized with input from Basis consultants and users and lists transactions that we recommend you lock. The transactions are categorized by the following risk categories: < < < Dangerous Security-related Performance impact Description Document Archiving Bank Master Data Archiving G/L Accounts Archiving Customer Archiving Vendor Archiving Document Archiving Transaction Figures Archiving Profiles: Initial screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Archive Cost Centers (all) Archive cost centers (plan) Archive cost centers (line items) Archive admin: cost centers (line items) Archive admin: completely cancelled doc Archive admin: cost centers (all) Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Reset Transaction Data (delete transaction data) Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial screen X X X X X X X X X X X X Dangerous X X X X X X X X X Security Performance

Transaction F040 F041 F042 F043 F044 F045 F046 GCE2 GCE3 KA10 KA12 KA16 KA17 KA18 KA20 O001 O002 O016 OBR1 OBZ7 OBZ8

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Transaction OBZ9 OD02 OD03 OD04 OIBA OIBB OIBP OMDL OMDM OMEH OMEI OMG7 OMI6 OML0 OMM0 OMNP OMSN OMSO OMSZ OMWF OMWG OMWK OOPR OOSB OOSP OOUS OP15 OP29 OPCA

Description Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Profiles: Initial screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Profiles: Initial Screen Change View "User Authorizations": Overview Change View "Authorization Profiles": Overview Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen

Dangerous

Security X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Performance

System Administration Made Easy

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Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers

Transaction OPCB OPCC OPE9 OPF0 OPF1 OPJ0 OPJ1 OPJ3 OSSZ OTZ1 OTZ2 OTZ3 OVZ5 OVZ6 OY20 OY21 OY22 OY27 OY28 OY29 OY30 SARA SCC5 SE01 SE06 SE09 SE10 SE11 SE13 SE14

Description Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Maintain Users: Initial Screen Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Maintain Users: Initial Screen Archive Management: Initial Screen Client delete Transport Organizer System Table maintenance Workbench Organizer Customizing Organizer Data Dictionary maintenance Maintain Storage parameters for table Utilities for dictionary tables

Dangerous

Security X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Performance

X X

X

X

X X X

11–20

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Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers

Transaction SE15 SE16 SE17 SE38 SM49 SM59 SM69 ST05 SU12

Description Data Dictionary Information System Data Browser General Table display ABAP workbench External OS commands Maintain RFC destinations External OS commands SQL trace Delete All Users

Dangerous

Security

Performance

X X X X

X X X X

The following table shows dangerous transactions that probably cannot be locked because they are (or could be) used regularly. These transactions may have other valid reasons for use in a production system—but because of the potential danger, need to have restricted access. Transaction RZ10 SA38 SM04 SM12 SM13 SM30 SM31 STMS SU01 SU02 SU03 Description Edit System Profiles ABAP Workbench User Overview System Locks Update Terminates Table Maintenance Table Maintenance Transport Management System User Maintenance Profiles: Initial Screen Maintain Authorizations: Object Classes X X X X X X X X Dangerous X X X Security Performance

Table TSTCT contains the transaction codes and the name of the transaction. The current content is over 93,000 entries in the table, with over 48,000 in English.

System Administration Made Easy

11–21

6A/B . choose Tools → Administration → Administration → SM01 Transaction Code Administration). Choose . because someone will invariably want to know who locked the transaction and why it was locked. Enter the transaction code you want to lock (for example. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 2 11–22 Release 4. SE14) 3 in the search field at the bottom of the TCode column. 2.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers +RZ Create and maintain a list of the following information: < < < < Which transactions were locked? Why are they locked? Who locked them? When were they locked? Maintaining the above-mentioned information will be important. 3. enter transaction SM01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Command field.

select the transaction. < To unlock a transaction. Access to transactions can also be controlled by building security authorizations on the security object S_TCODE under Cross application authorization objects. 4 5 6 6. Use the locked checkbox: < To lock a transaction.Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers 4. System Administration Made Easy 11–23 . Choose . Choose Back. 5. which would prevent you from unlocking this or other transactions. deselect the transaction. Check which transactions you are locking. You could accidentally lock yourself out of a key transaction.

3 2 4. next to Locked 5. 4 5 11–24 Release 4. 3. Select Complete audit. enter transaction SECR and choose Enter. Choose .Chapter 11: Security Administration Security Layers 7R /LVW /RFNHG 7UDQVDFWLRQV 1. Choose Transactions: Display. 2. In the Command field.6A/B . Expand the following menu path: Audit Information System (AIS) → System Audit → Development / Customizing → Transactions → Locked Transactions: Display.

Some of these combinations are: < < < Accounts Payable and Check Generation Accounts Receivable and Cash Receipts ABAP development and transport control System Administration Made Easy 11–25 . 6HJUHJDWLRQ RI 'XWLHV :KDW There are standard audit guidelines that cover job or task combinations that are considered “risky” or that reduce internal controls.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security 6. 2SHUDWLRQDO 6HFXULW\ This section describes selected operational security issues. Verify that the following are selected: < Locked < Transactions < Menu transactions < Parameter transactions < Report transactions 7. Choose . 7 6 This screen shows the list of locked transactions.

in a restaurant. 11–26 Release 4. A user with user administration rights cannot change the password to gain access to a user ID and then change it back to the original password. the owner of the user ID will know that the password has been altered because they will be unable to log on with their current password. so they cannot restore the original password if they do not know it. 5HVWULFWLQJ $FFHVV WR 6$3 RU ''. If an R/3 user requires similar functionality.” with the appropriate security approvals.& :KDW These are system user IDs that have restricted uses for specific purposes. These users should be grouped as “super users. they should have a copy of the SAP* profile. In this combination.6A/B . If you must combine functions. Recommended Polices and Procedures: System Administration. For more information. Testing for segregation of duties is a standard audit procedure. This profile is extremely powerful because it grants the user complete access to the system. :K\ There are certain functions that can only be performed by SAP* or DDIC. Passwords are not visible to the administrators. combine them in a way that minimizes risks. +RZ The review of segregation of duties should be completed with the various user owners (key users of each functional area). the waiter is not also the cashier. smaller companies must assign multiple functions to a single person. This separation explains why. Out of necessity.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security Your external auditors should help you define these risky combinations. Be aware of the potential security risks in this situation. At the next logon. :K\ Accounts Receivable and Cash Collection The purpose is to separate the person who collects and handles the cash from the person who keeps the records of what a customer owes. or why a mechanic must get spare parts from a storekeeper. The security profile for SAP* is SAP_ALL. the cash received from the customer could be pocketed and the amount written off the customer’s account. see chapter 12.

If there is a deliberate security breach.'V :KDW This process occurs when more than one person uses a single user ID. These situations must be treated individually and with management and internal audits review and approval. System Administration Made Easy 11–27 . not just R/3. Log on using SAP* and DDIC to determine if someone has changed the password.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security +RZ 1. there is no way to track the responsible party. this step prevents the “backdoor” usage of user sap*. :K\ This issue is a security concern because: < < < There is no way to tell who is doing the activity. Verify that the system profile parameter login/no_automatic_user_sapstar has been configured. If there is a training problem. If the user ID has been deleted. 2WKHU Despite the cautionary statements above. 3. :K\ One aspect of security is to control and know what changes are made to the system. you do not know who needs training. 4. there are a few situations where it is not practical to have individual user IDs. to prevent the use of the automatic user sap*. &KDQJH 0DQDJHPHQW :KDW Change management is the process of controlling what changes are made to the system. Update the secured password list. In this context. 2. “system” refers to the entire system environment. +RZ Item of concern: < Is there a change management procedure for changes being made to the R/3 System? < < Is a QA testing process in place? Are reviews and approvals required to move changes into the production system? 6KDULQJ RI 8VHU . Periodically change the password for these users in all: < < Systems Clients in those systems This step prevents a person who knows the password from accessing the system.

which means you have lost your security. there is one computer and several employees who use that computer to post their warehouse transactions such as goods issued.VVXHV DQG 7DVNV The password is the users key to accessing R/3. access transaction. Parameter values are: < < 1 (to block multiple logins) 0 (to allow multiple logins) We recommend that this value be set to “1” to prevent multiple logins under the same user ID. not at the individual transaction level. safeguarding this key is important to keep “undesirables” out. etc. The alternative is to have a computer for each warehouse person. although this step may not be economically justified. 11–28 Release 4. This process occurs because the user ID is used to log on. Your company should have a clear and practical company password policy. +RZ To prevent a user ID from being shared. For each transaction that the warehouse employee access.6A/B . but the R/3 System. it is impractical to log on to R/3. which should be distributed to all users informing them not to use easy-to-guess passwords. goods received. Users will write their passwords down and leave it in an easily seen place. 3DVVZRUG .Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security ([DPSOH $ :DUHKRXVH In a warehouse. A password policy that is too restrictive or difficult to comply with could defeat the purpose of this policy. and log off from R/3. the system profile parameter (login/disable_multi_gui_login) can (and should) be set. Like the key to your house.

Users are usually locked out after three failed attempts. after a specified number of times. Password lockout: login/fails_to_user_lock This parameter locks out users who. System Administration Made Easy 11–29 .). 123. You can prevent these passwords from being used by loading them into a table (USR40) that the system checks when the user attempts to save a new password. <your company name>) that are well known or easy to guess. the time interval that the user must change their password. (OLPLQDWLQJ 6RPH (DV\ 3DVVZRUGV :KDW There are certain passwords (for example. Password expiration time: login/password_expiration_time This time period is the limit before users must change their password. +RZ To set up password parameters. Œ Auditors usually recommend 30 days. try to logon with an incorrect password. sap. Your external auditors may check to see if you have set the security parameters. etc. Table USR40 is only a basic level of password security and is maintained manually. Œ A practical number that customers use is 90 days.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security 6HWWLQJ 3DVVZRUG 6WDQGDUGV 8VLQJ 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5= :KDW There are security parameters for the user’s password (for example. < < :K\ Properly assigned parameters will make it more difficult to break into the system. maintain system profiles with transaction RZ10 (for more information on this transaction. QWERTY. see chapter 20). so the standard is usually five (5) characters. sex. abc. the minimum password length. The following is a list of the most important password parameters: < Minimum password length: login/min_password_lng A longer password is more difficult to break or guess. There are third-party password security programs that can be integrated into R/3.

if company security policy requires it. Your external auditors may check to see if you have a mechanism to secure against users with “easy-to-guess” passwords. the general table maintenance transaction. However.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security :K\ A password is the key to enter the system. you could include all passwords that are considered “risky” in the table. 0DLQWDLQLQJ D 7DEOH RI 3URKLELWHG 3DVVZRUGV :KDW A table of prohibited passwords is a user-defined list of passwords that are prohibited from being used in the R/3 System. see chapter 19.6A/B . there is no reason to prohibit passwords like “123” or “SAP. +RZ By maintaining the table of prohibited passwords. Interaction occurs between a system profile parameter and the table of prohibited passwords. If one of these passwords is used.” because these passwords would fail the minimum length test. +RZ Changes will be made to table USR40 using transaction SM31. If users choose easy-to-guess or well-known passwords. similar to the key you use to enter your home. security is compromised and your system is potentially at risk. This table is not a substitute for good password policies and practices by the users. (For more information on this transaction. Change Management: 11–30 Release 4. If the minimum password length is set to five characters. The following is a list of easily guessed passwords that cannot be put into any table: < < < < < < < <your name> <your spouse’s name> <your child’s name> <your pet’s name> <your car’s license plate> <your driver’s license number> <your social security number> :K\ There are many lists circulating of commonly used user passwords. the chances of an unauthorized person accessing a user’s account increases.

Tue*. Mon*. Need to access the system if the SAP system administrator(s) is not available. and all the other areas where passwords are required. February*.) <your company name> <your product names> <competitors names> <competitors products names> 5HFRUGLQJ 6\VWHP 3DVVZRUGV We recommend that you never write down passwords. Many systems. etc. This change creates a transport that can then be transported throughout the landscape.). except for the: < < < Critical nature of the R/3 System.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security Table Maintenance. System Administration Made Easy 11–31 . Tuesday*.) Months of the year (January*. A few suggestions for table entries are: < < < < < < < < < < < SAP GOD ABC QWERTY SEX XYZ PASSWORD 123 12345* 54321* *12345* Other table entries include: < < < < < < Days of the week (Monday*. clients. Keep a log of changes made to this table in your security log. Feb*. etc. Jan*.

< < Two people should prepare the list. Only a select list of company personnel should have access to this information. Following are sample password tables: Server SAPR3T SID TST Client 000 User ID SAP* DDIC <SID>ADM SAPCPIC 001 SAP* DDIC <SID>ADM SAPCPIC 066 SAP* <SID>ADM Earlywatch 100 SAP* DDIC Password Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass 11–32 Release 4. change the password. those “keys” are lost. the database. and verify the new password— one user ID at a time. The password list should be updated and replaced whenever passwords are changed.6A/B . If the recorded password is wrong. and you may not be able to log on to the system. User IDs that are used or needed to maintain the R/3 System include: Œ SAP* Œ DDIC Œ SAPCPIC (see note 29276) Œ EarlyWatch (client 066) Œ All user-created administrative IDs Œ Any other non-SAP user ID that is required to operate the system. such as for the operating system. and other related applications.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security 5HFRPPHQGHG 3URFHVV < All passwords for all system IDs should be: Œ Recorded Œ Placed in a sealed envelope Œ Put in a company safe (possibly both an onsite and offsite safe) that has restricted access.

and client 066 is the EarlyWatch client and may not exist in every system. the production system should have an entry for client 066. In addition. Clients 000 and 001 are default clients in all systems.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security Server SID Client User ID BATCH1 <SID>ADM SAPCPIC Password Newpass Newpass Newpass All systems should have entries for clients 000 and 001. Where NT User ID Finance/DEVADM Finance/PRDADM Password Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass Newpass SQLserver sa sapr3 UNIX root <SID>ADM Oracle system SYS OPS$<SID>ADM OPS$SAPSERVICE<SID> SAPR3 System Administration Made Easy 11–33 .

5. 7. user versus users and the versus teh). 2. 500). enter the client number (for example. log on under the user ID to change the password. In Client. enter the user ID you want to change (for example. Choose . In User. It is easy to enter the password incorrectly or to make the same error twice (for example. Enter the new password twice in the popup window. In each instance and each client. Choose New password. At this point the logon will proceed as normal. sap*). enter the current password. 3.6A/B . 5 2 3 4 6. In Password.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security *XLGHG 7RXU To change the password for a user ID: 1. 6 7 Be careful when you enter the new password. 11–34 Release 4. 4.

Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security 8. This reason is why password changes should be made one user ID at a time. 8VHU . if the new password fails.6). At this point. Record the new password in the password table. 9.'V < < <SID>ADM SAPService<SID> 6HUYLFHV < SAP These services will either use user ID <SID>ADM or SAPService<SID> Œ SAP<SID>_<instance> Œ SAPOsCol Œ SAProuter Oracle Œ OracleService<sid> Œ OracleTNSListener80 The default user that the Oracle services runs under is system SQLserver MSSQLServer Œ SQLServerAgent Œ < < The user ID that they run under is either <SID>ADM or SAPService<SID> < Informix Œ INFORMIX-OnLineDynamicServer Œ INFORMIX-OnLineMessageService DB2 DB2-DB2DA400 < System Administration Made Easy 11–35 . the following user IDs should have their passwords changed: 17 In some places. use another administrative user ID to reset the password. NT is case sensitive (for example. Release 4. you can manage users across all systems (for more information. With Central User Management. at the initial login screen). Log on using the new password to verify it. This process must be repeated for every system and client in which the user ID has an entry. see Authorizations Made Easy. 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP /HYHO At the operating system level.

'V < < <sid>adm root 6HUYLFHV ora<sid> 'DWDEDVHV For the databases.0A 11–36 Release 4.Chapter 11: Security Administration Operational Security 81.5A 4.QIRUPL[ See note 15399 0LFURVRIW 64/ 6HUYHU < < < See SAP note 28893 sa sapr3 2UDFOH81.. the following user IDs should have their passwords changed: '% NT/DB2 (see SAP note 80292) ..0B 4.6A/B . 8VHU . User IDs: < < < SAPR3 SYS SYSTEM 8VHIXO 6$3 1RWHV IRU 2UDFOH81.. SAP Note # 117736 101318 086857 Description (Release) 4.

Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools Use the program chdbpass to change the passwords.QIRUPDWLRQ 6\VWHP 7UDQVDFWLRQ 6(&5. 2UDFOH17 < system < sys < op$<sid>adm < ops$sapservice<sid> < sapr3 $XGLW 7RROV $XGLW . This program automatically updates the SAPUSER table and enables the user <sapsid>adm to access the database.

AIS uses standard R/3 reports and transactions to conduct the review and is a standard component in Release 4. The center of the AIS is the Audit report tree. However. AIS enables the auditors to test transactions and run reports during the inspection. :K\ Auditors examine the results of automated and manual financial and system procedures to ensure that there is a checks-and-balances infrastructure to prevent fraud.0D or higher. you can import the AIS into your system back to Release 3.6A. :KDW The Audit Information System (AIS) is designed for the system and business audits and will likely be requested to be run by internal or external auditors. +RZ There are two ways to conduct an audit: < Complete < User defined System Administration Made Easy 11–37 . AIS also provides an interface to export data to an external auditing system that analyzes financial statements. etc. It puts into one place many of the R/3 security tools.

Click the node (+) to expand the following: < System Audit < Business Audit 3 11–38 Release 4. Choose .6A/B . Select Complete audit. choose Information Systems → SECR-Audit Info System). 3. 2. enter transaction SECR and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 1. 2 1 A complete audit consists of a system audit and business audit.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools &RPSOHWH $XGLW In the Command field. The structure on this screen is Audit_All with a standard view.

3. Choose next to Data Dictionary display.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 6\VWHP $XGLW The following example shows how to use the AIS. Under System Audit. click the node (+) next to Repository / Tables. 2 3 System Administration Made Easy 11–39 . Click the node (+) next to Table Information. 1. 1 2.

5 11–40 Release 4. When the transaction executes.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 4.6A/B . 5. Choose Back. you will execute the transaction normally. From here. you will see this screen.

Click the node (+) next to Balance Sheet/ P&L. Click the node (+) next to Balance Sheet/ P&L/ Balances. 2. you can enter criteria for your report then choose . 4. 6 5 System Administration Made Easy 11–41 . On this screen. 1 2 3 4 5. Choose next to Profit and Loss Projection. You can execute different reports to inspect the financial balances. 3. 6.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools %XVLQHVV $XGLW 1. click the node (+) next to Closing (FI-GL). Choose Back. Under Business Audit.

4 2 3 View names must start with “Y” or “Z. 5 When you are creating a view and you entered a different name in Name. Select User-defined audit. . Under Select using. 3. Choose . enter transaction SECR and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. choose Information Systems → SECR-Audit Info System) 2. the name of the view is what was entered in the main screen. enter the name of the view (for example. Choose . In Name.” 5. ZVUE). Choose . enter a view name (for example.6A/B . Choose 10. 9 10 8 11–42 Release 4. select Manual selection. 6 7 We want to include all the procedures for a system audit in this view. 8. In the Command field. under New view. 6. ZVUE). You will select the procedures that will be included in the view. 7. 9. 1. Select System Audit.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 8VHU 'HILQHG $XGLW You can also conduct a user-defined audit by creating a view or subset of a complete audit. Under User-defined audit. 4.

13 System Administration Made Easy 11–43 . Choose Display to check the view of this structure. 11.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools The message in the status bar indicates that the generation was successful. Choose Back. 12 13. Click on the System Audit node (+) to expand it. 11 12.

à 6HFXULW\ $XGLW /RJ 60.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools These are all the procedures for the Audit_All structure with a ZVUE view.

These activities include successful and failed: < < < < < Dialog logon attempts Report and transaction starts RFC/CPIC logons Locked transactions or users Changed or deleted: Œ Authorizations Œ Authorization profiles Œ User master records Changes to the audit configuration Other events written into the log are: < The log is created each day. and previous logs are neither deleted nor overwritten. :K\ Based on certain criteria. An audit analysis report can be generated from the audit logs. or all the servers in an R/3 System. You can analyze a local server. The log files can become numerous and large. a remote server. :KDW The Security Audit Log records the security-related activities of users in the system. the information in the security audit files can be manipulated to tailor the audit analysis report. so we recommend that the logs be periodically archived before being manually purged. The report assists the administrator: < < Reconstruct or analyze incidents Improve security by recognizing inadequate measures 11–44 Release 4.6A/B .

This definition means that the system produces several log files each a day and these files can be. When the limit has been reached. archived periodically into CDs. and the maximum size per file is 2 GB. You have to choose the method by which the audit files are created. The profile parameter is rsau/max_diskspace/per_file.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools < < Trace unusual user activities Understand the impact of changes to transactions or users +RZ To start a security audit. logging will end. The number of audit logs created by the system depend on the following: < System Administration Made Easy 11–45 . see the section on RZ10 in chapter 20. you can do one of the following: < < < Set the profile parameter rsau/enable to 1 (For more information. You can define the size of an individual security log file to fit in the chosen archiving media. You may choose to set the maximum space for the security audit file in parameter rsau/max_diskspace/local. 1RWH You cannot set both parameters.) Dynamically start it using transaction SM19. for example.

choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → Security Audit log → SM20-Analysis). 1. 2. select a line and choose . 4. enter transaction SM20 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Under Audit classes. 2a 2b The security report is displayed. 13:00). Choose Re-read audit log. select: < Dialog logon < Transaction start < Report start 3. This button is used to read a log for the first time. To see the details of an audit message. Complete the steps below: a. 3 b. In From date/time.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 5XQQLQJ WKH $XGLW /RJ Ã *XLGHG 7RXU This procedure assumes that the audit has been running for some time and that audit logs have been created.6A/B . enter a time and a date (for example. 4 11–46 Release 4. In the Command field.

6HWWLQJ 6HFXULW\ $XGLW /RJ 3DUDPHWHUV 60. Documentation for the message and technical details are revealed.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 5. This screen is most useful when displaying negative messages such as failed logins or locked transactions.

You can define up to 5 sets of selection criteria or filters. however. :KDW The audit log parameters are the criteria used to write the types of audit messages into the audit log file. The parameters are grouped into audit profiles that can be activated at the next system startup (configuration status) or applied “on the fly” (dynamic configuration). System Administration Made Easy 11–47 . The settings take effect at the next application server start. These profiles limit the amount and type of data written into the security audit files. all application servers use the identical criteria to save events in the audit log. The system parameter. +RZ Decide what to audit and set selection criteria at the database level or dynamically at the application server level: < If the audit configuration is permanently stored at the database level. rsau/selection_slots (that defines the number of filters has a default value of 2). dynamic changes can be set to individual application servers and distributed to the entire system. You can activate an audit in the dynamic configuration using transaction SM19. < At the application server level. which makes the subsequent security reports more meaningful to the administrator. The new criteria will remain in effect until the server is brought down. :K\ Audit profiles need to be first created before audit logs can be written.

4. 2. audprof1). choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → Security Audit log → SM19-Configuration). Enter a profile name (for example. 2 3. 3 4 11–48 Release 4. Choose .Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools *XLGHG 7RXU 1. In the Command field.6A/B . Configuration status refers to the storage of the parameters in the database. Choose . enter transaction SM19 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.

7. Under Selection criteria. 'HILQH )LOWHU *URXS  6. 10. 10 7 8 9 6 System Administration Made Easy 11–49 . select: < Dialog Logon < Transaction Start 9. enter * 8. select All. Select Filter active. in: < Client. Choose Filter 1. you may specify two filter groups and define the types of audit messages that will be written into the log. Under Events. enter * < User Names. In this screen. In Audit classes.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 5.

18. Deselect Filter active. 16. Notice that the category is automatically chosen based on the earlier selection of Event type and Audit class type. Under Selection criteria: < < In Client. In User Names. select Severe and critical. Choose Detail setting to drill down the audit class and event class categories. 18 17 11–50 Release 4. In Audit Classes. 11 15 13 14 16 13. GARYN). enter *. Choose . enter a user ID (for example. select Report start. Scroll down to Report start. This filter traces the reports started by one user. This setting allows you to save the filter settings 12 but does not activate them. Choose Filter 2. 12.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 'HILQH )LOWHU *URXS  11. 17. 15. Under Events.6A/B . 14.

The general categories are cleared indicating that settings were browsed or defined at the detail level. 20 19 21. 22. Choose . A message at the bottom of the screen notifies the user that the profile was successfully saved. Choose Save.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 19. 22 21 System Administration Made Easy 11–51 . 20.

6A/B . and the message in the status bar indicates that the profile will be activated when the application server is restarted.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 23. 25 25 11–52 Release 4. To dynamically change the selection criteria for one or more application servers in a running system. In this example. The profile name is now in the Active profile field. choose the Dynamic configurat (Dynamic configuration) tab. Choose . 26. the audit has been running for some time (indicated by the current file size greater than zero) before being stopped briefly. 26 The red square indicates that the audit is inactive. 24 23 25. 24.

Under Filter 1. enter a user ID (for example. Choose . User names. Under Selection criteria. Patricia). 3. 4 1 2 3 6. Choose Yes. 5 2. enter *.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 5XQQLQJ DQ $XGLW RQ D 'LIIHUHQW 8VHU *XLGHG 7RXU In this procedure. Under Audit classes. 1. 6 System Administration Made Easy 11–53 . select Filter active. 4. in: < < Client. select Report start. Under Events. select All. 5. we will run an audit on a different user and check on all the reports that were started.

However. Review and analyze these reports based on your knowledge of the company. be aware 11–54 Release 4.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 7. including: < < < < < < < < < RSUSR003 RSUSR005 RSUSR006 RSUSR007 RSUSR008 RSUSR009 RSUSR100 RSUSR101 RSUSR102 Checks for default password on user IDs SAP* and DDIC Lists users with critical authorizations Lists users who are locked due to incorrect logon This report should be scheduled to run each day. with the option to select the critical authorizations Lists change documents for users and shows changes made to a user’s security Lists change documents for profiles and shows changes made to security profiles Lists change documents for authorizations and shows changes made to security authorizations Some of these reports have parameter tables that need to be properly maintained. just before midnight. Lists users with incomplete address data Lists users with critical combinations of authorizations or transactions Lists users with critical authorizations. 7 7 8VHU 6HFXULW\ $XGLW -REV Many of these reports are included as part of the AIS. A green dot appears in the Stat (Status) column and the message at the bottom of the screen indicates that the configuration was activated.6A/B . :KDW There are several predefined SAP security reports.

SE38 (ABAP Editor) With this transaction. enter the report name.” :K\ Your external auditors may require some of these reports to be executed as part of the annual financial audit. 6$ ² $%$3 ([HFXWH 3URJUDP 1. +RZ You can use either of the following transactions: < < SA38 (ABAP: Execute Program) This transaction only allows the program to be executed. If you have a small company. Choose .Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools that security issues may exist. 2. In the Command field. 3 2 System Administration Made Easy 11–55 . the user can execute and change the program. these issues cannot be avoided because “one person often must wear many different hats. if the user has the security authorization. In Program. 3. enter transaction SA38 and choose Enter.

Dangerous combinations include the following transactions: Œ RZ02 (with anything) Œ RZ03 (with anything) Œ SE14 (with anything) Œ SU01 (with security. users. In the Command field. In Program enter the report name .6A/B . Choose . enter transaction SE38 and choose Enter. 2. users. and profiles) 11–56 Release 4. and profiles) Œ SU02 (with security. 3 2 1RWHV IRU 6SHFLILF 5HSRUWV RSUSR008 (lists critical combinations of authorizations or transactions): < < These combinations are maintained on table SUKRI.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tools 6( ² $%$3 (GLWRU 1. 3.

2 System Administration Made Easy 11–57 . By locking or deleting these user IDs. Deleting or locking these user IDs also prevents anyone who had been using the terminated user ID from accessing the system with that ID. 2. :K\ Proper audit control requires that a user who no longer has a valid business need to access R/3 should not be allowed to do so. you limit access to only those users who should have access to R/3. +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. choose Tools → Administration → User maintenance → SU01-Users). enter transaction SU01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tasks $XGLW 7DVNV 5HYLHZ WKDW DOO 1DPHG 8VHUV DUH 9DOLG :KDW All users who have left the company should have their R/3 access terminated immediately. Choose . One of the audit procedures that your external auditors will use is to test whether a person who does not need to access R/3 has a live user ID. Periodic review assures that the task of locking or deleting has been completed. In the Command field.

you should do a random audit on at least 20 users.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tasks Review the active users and verify that these users are valid. The minimum number should be determined by your auditors. increased permissions may grant a user more authority in the system than is required or intended. If left unchecked. Investigate inconsistencies 11–58 Release 4. 5HYLHZLQJ 3URILOHV IRU $FFXUDF\ DQG 3HUPLVVLRQ &UHHS :KDW A “permission creep” is an incremental increase in permission and is given to a user over time. For additional information on how to “lock” a user.6A/B . see chapter 12. :K\ Users may have undesirable authorization(s) or combinations. In a large company. Compare these forms to the activity groups and profiles assigned to that user 3. +RZ You can conduct a spot audit of: < Individuals 1. User Administration. Your external auditors may have an audit step to check for permission creep. Review the security forms for a user 2.

Reasonableness is defined as. Review the individual profiles assigned for content and check to see if the profile has been recently changed. see the User Security Audit on page 11–54. Review the activity groups and profiles assigned to the individual for reasonableness. < Profiles (transaction SU02) and authorizations (transaction SU03) Check if the change date is recent.Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tasks 4. “Does it make sense?” 5. You can also execute the following audit reports: < < < RSUSR100 (user changes) RSUSR101 (profile changes) RSUSR102 (authorization changes) For additional information on these reports. System Administration Made Easy 11–59 .

6A/B .Chapter 11: Security Administration Audit Tasks 11–60 Release 4.

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12–29 Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04)................12–2 Recommended Policies and Procedures ........12–26 Locking or Unlocking a User (SU01)......................................12–3 New User Setup......................................................................................................................................12–7 Maintaining a User (SU01).........12–27 User Groups ...............................................................12–32 System Administration Made Easy 12–1 .....................................12–24 Resetting a Password (SU01) .........&KDSWHU  8VHU $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ &RQWHQWV Overview .......................................................................

the administrator is subject to external requirements from the company’s external auditors. Customers should consult with their external auditors for audit-related internal control user administration requirements. Because the company’s financial and other proprietary information is on the system. see the Authorizations Made Easy guidebook. regulatory agencies. not just a necessary administrative task. refer to the section User Groups on page 12–29. human resources should be consulted if the HR module is implemented or if personnel data is maintained on the system. For example. such as: < < < Basis Finance Shipping For additional information. For example. manually creating and maintaining security profiles and authorizations is also not covered.6A/B . which is why we begin with them. Our discussion is limited to a general introduction and a list of the major issues related to security. The value of the Profile Generator is more significant for smaller companies with limited resources that cannot afford to have dedicated security administrators. A full discussion on security and user administration is beyond the scope of this guidebook. 8VHU *URXSV User groups are created by an administrator to organize users into logical groups. It reduces (but does not eliminate) the need for specialized security consultants. The two sections below affect all aspects of security. Security is at stake each time the system is accessed. 3URILOH *HQHUDWRU The Profile Generator is a tool used to simplify the creation and maintenance of SAP security. and others. For more information on the Profile Generator. 12–2 Release 4.Chapter 12: User Administration Overview 2YHUYLHZ User administration is a serious function.

e0123456) Œ Last name. Users leaving the company or changing jobs Œ This event is particularly sensitive. last initial In a small company where names are often used as ID. doej or johnd. Clearly identifiable user IDs for temporary employees and consultants (for example. Œ A periodic audit should be performed. Œ If the user is not a permanent employee. 8VHU $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ User administration tasks comprise the following: < User ID naming conventions Œ The employee’s company ID number (for example.Chapter 12: User Administration Recommended Policies and Procedures 5HFRPPHQGHG 3ROLFLHV DQG 3URFHGXUHV Some of the tasks in this guidebook are aimed at complying with common audit procedures. first initial. where all approved authorizations are verified against what was assigned to the user. it is common to use the employee’s last name and first initial of the first name or the employee’s first name and first initial of the last name (for example. see the table below. the time period and the expiration date should be indicated. T123456. for John Doe). As an example. < System Adminstration Made Easy 12–3 . Œ If security crosses departments or organizations. or if the access is to be for a limited time. etc.. The policies and procedures for this event must be developed in advance and be coordinated by many groups. Œ < Adding or changing a user Œ The user’s manager should sign a completed user add-or-change form. job role. that defines how security is assigned in your company. or first name. Obtaining proper authorization and documentation should be a standard prerequisite for all user administration actions. C123456). the affected managers should also give their approval. Œ The forms should be filed by employee name or ID. Œ The form should indicate the required security.

The duration of the handover access must be defined and the expiration (Valid to) date entered in the R/3 System. delete the profiles).Chapter 12: User Administration Recommended Policies and Procedures Group Human resources External auditors IT Senior management Employee’s manager Responsibility Legal or personnel matters Internal control issues related to financial audit Procedures to terminate network access Policy approval “Handover” or training period for the employee’s replacement To manage terminated employees: < The user’s manager or HR should send a form or e-mail indicating that the employee is leaving. If the user’s ID is not required as a template: Œ The activity groups assigned to the user should be deleted. All temporary employees or consultants should have expiration (Valid to) dates on their user IDs.6A/B . The jobs will fail when the user ID is locked or deleted. Check Background Jobs (transaction SM37) for jobs scheduled under that user ID. realize that others can “overhear” this secret word and render it useless. there should be a “secret word” that users could use to verify their identity over the phone. this handover should be documented. But. under the Activity Group tab. Œ The security profiles assigned to the user should be deleted (use transaction SU01 and under the Task profile and Profile tabs. (use transaction SU01. delete the activity groups). This word would be used when the user needs their password reset or their user ID unlocked. < < 12–4 Release 4. < If the user leaves one job for another and needs to maintain access for handover. Similar to banks. < The user’s ID should be locked and the user assigned to the user group “term” for terminated.

Œ Œ The table of “prohibited” passwords (USR40) should be maintained. A user who requires similar “super user” security rights should have a copy of the SAP* user security. Minimum password length of five (5) characters should be set. Œ Passwords should be set to periodically expire. The user ID SAP* should never be deleted. System Adminstration Made Easy 12–5 . Change the password. User should be locked after three unsuccessful logon attempts. Instead: 1. The security rights of SAP* and DDIC are extensive. The user IDs SAP* and DDIC should have their default passwords changed to prevent unauthorized use of these special user IDs. The security profiles that serves as the “master key” are SAP_ALL. dangerous. but auditors will usually want this date to be set at 30 days. Convenience is not a valid reason. and pose a security risk. The user ID SAP* then gains unknown and uncontrollable security rights. granting developers SAP* equivalent security rights in the development and test systems is usually inappropriate.and large-size companies. For medium. and to a lesser degree. SAP* equivalent security in the production system is a security and audit issue and should be severely limited. 2. If the user ID SAP* is deleted.Chapter 12: User Administration Recommended Policies and Procedures 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ < Special user IDs The two user IDs (SAP* and DDIC) should only be used for tasks that specifically require either of those user IDs. < User passwords Parameters that define and restrict the user password are defined by entries in the system profiles. logon and access rights are gained by rights programmed into the R/3 System. SAP_NEW. An external audit procedure checks the security of these two user IDs. The recommended expiration date is no more than 90 days. Anyone who requires or requests similar security rights should have an extremely valid reason for the request. Lock the user ID.

PRD 300 QAS 200 210 220 DEV 100 110 120 Employee: Department Name/Cost Center Number: Type of Change W W W Change user Delete user Add user User ID: Position: Secret Word: Requester: Requester’s position: Requester’s phone: Employee’s Job Function (If similar to others in department. is a signed copy of computer security and policy statement attached? W Yes W No 12–6 Release 4.6A/B . name and user ID of a person with similar job function): Expiration Date (mandatory for temporary employees) Request Urgency W W W High Medium Low Special Access/Functions: Requester Signoff Name Manager Signoff Name Owner Signoff Name Signature Date Signed Signature Date Signed Signature Date Signed Name Signature Date Signed Name Security Name Signature Date Signed Signature Date Signed In addition to security approval (above).Chapter 12: User Administration Recommended Policies and Procedures Sample R/3 User Change Request Form R/3 User Change Request Company ID: System/Client No.

a minimum of 50MB free space should remain after installing SAP GUI.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 1HZ 8VHU 6HWXS 3UHUHTXLVLWHV *HQHUDO 3URFHVV RU 3URFHGXUH Before you set up a new user.QVWDOODWLRQ RI 6$3 *8. You will need to enter this information during the installation.x. is at least 100MB of free space. can you access the file server from the user’s computer where the SAP GUI will be installed? )RU . Before you install the SAP GUI. 7KH 8VHU·V 'HVNWRS Does the user’s desktop meet the following criteria: < < < Does the system configuration meet the minimum requirements for SAP? Is the display resolution set to a minimum of 800 x 600? Is there sufficient space on the hard disk to install the SAP GUI with sufficient room for desktop application to run? For windows. you should have the R/3 server name and the R/3 System (instance) number (for example. 1HWZRUN )XQFWLRQDOLW\ Can the user log on to the network? From the user’s computer: < < Can you “ping” the SAP application server(s) that the user will be logging onto? If the SAP GUI will be loaded from a file server. The online documentation installation and access method has changed since Release 3. 5HFRPPHQGHG 3UHUHTXLVLWH IRU WKH *8. A practical minimum however. have “in hand” the user add form (with all the required information and approvals). System Adminstration Made Easy 12–7 . . xsysdev and 00).QVWDOODWLRQ The online documentation should be installed according to the instructions in the SAP document Installing the Online documentation.

Also. 2. Have access to the shared directory from the user’s PC. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. +RZ WR . accept the installation defaults. Double-click on Setup. The SAP GUI can be installed from: < < A copy of the presentation CD on a file server The presentation CD or a copy of the CD In most situations. Navigate down to the directory for the gui. remote installations can be completed without shipping out and potentially losing the original CD. 3. The following is a list of the prerequisites to install SAP GUI from a file server: < < Copy the SAP GUI load files from the presentation CD to a shared directory on a file server.exe.6A/B . The installation program starts. The SAP GUI or frontend installation instructions are in the installation guide. Map a drive to the shared drive on the network where the presentation CD has been copied. Installing SAP Frontend Software for PCs.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup . IURP D )LOH 6HUYHU The preferred method is to install SAP GUI from a file server because you do not need to carry the presentation CD around. Select the mapped drive to the presentation CD software. . 1 2 3 12–8 Release 4. In this example.QVWDOO WKH 6$3 *8. In this example. Sim-cd on ‘Pal100767’ (E:).QVWDOOLQJ WKH )URQWHQG 6RIWZDUH²6$3 *8.QVWDOOLQJ 6$3 *8. Sim-cd on ‘Pal100767’ (E:) → 46a-gui → Win32.

Choose Next. Select Local installation. 7 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–9 . Choose Next. 5 6 7. 4 5. 6. Choose Next.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 4.

Example. This component is required if system administrators wish to view specific screens.6A/B .Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 8. 12. 10. 9. select the components you want: 11. Click on Desktop Interfaces. Choose Change option. Choose OK. Steps 9–12 are optional. Select SAPgui. 11 12 12–10 Release 4. 8 9 10 From this screen. select Graphical Distribution Network.

Select English.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 13. 14 15 16. 13 14. Choose Next. Choose Next. 16 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–11 . Choose Next. 15.

Enter the following information: < Application server < System number 20. 19.0B+). 19 19 20 21. 17 18.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup This parameter is set in the R/3 System when the online documentation is installed (Release 4. 17. Choose Next. 21 12–12 Release 4. Choose Next.6A/B . Choose Next. choose Next (not shown). For path for shared drives.

The SAPSetup window appears to show you how the installation is progressing. Choose Yes to restart your computer. Choose OK.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 22. 24 25. Choose Install. System Adminstration Made Easy 12–13 . 25 To add systems to the SAP Logon see section Adding Systems in the SAP Logon. 24. The installation is now complete. 22 23.

The copy of the presentation CD can then be safely sent to the user’s site.QVWDOOLQJ 6$3 *8. 12–14 Release 4.6A/B . Log on to the system. A slow connection could result from a slow modem or a slow network link. 4. etc. Choose Gui → Win32. To install SAP GUI from a CD: 1. The SAP GUI installation files can also be copied to other high-capacity removable media such as ZIP® or optical disk. In Windows Explorer. IURP WKH 3UHVHQWDWLRQ &' When the network connection between the SAP GUI files on the network and the user is too slow to permit installation. optical. install SAP GUI from the presentation CD. choose this drive. Follow the same procedure as when loading from a file server. Double-click on Setup. 3. Test your connection 7. The prerequisites for such an installation is that the user has a CD drive or other drive compatible with the delivery media (ZIP®. 2. it can be either loaded onto a local file server for installation or installed directly from the delivery media. Insert the CD into the drive. From there. 5.exe. A copy should be made of the original presentation CD and the copy shipped to the user site. as appropriate for your company. 6.) on which the SAP GUI files are delivered. You then maintain control of the original CD and reduce the chance that it might get lost.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup .

select R/3. In System Number. 5. The SAP Router String field is usually blank. 7 2 3 4 5 6 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–15 . 7. 00). 3. In Application Server. pal101003 or xsapdev). enter the name of the server (for example. In SAP System. choose New. SAS App Server 1). 6. 1 2.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup $GGLQJ $GGLWLRQDO 6\VWHPV *XLGHG 7RXU 7R $GG $GGLWLRQDO 6\VWHPV LQ WKH 6$3 /RJRQ 1. enter a short description of the system (for example. On the SAP Logon window. enter the system (instance) number for the instance in which you are creating the logon (for example. In Description. 4. Choose OK.

The new system is in the SAP Logon. 9. Test your connection 10.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 8. 8 6HWWLQJ 8S D 1HZ 8VHU 68. Log on to the additional system.

The procedural prerequisite is to check that all documentation and authorizations required to set up a new user are present. There are two ways to create a new user: < < Copy an existing user Create a new user from scratch &RS\LQJ DQ ([LVWLQJ 8VHU 68.

Prerequisite: A valid user ID to copy is identified on the user setup form. The new user will have the same security profiles as the existing user. You can copy from an existing user if you have a good match. Create “template” users for the various job functions that can be copied to create new users.6A/B . This process is the easiest and is the recommended method for a small company. 12–16 Release 4.

Choose . 5 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–17 . choose Tools → Administration → User maintenance → SU01-Users). GARYN) that you want to copy. In the Command field. 4 Follow your company’s naming convention for creating user IDs. 5. enter the new user ID in To (for example.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup *XLGHG 7RXU 1. GARY). Choose . 2. 3 2 4. 3. enter transaction SU01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Enter the user ID (for example. In the Copy Users window.

init). Entering valid to/from dates is usually required for contractors and other temporary personnel. enter the user group (for example. to select from a list of 8. 12–18 Release 4. Your company may have a password policy where a “random” initial password is to be used. enter an initial password (for example. 7 8 10 6 9 A user group must exist before a user can be assigned to it. In User group for authorization check. Choose the Address tab to change the user’s address data.6A/B . Reenter the same password in Repeat password. Check user groups. 10. in Initial password. 9. Enter dates in the Valid from and Valid to fields to limit the duration that the users will have access to the system. SUPER) to which the user is to be assigned. Under the Password section.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 6. 7.

Room no. Enter the user’s location (for example.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 11. 15. 12. 11 12 13 14 15 17 A telephone number should be a required entry field. 17. 15 15 16 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–19 . Choose the Defaults tab. Enter the user’s Department. Enter the user’s Last name. Enter the user’s First name. 13.. If there is a system problem identified with the user. Enter the user’s job Function. 16. Enter the user’s phone number. you need to contact that user. 14. Floor. Building).

22. 23. Setting it correctly is critical to prevent confusion and mistakes. select the appropriate date format (for example. Check that the Logon language is set correctly (for example. select the appropriate notation (for example. Under Output Controller: a. 12–20 Release 4. or choose zone. then this field is only used to enter a default logon language for the individual user (for example. to English). The Decimal notation affects how numbers are displayed.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 18. Check that the Personal time zone is correct. Select: < Output immediately < Delete after output 20. Under Decimal notation. b. EN for English). enter a default printer or choose printer. to select a time to select a 19a 19b 18 23 21 22 20 21. For OutputDevice. DE for German). Choose Save. If the system default language has been set (for example.6A/B . MM/DD/YYYY). Point for United States). 19. Under Date format.

Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup &UHDWLQJ D 1HZ 8VHU 68.

Enter the user ID (for example. Building). Sometimes it becomes necessary to create a completely new user. In the Command field. Enter the user’s job Function. Room no. 4 5 6 7 8 10 A telephone number should be a required entry field. 2. you need to contact that user. You may need to create a new user when you do not have another user from which to copy. Enter the user’s Department. GARY) that you want to create.. 6. Enter the user’s location (for example. 5. 8 8 9 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–21 . 7. choose Tools → Administration → User maintenance → SU01-Users). Floor. 9. Enter the user’s phone number. 10. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. If there is a system problem identified with the user. 8. enter transaction SU01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Enter the user’s First name. Choose . Enter the user’s Last name. 3. 3 2 4. Choose Logon data tab.

12. In User group for authorization check. Choose the Defaults tab. Reenter the same password in the second field. to select a 11 14 12 A user group must exist before a user can be assigned to it. Enter an initial password (for example. SUPER) to which the user is to be assigned or choose user group. enter the user group (for example. init). 14.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 11. 12–22 Release 4. 13. Enter dates in the Valid from and Valid to fields to limit the duration that the users will have access to the system.6A/B . 13 Entering valid to/from dates is usually required for contractors and other temporary personnel.

enter a default 16a printer or choose printer. select the appropriate date format (for example. As an option. MM/DD/YYYY). DE for German). For OutputDevice. 20. System Adminstration Made Easy 12–23 . English). The Decimal notation affects how numbers are displayed. Under Date format. enter a time zone or choose time zone. Point. Under Output Controller: a. for United States). select the appropriate notation (for example. b. EN for English). Choose Save.Chapter 12: User Administration New User Setup 15. in Logon language. 19. enter the appropriate language code (for example. Under Decimal notation. Under Personal time zone. Setting it correctly is important to prevent confusion and mistakes. If the system default language has been set (to for example. to select a to select a 16b 17 20 15 18 19 18. Select: < Output immediately < Delete after output 17. this field is only used to enter a default logon language for the individual user (example. 16.

0DLQWDLQLQJ D 8VHU 68. The message indicates that the user was saved. Assign security to the user by using the Profile Generator (see the Authorizations Made Easy guidebook). 21 22.Chapter 12: User Administration Maintaining a User (SU01) 21.

6A/B . have a properly completed and approved user change form. address. 12–24 Release 4. etc. phone number. The user change documentation is audited in a security audit. Before maintaining a user. such as name. :K\ You need to maintain a user to manage: < Job changes to an existing job or position < < New jobs or positions User data changes.

Chapter 12: User Administration Maintaining a User (SU01) *XLGHG 7RXU 1. choose Save. 2. gary) to be maintained. 4 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–25 . choose Tools → Administration → User maintenance → SU01-Users). 3. When you finish making the changes. Choose . In the Command field. Enter the user ID (for example. enter transaction SU01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 3 2 The Maintain User screen allows you to change a user’s: < Address < Logon data < Defaults < Password < User group < Other 4.

Chapter 12: User Administration Resetting a Password (SU01) 5HVHWWLQJ D 3DVVZRUG 68.

The user has probably also locked their user ID. gary) to be maintained. In the Command field. the user has probably attempted to log on too many times with an incorrect password. Make certain the person who requests their password to be reset is indeed the valid user. :K\ The most common reason to reset a password is that users forget their password. which also needs to be unlocked. In this situation. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Choose . This log should be periodically audited to look for potential problems. We recommend that you use a method similar to what banks use where the user has a “secret word” that verifies their identity on the phone. 3 2 12–26 Release 4. Enter the user ID (for example. which is stored in the system or can be found in the company phone directory. 3. This method is not foolproof because someone can overhear the secret word.6A/B . 2. enter transaction SU01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. You should maintain a security log of password resets. choose Tools → Administration → User maintenance → SU01-Users). A basic user verification method is to have a telephone with a display so that the displayed caller’s phone number can be compared to the user’s phone number.

enter a new password in New password and reenter this password in Repeat password. You cannot see what the users current password is. 5 4 For security. you can only set an initial value for the user’s password. /RFNLQJ RU 8QORFNLQJ D 8VHU 68. Users are then required to change the password when they log on. In the Change Password popup window. nor can you set a permanent password for the user. 5. Choose Copy.Chapter 12: User Administration Locking or Unlocking a User (SU01) 4.

determine if the request is valid. :K\ < Locking a user R/3 access should be removed if a user: Œ Leaves the company Œ Is assigned to a different group Œ Is on leave The lock function allows the user ID and the user’s security profile remains on the system but does not allow the user to log on. There may be an important reason why the user should not access the system. The administrator must unlock the user ID and more than likely reset the user’s password. which allows the user to log on (or prevents the user from logging on) to the R/3 System. System Adminstration Made Easy 12–27 . This function is ideal for temporary personnel or consultants where the user ID is locked unless they need access. Do not unlock a user who has been manually locked without first finding out why this was done. < Unlocking a user Users are automatically locked out of the system if they attempt to incorrectly log on more than a specified number of times. Before unlocking a user. :KDW The lock/unlock function is part of the logon check.

2. enter transaction SU01 and choose Enter (or choose SAP standard menu → Tools → Administration → User maintenance → SU01-Users). Enter the user ID (for example. always check why. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. an administrator has manually locked the user ID. 3 2 4. 5. In this example. Choose . 4 5 If a user is locked by the system manager. Choose . In the Command field. There may be a valid reason to refuse to unlock a user. In this example. A popup window appears. 12–28 Release 4. 3. which should be periodically audited for potential problems. gary) to be maintained. this step will unlock the user.Chapter 12: User Administration Locking or Unlocking a User (SU01) Maintain a security log of unlocking users.6A/B .

for most of these users. 6 8VHU *URXSV :KDW A user group is a logical grouping of users (for example. order entry. This process maintains the user information for terminated users. Lock all users in this group and. delete the security profiles. and prevents the user ID from being used to log on. Create the group “term” for terminated users. Apply security. A user group must be created before users can be assigned to it. :K\ The purpose of a user group is to: < < Provide administrative groups for users so they can be managed in these groups.Chapter 12: User Administration User Groups 6. The following restrictions apply to user groups: < < < A user can belong to only one user group. A message at the bottom of the screen indicates that the user has been unlocked (or locked). System Adminstration Made Easy 12–29 . and finance). A user group provides no security until the security system is configured to use user group security. shipping.

Template users to be used to create real users. +RZ WR &UHDWH D 8VHU *URXS 68. user records can be kept in the system for identification. < All users in this group should be “locked.Chapter 12: User Administration User Groups 8VDJH Following are a few recommended special groups: Group TERM Definition Terminated users. SUPER TEMPLATE Users with SAP* and DDIC equivalent profiles. all security profiles should be removed from the user.” < If it is not being used as a template. This way.

choose Tools → Administration → User maintenance → SU01-Users). In the Command field. From the menu bar choose Environment → User groups → Maintain. enter transaction SU01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 2 12–30 Release 4. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 2.6A/B .

Choose Save. 4. to add users to the 7 7. In Text. in User. 6. Enter the name of the user group you would like to create (for example. Choose . enter a description of the user group. 5 6 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–31 . choose group. 4 3 5. purchasing).Chapter 12: User Administration User Groups 3. Under User Assignment.

The message inidicates the new user group was created. 8 'HOHWLQJ D 8VHU·V 6HVVLRQ 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.Chapter 12: User Administration Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04) 8.

This condition is usually caused by a network failure. The user may have gotten into a “one way” menu path without an exit or cancel option. (For example. which cuts off the user. :K\ Transaction SM04 may show a user as being active when the user has actually logged off. This situation is dangerous. or that the user has not properly logged off the system.6A/B .) A user may be on the system and needs to have their session terminated: < < The user’s session may be “hung” and terminating the session is the only way to remove the user’s session. and the only safe option is to terminate the session. the user turned the PC off without logging off the system. :KDW Use transaction SM04 to terminate a user’s session. 12–32 Release 4.

2. Select the user ID that you want to delete. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until all sessions for that user are deleted. Verify that the user is actually logged off from R/3 and that there is no SAP GUI window minimized on the desktop. 7. Verification is important because users may have forgotten that they minimized a session. In the Command field. 5 6 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–33 .Chapter 12: User Administration Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04) +RZ WR 7HUPLQDWH D 8VHU 6HVVLRQ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. It is very easy to select the wrong user. 4. Verification is done by physically checking the user’s computer. enter transaction SM04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Select the session to be deleted. 3. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM04-User overview). It may take a while to actually delete the session so be patient. double-check that the selected user is the one you really want to delete. 5. Choose Sessions. Choose End session. 6. 4 3 In step 3 above.

Chapter 12: User Administration Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04) $FWLYH 8VHUV 7UDQVDFWLRQV 60 DQG $/.

A user logged on to more than one terminal indicates that the user ID is being: < < Used by someone else Used or shared by several people User IDs should not be shared for several reasons. Set the system profile login/disable_multi_gui_login. when in fact the user has actually logged off. which cuts off the user from the network or R/3. Prudent security practices do not allow for sharing of user IDs. This recognition may indicate that someone—other than the designated user—is using that user ID. you will not know who created the problem. the system “thinks” that the user is still logged on. 12–34 Release 4. < < < One reason is that if a problem arises. The user turning off their computer without logging off from the R/3 System. This condition can be caused by the following (among others): < < A network failure.6A/B . :KDW These transactions display all the users who are currently logged on to the system. This situation makes the problem difficult to fix. Your external auditors may also perform this test to test your security. the administrator can recognize user IDs logged on to “unfamiliar” terminals. They show both the user’s ID and terminal name. and from re-occurring. :K\ In a smaller company. 3UREOHPV Transaction SM04 may show a user as active. Because the user session was not properly closed. prevent.

Chapter 12: User Administration Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04) 6LQJOH.QVWDQFH 6\VWHP 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.

In the Command field. enter transaction SM04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 4. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM04-User overview). Choose . *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 2. Choose Sessions. Select the user ID to view the session the user has open. 3 2 The Overview of Sessions screen shows what sessions the user has open. 3. 4 System Adminstration Made Easy 12–35 .

Chapter 12: User Administration Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04)

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If you have several instances in your system, using AL08 is easier, because you can simultaneously see all users in all instances. 1. In the Command field, enter transaction AL08 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu, choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → Performance menu→ Exceptions/Users→ Active users→ ALO8-Users, global). 2. The Current Active Users screen shows all the instances in your system and the number of active users. 3. For each instance, the users logged into that instance/application server are listed.
2

3

3

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Overview ................................................................................................................13–2 Starting and Stopping the Database ...................................................................13–2 Database Performance .........................................................................................13–4 Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13)....................................................................13–9 Checking the Database Backup (DB12)............................................................13–15 Initializing Backup Tapes ...................................................................................13–18 Database Backups with Microsoft Tools..........................................................13–19 Database Error Logs...........................................................................................13–28 Verify Database Consistency.............................................................................13–29 Run Update Statistics .........................................................................................13–29 System passwords .............................................................................................13–30

System Administration Made Easy

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Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Overview

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Microsoft SQL Server is a low maintenance database that is increasingly popular with smaller R/3 installations. This chapter will review the database administrative tasks that can be accomplished within the R/3 System with associated tasks utilizing the Microsoft administrative tools.

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1. From the NT desktop, choose Start → Programs → MS SQL Server 7.0 → Service Manager. 2. Choose Start/Continue.

2

3. Check that Microsoft SQL Server is started by checking the color and shape of the status icon (the green arrow), and the status message at the bottom of the window.
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Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Starting and Stopping the Database

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1. Verify that R/3 has been stopped. If R/3 has not been stopped, stop R/3 now. Follow the proper procedure to stop R/3. 2. From the NT desktop, choose Start→ Programs→ MS SQL Server 7.0 →Service Manager. 3. Choose Stop.

3

4. Choose Yes.

4

5. Check that Microsoft SQL Server is stopped by checking the color and shape of the status icon (a red square), and the status message at the bottom.

5

5

For more information on stopping the database, see chapter 9.

System Administration Made Easy

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Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Performance

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The CCMS System has tools available for R/3 Administrators to monitor the database for growth, capacity, I/O statistics, and alerts. This section will discuss the initial transactions that can help the database administrator.

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The Database Performance Monitor (ST04) provides a database-independent tool to analyze and tune the following components: < Memory and buffer usage < < < < Space usage CPU usage SQL requests Detailed SQL items

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To manage your system performance, the database must be monitored. One of the important items is the ability to view the database error log from within R/3. This view saves the extra effort of logging into the database to view this log.

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1. In the Command field, enter transaction ST04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu, choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → Performance → Database → ST04 - Activity). 2. An initial overview of database activity is provided which pertains to database, operating system, CPU, and memory. Microsoft SQL Server allows the analysis of specific attributes pertaining to memory, space, I/O, and quality of table reads and writes. This information can signal adjustments necessary to improve performance of the database. In the screen to the right, some important areas are highlighted:
2a 2a

2d

a. Memory Usage Procedure cache and Data cache hit ratio can reflect memory problems. These values should be greater than 2b 95 percent for optimal memory usage. b. Server Engine/Elapsed Shows how hard the CPU has been working on Microsoft SQL Server processes. You are interested in the ratio of busy : idle time. c. SQL Requests Allows for snapshots of how SQL queries are utilizing table access pertaining to full table or index scans. A high ratio of full table scans vs. index scans can indicate performance bottlenecks. d. Detail analysis menu
2c 2c

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Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Performance

3. This screen is the Detailed analysis menu (option 2D). c. This screen is composed of the following three sections: < Analyze database activity < Analyze exceptional conditions < Additional functions d. Areas of common interest are: < Server details < SQL processes < Error logs (see the following screen)
3a c. Additional functions are links to transactions that will be discussed in 3c later sections. 3a 3a 3b 3b

3b

This screen shows the Database Error Log.
3b

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The Database Allocation transaction is used to analyze: < < < Database growth Database index, consistency, etc. Tables

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One critical reason is to monitor database growth. Using the growth rate you could project the growth to determine when you may need to get additional disk storage for the database.
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1. In the Command field, enter transaction DB02 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu, choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → Performance → Database→ DB02-Tables/Indexes). 2. An initial review would identify the type of database, name, size, file systems, and totals for database objects. The following describes some of the features of the screen to the right: a. Database information indicates space used for data and log information. b. DB space history takes you to the View database history screen. c. DB analysis takes you to an analysis menu screen. d. To determine attributes for a specific database object, use Detail analysis to make decisions for an individual object.
2a 2b 2c

2d

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Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Performance

This screen is the DB space history display. A spreadsheet allowing analysis based on calendar scenarios exists with the ability to sort on column information. 1. To view by file, choose Files.
1

Here you can analyze the physical file information.

This screen is the DB analysis display. From here, the administrator can: < Analyze the database for missing indexes, conflicts between ABAP Dictionary and database, and R/3 Kernel integrity. < Perform a database consistency check.

Analysis can be done for table specific objects to determine the largest tables, and tables that are modified.

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Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13)

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the DBA can schedule many of the DBA tasks that need to be performed.” which means that you must have one of the following options: < A single tape drive with sufficient capacity to back up the database without changing tapes. :KDW The DBA Planning Calendar (DB13) is the scheduling tool for DBA tasks in R/3. the backup must be able to run “unattended. System Administration Made Easy 13–9 . see page 13–15. < Multiple tape drives with sufficient total capacity to back up the database without changing tapes. Using the Calendar. For more information on transaction DB12. The DBA Planning Calendar works with transaction DB12 (Backup logs). such as: < < < Database and transaction log backup Update statistics Check table and database consistency :K\ These tasks can be conveniently managed and scheduled without going to the database. +RZ To schedule a backup task using the DBA Planning Calendar.

2. this window appears. Choose Insert to add a new task.6A/B . 2 If a task exists for that day. Double-click on the date. (or from the SAP standard menu. choose Tools → CCMS → DB Administration → DB13-DBA Planning Calendar). 3 13–10 Release 4. 3.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13) *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Enter transaction DB13 and choose Enter.

) 10. Choose Continue. (Select R3DUMP0 if you only have a single tape drive attached. Full Database Backup). Select the backup device. Choose OK. Select all the databases. 5 4 The start time is the time on the database server. 7 8 9. enter the time to begin the backup. 8. Under Action.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13) 4. In StartTime. select a task (for example. 6 7. 9 10 System Administration Made Easy 13–11 . 5. Choose OK. 6.

select the following options as appropriate: a. selecting this option is not useful because the database changes during this 13 time will cause this test to fail. Choose OK. Unload tape To eject the tape after the backup is completed. d. If you are doing an online backup when transactions are being performed. or a tape that was previously used with a different application. b. enter the number of days to protect the tape. 12. rather than appending to last backup.6A/B . c. Format tape To erase the entire tape and write a new tape label. Verify backup To verify the backup after it has run. 13. The backup tape is protected from overwriting by the backup program for this number of days. In the Log backup tape options popup window. In Expiration period for backup volumes. Initialize tape To overwrite existing data.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13) 11. 12 11a 11b 11c 11d 13–12 Release 4. This option is selected when using a brand new tape.

The task will be listed in the day.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13) 14. 14 'HWHUPLQLQJ WKH 7DSH /DEHO.

1 System Administration Made Easy 13–13 . 1HFHVVDU\ IRU D %DFNXS 1. Double-click on the day.

The required tape is displayed (for example. select the backup entry. 4. 4 'HOHWLQJ DQ (QWU\ IURP WKH 3ODQQLQJ &DOHQGDU '%.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13) 2. 3. 2 3 Using the correct tape is important. CD27S). If there is more than one entry. the backup will fail. see chapter 3. Choose Volumes needed to see what tape (label name) is required for that backup. If the wrong tape is used. For further information on tape labeling.

1.6A/B . double-click on the date. 1 13–14 Release 4. On the DBA Planning Calendar.

Here you can also choose Change to change the options you originally selected for the job. 3. Choose Delete. 3 2 3a 4. 6. The item has been deleted. 4 5.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Checking the Database Backup (DB12) 2. 5 6 &KHFNLQJ WKH 'DWDEDVH %DFNXS '%. Choose . Select the item to delete. Choose Yes. a.

:KDW The Backup Logs transaction (DB12) provides backup and restore information. such as: < < Log file size and free space in the log file Date and time of last successful restore for: Œ R/3 database Œ Transaction log Œ Master database Œ Msdb database Backup history Restoration history Backup device list < < < System Administration Made Easy 13–15 .

Review log space information to analyze growth. The “tapes needed for restore” option is important.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Checking the Database Backup (DB12) < < SQL Server jobs Tapes needed for restore :K\ It is a convenient “one stop” point for backup information. If there is a severe disaster. 3. Some of the important backup information such as tape label name is passed to DB12 from DB13. enter transaction DB12 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.6A/B . Each backup type can be reviewed with detailed log information available using History info. The only missing information is the run time (duration) of the backup job. This is a problem indicator. 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 13–16 Release 4. You must have a method that does not rely on R/3 being available to tell you what tapes you will need to do a restore of the R/3 system. The following is a list of the available buttons and their functions: a. Do not rely on the “tapes needed for restore” feature. In the Command field. Review backup information and notice the date and time of success or failures. +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. when compared to the expected duration of the backup. 2. R/3 is not available for you to look at this report. Backup history A spreadsheet summary of 2 each backup is listed. and the R/3 system is lost. Restoration history A spreadsheet of detailed restoration information is listed. b. choose Tools → CCMS → DB Administration → DB12-Backup logs). 4. 3 (see the SAP R/3 screen below).

4a e. History Info lists the specifics of the job. d. Database and History Info is listed. that pertain to success or failure of the job. Tapes needed For restore A listing of the tapes that are needed to restore the various 4c databases. Backup device list Each logical device name is listed with the appropriate physical device name (see the Backup Device List screen below).Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Checking the Database Backup (DB12) c. System Administration Made Easy 13–17 . Scroll to the bottom of the screen. SQL Server jobs A spreadsheet listing of all scheduled jobs with options for CCMS. for the instructions to restore the database (see the Tapes Needed For Restore screen below).

13–18 Release 4. or NT Backup. (For SQL Server.6A/B . the tape must be properly labeled to execute a backup to tape. When using the DBA Planning Calendar (DB13) for backups. destroying needed data. and possibly. SQL Server Enterprise Manager. CD26S). If the tape label does not match the required label.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Initializing Backup Tapes 4e . +RZ Initializing and labeling is an option when executing the backup using DB13. because the transaction expects a specific tape to be in the drive. see SAP note 141118 for a description of the tape label naming convention used by DB13).QLWLDOL]LQJ %DFNXS 7DSHV :KDW Initializing the tape writes a label on the tape header. the backup will fail. :K\ The tape label and the expiration date are additional safety levels to prevent backing up to the wrong tape. This label is the same as the physical label of the tape (for example.

To make the backup process easier. and open to fewer errors. the log backup must periodically be done in the initialization mode. we recommend that you backup the entire server and not just specific directories and files. This event is critical. so does the business processes that require R/3 to be running. the Master database contains the data necessary to recover the database. < < \tempdb Master In case of failures or hardware or software disasters.” Here it is used to backup the following while R/3 is running: < < The R/3 database The R/3 log To clear the log. SQL Server will stop. because when R/3 stops. System Administration Made Easy 13–19 . so does the business processes that require R/3 to be running. SQL Server will stop. If the log is allowed to grow to capacity and use all available filespace on the drive. This event is critical. < MSDB The MSDB database contains the data for the SQL Server job scheduler and the database backup history.0 Enterprise manager is Microsoft SQL Server’s “general tool. because when R/3 stops. Also backup the following Microsoft SQL Server databases: 2QOLQH %DFNXS ² 8VLQJ 64/VHUYHU  (QWHUSULVH 0DQDJHU :KDW The SQL 7.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools 'DWDEDVH %DFNXSV ZLWK 0LFURVRIW 7RROV Backing up R/3 on SQL Server involves backing up the following SAP-specific and database-related directories: < \usr\sap < < < < \usr\sap\trans <homedirectory> of <sid>adm \<sid>data The R/3 database files \<sid>log The R/3 log file If the log is allowed to grow to capacity and use all available filespace on the drive.

the master database contains the data necessary to recover the database. (You will have a different server name. 5. On the NT desktop. 4. 2.0 → Enterprise Manager. choose Start → Programs → Microsoft SQL Server 7. +RZ To backup any of the databases mentioned above: 1. (You may have a different group name. 13–20 Release 4.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools < < \tempdb Master If there is a hardware or software disaster.) Choose Management Choose Backup. Choose Tools → Backup Database. so that system users are not impacted. 6 2 3 4 5 3.6A/B . 6. In the Enterprise Manager: Expand the SQL Server Group under which your server is located. You must also backup the following SQL Server databases: < MSDB The MSDB database contains the data for the SQL Server job scheduler and the database backup history. :K\ An online backup allows you to backup the database(s) when R/3 and the database is running.) Expand the server that you want to look at.

select one of the following options and complete the entry field: < After (a defined number of days). < On (a specific date). 11. Under Options. Select Transaction log to backup only the transaction log. Under backup. Under Destination: < Select the media (in this case Tape) < Select the device R3DUMP0. 10. Choose the Options tab.complete). 9. 10 8 9 12. select: < Verify backup upon completion < Eject tape after backup < Backup set will expire 13. then enter the date.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools 7. Under Backup set will expire. 12 12 12 13 System Administration Made Easy 13–21 . Under Overwrite select Overwrite existing media. In Database. choose database to backup. to select the 11 7 8. then enter the number of days. select the type of backup to perform (for example. Select Database – complete to do a full backup of the database. Database .

before backing up. 1 2 13–22 Release 4.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools On the screens below. Be certain that the correct tape is in the drive. < Backup checking the tape label. Leave the following options deselected: < Check media set name and backup set expiration < Initialize and label media 1 This step will overwrite and destroy any data on the tape. you have three options: < Backup without checking the tape label.6A/B . Choose OK. 2. < Initialize the tape and writing a new tape label. To backup without checking the tape label: 1. The backup will now begin.

1 2 3 System Administration Made Easy 13–23 . RD26S). Select Check media set name and backup set expiration. the backup will fail. If the label of the tape does not match the name entered in Media set name. Choose OK to begin the backup. 3. This step will relabel. 2. 2. Select Initialize and label media. and destroy any data on the tape. Enter the tape label in Media set name (for example. 1 2 3 To initialize the tape before backing up: 1. RD26S). Be certain that the correct tape is in the drive.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools To check the tape label before backing up: 1. to begin the backup. Choose OK. Enter the tape label name in Media set name (for example. overwrite. 3.

13–24 Release 4.6A/B . which means that you have a static “picture” of the database and do not have to deal with the issue of data changing while the backup is being run. the entire server could be backed up to a single DLT cartridge. This full server backup eliminates the possibility of not backing up an important file. we also use the offline backup to also backup other files which are needed to restore R/3. For smaller customers. A “full server” offline backup also gives you the most complete backup in the event of a catastrophic disaster. With some third party applications. you have everything on the server. the location of the files in this example are presented differently from the recommendations in the SAP installation manual. and this is not possible unless R/3 and the application are shut down. an offline backup needs to be done. :K\ The data in the database does not change while the backup is being made.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools 2IIOLQH %DFNXS ² 8VLQJ 17%DFNXS :KDW The offline backup is done when R/3 and the database are down. interfaces. it is simpler and safer to backup the entire server. Therefore. On one tape. you must back up any directories and files for third-party products. you cannot back up the files unless they are closed. which is why we recommend that you backup the entire server. that store their data outside the R/3 database. Getting all the required files and directories can be difficult. Here. backing up R/3 on SQL Server involves backing up the following SAPspecific and database-related directories: < < < < < < \usr\sap \usr\sap\trans <homedirectory> of <sid>adm \<sid>data \<sid>log \tempdb (the R/3 database files) (the R/3 log file) In addition to these directories. etc. +RZ Due to system limitations on the documentation system. Since high capacity tape drives are now more common. At a minimum.

4.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools *XLGHG 7RXU To do an offline backup. 13. enter a description. Select all drives on the server. 2. 7. 8. Shut down any other applications. Shut down the database. Choose Backup. Select Verify After Backup. 12. 7 6 Enter appropriate information in the Backup Information dialog box. 10. Insert the appropriate tape into drive. CD26S). In Description. Choose OK. If your tape drive supports hardware compression. 5. Under Operation. select Replace. 11. select Hardware Compression. enter the tape label name (for example. choose Start → Programs → Administrative Tools → Backup. 6. Shut down R/3. 12 9 11 10 8 13 System Administration Made Easy 13–25 . On the NT desktop. 9. In Tape Name. 3. we use NT Backup interactively: 1.

The backup will run. 17 13–26 Release 4. 15 14 16 17. choose OK. When the backup has successfully completed. Even if the tape name you entered in the previous screen matches the tape label.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools 14. The window displays the backup progress. This window will appear to verify that the correct tape is in the drive. Choose Yes. this window will appear. 15.6A/B . 16.

choose Operations → Exit. 18 System Administration Made Easy 13–27 .Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Backups with Microsoft Tools 18. Remove the tape from the tape drive and store properly. 19. From the menu bar.

7 6 13–28 Release 4. see the Database Performance Analysis (ST04) section earlier in this chapter. Read the log in the right-hand side window. choose Start → Programs → Microsoft SQL Server 7. 0LFURVRIW 64/ 6HUYHU   (QWHUSULVH 0DQDJHU *XLGHG 7RXU 1.6A/B . 3. Expand the SQL Server Group under which your server is located. 5 2 3 4 6. For more information on database error logs. Expand the server where the R/3 system is installed.0 → Enterprise Manager. Select the Current log. Here. 5. 4. In the Enterprise Manager: 2. Expand the SQL Server Logs. you can also look at the six previous error logs. Expand Management.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Database Error Logs 'DWDEDVH (UURU /RJV 5 ² 67 You can view the database error logs from within R/3 using transaction ST04. 7. From the NT desktop.

5XQ 8SGDWH 6WDWLVWLFV :KDW Database objects statistics help make data access more efficient. and where the data actually is. and archiving). client copy.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server Verify Database Consistency 9HULI\ 'DWDEDVH &RQVLVWHQF\ :KDW In a database management system. R/3 must insure a logical consistency when communicating with the SQL Server engine. consistency can be represented from the logical and physical levels. and SQL Server must insure a physical consistency for the database. For those coming from SQL Server 6. +RZ By default. System Administration Made Easy 13–29 . BDC sessions. :K\ The optimizer of the database engine will perform better if the table index’s statistical information is current. in the database are different. This information helps R/3 find an item in the database faster.5. :K\ Sometimes a physical inconsistency can occur in the database’s internal structures. SQL Server 7.5 environments. SQL Server 7.0 executes the DBCC CHECKDB job much faster than SQL Server 6.0 has automatic statistics turned on. The possibility of manually scheduling update statistics using the CCMS scheduling calendar still exists. This is executed using: < < CCMS Scheduling calendar (DB13) The SQL Server Enterprise Manager The consistency checks should be done during non-peak hours or when R/3 users are offline. +RZ SQL Server uses the DBCC CHECKDB command to correct and repair the database to a consistent state. Examples of when this scheduling might be necessary after large data inserts or deletes from a given table (for example. This problem occurs when R/3 “thinks” the data is.

From the NT desktop. User IDs to change: < sa < sapr3 During the installation. Beginning with release 4. In the SQL server Enterprise Manager: 2. a password is created. Choose Logins. 2 3 4 5 13–30 Release 4.5. by default: < SQL server does not ask for. the system administrator must manually create a password.0 → Enterprise Manager. +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 3. 5. but it is created with a default password. Expand the SQL Server Group. you must change the password. < For user sapr3. These “loopholes” must be closed manually. a password for user sa. Once the installation is complete. user sapr3 is no longer used by R/3. see SAP note 28893. choose Start → Programs → Microsoft SQL Server 7.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server System passwords 6\VWHP SDVVZRUGV 64/ VHUYHU For additional information. nor does it set.6A/B . Expand the server. 4. Therefore. Expand Security.

Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server System passwords 6. Choose General tab. 8. On the right side of the screen. Reenter the password in Confirm New Password. 10 11 System Administration Made Easy 13–31 .” if sapr3 was created). 9. 6 7. 11. Enter new password in Password. Choose OK. Choose Apply. 7 8 9 10. double-click “sa” (or “sapr3.

13 13–32 Release 4.Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server System passwords 12. Choose OK. the following also needs to be done: 13.6A/B . In the SQL Server Enterprise Manager Console.0. up through release 4. choose Tools → SQL Query Analyzer. 12 For user sapr3.

15 14 System Administration Made Easy 13–33 . Choose Execute Query (or choose Query → Execute Query).Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server System passwords 14. ‘<NEW_PASSWD>’ 15. Enter the following SQL commands: use <SAPSID> go sap_change_password ‘<OLD_PASSWD>’.

6A/B .Chapter 13: Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server System passwords 13–34 Release 4.

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14–18 Check Spool Consistency (SPAD) ...........&KDSWHU  2XWSXW 0DQDJHPHQW &RQWHQWV Contents.........................................................................................................................14–12 Printing the Output (SP01) ..14–2 Check the Spool for Printing Problems (Transaction SP01) .........................14–15 Printing the Screen ..........................................................................................................................................14–21 Check TemSe Consistency (SP12).....14 –1 Printer Setup (SPAD) ..................................14–9 Check that Old Spools are Deleted (SP01) ......14–23 System Administration Made Easy 14–1 .................................

Chapter 14: Output Management Printer Setup (SPAD) 3ULQWHU 6HWXS 63$'.

This name is the network name of the printer (for example. FIN3 or \\FINANCE\ACCT2. not HP Laser Jet 5si). Before you set up a printer: < < Set up the printer at the operating system level. 2 14–2 Release 4. This information is the manufacturer and model of the printer (for example. In the Command field. Know the name of the printer. choose Tools → CCMS → Spool → SPAD-Spool administration). Ã < +RZ WR 6HW 8S WKH 3ULQWHU LQ WKH 5 6\VWHP *XLGHG 7RXU 1. This step must be completed before the printer can be set up in R/3. Know the type of printer. In the Device/servers tab. 2.6A/B . choose Output devices. HP Laser Jet 5si). enter transaction SPAD and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.

4 System Administration Made Easy 14–3 . Choose . Choose . 3 4.Chapter 14: Output Management Printer Setup (SPAD) 3.

Chapter 14: Output Management Printer Setup (SPAD) 5. 8. Messages are useful if a printer is “offline” for repair. enter the printer’s make and model. The key is to make your description as precise as possible. enter a descriptive name for the printer (required). In Output device. choose to select the appropriate server where your print requests will be processed. 10. enter the printer’s location. remember to update this field. In Model. In our example. Enter a short name in Short name or let the system define it for you (optional). 14–4 Release 4. In Spool server.6A/B . In Device type. The message field is used for a temporary message that replaces the Location text. choose to select the appropriate device type for your printer (required). 7 8 9 5 6 10 11 12 The Model and Location fields are important because you cannot use a printer if you do not know its location and its model name. In Location. 7. If the printer has moved. we will let R/3 define the short name. 12. 6. 9. etc. Choose Device Attributes tab. 11.

things can get complicated. 15 < 15. In this section. In general. 19. If you have a large number of printers. 16. choose to select the appropriate access method. 17. Choose Save. you can specify a cover page (optional).Chapter 14: Output Management Printer Setup (SPAD) 13. 18. 11 13 14 At this point. Choose the HostSpoolAccMethod tab. use the following local access methods to reduce network problems in the system. Select Monitor using monitoring architecture. enter the printer name as defined in your network (required). 14. In Host printer. do not select this option. Select the Output Attributes tab. For: < NT Select C – Direct operating system call. UNIX Select L – Print locally via LP/LPR. 17 18 16 19 System Administration Made Easy 14–5 . In Host spool access method.

6A/B .) 23 24 14–6 Release 4. select the paper tray to activate it for automatic selection. If we had entered a short name. Under Actv.Chapter 14: Output Management Printer Setup (SPAD) 20. not the type of paper (for example.. 22. 20a b. etc. 20b 22 21 23. letter head. and there is a name conflict with an existing printer. invoice. letter). This selection applies only to the paper format. to let R/3 create the short name: a. at this dialog box. If this name conflict exists.e. A message indicates that the printer was created. 21. this conflict message would appear. In our example. Choose Paper tray info.. Choose Yes. choose Yes. blank. Automatic selection means that the correct tray is selected based on the paper format (i.

In the screen above. Choose . under Page format. 26. enter the page format or choose . Select the proper paper format. 25. Repeat steps 23–26 for all printer trays. 25 26 27. 27 28 System Administration Made Easy 14–7 . 28.Chapter 14: Output Management Printer Setup (SPAD) 24. Choose . Scroll down to see the Letter and Legal paper formats.

30. 29 31 30 32.6A/B . The new printer (Finance GL) is now in the printer list. Choose Save. Choose Back. 31. A message in the status bar indicates that the paper tray information was saved.Chapter 14: Output Management Printer Setup (SPAD) 29. 32 14–8 Release 4. Test the printer by printing this screen to it. 33.

Chapter 14: Output Management Check the Spool for Printing Problems (Transaction SP01) &KHFN WKH 6SRRO IRU 3ULQWLQJ 3UREOHPV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 63.

This data range would be much shorter. 2 3 4 System Administration Made Easy 14–9 . If you generate hundreds or thousands of spools a day. Delete information in Client. :KDW The spool is the R/3 System’s output manager. Delete information in Created by. 2. Choose . 3. In the Command field. These longrunning jobs could indicate a problem with the operating system spool or the printer. you would choose every day.) or there may be an operational impact. These problems need to be resolved immediately for time-critical print jobs (for example. 4. invoices. enter transaction SP01 and choose Enter (or choose SAP standard menu → Tools→ CCMS→ Spool→ SP01-Output Controller). etc. shipping documents. You should check for active spool jobs that have been running for over an hour. for example a week ago. The range of data will depend on your installation. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Data is first sent to the R/3 spool and then to the operating system for printing. Set the Date created field to. possibly only two days. or to any other date range to check for other 5 problems. checks. 5. :K\ There may be problems with the printer at the operating system level.

Chapter 14: Output Management Check the Spool for Printing Problems (Transaction SP01) 6. From this point. 12 14–10 Release 4.6A/B . 9 8 10. Select the error. 6 7 8. Choose . 12. 9. Review the error. troubleshooting depends on the specific problem. 7. Double click on the Error. Look for jobs with an error in the Output Status column. Choose . 11.

Use the log to investigate the problem (for example. 14 13 15. Choose . this job was Unable to establish connection to the Berkley LPD). 15 System Administration Made Easy 14–11 .Chapter 14: Output Management Check the Spool for Printing Problems (Transaction SP01) 13. 14. Select the error.

Chapter 14: Output Management Check that Old Spools are Deleted (SP01) &KHFN WKDW 2OG 6SRROV DUH 'HOHWHG 63.

Choose 14–12 Release 4. You need to check that old spool jobs are being properly cleared by the daily batch job. the print job goes to the operating system’s print spooler or manager. Clear the following fields: < Created by < < < Date created (date) to (date) Client . :KDW The SAP spool is the output manager for R/3. potentially available “space” is being used by these spools.6A/B . :K\ < Depending on how the spool system has been configured. 2. choose Tools→ CCMS→ Spool→ SP01-Output Controller). Look for any errors that may indicate problems in the printing process. old spools will use database space or file system space. < *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 2 3 3. Whether it is database or file system space. In the Command field. enter transaction SP01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. From the SAP spool.

Scroll down the screen to find the oldest date. < The job is routed to an invalid printer. and the Delete date of the spool request are displayed. the Recipient. the spool attributes. check whether old jobs are being purged. This date should be within the time frame defined for the job that runs RSPO0041 program (see SAP note 16083). 4. If the spool requests beyond the minimal age are found. 5. 6. To view the attributes of a spool request. Notice that information on the Number of pages generated. the job may not be properly deleting the old jobs and needs to be analyzed. and temporary sequential database (TemSe) attributes can be conveniently accessed. 5 6 6 6 System Administration Made Easy 14–13 . output. highlight a request and choose . Two reasons for failure of the job that runs the RSPO0041 program are: < The user ID under which the job is run does not have the proper security authorization to execute the program.Chapter 14: Output Management Check that Old Spools are Deleted (SP01) After the system has been operating for some time. From this screen.

(For more information. see the section on Check Spool Consistency) 9 10 14–14 Release 4. 8. 10. 7 8 9. On this screen. It is useful to know this information when there are inconsistencies in the spool and TemSe databases. The priority levels are from 1–9 with 1 being the highest priority.6A/B . This screen displays the name and size of the object as it is stored in the TemSe database. Choose Output attributes tab. you can set the priority of the output request.Chapter 14: Output Management Check that Old Spools are Deleted (SP01) 7. Select the TemSe attributes tab.

Chapter 14: Output Management Printing the Output (SP01) 3ULQWLQJ WKH 2XWSXW 63.

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There are two types of requests: < < Spool Output

The spool request contains the “printed” document which has not been sent to the output device. The output data of this document is partially formatted and stored in the TemSe database. The output request tells R/3 to format the request to a particular device and contains attributes such as target printer, number of copies, etc. Each time you select the printer icon, an output request is created for the spool request.
:K\

To print the contents of a spool request immediately or at another date and time using different parameters.
+RZ

(continued from the previous section) 1. Select a spool request. 2. Choose to print directly.

This step creates an output request and prints the contents of the spool request immediately on the printer.
1

2

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Chapter 14: Output Management Printing the Output (SP01)

3. A message appears on the status bar stating that an output request was created. 4. In the Status column, is the status of the print job. If the output was printed successfully, the status is Compl (complete). Otherwise, a status of Waiting or Error will be displayed.
4

3

You can also print a spool request with a different printer or change the start date and time. 1. Select a spool request. 2. Choose to print with changed parameters.
1 2

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3. On this screen, you can: < Change to another output device < Increase the number of copies < Change the priority < Change the start date and time In our example, we change the printer to DCBZ. 4. Choose to print directly.
3

4

5. You are notified that an output request was created.

5

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Chapter 14: Output Management Printing the Screen

6. Under the Status text column, the request is scheduled for printing.

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You can quickly and easily print the contents of most screens or do a “print screen” by choosing the printer icon. A spool request and an output request are also generated by using this procedure.
:K\

This is most useful in testing that a new printer was setup correctly.

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+RZ

Continue from the prior step or any screen with a printer icon:
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On some screens, there are two printer icons. The one to choose is usually located just under the menu bar. (When the cursor is passed over this button, Print Ctrl+P appears.) 1. Choose .

1

2. You can specify or change the: < Output device < Number of copies < Pages to print < Spool request name < Start time < Change the priority < Number of days you wish to keep the spool request < Print format 3. Choose next to Retention period.

3

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Chapter 14: Output Management Printing the Screen

In this dialog box, selecting Do not delete keeps the spool request indefinitely. Therefore, this request will not be purged by program RSPO0041 that deletes old spools. 4. Choose a spool retention period (for example, Delete after 3 days). 5. Choose Save.

4

6. Choose Continue.

6

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7. In the status bar, a message stating that a spool request was created is displayed. 8. Choose .
8

7

9. The new output requested now appears.
9

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A spool consistency check compares data in the spool and output request tables (TSP01 and TSP02), with the entries in the TemSe tables (TST01 and TST03), TSP0E (archive) and TSP02F (frontend print request) tables. It also displays a list of obsolete write locks which should be deleted.
:K\

If you delete table entries manually from the spool and TemSe tables or delete spool and TemSe objects from the directories, inconsistencies can occur. Other causes of inconsistencies are report and transaction terminations or an incorrectly executed client copy.

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Chapter 14: Output Management Check Spool Consistency (SPAD)

*XLGHG 7RXU

1. In the Command field, enter transaction SPAD and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu, choose Tools→ CCMS→ Spool→ SPAD-Spool administration). 2. Choose the Administr. tab.

2

3. Choose Consistency check of spool database.

3

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The system checks the spool tables and the TemSe tables to make sure that each spool object has corresponding entries in each of the tables.

1RWH There is another report, RSPO1043, that can be used for the spool consistency check. It should be scheduled as a periodic batch job (see SAP note 98065).

&KHFN 7HP6H &RQVLVWHQF\ 63

:KDW

A TemSe consistency check compares data in TST01 [Temporary Sequential Database (TemSe) objects] and TST03 (TemSe data) tables. The TemSe contains objects that are temporary such as job logs, spool requests, tests for workflow, batch input logs, and personnel administration temporary data. The report RSTS0020 performs the consistency check.
:K\

The relationship between the object and data in the TemSe may be destroyed due to the following activities: < Restore from backups < < < Copying databases Copying clients using improper tools Deleting clients without first deleting their objects

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Chapter 14: Output Management Check TemSe Consistency (SP12)

*XLGHG 7RXU

1. In the Command field, enter transaction SP12 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu, choose Tools→ CCMS→ Spool→ SP12-TemSe Administration). 2. From the menu bar choose TemSe database → Consistency check.
2

3. The TemSe objects and data were checked. 4. If there are inconsistencies: a. Select the item b. Choose Delete Selection.

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Overview ................................................................................................................15–2 Operating System Tasks ......................................................................................15–2 Other Tasks .........................................................................................................15–12

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regardless of the platform.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Overview 2YHUYLHZ This chapter is about using transactions to get to the operating system log. 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP 7DVNV 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP $OHUW $/.

2. 15–2 Release 4. enter transaction AL16 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.6A/B . In the Command field. Review this screen for potential problems. choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → Performance menu → Operating System → Local → Alerts → AL16-Operating system). 1. *XLGHG 7RXU Use the operating system alert monitor for a quick visual review.

Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks 6\VWHP /RJV 26.

2 System Adminstration Made Easy 15–3 . there may be multiple logs. Choose Detail analysis menu. :K\ There may be indications of a developing problem (for example. Depending on the operating system. In the Command field. :KDW The system logs are where the operating system and some applications write event records. 2. enter transaction OS06 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. a hard drive that generates errors may indicate that it is failing and needs to be replaced). choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → Performance menu → Operating System → Local → OS06-Activity). +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1.

Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks 3. 3 This screen shows the operating system log.6A/B . it is the NT event log. 15–4 Release 4. Choose OS Log. In this example.

you could detect unauthorized attempts to access files. The more detailed you make the log.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks 17 (YHQW /RJV :KDW NT has three event logs: < < < System Security Application :K\ There may be indications of a developing problem. If the security audit parameters have been properly set. These events do not usually occur. Monitor these entries regularly to recognize unfamiliar events such as errors. The following logs can be selected 2 under Log: < System < Security < Application 3. or securityrelated entries. < System resources to track and maintain the log. Look for unusual entries. This degradation is due to the extra processing required to track and log the items. Configuring the security audit function is a tradeoff among the following: < The need to log security events. < Effort required to audit the log (dependent on the size of the log). *XLGHG 7RXU The following steps show you how to open the NT event logs. 1. On the NT desktop. 2. choose Start → Programs → Administrative Tools → Event Viewer. the more the system performance will degrade. System Adminstration Made Easy 15–5 . failures.

Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks &KHFNLQJ )LOH 6\VWHP 6SDFH 8VDJH 5=.

These files need to be periodically reviewed and moved or backed up and deleted.6A/B . Over time. note the following sequence of events: 1. R/3 will stop. any business operations that use the system will also stop. :KDW The file system should have sufficient “free space” for normal operations. 4. The expansion should be planned to minimize operational disruption. SQL Server cannot write anymore entries into the log. 2. The SQL Server transaction log fills up the file system. A few of the items that consume file space when monitoring file space usage include: < < < < < < < < < < Transports Support packages Extract files from the R/3 System Program logs Backup logs Error logs Inbound interface files Third-party programs that store their data outside the R/3 database Trace files Spool files (if stored at the OS level) In addition to these items. If storage space expansion is needed. purchase and installation plans need to be made. SQL Server will stop. 15–6 Release 4. the R/3 System may stop because the database cannot write to a file. various activities will write files that will use up file space. 3. :K\ If your file system fills up. For example. check to see that the “house cleaning” programs are running properly (see SAP note 16083). Determine if storage space expansion is needed. If R/3 stops. Your user will not be able to perform activities such as: < Enter orders < Generate shipping documents to ship products To plan for such a situation: < < Anticipate and plan for disk space needs.

4. Select the monitor set (for example. CD. 2. or other long-term storage media. *XLGHG 7RXU You can use the R/3 Alert Monitor or go to the operating system to check file system space usage. archive to quality storage media such as an optical disk. If archiving is required for data files.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks < Determine if “house cleaning” is needed. Click the node (+) to expand the monitor set. SAS for docu). choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → RZ20-Alert Monitor). we use the R/3 Alert Monitor. 4 2 3 System Adminstration Made Easy 15–7 . 3. In the Command field. enter transaction RZ20 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Choose . In this section. because we can set alert points. 1.

drive H may contain the database which takes up all the space on that drive. you can expect and ignore the warning message. The drives are color coded to indicate alert status: < Green (OK) < Yellow (Warning) < Red (Critical) 7.6A/B . or change the alert threshold for that specific drive. As you view these statistics. see page 15–9. 6 5 7 15–8 Release 4. H:) and drill down to see its statistics (Freespace and Percentage_Used): These are statistics at the drive (not directory) level. For more information on changing the alert threshold. SAS\pa100767_SAS_00). keep your system in mind.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks 5. Select a drive (for example. For example. 6. on your system. Keeping this in mind. Drill down to the drives OperatingSystem → Filesystems. Drill down to get to the following starting node: <SID>\<host>_<SID>_<Instance> (for example.

Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks &KDQJLQJ WKH $OHUW 7KUHVKROG 5=.

Also see chapter 10. 3 1 2 System Adminstration Made Easy 15–9 . 2. To customize the points when the alert indicator changes from green to yellow. Select an alert (for example. and yellow to green: 1. drive H:). Click the node of the drive for which you want to change the threshold (for example. Freespace). back from red to yellow. 3. yellow to red. Maintaining the Alert Thresholds for RZ20. Choose Properties.

Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks 4. Under Threshold values. 6. Choose Save. Choose . Change from GREEN to YELLOW). A message appears in the status bar indicating that the new properties were saved. Enter the new value for when the alert will change color (for example. 500). indicating that you can change the values. 8. These threshold values are specific to your system and even to specific drives in your system.6A/B . select a threshold change point (for example. 5. Then: a. 7. 8 5 6 4b 15–10 Release 4. 7 b. The Threshold values fields will 4a change color from grey to white.

Sort the directory by date to determine file age. In an extreme situation. if you do not use a central transport directory.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Operating System Tasks &OHDQLQJ 2XW 2OG 7UDQVSRUW )LOHV :KDW Transport files are used to transport or move SAP objects and customizing changes between clients and systems. most (if not all) files dated before the copy become irrelevant to the system. R/3 may stop. archive old transports to a backup media such as tape. If the file system fills. operations may be affected because: < < < Outbound R/3 System files may not be created. Check the following directories under /usr/sap/trans: < < < Data Cofiles Log 2. or CD. or you may have other failures because R/3 or other applications cannot write to the necessary files. 4. As an option. optical disc. System Adminstration Made Easy 15–11 . 3. < +RZ To complete a transport directory check: 1. Transport export may fail. Inbound files may not be created. Archive obsolete files. transport files could gradually fill up the file system. After installing a large support package. These are files created before a database refresh or those that have been applied successfully to all target systems. :K\ If left unchecked. if you run out of file system space. :KHQ The transport directory check is important: < < After a major implementation where many transports have been created that take up a lot of space. Immediately before (or after) performing a database copy.

clean the tape drive as part of a preventive maintenance program. If you have to clean your tape drives more or less frequently. but will also coat the inside of the server with dust and cause a cooling problem. hot package 10 for Release 4. 2WKHU 7DVNV &OHDQ WKH 7DSH 'ULYH To minimize a backup failure due to a dirty head.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Other Tasks Check the following: < Support package directory /usr/sap/trans/EPS/in < Transport data directory /usr/sap/trans/data Support package files can be reloaded if needed and can be large (for example. They only need cleaning when the “clean head” indicator light is activated. Adjust your cleaning frequency to account for your usage. 15–12 Release 4. DLT) do not require regular cleaning.0B is over 200MB). If you consistently have recording errors or “head dirty” messages. store the cleaning cartridge according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Between uses. that these are recommendationsnot rules. Keep your server room clean. this task should be moved to the appropriate interval. Some drives specify a specific interval of use for cleaning. Remember. < < < Use the manufacturer’s approved cleaning cartridge for the tape drive. Use the cleaning cartridge according to the manufacturer’s instructions. To keep your tape drive clean: < Follow the tape drive manufacturer’s instructions for your tape drive. typically based on hours of use.6A/B . A dusty or dirty environment will not only make you clean your tape drive more often. Some drives (for example. then decrease the time between cleanings.

the operating system. related applications. the control program should be recording power events such as power dips. For example. This program. and the operating system). other applications. :K\ You need to review the power events that triggered the UPS control program. In addition. a pattern of power dips or outages may indicate a problem elsewhere in the building. &KHFN \RXU 836 6KXWGRZQ 3URFHVV :KDW Verify that your UPS shutdown process works. There should be sufficient reserve in the UPS to reach the end of the shutdown System Adminstration Made Easy 15–13 . when triggered by a power event. power failures. You need to verify that: < < < The UPS is functioning The self-tests completed successfully There is sufficient capacity in the batteries The batteries in the UPS must be periodically replaced.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Other Tasks 8QLQWHUUXSWLEOH 3RZHU 6XSSO\ &KHFN WKH 8QLQWHUUXSWLEOH 3RZHU 6XSSO\ :KDW The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) that you use should be monitored by a control program. Specific data logged depends on the program and the UPS. records the event and initiates a shutdown process of the R/3 environment (R/3. When there is a power failure. the database. This recording could help you or the facilities person solve electrical problems in the facility. +RZ Review the log for the UPS control program. While the UPS protects the server. etc. the capacity test will indicate that the batteries do not have sufficient capacity to shutdown the system before failing. The results of these tests are logged. and finally the server. the database. A shutdown process is an automated script for the UPS to shut down R/3. the R/3 environment should be shut down in an orderly manner. most UPSs have a self-test and capacity calibration function. If the batteries are low. :K\ This check verifies that the entire shutdown process works as planned and documented. brown outs. and the UPS.

its support level should be upgraded to reflect the critical nature of that equipment. or dropped. The stopsap command does not work within all UPS control programs.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Other Tasks process. In this situation. Like a car battery. How long in advance of the expiration date to do this review depends on the time it takes to go through the purchase requisition and approval process in your company. If a piece of equipment becomes critical to the company’s operation. &KHFN 0DLQWHQDQFH &RQWUDFWV :KDW Many of the servers and related equipment are under maintenance or service contracts with the manufacturer or distributor. You need to verify that your UPS control program will properly stop R/3 and the database before shutting down the server. :KDW The support level should be selected based on equipment use. :K\ If you need support or service and the service contract has expired. If the battery is worn out. < < The production system and critical equipment should be under a “premium” 24 hour x 7 day (x 2 hour response) support agreement. Less critical equipment can be under a next-business-day support agreement. 15–14 Release 4. the confusion and time to reestablish the service contract could be critical. Review equipment usage to determine if the support level for equipment should be upgraded. Include what these contracts are for and the expiration date in the list. you need to find out why and fix the problem. downgraded. the service contracts could be downgraded or dropped as appropriate. < Renew service contracts. equipment could become “noncritical” or be replaced. the UPS will not have sufficient power to complete the shutdown process. +RZ < < < Keep a list of service contracts. Something might have changed since your last test to cause the shutdown process to fail. If this process fails.6A/B . Review the list for expiration dates each quarter. Conversely. UPS batteries wear out over time and must be replaced.

Events These are the events that have been passed to the monitor program. routers. The screenshot above shows that the monitor has three functional windows: < Notification Rules This mechanism passes or filters events.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Other Tasks 5HYLHZ +DUGZDUH RU D 6\VWHP 0RQLWRU 3DJLQJ 6\VWHP :KDW A hardware or system monitor paging system generates alert messages (including e-mail) and pages based on your predefined parameters. (They got through the filters in Notification Rules. critical events such as an Update Terminate can be detected and acted on as soon as they happen. The following screen is courtesy of TNT Software. applications. Depending on the software. and printers) Logs (such as operating system. you can monitor events from the SAP system log.) Monitored device < < System Adminstration Made Easy 15–15 . the following can be monitored: < < Hardware items (such as servers. and determines what action will be taken on the events that are passed. This way. and database) By monitoring the NT event logs.

If the monitoring program is unable to send a page. If you receive regular daily e-mail messages. shift or duty changes for organizations with several people “on call”). to make sure that they are functional. The monitor program needs to be configured to filter or ignore such events. there will be a lot of tuning as the system parameters are adjusted. Test all alert mechanisms. The key to remember is that this process is dynamic.Chapter 15: Network/OS/Server Administration Other Tasks These are the monitored servers and IP devices. however. Adjust for personnel changes There may be other events that require action (for example. e-mail. Initially. e-mail) Determine if an event that used to be filtered now needs to generate an alert Filter out events (both old and new) that should not generate alert messages Filtering is necessary to manage the messages that are reviewed. Some of these tasks are as follows: < Account for new events that have never occurred. you will not receive the page when a critical alert occurs. The monitor program needs to be configured to pick these events up and properly process them. The inability to send a page can be caused by: < < Someone changing something in the e-mail or phone system that prevents alert messages from being sent. etc. you need to generate a message (for example. such as pager. has not been configured to pick up and report on SAP events. you need to generate a page Œ Important. < Test that all alert mechanisms are functional. 15–16 Release 4. This example. A phone patch cable that has disconnected from the modem. parameter adjustments will reduce. The paging/messaging function needs to be tested regularly.6A/B . then the e-mail testing is being done for you. < < Review the alert monitor log for alert events that should be “filtered” out. Over time. :K\ You may need to change alert parameters to filter noncritical events and to generate alerts for critical events. Œ Critical. < < < +RZ To review the paging system: < Review the various monitored logs (such as the NT event logs) to look for events that should generate an alert message (e-mail or page). it becomes difficult to review the alert message log. If too many irrelevant messages get through the filter.

.......................................................................................................................................16–15 Operation Modes.............................................16–21 Backups ................................16–2 Check that All Application Servers Are Up (Transaction SM51)........................................................................16–3 Background Jobs (SM37)......................................................................16–36 Checking Consumable Supplies ...........16–2 Background (Batch) Jobs ..............................................................................................16–42 System Administration Made Easy 16–1 .&KDSWHU  2SHUDWLRQV &RQWHQWV Overview .........................................................................................................................

While learning to manage operations. This chapter is important because operations is a crucial part of system administration. readers will learn how to perform: < < < < Batch jobs Background jobs Operation modes Backups &KHFN WKDW $OO $SSOLFDWLRQ 6HUYHUV $UH 8S 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.Chapter 16: Operations Overview 2YHUYLHZ Operations is a generic category that refers to the tasks that would be done by a computer operations group. These are the tasks that the people in the “glass room” in a data center would be doing. If you do not have a data center. these tasks do not disappear. they must be assigned to the appropriate employees.

< The batch application server is down. the PRD database server and all of its application servers). batch jobs that are specified to run on that server will not run. :KDW Transaction SM51 allows you to look at all the servers in your system (for example. You do not have to log into each server individually.6A/B . 16–2 Release 4. :K\ The ability to look at the servers is important because if: < One of your dialog application servers is not up. the users who usually log on to that application server will not have a server to log on to.

it is up and running. In the Command field. Verify that all your instances are listed. 2.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs *XLGHG 7RXU 1. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM51 . Review the list of instances under Server name. If it is listed. enter transaction SM51 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 2 %DFNJURXQG %DWFK.Servers).

Ad hoc These are jobs that are run as needed or required. a batch job is referred to as a background job. This job runs independently of a user being logged on. :K\ Background jobs are used for the following reasons: < < < Users have the flexibility of scheduling jobs when they are out of the office. System Administration Made Easy 16–3 . -REV :KDW In the R/3 System. Jobs that run for a long time would time out if executed online. There are two kinds of background jobs: < < Regular These are jobs that are run on a regular schedule. The program can be run without locking a user session.

The reason for special user IDs is to keep scheduled jobs independent of any user. the jobs will not fail when the user ID is locked. daily at 11:00 a..m.. etc.m. +RXVHNHHSLQJ -REV These background jobs must be run regularly to perform administrative tasks. but with a few additional considerations: %DWFK 8VHU . Sundays at 5:00 a. such as: < < < Deleting old spools Deleting old batch jobs Collecting statistics 16–4 Release 4.) :K\ Regularly schedule jobs are run to: < < < < < < Collect performance statistics Populate an information system. < Consider multiple-batch user IDs when batch jobs are scheduled by or for different organizations or groups. Generate a report Generate output for an outbound interface Process an inbound interface Perform housekeeping tasks. such as deleting old spool requests +RZ The job is scheduled like any other background job. This method has the disadvantage of having to manage multiple accounts. such as the Special Ledger. shut down. when a user leaves the company. see 16–5.' < Create a special user ID to be used only for scheduling batch jobs. or deleted. This way. such as BATCH1. For example: Œ BATCH1 System Jobs Œ BATCH2 Finance Œ BATCH3 Accounts Payable Œ BATCH4 Warehouse Œ BATCH5 Material Planning/Inventory 3HUIRUPDQFH For more information on performance.6A/B .Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs 5HJXODUO\ 6FKHGXOHG -REV :KDW Regularly scheduled jobs are background jobs that will run on a schedule (for example.

by specifying that the job is to run on the batch application server. see SAP note 48400. As a result. by not simultaneously running two AR aging System Administration Made Easy 16–5 . possibly even the same records. 2WKHUV Various modules and functions may require their own regularly scheduled jobs. Specifying a target host is a “double-edged sword. There may be various database and operating system-level housekeeping jobs that also need to run. To reduce the system impact from background jobs: < Run batch jobs on a dedicated “batch” application instance/server. such as at night or during lunch. These methods benefit both online users and other background jobs. The instance profile for this application server would be tuned for background jobs rather than dialog (online) performance (for example. If no one is on the system. load balancing is not performed. There are several ways to improve system performance while running background jobs. they could adversely affect online system performance. < Minimize job contention. there may be a need for application servers to offload the batch processing from the central instance. and other application servers are idle. slow system performance does not matter. see SAP note 98065. This step separates the processing requirements of the background job from the processing requirements of online users and of the database. There may be the situation where all the batch work processes on the batch application server are in use. For example.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs See SAP note 16083 for the required SAP housekeeping jobs. Minimizing this conflict is one reason to coordinate background job scheduling (for example. five background work processes and only two dialog work processes). < Schedule background jobs to run during nonpeak periods.” If you specify the target host. even for a small installation. This job will wait until a batch work process is available on the specified batch application server. However. Program RSPO0041 is sometimes troublesome. and to schedule the spool consistency check. the Special Ledger requires a regular job to copy data from the FI/CO modules and to regenerate sets in Special Ledger. Therefore. it will not run on any of the other available application servers. Two background jobs are running at the same time and contending for the same files. Even with as little as 10 users on a “small” central instance (no application servers). 3HUIRUPDQFH )DFWRUV IRU %DFNJURXQG -REV Background jobs consume a significant amount of system resources. two batch jobs can significantly slow down the online system response.

The time conversion table (based on a 24-hour clock) below shows selected times around the world.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs reports). IL. PST in California (0900 GMT) corresponds to 10:00 a.m.6A/B . Two common methods are: < The time zone where the corporate office is located. In such cases. The change to and from “daylight savings time” does not occur on the same day in all countries. formerly known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). such as the airlines.m. < For global operation. When these jobs run can be critical. scheduling a resource intensive background job to start at 1:00 a. For example. Germany this is Central European Time (CET). Œ Programs attempting to change the file will fail because the backup has the file locked. the “offset” time could be different. This common time is used by global operations. During that interim time. Make a chart that converts your local time to the local time for all affected global sites. the reports may finish sooner if they are run sequentially. For United Airlines in Chicago. or the backup will fail. consider the local time of your users. for tasks such as backing up operating system-level files. CET in Germany. With this chart you can quickly see what the local time is for locations that would be affected by a job (see following example): A corporate “master clock” (or time) should be defined for a company with operations in multiple time zones. < Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). rather than in parallel. but it is the middle of the workday morning in Germany. this is Central Standard Time (CST). For SAP in Walldorf. 16–6 Release 4. This time may be good for Americans who are not working. because of the following: Œ A backup of these files may require that the file not be changed or used during the backup.

confusion. < < Highlight the column for your local time zone.” Jobs scheduled to run in this missing hour may either not run or run as a late job. Any tasks following this change.M.M. need to be reviewed. Using a 24-hour clock eliminates the common A./P.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs The Microsoft Excel file for this table is included on this guide’s companion CD. which is located inside the back cover of this book. If you use daylight savings time. which rely on a job scheduled to run during the missing hour. you need to be aware of the days when the time changes: < Daylight savings time starts A one-hour time period will “disappear. so you do not accidentally read the wrong column. System Administration Made Easy 16–7 .

state that does not use daylight savings time. at 3:00 a.m.End of daylight savings time: the “double” hour &UHDWLQJ DQG 6FKHGXOLQJ D %DWFK -RE 60.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs < Daylight savings time ends This period creates a problem where a one-hour period of time repeats itself. See the following SAP notes: < < 7417 . it is not a concern.S. This time period will occur twice. If you are in a U. the clock resets back to 2:00 a. One way to avoid problems when daylight savings time is switched on and off is to use UTC (formerly known as GMT) as your master clock..m. such as Hawaii.Changing to daylight savings time and back 102088 . For example.

16–8 Release 4. < Once started. This priority increase should be properly justified. If you make every job a “class A” job. because every job will be at the same priority level. and a “class B” job would start before a “class C” job.6A/B . < Jobs in the start queue do not affect running jobs. The exceptions to this recommendation are those jobs that need the priority. The recommended method is to assign all jobs to job “class C”. a “class A” job would start before a “class B” job. A “class A” job in the start queue will not replace a currently running “class C” job. The program can be run without locking a user session. there is no priority. all job classes have equal priority. A “class A” job will not take processing resources away from a “class B” job to finish faster. For example. :K\ Background jobs are used for the following reasons: < < < Users have the flexibility of scheduling jobs when they are not in the office. Jobs that run for a long time would time out if run online. 1RWHV < The job class determines the start priority of the job. 3UHUHTXLVLWH A batch job may require that a variant be created to execute the job. Avoid “playing priority games” with the job class.

4. enter C. 4 Using the standard naming convention makes it easier to manage jobs. 2 3 5. enter transaction SM36 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs *XLGHG 7RXU 1. choose Tools → CCMS → Jobs → SM36-Definition). In Job name. 2. Choose Date/Time. enter a job name. In the Job class. 3. In the Command field. “Class C” is the standard job class. Choose Start condition. 5 System Administration Made Easy 16–9 .

11. For Schedule start. Daily).Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs 6.6A/B . If not. If you have a job that will run periodically. 13 12 16–10 Release 4. enter the start date and time. 12. 11 9 10 13. 8. enter the date and time by which time the program must start. Choose Save. Choose the appropriate period button (for example. then it will not start at all. choose Immediate and skip to step 14. On No start after. 7. Select Periodic job. If the program does not start by the specified date and time. in Date and Time. not the local time. perform steps 9–13. 9. 8 6 7 The Schedule start is the date and time on the database server. Choose Period values. Choose Check. 10.

15 14 16. 15. Choose Save. Choose Check.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs 14. 16 System Administration Made Easy 16–11 . Choose Step.

Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs 17. 21. 20 21 16–12 Release 4. To schedule an ABAP program. Select the appropriate variant. enter the name of the program (for example. choose ABAP program. 18. a window with the list of available variants appears.6A/B . 20. rspo0041). 19. in Name. In the ABAP program section. Choose . 18 17 19 If the program has variants. Choose Check.

24. choose to select the value that most closely matches the Lines and Columns 24 value. Choose Print specifications. 23 26. 25. 22 23. . Select the appropriate Spool control options.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs 22. For Format. Enter the printer name or choose to select the printer. Choose 25 26 System Administration Made Easy 16–13 . Under Print settings: < < Lines and Columns values are generated by the report.

30. Choose Save.6A/B . Choose Save. 29. Choose Back.Chapter 16: Operations Background (Batch) Jobs 27. 27 28. A message will appear in the status bar indicating that the batch job has been created. 28 30 29 16–14 Release 4.

Chapter 16: Operations Background Jobs (SM37) %DFNJURXQG -REV 60.

you need to know if the job failed because there may be other processes. :KDW Background jobs are batch jobs scheduled to run at specific times during the day. or tasks that depend on these jobs. activities. :K\ If you are running critical jobs. For each of these jobs. +RZ You should have a list of all the critical jobs that are scheduled to run. you should have a list that shows: < < < < When the jobs are scheduled to run The expected run time An emergency contact (names and phone numbers) for job failure or problems Restart or problem procedures System Administration Made Easy 16–15 .

In after event. 3. Analyze why jobs failed or were cancelled and make the necessary corrections. 2. select: < Active < Finished < Canceled 5. and select 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 9. you may do one of the following tasks: < Check the job log < Get basic job information 9 16–16 Release 4. In To. etc. Check for failed or cancelled jobs. 8. Choose Execute. Under Job status. 11. 7. In the Command field. you need to know the job name. enter * to get all jobs. To do this check. In Fr.. From this point. Enter one of the following options: < * (for all users) < User ID that the batch jobs run under (to limit the display to those scheduled under a specific user ID in User name). choose *. enter transaction SM37 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.Chapter 16: Operations Background Jobs (SM37) *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 10.Maintenance). 6. In Job name. enter a start date. choose Tools→ CCMS→ Jobs→ SM37 . Check critical jobs such as MRP.6A/B . check payment jobs. 4. enter an end date.

4. 4 System Administration Made Easy 16–17 . Choose Back. 2. 2 1 3. Check job performance and record run times. A deviation from the usual run time on a job may indicate a problem and should be investigated.Chapter 16: Operations Background Jobs (SM37) &KHFNLQJ WKH -RE /RJ To check a job log: 1. Choose Job log. Select the job.

Chapter 16: Operations Background Jobs (SM37) 8VLQJ WKH -RE 7UHH To get basic job information at a glance using the job tree: 1. Select the job. 5 4. Choose 3 5. A job tree is displayed showing information such as: < < < < Job class and status Target server Job steps Job start conditions . Choose Back. Choose . 4 16–18 Release 4. 2 1 3. 2.6A/B .

Chapter 16: Operations Background Jobs (SM37) *UDSKLFDO -RE 0RQLWRU 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5=.

Choose Legend to get a popup legend of the colors or patterns used. 3 4 2 System Administration Made Easy 16–19 . choose Tools → CCMS → Control/Monitoring → RZ01-Job Scheduling Monitor). enter transaction RZ01 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Choose Time unit → Hour to get a more usable time scale. In the Command field. and other jobs are scheduled to start. :KDW The graphical job monitor is useful when coordinating many background jobs because it allows you to see individual job statistics. 4. the graphical job monitor lets you see the conflict. 2. Choosing Timer ON will update the display every three minutes. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 3. :K\ The graphical job monitor is a visual format where status is indicated by the following colors: < < Aborted job (red) Active job (blue) If a job ran past its expected end time.

Chapter 16: Operations Background Jobs (SM37) %DWFK .QFRUUHFW 60.QSXW -REV 1HZ RU .

< Incorrect These are jobs that have failed due to an error. This partial posting increases the potential for data corruption of a different sort. since only part of the data is in the system. In the Command field. :KDW This transaction shows jobs that need to be processed or started.6A/B . 16–20 Release 4. choose Tools→ Administration→ Monitor→ SM35-Batch Input). enter transaction SM35 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. a posting from an interface file). Enter a start date of at least a week ago (or even further back if people 3 are not good about resolving these jobs) in the From field. If not processed. 2. :K\ This transaction is important because it alerts you to batch input jobs that are: < New These are jobs that are waiting to be processed (for example. Choose . 2 3. the data will not post to the system. The danger is that only a portion of the job may have posted to the system. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. and jobs with errors that need to be resolved.

to increase the number of batch jobs that are processed during a given period. which means that a process may not be immediately switched. 5. if all background processes to be switched to dialog processes still have jobs running. the R/3 work processes are automatically redistributed. For example. it is set for switching at the earliest possible time. When switching operation modes. The total number of work process remains the same. Processing is not interrupted and normal system operation continues uninterrupted during the operation mode switch. Choose the New tab. A list of batch input sessions that need to be processed are displayed. the processes are individually switched when the jobs are completed. The configuration is the mix of the number of dialog (online) and batch processes at different times of the day. :K\ A batch job runs on a batch work process until it is completed and does not “time share” the work process.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 4. A list of incorrect batch input sessions are displayed. Therefore. Contact the responsible user to notify them or determine why these jobs are in: < < New Sessions Incorrect sessions 4 5 2SHUDWLRQ 0RGHV :KDW Operation modes allow the R/3 System configurations to be adapted to different requirements. The old process type and the new process type are recorded for each switched work process. The new process type is not activated until the process is free. Only the work process type changes. For example. To achieve this System Administration Made Easy 16–21 . Operation mode switches are recorded in the system log. without stopping and restarting the instance. Instead. you need to increase the number of batch work processes. Choose the Incorrect tab. a work process used as a dialog process can be switched for use as a background process. 6.

For example: Mode Day Night Dialog WP 5 2 Batch WP 2 5 There should always be a minimum of two dialog processes. Assign the instance definition to an operation mode ( RZ04). the additional process of configuring and maintaining operation modes may not be necessary. This process is usually done to increase the number of batch sessions available to process batch sessions at night. Do not reduce the value below two.6A/B . and the number of dialog work processes is increased to accommodate the number of online users. such as a dialog application server. or a task (such as a transport) will fail if it needs a batch work process to execute. The number of batch work processes is reduced. For small clients with little batch processing at night. 3. There must be at least two batch work processes on the system. Although once configured and running. But there must be batch work processes to use somewhere on the system. This distribution is the mix of dialog and batch work processes. 16–22 Release 4. Define the distribution of work processes for the operation modes (RZ04). you must also decrease the number of dialog (online) work processes by the same amount. An individual instance. Define or set the schedule of when the modes will switch and to what mode it will switch to. Define the operation mode (RZ04). Assign the operation modes (SM63). 4. there is little maintenance required. when most of the online users have gone home and you have many batch jobs to run. During the day the opposite situation occurs. Not using operation modes reduces the level of administration required to maintain the system. could be configured without a batch work process.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes increase. 2. +RZ To set up and use the operations modes: 1.

Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 7R 'HILQH WKH 2SHUDWLRQ 0RGH 5=.

Choose Save. which makes it easier to select them later. 5 3 4 Make the name and descriptions meaningful. In the Command field. In the Operation Mode field. such as day mode and night mode. choose Tools → CCMS → Configuration → RZ04 . 5. In Description. enter a name or title description. System Administration Made Easy 16–23 . 4.OP Modes/instances). 2. enter transaction RZ04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Choose . enter a short description for the mode. 2 3.

Test Operation Mode can be switched manually or by using the timetable. 7 16–24 Release 4. afternoon and nite) you need. 6 7. Repeat the above steps for any additional operation modes (for example. day) is created.6A/B . 6.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes Productive Operation Modes are for normal R/3 operation. The Operation mode (for example. Test Operation Modes are used for systems where development work or testing is being done.

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This process populates the screen. choose Settings → Based on current status → New instances → Generate. In the Command field. 1. choose Tools → CCMS → Configuration → RZ04 . *XLGHG 7RXU 7KH )LUVW 7LPH <RX *HQHUDWH DQ . 2 3. from the menu bar. enter transaction RZ04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 2. there are no operation modes.QVWDQFH 2SHUDWLRQ 0RGH The first time the CCMS: Maintain Operation Modes and Instances screen is opened.OP Modes/instances). 3 System Administration Made Easy 16–25 . To generate an instance definition for our host. Choose Instances/operation modes.

Choose Save.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 4. The instances are populated.6A/B . 5 6 4 $GGLQJ D 1HZ 2SHUDWLRQ 0RGH 1. Choose Instances/operation modes. Choose Back. 2 16–26 Release 4. enter transaction RZ04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 6. choose Tools → CCMS → Configuration → RZ04 . 5.OP Modes/instances). 2. In the Command field.

6. 4. to select an operation 6 5 System Administration Made Easy 16–27 .Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 3. Choose mode. Choose Other operation mode. 4 3 5. Choose . Choose any operation mode.

Choose the new Operation Mode (for example.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 7. 10. Choose Save.6A/B . Choose . 8. 8 7 9. you can also define the work process distribution (see Defining Distribution of Work Processes later in this chapter). 10 16–28 Release 4. At this point. morning).

12. Under Op Mode. appears. 12 11 'HILQLQJ 'LVWULEXWLRQ RI :RUN 3URFHVVHV 5=. morning.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 11. the new operation mode. Choose Save.

In the Command field.OP Modes/instances). Choose Instances/operation modes. nite). enter transaction RZ04 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Select the operation mode you wish to define (for example. 3. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 3 2 System Administration Made Easy 16–29 . choose Tools → CCMS → Configuration → RZ04 . 2.

Do not change any other field. 5. Choose Save.6A/B . Use the minus (-) or plus (+) buttons to reduce or increase the number of Background work processes. Click in the Background field. This step automatically changes the number of Dialog work processes by the opposite amount. Choose . 5 4 6. Select an OP Mode. 7 6 6 6 Remember that there should always be a minimum of: < Two dialog processes on an instance < Two batch work processes on a system 16–30 Release 4. for example nite. In this example. 7. we increased the number of background work processes from 1 to 3.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 4. to keep total number of work processes the same.

11. Choose Save. The changes now appear on this screen. 11 10 System Administration Made Easy 16–31 .Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 8. Repeat for all the other operation modes. Choose Save. 9 8 10. 9.

Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes $VVLJQLQJ 2SHUDWLRQ 0RGHV 60.

Choose Chan.(Change). Select Normal operation (24hr). In the Command field. 2 3 16–32 Release 4.6A/B . enter transaction SM63 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. choose Tools → CCMS → Configuration → SM63 – Operation mode calendar). *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 2. 3.

6 5 5 4 7. 6. choose . This screen shows the timetable. 5. Choose the mode to assign (for example. Double-click on the beginning and ending times when the operation mode should be in effect.Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 4. The dashed arrow (= =>) indicates the current time. 9 8 System Administration Made Easy 16–33 . 7 8. mode. In Op. day). Choose . Choose Assign. 9.

Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 10. 10 11. 11 16–34 Release 4. The operation mode name is next to the time periods you assigned.6A/B . Choose .

entries appear in the system log (transaction SM21). When the Operation Mode switches. Choose Save. 13 14. 13. 14 System Administration Made Easy 16–35 .Chapter 16: Operations Operation Modes 12. Repeat steps 5–11 for the other operation mode(s).

If you experience major system problems. With this full-server backup. End of the calendar or fiscal year After the financial books are closed for the year This period may be several months after the end of the fiscal year. This process requires that the R/3 System and the database be down so that no files are open.6A/B . Send quarter-end backup tapes offsite for an extended period. you will have a defined point from where everything is backed up and from where you can begin a restore. Send the backup tapes offsite for an extended period. external auditors.Chapter 16: Operations Backups %DFNXSV 3HULRGLF $UFKLYDOV At the end of the quarter: < < < < < < Made certain you get a usable backup at the end of the quarter. 15. Make certain to get a usable backup at year-end. and others as appropriate in the company (for more information. :K\ Performing an offline backup is necessary for files that cannot be backed up if the R/3 System or the database is active. 16–36 Release 4. The length of the “extended” period should be determined by your legal and finance departments. see discussion in chapter 3). and 17. you know you have “everything” on the server. 3HUIRUPLQJ D )XOO 6HUYHU %DFNXS :KDW An offline backup of the entire server is done at the operating system level. At the end of the year: Be aware that you may have two year-end backup dates: %DFNXS WKH 'DWDEDVH See the procedures in chapter 3.

3. 2. you will need to recover the server to its “before-the-change” state. Execute the backup using your backup program (database and file system). such as: < < < Installing new software Upgrading installed software Changing hardware If a change has a catastrophic effect (a disaster). Stop the database. System Administration Made Easy 16–37 . +RZ To perform a full server backup: 1. Stop the R/3 System. 6.Chapter 16: Operations Backups :KHQ A full-server backup should be performed before and after major changes on the server. 4. Cycle the server. Stop all “services” (NT). Check backup times and logs. 5.

Chapter 16: Operations Backups &KHFNLQJ WKH %DFNXSV '% 'DWDEDVH *XLGHG 7RXU '%.

6A/B . 3. you can see the following info: a. Start date and time. You must review DB13 to see the indication that the job failed. Media name or tape label d. 1. except that the last successful backup date was not the expected date. Position on the backup tape 5a 5b 5c 5d à 16–38 Release 4. 4. there is no indication on this screen. 4 2 5. For the backup that ran. 2. b. If the backup failed. choose Tools → CCMS → DB Administration → DB12-Backup logs). DB name c. enter transaction DB12 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Choose Backup history to get more detail on the backups. Record the date and time that appears next to Full R/3 backup. In the Command field. This screen shows the backup.

Choose Action logs. System Administration Made Easy 16–39 . Look for the backup job that is listed under each data square. 2. 3.6. If the backup failed. enter transaction DB13 and choose Enter (or from the SAP Standard Menu. choose Tools → CCMS → DB Administration → DB13-DBA Planning Calendar). 5 In Release 4. the job will be indicated in red. 5.Chapter 16: Operations Backups *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 4. 4 3 This is the job log from the backup. Select the entry for the backup. and the job could still be running. red-text jobs could also mean that the job log is unavailable. In the Command field.

6A/B . For your UNIX-level backup. use that program’s documentation to determine its status after backup. Compare the actual backup time to the expected (usual) run time for the backup. Choose Log → Application. A more specific log is written to a file as specified when NTBackup is run. Check for error messages. If the backup takes longer or shorter than this time. Under Source. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. which are indicated in red. Any failed backup must be immediately investigated and resolved. 2. If you are using another program. 4.Chapter 16: Operations Backups 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP /HYHO %DFNXSV The general process is as follows: 1. Record the usual or expected run time for the backup. 81. From the Windows NT desktop.. 2. 2 choose Start → Programs → Administrative tools → Event viewer. NTBackup records some log information in the NT event logs. 3 Create a shortcut on your desktop to the Administrative tools group. 3. review the results using the appropriate UNIX backup application. 17 We assume that you are using the NTBackup application. 16–40 Release 4. there may be a problem that needs to be investigated. look for the NTBackup entries.

log. Using that information. take corrective action. The NTBackup log is by default: c:\winnt\backup. 5HYLHZ WKH 17%DFNXS ORJ If the event log indicates problems: 1. 2 1 System Administration Made Easy 16–41 . This step assumes that you have Notepad associated with the extension log. double-click on the line.Chapter 16: Operations Backups 5. Double-click on Backup. 2. you need to review that file. This view will give you a bit more information. Backup. select the directory c:\Winnt. Review the NTBackup log to determine more specifically what the error was. To view the details for a line entry. If the NTBackup writes to a different file or directory. In Explorer.log. 2.log is a text file. 1.

Within the group of consumable supplies are “critical supplies. 16–42 Release 4. &ULWLFDO 6XSSOLHV If an item is critical.” If these supplies run out.6A/B . :K\ Running out of supplies will create an inconvenience. your business operations could be affected or stopped. such as: < < < < < < < Cleaning cartridges Data cartridges (tape and disk) Laser printer toner Ink cartridges Batteries Forms Envelopes. Examples are preprinted forms with your company’s name or other special printing and magnetic toner cartridges. &KHFNLQJ &RQVXPDEOH 6XSSOLHV :KDW Consumable supplies are those that you use regularly.Chapter 16: Operations Checking Consumable Supplies 3. Scroll through the file to look for any problems. etc. and you run out of it. or even an operational problem. The amount of spare supplies purchased and available on-hand should be enough to accommodate varying usage levels and to allow for time to purchase replacements. business operation may stop.

at any price. This check applies to supplies currently being used and those in inventory (not yet in use). System Administration Made Easy 16–43 . < Check supplies that have a “time in service” expiration. Market conditions may make certain supplies difficult to purchase. either you cannot print checks to pay your vendors. the first spare may be bad or defective. At this point. After that they should be discarded and replaced with new tapes. ([DPSOH Certain DAT tapes are rated for 100 full backups. Due to the customized nature of these items. Preprinted forms (with company header. there is usually a significant lead time to restock these items. stock extras. < Track usage rates and adjust stocking levels and purchasing plans as needed. it will be Friday evening and vendors and stores will be closed. you will not be able to generate checks out of the system. Special or custom supplies such as the following require special consideration: < < Special magnetic ink toner cartridges to print the MICR characters on checks. or you have to manually type the checks (if you have blank manual check stock on hand). at one time.” +RZ To check consumable supplies: < Check the expiration date on supplies that are subject to aging.) < Keep in touch with your purchasing agent and the market place. Not every computer supplier will stock these special cartridges. In such conditions. etc. Murphy says: “When you need something immediately. the lead time and quantities to be purchased need to be increased. For example. 120 meter DAT tapes cartridges were difficult to buy. or other custom printing). instructions. such as hours. If it is a critical item. cycles. (This usage limit can be entered into the SAPDBA control file for Oracle.Chapter 16: Operations Checking Consumable Supplies ([DPSOH If you run out of the magnetic toner cartridge for the check printer.

or shipping.” Then when you really need help. If you do this too often.Chapter 16: Operations Checking Consumable Supplies 2WKHU &RQVLGHUDWLRQV Certain supplies may have long lead times for purchase.6A/B . Do not make your lack of planning the purchasing agent’s emergency. the purchasing agent may not be as willing to help you. you will soon “use up your favors. manufacture. 16–44 Release 4.

...................................17–12 Transporting Objects.........................17–9 Change Control (Managing Transports) ......17–15 System Administration Made Easy 17–1 ....................................................................17–9 Managing SAP Notes .............17–2 Change Control ............................&KDSWHU  &KDQJH 0DQDJHPHQW &RQWHQWV Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Chapter 17: Change Management Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) 7DEOH 0DLQWHQDQFH 7UDQVDFWLRQ 60.

There is no “undo” function. &UHDWLQJ DQ (QWU\ LQ WKH 7DEOH 60. there is no transaction to maintain the table. Directly maintaining a table circumvents all edits and validations in the system. the change is immediate. Use this method if. it can be directly maintained using transaction SM31. If no transaction is available to maintain a table. When a change is made directly to a table and the table is saved. and only if.

choose System → Services → Table maintenance → Extended table maintenance). USR40).6A/B . 1. Choose Maintain. In the Command field. In Table Views. *XLGHG 7RXU 1RWH This procedure shows how to create new entries in the Prohibited Password table. 3. USR40. 2 3 17–2 Release 4. enter transaction SM31 or SM30 and choose Enter (or from the menu bar. 2. enter the table name (for example.

Chapter 17: Change Management Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) 4. If the table you are changing is client-independent. Choose . 4 Client independent changes will affect all clients on a system. this dialog box appears. 5. not just the client on which you are working. Choose New entries. 5 System Administration Made Easy 17–3 .

If this screen appears.Chapter 17: Change Management Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) 6. 8 9. 9 10 17–4 Release 4. january). Choose Save. Choose Save. 10. create a request by choosing . this screen does not appear. enter the new entry (for example. 7. 8. In Short description. In Password (the field name that appears depends on the table selected).6A/B . 7 6 If the client is not configured to record changes for transport. enter text that describes what change you are making to the table and why you are making the change.

11 12 13. Choose Back. 16 15 System Administration Made Easy 17–5 . Record the request number. Choose . Here you see the new entry january in the table. The message in the status bar indicates that the entries have been saved. Choose Back. 12. 14. 14 13 15.Chapter 17: Change Management Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) 11. 16. This number is needed to transport the table changes to the other systems.

Chapter 17: Change Management Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) 'HOHWLQJ DQ (QWU\ IURP D 7DEOH 60.

If the table is client-independent this window appears. Choose . USR40). *XLGHG 7RXU 1. not just the client you are working in. 2 3 4.6A/B . choose System → Services → Table maintenance → Extended table maintenance). Choose Maintain. 3. 17–6 Release 4. 4 Client-independent changes affect all clients on a system. In the Command field. enter transaction SM31 or SM30 and choose Enter (or from the menu bar. 2. Enter the table name (for example.

6 5 7 5a 5 8. Navigate to the password by scrolling up or down to go through the table or choose Position to go directly to the entry. Select the password to delete (for example. Choose . The message in the status bar indicates that the password was deleted.Chapter 17: Change Management Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) 5. 10 System Administration Made Easy 17–7 . password). 9 8 10. Choose . Choose Save. 7. 9. 6.

Choose .6A/B . 11 12 13. 12.Chapter 17: Change Management Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31) 11. Record the request (transport) number. In Short description. This number is needed to transport the table changes to the other systems. 14. Choose Save. 14 13 15. enter text about the change you are making to the table and why. 15 17–8 Release 4. The message in the status bar indicates the change was saved.

modifications and customizing made to your system. Some of these notes may actually be specific to individual systems in your environment. The process is: < Managing the changes: Œ SAP notes that are applied to the system. Moving the changes from one system to another. When the system is upgraded. Making the changes to the R/3 System. 0DQDJLQJ 6$3 1RWHV :KDW SAP notes were formerly known as OSS notes. Also see Software Logistics by Sue McFarland. Œ Authorization process for moving the changes from one system to another. Managing SAP notes means tracking the notes that you have reviewed and applied. If you do not have a record of what notes you have applied. for conflict resolution. You must know what notes: Œ Are included in the upgrade. These notes are release and configuration specific and may (or may not) relate to your system’s configuration. SAP may ask if a specific note has been applied. so you can go back to SAP standard code Œ May need reapplying because they are not included in the upgrade < System Administration Made Easy 17–9 . These change must be made in a controlled manner. This process can be difficult and time consuming. you need to know what notes have been applied.Chapter 17: Change Management Change Control &KDQJH &RQWURO Change control is the managing of the changes. :K\ There are several reasons to track SAP notes that are applied to your system: < If a problem arises. because uncontrolled changes are a recipe for disaster. then you must manually investigate your system. This control allows you to be aware of and control what changes are made. < < The SAP training class BC325 (Software Logistics) covers change management and transports.

procedural or informational notes).” < In addition to a high-level tracking table. If SAP asks why a specific note was not applied. therefore. This documentation is important especially if a program is changed by an upgrade or support package. Document all code changes with the SAP note number that applies. < < Document all SAP notes that are “noted” and do not require actual changes to be made to the system (for example. and specify which system and instance to which it is applied. You should document the reason(s). and other applied or recommended notes (see sample form in chapter 12). you will have an answer.Chapter 17: Change Management Managing SAP Notes +RZ < < Document all SAP notes applied to your system(s). The record should include the problem to be fixed. objects changed. release in which the note was fixed (important for upgrades). Document SAP notes that have not been applied to your systems. It helps you determine if your code change is included in the upgrade or patch and. 6DPSOH )RUPV General Note Record Note # 12345 36987 Description xxx yyy Noted DEV 11/06/98 2/06/99 QAS 11/15/98 2/13/99 PRD 11/30/98 2/28/99 17–10 Release 4. There may be cases in which you review a note and determine that it does not apply. whether the program can revert back to “SAP standard.6A/B . detailed records should be kept on the individual notes.

Chapter 17: Change Management Managing SAP Notes Detailed Online Service System Note Record Note – Applied Note # : Short text: Module: Problem to solve: Objects changed: Fixed in release: Comments: Other notes applied with this problem: Applied to: System Client Transport number Date imported or applied Return code Sign off/Initial DEV 100 110 QAS 200 210 PRD 300 System Administration Made Easy 17–11 .

Chapter 17: Change Management Change Control (Managing Transports) &KDQJH &RQWURO 0DQDJLQJ 7UDQVSRUWV.

:K\ Because R/3 is an integrated system. If something stops functioning in the production system. In change control. users may not be used to consulting with other organizations when making changes to what they consider “their” systems. In the past. so changes in one system were insulated from the other systems. perform additional tests by and with other functional groups. Document all code. and finally to the production system.6A/B . modifications and customizing made to the system and the transport of those changes through the pipeline from the development to the test system. These changes apply to changes to SAP objects and system configuration. One of the most important change management tasks involves notifying the appropriate people of the changes and getting their approvals. where there is possible interaction from the change. Test by: < < Developer Functional analyst 3. :KDW Change control is the process of managing changes. most application systems were independent. business may stop until the problem is resolved. Because of this independence. there is a review and approval process. configuration. If. a change is made to a module which impacts other modules. +RZ The following steps demonstrate a change control process: 1. for example. 2. You should not make a change and apply it to the system without a review and approval of the changes. and this change is done without the knowledge of the appropriate people. there are items that may impact many other modules or groups. a process may cease to function. If needed. Get the following signoffs (see sample Transport Request Form on page 14) By all functional groups: < < Review and be aware of changes that might affect their functional areas. 17–12 Release 4. and other changes.

” System Administration Made Easy 17–13 . Verify the change in the target system Change control should also contain a recovery plan that includes: < < < What to do if the import to the production system creates a problem? How to roll back? Will it be possible to roll back? Will a problem require a database restore? A transport cannot be “undone. if it fails or hangs? 4.Chapter 17: Change Management Change Control (Managing Transports) Operations review < < < Review any changes that may affect the operations staff Schedule new jobs Program error or problem procedure Document the program restart procedure. Is it “safe” for the operator to restart the job.

6A/B .Chapter 17: Change Management Change Control (Managing Transports) Sample Transport Request Form Request to Transport Transport number: Transport title/description: Objects: SAP Notes Applied: (SAP note form required for each note) Effect on other functional areas: Special transport instructions: Specific order Need quiet time: Yes/No Request for transport by: Tested by: Functional area review and approval: FI SD Approved for transport by: Transport details: System QAS Client 200 210 PRD 300 Date Start time End time Return code Sign off/ Initial MM Computer Operations 17–14 Release 4.

x. is transported to the quality assurance system where is tested. a transport may “break” the production system and you will need to restore the system. Ideally. The purpose of transports is to move objects and configuration from one system to another in the production pipeline. This pipeline is defined in a three-system landscape as systems comprising development to quality assurance to production. (It used to be known as Correction and Transport System. In the worst case scenario. 7UDQVSRUWLQJ 2EMHFWV The transport system has been significantly changed in Release 4. If an object is being used in the target system when a transport is performed. +RZ Transports are only done when necessary (when you have a transport that needs to be moved). :K\ During a transport. System Administration Made Easy 17–15 . the transport may cause inconsistent results or terminate the transaction. You may also have the occasional “emergency” transport that must be moved at a time other than at your normal weekly transport time. objects may be overwritten. but is now called the Change and Transport System. use one of the following methods: < < Transport Management System (TMS) Operating system (OS) Transports are taught in BC325 (Software Logistics). and finally into the production system. Sunday afternoon or evening) when users are not logged on the system. a full system backup should have been completed before transports are imported. In CTS are the Transport Management System (TMS) and Change and Transport Organizer (CTO). A transport starts in the development system. To transport objects.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 7UDQVSRUWLQJ 2EMHFWV 7UDQVSRUWV LQWR WKH 3URGXFWLRQ 6\VWHP :KDW A transport is the mechanism that R/3 uses to move changes: < Within a system from one client to another client < < From one system to another system on the same client From one system to another system and from one client to another client :KHQ Complete the transport in the production system during a “quiet” period (for example.) It is still CTS.

This grouping reduces the chances of transporting the wrong transport request when there are many activities and projects going on.) < Transport requests can be grouped into projects. 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP 0HWKRG The operating system (OS) method requires you to go down to the OS level to execute the transport program (tp) at the command line. There is no risk of incorrectly typing the wrong command or transport number. Benefits: < The user does not have to go into the operating system to do the transport. STMS.6. You no longer have to manually import the transport requests or write scripts to do the import. The transport route can be specific to clients. (This functionality is new in Release 4. There is the risk of incorrectly typing and importing the wrong transport. to perform the transports. With one export.6.6.) < Advanced quality assurance prevents transports from being imported into the production system until they are released after successful testing in the quality assurance system. < < < The user selects the transport from a GUI to do the import. This action is a security issue in companies that restrict which employees can have this level of access.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 706 0HWKRG The TMS method uses a new transaction.6. and the transport request selected and moved by these projects. (This functionality is new in Release 4. (This functionality is new in Release 4. (This functionality is new in Release 4.) 706 GRFXPHQWDWLRQ < The TMS documentation (including configuration) can be found on the R/3 online documentation by choosing Help→ SAP Library → Basis Components → Change and Transport System (BC-CTS) → BC-Transport Management System. Disadvantages: < The user must go into the operating system to do the transport. the TMS system is set up to import into several combinations of system and client as defined in the transport route.) The import of transport requests can be scheduled. < The import is done from the command line. there is no need to physically go down to the server or use a “remote connection” (for NT) to the server to do the import. 17–16 Release 4.6A/B . Because the import is done from within R/3.

and there is no “second release” out of the quality assurance system. Import the request into the target system. see chapter 12. it is important to not release the objects until they have been tested and approved for transport. Up to. For more information. once the transport is imported into the quality assurance system. If the move affects any of the functional groups. such as: < Who to contact in case of problems The person doing the transport typically is not a programmer. while other companies require the approval of numerous people. and including Release 4. tp import all. etc. The following steps are part of your company’s change management process: 1. If you use either method. 4.5. The assumption is that all objects released into the import buffer have been tested and approved for transport into the target system. will import all transports in the import buffer. or SE10 as necessary to release the transport. Obtain proper authorization to transport the objects. SE09. 2. your transport is delayed until the affected functional groups are satisfied. Obtaining this authorization is the responsibility of the person who requests the transport move. then release the request (or transport).Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 6WDQGDUG 7UDQVSRUW 3URFHVV This section describes the standard transport process from your development system to your production system. test. that person will need assistance to determine what failed. A major purpose of the approval process is to give other functional groups a “heads up” as to what you are moving. The TMS (normal) import and one of the OS import options. 3. The required authorizations and approval process differ based on the company. such as sequence order. there will not be problems related to your transport. If necessary. Some companies require the approval of only one person. in a three-system landscape. Use transactions SE01. and they know about it. it is added into the production system import buffer. < < < < < < What recovery process to follow if the transport fails Who will test the transport in the target system to determine that it works as intended The transport number The source system The target system(s) Relationship to other transports. Define other necessary transport management related information. First release the task. This way. If there is a problem with the transport. they can take the appropriate action: review. etc. System Administration Made Easy 17–17 .

These files are usually a single file that you have to unpack using the CAR program. 1. Copy the files into the appropriate transport directories: a. This process helps prevent the “accidental” transport of a request that has not completed quality assurance testing in this system.PSRUW %XIIHU If you import the entire import buffer.6 is the Advance Quality Assurance. Therefore. The downloading and unpacking procedure is described in chapter 22.P30. Œ Using the OS method. To manage the import buffer in the: < Source system.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 5. or add functionality from third-party software vendors. In this feature. Get the files from SAP or the delivery media. 6SHFLDO 7UDQVSRUWV IURP 6$3 Special manual transports fix specific problems. use “preliminary import” to select the individual transport to import. it was automatically added to the import buffer of the production system. and D174511. such as a CD. add features. 2. R174511.PSRUWLQJ WKH (QWLUH . Two files (sometimes there is a third file) are normally combined as a set (for example. This change is an important change management enhancement and should be used by everyone with a standard three-system landscape. regardless of whether they are ready to be transported. an “import all” would import everything. . use the project method to manage the transport requests. import the requests (transports) individually. ready or not. The problem with importing the entire buffer is that the various transports may be in different stages of testing. Some may be finished. U. Check the transport log.6. Copy files beginning with “K” into: < < NT UNIX <drive>:\usr\sap\trans\cofiles \\<host>\sapmnt\trans\cofiles /usr/sap/trans/cofiles b. K174511. the requests imported into the quality assurance system must be approved in this system to be transported to the production system. regardless of whether all the transports are ready.6A/B .P30. while others may still be in the process of being tested. everything in the buffer will be imported into the target system. < Production system: Œ Using the TMS method. An “import all” imports all the objects in the buffer. when a transport was imported into the quality assurance system. Copy files beginning with “R” and “D” into: 17–18 Release 4. Before Release 4. customers can download the transport files from SAPSERV4.P30). Œ Using the TMS method. Œ Do an “import all” only when the entire buffer is ready to be imported. A new feature in Release 4.S. do not release the transport until the testing is complete.

Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects < < NT UNIX <drive>:\usr\sap\trans\data \\<host>\sapmnt\trans\data /usr/sap/trans/data 1RWH “D” files do not always exist. Add the special transport to the import buffer (process described in 17–25 and 17–34). Import the transport (process described in 17–27 and 17–34). 4. 3. 5HOHDVLQJ D 5HTXHVW 7UDQVSRUW.

enter transaction SE10 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 5. In the Command field. 2. choose Tools → Accelerated SAP → Customizing → SE10-Customizing Organizer). Over time the released list will be large. 2. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Verify that the following categories are selected: < Customizing < Workbench < All clients 4. To release a request: 1. 3. Release the request. To verify the Request status: < Select Modifiable. 4 2 3 5 System Administration Made Easy 17–19 . Release all tasks associated with the request. < As an option. Choose Display. you may deselect Released. enter the user ID of the person who owns the Request. In User.

Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 6. Choose . A message appears on the message line indicating the task was released. 9 11 10 17–20 Release 4. 11. 7 6 8. Document the content of the transport. Choose Save.6A/B . Choose Back. 9. 10. 7. Select the task to release.

Choose . Select the request. 4 System Administration Made Easy 17–21 . A message indicates that the task was released into the specified request. 4. 2 1 3. select Release and export. before the request can be released. 12 5HOHDVLQJ WKH 5HTXHVW 1.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 12. All of the tasks associated with a request must be released. 3 Choose . The next step is to release the request. If this window appears. 2.

Choose Back. 6. Choose . 17–22 Release 4. Check the export return code and text message. 9. 6 5 7. Check the test import return code and text message. As the export is running the line “In process Requires update” appears.Transport was terminated 10 7. the above message changes to a status message. 8. This screen shows that the import Ended OK and has a return code of 0. The return codes are: < 0 – Successful < 4 – Warnings occurred < 8 – Performed with errors < 12+ . 8 9 A return code of 8 or higher is a failed transport. 10.6A/B . When the export is finished.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 5. This screen shows that the export Ended OK and has a return code of 0.

V D 3UREOHP If there is a problem. For more information. You can see this request only if you selected to view released requests in step 1 of releasing a task. The request is now in the Released section. review the transport log. A message appears indicating that the request was released and exported. see the transport log later in this chapter.I 7KHUH . 11 12.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 11. System Administration Made Easy 17–23 . 12 .

6A/B . The Transport Management System (TMS) screen appears. In the Command field. enter transaction STMS and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. choose Tools → Administraton → Transports → STMS-Transport Management System). 17–24 Release 4. 2.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 706 0HWKRG RI 7UDQVSRUWLQJ 7KH 0DLQ 706 6FUHHQ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. This is the transaction that all the following TMS processes will start from.

This task is only performed for special transports that are downloaded from SAPSERV4 or received via CD. 3UHUHTXLVLWH The transport files have been moved into the appropriate directories. choose . SAP Library → Basis Components → Change and Transport System (BC-CTS) → BC-Transport Management System 2. there are five major topics: < Configuring TMS < Performing Transports < Approving or Rejecting Requests < Special Transport Workflow < Troubleshooting $GGLQJ D 6SHFLDO 7UDQVSRUW LQWR WKH . The release process adds the transport into the appropriate input buffer.PSRUW %XIIHU *XLGHG 7RXU Adding a special transport into the import buffer is usually not done.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects To access TMS’s online documentation. choose: 1. 1. 1 System Administration Made Easy 17–25 . From the TMS screen. BC-Transport Management System Under BC-Transport Management System.

Choose . 4 5.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 2. 7 17–26 Release 4. To continue. 3. Position cursor on the <SID> of the R/3 System to which you want to add the transport. choose Extras → Other requests → Add. From the menu bar. 5 6 7. 3 2 4.6A/B . Choose Yes. choose . Enter the transport number. 6.

choose .Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 8. From the TMS screen. The special transport is now in the system buffer.PSRUW D 7UDQVSRUW 5HTXHVW *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 8 8VLQJ 706 WR . 1 System Administration Made Easy 17–27 .

3 2 4. you have two options: < Preliminary Import to selectively import requests one at a time.6A/B . Select the request you wish to import. 3. Select the <SID> of the system into which the request will be imported.PSRUW D 6HOHFWHG 5HTXHVW 1. 2 1 17–28 Release 4.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 2. Ã . Choose . Choose . 2. < Import All to import all the requests in the queue for the selected system. From this screen.

6 System Administration Made Easy 17–29 . These options correspond to the unconditional codes used when transporting at the OS level. Choose . 3 4 5. Enter the Target client. The Options tab is where you select special import options. Choose Yes.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 3. 4. 5 5 6.

Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 7.PSRUW $OO 5HTXHVWV 1. At this point. You can monitor the progress of the import by watching the process indicators. all the requests shown in the input buffer will be imported and indicated in the Request column.6A/B . The Request number now appears with a green check. indicating that it was imported as a “preliminary import. 7 8. 2. The import process begins and may run for a while. Choose .” 8 . 1 2 17–30 Release 4.

6 8 7 System Administration Made Easy 17–31 . Choose Back. Choose Yes. When completed. 4. Enter the target client number. Choose . 7. 3 4 5. 8. the message Import queue is empty appears. 5 6. To refresh the screen. periodically choose .Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 3.

Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects à &KHFN WKH 7UDQVSRUW /RJ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. From the menu bar.6A/B . From the TMS screen. 3. 1 2. choose Goto → TP system log. Select the <SID> of the R/3 System for which you want to check the transport log. 2 3 17–32 Release 4. choose .

8 7 By using TMS to review the transport logs. 4 6 5 7. the inconsistency encountered in the OS method of viewing the transport log does not occur. The return code (indicated in column RC) is the same as in step 5 above. 5. The inconsistency is when the tp return code (received when the import is done) does not match the return code in the transport log. From this screen.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 4. choose GoTo → Transport steps (this was formerly known as alog). you can verify the request number and the return code for that request. 8. From the menu bar. The following line would appear in the above screen: Request ALL SID SAS S S RC 0008 System Administration Made Easy 17–33 . 6. Choose (or from the menu bar. Check the final return code: < 0 (Successful) < 4 (Warning) < 8 (Error) < 12 (Fatal)-6 Anything other than a 0 or 4 is considered a failed transport. choose Syslog → Refresh).

6A/B . +RZ 1. .PSRUWLQJ WKH 7UDQVSRUW 3UHUHTXLVLWH < < You must be on the target system. 3. and the rest of the name is the base name of the file (K174511). You must be on the target system (PRD).Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 26 0HWKRG RI 7UDQVSRUWLQJ $GGLQJ D 6SHFLDO 7UDQVSRUW . NT: UNIX: <drive>:\trans\bin /usr/sap/trans/bin 2. on the target system.PSRUW %XIIHU Adding a special transport into the import buffer is normally not done. you must have mapped a drive to the shared directory (\sapmnt) on the source system (for example. < < NT: <drive>:\usr\sap\trans\bin 1. Test your connection to the target system with the following command: tp connect <target sid> tp connect prd 17–34 Release 4. where the first three characters are the file extension (P30).QWR WKH . Load the transport into the import buffer with the following command: tp addtobuffer <transport> <target sid> tp addtobuffer P30K174511 DEV Where the: < < < < Target system is DEV File is K174511. Go to the transport program directory: UNIX: /usr/sap/trans/bin 2. Import the transport. This task is only performed for special transports that are downloaded from SAPSERV4 or received via CD. Go to the transport directory. For NT. where drive S: is mapped to \\devsys\sapmnt). 3UHUHTXLVLWH < < The transport files have been moved into the appropriate directories.P30 Transport number is P30K174511 The transport number is derived from the transport file number.

Enter the transport command. enter: tp import all <target sid> tp import all prd You may be instructed in an SAP note or by the SAPNet hotline to use Unconditional codes or U codes. 2. 3. enter: tp import <transport> <target sid> client=<target client> tp import devk900023 prd client=100 Where the: ΠTransport number is devk900023 ΠTarget system is PRD ΠTarget client number is 100 < To import the entire import buffer. use QuickSlice. &KHFNLQJ WKH 7UDQVSRUW /RJ 7UDQVDFWLRQ 6(.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 3. and the CPU activity in the NT Performance Monitor to monitor the import process. < To specify an individual transport. you will recognize the activity pattern of a transport. use the utilities top or xload to monitor the import process. If you receive an exit code of 8 or higher. You must resolve the problem and reimport the transport. Record the start and finish time for the transport on the transport log or the transport form. an application included with the NT resource kit. These are special program option switches that the tp program uses during the import process. After a few times. < 1. there is a known condition where this return code does not match the transport log. This condition is described in Checking the Transport Log section below. < In NT. If you get a return code of 8. In UNIX. Check the exit code. Check the transport log (see below). the import failed.

+RZ The information in this chapter is only a portion of the first half of the process. The second half of the process. determining if the transport succeeded or failed. If the transport involves an object such as an ABAP program or SAPscript layout. investigating why the transport failed. you will need the assistance of your programmers to determine why it failed and how to fix it. :K\ The transport log indicates why a transport failed. that is. is not covered. System Administration Made Easy 17–35 .

In the Command field. 2. choose Tools → Accelerated SAP → Customizing → SE10-Customizing Organizer). 1. Under Request status: < Deselect Modifiable. The developer and functional area owner are responsible for this verification. the import failed.6A/B . < Select Released. 5 4 17–36 Release 4. 5. &KHFNLQJ WKH 7UDQVSRUW /RJ *XLGHG 7RXU 1RWH You must check the transport log from the transaction that released the transport ( SE09 or SE10). The final test is to verify in the target system that the transport arrived properly. Enter a date range in the Last changed From and To fields to limit the 3 amount of requests to review. The transport could still have failed even if you did not receive a failed return code. select: < Customizing < Workbench < All clients 3. check the transport’s exit code: < < < < 0 = OK 4 = Warning 8 = Error 12 = Severe Error If you receive an exit code of 8 or higher. Under Category.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects After the transport is completed. You must resolve the problem and re-import the transport. 2 4. enter transaction SE10 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Choose Display.

7. 7 6 8.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 6. Choose . On the Import line. choose display log for the line with the warning. check the return message and code: < 0 – Successful < 4 – Warnings occurred < 8 – Performed with errors < 12+ – Transport was terminated 8 9 A return code of 8 or higher is a failed transport. 9. Select the request. System Administration Made Easy 17–37 . If you see a warning in step 8.

6A/B . 11.Chapter 17: Change Management Transporting Objects 10. Thus when the log is reviewed. However. 10 11 You may run into a rare inconsistency between the return code in this log and the return code when you ran the import program tp. Choose to drill down for additional details. This condition occurs when the tp program ends with a return code 8 (Error) and the log above shows a maximum return code of 4 (Warning). it is still a failed transport. 17–38 Release 4. The status bar indicates how many levels you have drilled down. The TMS method does not have this inconsistency. This inconsistency is caused by a step in the import that is not associated with the transport number (in the example RW6K9000079). the maximum return code of 4 [(and not 8) (Warning)] appears.

..........................................................18–2 System Administration Made Easy 18–1 ...........................&KDSWHU  7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ &RQWHQWV Overview ................................................18–2 Basic Troubleshooting Techniques ................................................

It is the standard problem solving procedure that has been in use for years by many professions.Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Overview 2YHUYLHZ This chapter is a basic problem solving chapter. The next chapter is on performance tuning. Troubleshooting is learned by doing. so troubleshooting techniques are also relevant for performance tuning.6A/B . the better you become. or other diagnostic aids are available from the problem? Œ What conditions caused the problem? Œ Is the problem repeatable? To analyze the problem. Your auto mechanic would follow the same procedure when repairing your car: < < < < < < Gather data Analyze the problem Evaluate the alternatives Make a change Remember to make only one change at a time. Performance tuning is a specialized troubleshooting. We will not be going into advanced troubleshooting techniques. the more experience you have. Document the changes Evaluate the results *DWKHU 'DWD < Ask the following questions: Œ What is the problem? Œ What error messages. dumps. such as: Œ System Log (SM21) Œ Update Failure (SM13) Œ ABAP Dump (SM22) Œ Spool (SP01) < 18–2 Release 4. %DVLF 7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ 7HFKQLTXHV The general procedure when working on troubleshooting is not new. use your available tools. We will present you with some of the tools and techniques to help you solve the problem yourself.

Unless they must be done together. To do that you need to know what the configuration was before the change and what you did. to fix a problem. you will not know which change caused or fixed a problem. There are times where several changes need to be made. System Administration Made Easy 18–3 . make the changes separately. This process must be repeated exactly the same on all systems. < If the change needs to be applied to multiple systems.Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Basic Troubleshooting Techniques $QDO\]H WKH 3UREOHP < What are the resources you have to help solve the problem: Œ Online documentation Œ Reference books Œ SAP notes Œ Other customers (this is your network) Call for assistance: Œ Consultants Œ SAPNet help desk < (YDOXDWH WKH $OWHUQDWLYHV 0DNH RQO\ 2QH &KDQJH DW D 7LPH < < If there is a problem. 'RFXPHQW WKH &KDQJHV < If a change causes a problem. you need to undo the change. and you made several changes at once. such as related program changes. you need to know exactly what changes to make and how to do it.

When an error occurs. 2.Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Basic Troubleshooting Techniques *HW WKH &RPSOHWH (UURU 0HVVDJH *XLGHG 7RXU When you get an error message in an R/3 transaction. 1 2 3. you need all the information on the error to forward to SAP. Record the relevant information from the screen to send to SAP. 3 18–4 Release 4. The error message appears in the dialog box.6A/B . To get the complete error message. do the following: 1. the field with the error is highlighted. 4. Double-click on the error message.

“at least” patch level 61. Choose Release notes. The solution is to upgrade to the current kernel. 3. +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. The fix to your problem may have been done in patch level 61. enter transaction SM51 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. :K\ This patch level is needed when submitting problem messages to SAP. This level identifies that the problem is an older kernel that contains the problem. Select the central instance (for example.Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Basic Troubleshooting Techniques *HW WKH 6$3 3DWFK /HYHO :KDW This level is the R/3 kernel patch level that is being used. Different problems are fixed in different patch levels. pa100767_SAS_00). 2. ([DPSOH You are on patch level 50 and have a particular problem. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → System monitoring → SM51-Servers). In the Command field. It tells the hot line personnel on what kernel patch level you are. 3 2 System Administration Made Easy 18–5 .

Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Basic Troubleshooting Techniques 4.6A/B . we chose Patch level 55). problems you have may be related to the level of the applied support package. 18–6 Release 4. :K\ As with the SAP Patch level. 4 Ã 'HWHUPLQLQJ :KDW 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJHV +DYH %HHQ $SSOLHG :KDW A support package is an SAP-provided R/3 fix and is similar to an NT Service Pack. Record the Patch level (for our example.

Choose . 2 3. From the menu bar. Choose the Patches tab. choose System → Status. 2.Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Basic Troubleshooting Techniques +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 3 System Administration Made Easy 18–7 .

and is for Release 4. 18–8 Release 4.6A and is the first Support Package.6A/B .Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Basic Troubleshooting Techniques 4.6A Patch Status values are: < N – The patch has not yet been applied < < I – Patch has been successfully applied ? – Patch application has been aborted The name of a Support Package is interpreted as follows: < SAPKH<release><sequence_number> < SAPKH46A01 is interpreted as SAPKH / 46A / 01. the following patches have been applied: < SPAM update 17-Sept-99 < Support Package 01 for 4. In this example.

.........................................................................................19–11 Operating System .................................................................................................................................................19–11 Hardware...................................................................................19–15 System Administration Made Easy 19–1 ..................................................................................................................................................................&KDSWHU  3HUIRUPDQFH &RQWHQWV Overview ........19–4 Database .................19–2 General Procedure ...........................................................19–3 R/3....................................................................................

to provide the breadth and depth of information available in the SAP training class or the Performance Optimization book. all troubleshooting techniques are also relevant.” where R/3.Chapter 19: Performance Overview 2YHUYLHZ This chapter is an introduction to performance issues in R/3. such as: < < < < < Cook dinner Read a book Help your child with homework Water the yard Fix the fence You run around doing a little of each task then going to the next. database. We provide only general guidelines. etc. performance tuning has to have a starting point. we will be using R/3 transactions to access relevant database and operating system data. the database. all the drives in the server were configured in a single RAID5 array and treated as a single. we recommend the following resources: < < BC315 – R/3 Workload Analysis (the SAP Performance Tuning class) SAP R/3 Performance Optimization. This approach makes the information database and operating system independent. None of the tasks get done with any reasonable speed. 19–2 Release 4. which recently published a book on performance optimization. and R/3 have been properly installed based upon SAP’s recommendations. and R/3 has been installed on a single logical drive. Head contention is similar to you being asked to do many things at the same time. huge drive. :K\ As with the design of this book. &ULWLFDO $VVXPSWLRQ The hardware. An extreme example (that did occur with a customer) is where the operating system. Performance tuning is specialized troubleshooting. Rather than using database and operating system-specific details. It is not possible in one chapter. network. not detailed performance tuning instructions. and the operating system all simultaneously competing for the same disk drive head. operating system. Since you are trying to solve performance issues.6A/B . In this situation. the database. by Thomas Schneider. This point is the SAP-recommended configuration for hardware. This situation created a classic condition known as “head contention. SAP’s TCC organization. operating system. database. where possible. For more detailed performance tuning.

Thus we will primarily discuss R/3 performance issues. such as related program changes. There are times where several changes need to be made to fix a problem. *HQHUDO 3URFHGXUH The general procedure when working on performance issues is not new. you need to know exactly what changes to make. and how to do it. To do that you need to know what the configuration was before the change and what you did. make the changes one at a time. < System Administration Made Easy 19–3 .Chapter 19: Performance General Procedure This is an example of a problem that is not new. Document the changes. you will not know which change caused a problem. then operating system. This process must be repeated exactly the same on all systems. then hardware. This gain is followed first by database issues. unless they must be done together. to spread the data over multiple drives. Head contention existed in the early days of computing. you need to undo the change. Even so. 3ULRULW\ RI (YDOXDWLRQ The SAP EarlyWatch group has determined that the majority of the performance issues and gains are from within R/3. The solution now is essentially the same as it was back then. It is the standard problem-solving procedure: < < < < Gather data Analyze the problem Evaluate the alternatives Make only one change at a time If there is a problem. Œ If a change causes a problem. that is. Œ If the change needs to be applied to multiple systems.

Chapter 19: Performance R/3 5 One of the most common reasons for R/3 performance problems is poorly written custom (or modified standard) ABAP programs. :RUNORDG $QDO\VLV RI WKH 6\VWHP 7UDQVDFWLRQ 67.

Choose Data base server or This application server. we chose This application server. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → Performance → Workload → ST03-Analysis). (In this example.) 2 19–4 Release 4. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 2. pal101003_SAS_00. +RZ You should check statistics and record trends to get a “feel” for the system’s behavior and performance. In the Command field. enter transaction ST03 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. Understanding the system when it is running well helps you determine what changes may need to be made when it is running poorly. :KDW Workload analysis is used to determine system performance.6A/B .

Choose . Enter how many minutes back to analyze. 6.Chapter 19: Performance R/3 3. we chose Last minute load.) 3 4. In this example. 4 5. Under Time interval to be analyzed is. enter the Date and time range to 6 be analyzed. Select a time period to analyze. we chose Other selection. or choose Other selection to specify a date and time period to analyze. (In this example. 5 System Administration Made Easy 19–5 .

response time.888 ms. Check the Current value under Task types (for example. the response time meets the target standard response time. For more information on Av. 10. rather than 3. see notes below.888 ms. If your default profile for decimal point. If this value is less than 1.6A/B . Choose the appropriate button to view performance values for that Task type. The task types are: < Total < Dialog < Background < RFC 8. response time of almost 4 seconds must be evaluated with other factors in mind. the Av. Quite a difference! 19–6 Release 4. The R/3 user default for a decimal point is a comma. Choose Transaction profile. Once the buffers are loaded. the buffers will be empty and many of the statistics will be unfavorable. response time.000 ms (1 second). it would read 3. In this example. 8 7 10 9 Judgment must be applied when reviewing statistical values. If you just started the R/3 System.Chapter 19: Performance R/3 7. For example. the display may be misread. (point or comma) is not appropriately set. values can be properly evaluated. 9. Total). Examine Av.

12 11 Analysis of transaction ST03 is covered in BC315 (the Workload Analysis and Tuning class). 12. 13. Click on any cell in the Response time avg column. The programs and transactions are now sorted in average response time order. 13 System Administration Made Easy 19–7 .Chapter 19: Performance R/3 11. We recommend you take this class. Choose .

but are not limited to the following: Type Create Sales Order Change Sales Order Display Sales Order Create Billing Document Create Delivery Maintain Master HR data Transaction VA01 VA02 VA03 VF01 VL01 PA30 %XIIHUV 67.Chapter 19: Performance R/3 A few standard functional transactions will exceed the one-second guideline. They include.

6A/B . It is used to tune buffer parameters of R/3 and. :KDW The buffer tune summary transaction displays the R/3 buffer performance statistics. Regularly check these entries to establish trends and get a feel for buffer behavior. the R/3 database and operating system. :K\ The buffer is important because significant buffer swapping reduces performance. 19–8 Release 4. Look under Swaps for red entries. to a lesser degree.

The two important things to review on the above screen are: a. enter transaction ST02 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Command field. It usually takes a day to load the buffers that are normally used. this value is typically low. The swap value is reset to zero (0) when the system is restarted. Hit Ratio The target value is 95 percent and higher. because buffers are empty.000.Chapter 19: Performance R/3 *XLGHG 7RXU 1. The hit ratio will increase as the system is used and the buffers are loaded. Swaps The target value is less than 1. b. Soon after starting the system. 2a 2b 2. Swaps occur when the necessary data is not in the buffer. The system has to retrieve the data from the database. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → Performance → Setup/Buffers → ST02-Buffers). System Administration Made Easy 19–9 .

see Start/Stop R/3 in chapter 10. As different programs execute. We recommend you take this class. 19–10 Release 4. At that point.) 2. 0HPRU\ 'HIUDJPHQWDWLRQ :KDW A computer’s memory behaves similar to a hard disk. Over time. When R/3 is restarted. This process repeats until all normally used objects are loaded into the buffer. like a hard disk. This step requires stopping R/3 on all application and database servers. you do not need to cycle the server. The second person will have a normal (quick) response time. the buffers are refreshed. and later deleted out of.Chapter 19: Performance R/3 Analysis of transaction ST02 is covered in BC315 (the Workload Analysis and Tuning class). Stop R/3. but not a contiguous (single) piece of memory large enough to allow certain programs to execute. they are loaded into. +RZ To defragment the system’s memory: 1. (For more information. This process means that the first person who accesses the buffered object will have a long response because the system must get the data from disk and load it into the buffer. Restart R/3. memory. the total of all the unused spaces). You only need to restart R/3. which usually takes up to a day to accomplish. :K\ At a certain point you may have sufficient “free memory” (that is.6A/B . the usage of the computer’s memory becomes fragmented with unused spaces scattered throughout. those types of programs attempting to run that need contiguous memory will fail because they cannot be loaded into memory.

Chapter 19: Performance Database 'DWDEDVH See chapter 13 (Database Administration – Microsoft SQL Server) for the database-related performance tuning transactions: < Activity .DB02 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP 0RQLWRU 26.ST04 < Tables/Indexes .

such as: < < < < Memory paging Operating system log CPU utilization Free space on disks In addition. :KDW The operating system monitor allows you to view relevant operating system and hardware details. System Administration Made Easy 19–11 . The operating system-related detail. the following hardware details are available: :K\ Certain operating system items will impact R/3 performance.

6A/B . 3 2 This screen is a snapshot of the CPU. Choose . 4 19–12 Release 4. Memory.Chapter 19: Performance Operating System +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. choose Detail analysis menu. 3. enter transaction OS07 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Command field. Select the appropriate server. choose Tools → Administration → Monitor → Performance → Operating System → Remote → OS07-Activity). and Disk response data. Swap. To analyze. 4. 2.

Memory or OS Log).Chapter 19: Performance Operating System 5. 5 This screen shows CPU utilization over time. System Administration Made Easy 19–13 . Choose an item under Previous hours (for example.

This is the Operating System Log.6A/B .Chapter 19: Performance Operating System This window shows the memory paging and free memory over time. 19–14 Release 4.

the faster R/3 will run. By keeping data in buffer. The R/3 System uses memory extensively. the more memory you have. Thus. System Administration Made Easy 19–15 . physical access to the drives is reduced.Chapter 19: Performance Hardware +DUGZDUH &38 DQG 'LVN Also see Operating System – Operating System Monitor (OS07) to get data on: < < CPU utilization Free space on disks 0HPRU\ The hardware item that has the largest effect on R/3 performance is memory. Physical access to the drives is the slowest activity. in general.

Chapter 19: Performance Hardware 19–16 Release 4.6A/B .

..............................................................................................................................................................&KDSWHU  6$31HW³:HE )URQWHQG &RQWHQWV Overview ...............................................................................20–15 Online Correction Support.............20–2 Logging on to SAPNet .............................................................................................................................................................20–24 System Administration Made Easy 20–1 .......20–3 Online Services .......................................................................................20–4 Solving a Problem with SAPNet ......................20–5 Registering a Developer or Object ....

We recommend that you use SAPNet–Web as your primary SAPNet access method. For most companies with an existing (flat fee) internet access line. the cost of the internet access is already paid for. However. +RZ The prerequisites to use SAPNet–Web are: < < < An internet connection A browser SAPNet works better with Microsoft Internet Explorer. if using ISDN.6A/B . The SAP service connection required for SAPNet-R/3.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Overview 2YHUYLHZ SAPNet–Web Frontend (SAPNet–web) is the internet access to SAP resources and SAPNet– R/3 (formerly OSS) functions such as: < Registering developers and objects < < Searching for SAP notes Downloading support packages Most of the OSS functions will be migrated to SAPNet. is additional per minute cost. A valid SAPNet/OSS user ID and password 20–2 Release 4. The entering and retrieving of customer messages on SAPNet has just become available and is currently in pilot. The opening and use of the SAP service connections for Earlywatch and SAP hotline access to customer systems will remain in OSS or SAPNet–R/3. not all OSS functions will be migrated to SAPNet.

enter your OSS/SAPNet user ID. 2. In User Name. enter www. In your web browser. System Administration Made Easy 20–3 . 2 3 This main screen (SAPNet for Customers and Partners) is the starting screen for the following tasks.sapnet. In Password.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Logging on to SAPNet /RJJLQJ RQ WR 6$31HW *XLGHG 7RXU 1.com.sap. enter your OSS/SAPNet password. 3.

Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Services 2QOLQH 6HUYLFHV *XLGHG 7RXU 1. In the left frame. Most of the SAPNet functions used by systems administrators are grouped in this screen.6A/B . 20–4 Release 4. 1 2 The Online Services main screen appears. scroll down to Services. 2. Choose Online Services.

SAP Notes are divided into several topics. you should search: < < The online documentation SAP notes. choose SAP Notes. 1 2. On the Online Services screen. 1. For example.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet 6ROYLQJ D 3UREOHP ZLWK 6$31HW If you have a particular problem or question. you can retrieve a list of notes on the: < Installation and upgrade processes < Managing Y2K issues < Latest or “hot” news about R/3 2 System Administration Made Easy 20–5 . 6HDUFKLQJ IRU 6$3 1RWHV *XLGHG 7RXU SAP Notes were formerly known as OSS Notes. This large database contains problem notes.

enter 46A d. The search can be done in one of many different ways: a. In Search Text. enter a database name 5. 4a 4b 4c 4d 5 20–6 Release 4.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet 3. enter spool system b. 4. Choose Submit. In Release. In Database. enter the following text: a. 3a 3b b. In Search Mode. You can use a text search with the following options: < < < AND – the note must contain all of the words in the search text field OR – the note must contain at least one of the words in the search text field PHRASE – the note must contain the words in the exact order specified in the field. in each of the following fields.6A/B . select all given words (AND) c. You can also specify the specific: < Note Number < R/3 Release < Application Area < Database You cannot simultaneously specify a Note Number and Search Text. On the SAP Notes Search screen.

2. The folder contents appear in the main frame. Each page contains 20 hits and the total number of hits is limited to 500. 6 7 8. 7.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet 6. On the left frame. 9. The results from the criteria are displayed. Close this window and return to the SAP Notes list. 2 1 System Administration Made Easy 20–7 . Choose the first note. Review the note. 7R 6HDUFK IRU 1RWHV 5HODWHG WR . click the node (+) next to Installation folder.QVWDOODWLRQ 1. Choose a note.

it will be returned to you. The note gives additional information on the 4. 1RWH The SAPNet customer message function is not meant to replace consulting.5B R/3 installation in the NT/Oracle environment. modifying messages is only possible via SAPNet-R/3. and you will be advised to seek consulting assistance.6A/B . If you have searched both the online documentation and SAP notes and not found the answer to your question or problem. Messages entered into SAPNet are for reporting and getting resolution on SAP problems or bugs. then you should submit a SAPNet message for assistance. At present. you can only create and view messages via SAPNetWeb. Return to the Online Services main menu. the Customer Message function has just been released to SAPNet-Web.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet 3. If a message is interpreted as a request for consulting information. Since this function is in pilot mode. 4. 3 &XVWRPHU 0HVVDJHV 1RWH As this guidebook is going to print. 20–8 Release 4. it may change from the process described here.

assigning the message this priority will not guarantee you a quicker response time. Low Use care when assigning a priority to your message. where the operation of the productive system is not seriously affected. Indicate where in the online documentation you have searched and which SAP notes you have reviewed. For errors with less serious consequences than the above two cases. during a critical project phase These messages are reviewed by an Online Service System/SAPNet consultant within 30 minutes of arrival. If SAP attempts to call you and you cannot be reached. only for system or application shutdown In your nonproductive system. or for a system shutdown in a nonproductive system.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet (QWHULQJ &XVWRPHU 0HVVDJHV Include as much information as possible in your message. your message may be downgraded. typographical mistakes. such as documentation errors. so the SAPNet Hotline consultants can help you. High Medium When important applications or subprograms fail in function. System Administration Made Easy 20–9 . 3ULRULW\ WDEOH Assign your message a priority from the following table below: Priority Very High Situation < < In your production system. For minor errors. etc. Do not assign a message this priority if you cannot be available to receive a call back from SAP. If the problem does not meet the Very High criteria. If the problem does not fall within the defined description for a “very high” priority problem. the priority is immediately reduced.

3UREOHP 'HVFULSWLRQ < Be clear and descriptive. assign it to level 3. If you assign the message to a wrong component. < < 20–10 Release 4. This information is used by hotline personnel when they work on your problem.” Œ “The system is slow. Œ Describe the circumstances that created the problem. Provide enough data so that SAPNet Hotline personnel will not have to ask additional questions before beginning work on your problem. If you do not know it. do not assign to a detailed component level (for example.6A/B . BC-CCM-PRN-DVM). enter it exactly as it appears. Œ List which problem-related SAP notes that have been reviewed and which notes have been applied. assign it. time is lost. The Online Service System Hotline consultant can assign a specific component.” Keep your system technical information in SAPNet current and correct.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet The following list contains hints that can improve total problem resolution time: &RPSRQHQW < If you know the specific component. It will take that much more time to resolve your problem. < Be aware that the cause of the problem may be in an area other than the module you are working on. the better the results. Œ Provide the transaction or menu path describing where the error or problem occurred. The following examples are messages in which the SAPNet hotline requires more information before beginning on the problem: Œ “FB01 does not work. BC-CCM-PRN rather than a level 4. and it is forwarded to the incorrect person. Examples of complete data includes: Œ If there is an error message. Information that is clear to you may not be clear to the hotline consultant. Œ Describe anything unique about the data entered in the transaction where the problem occurred. The better the information you provide. Œ List which actions and research you have already performed. Œ Indicate if the problem can be duplicated on your test system.

The final process many change from the steps in this guidebook. Choose Message Wizard. 1 2. choose Customer Messages.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet +RZ *XLGHG 7RXU (QWHULQJ &XVWRPHU 0HVVDJHV 1. 3. Note that the Customer messages function is in pilot. On the Online Services screen. 3 3 2 System Administration Made Easy 20–11 .

click the down arrow and choose your operating system. Choose continue. In Release. In Frontend. In System type. 14. 9. 12. 7. check that the values in the fields are correct. 5 6 7 8 9 4 10 11. click the down arrow and choose your database. In Installation. In Add-on. In Database. you must use SAPNetR/3 to correct your user information. In Add-on release. select the type of your system: < Development < Production < Test 6. 5. 10.6A/B . choose the release of the add-on. Choose continue. In Oper system (operating system). choose the add-on that you are running. choose the installation that your message is for. 8.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet 4. click the down arrow and choose your frontend. 13. If it is not. choose the R/3 release of your system from display options. 11 12 13 14 20–12 Release 4. Under Reporter.

21. Choose continue. In Components. 18 19 20 21 9LHZLQJ &XVWRPHU 0HVVDJHV The response to your message is often in the form of an electronic message. In Language. click the down arrow and choose the component for the message. 17. enter a complete description of the problem. therefore. Use the table on page 20–9 to determine the proper priority level. enter a short (one line) problem description. click the down arrow and choose the language for the message. rather than a telephone call. entering the fields in order (from 1 to 3). 16. 20. Under Classification. Choose Send to SAP. It is. In Long text. In Short text. in Priority click the down arrow and choose the appropriate priority for your message. 19.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet 15. System Administration Made Easy 20–13 . important to monitor the status of your messages. 15 16 17 18.

1 2. On the SAPNet screen. choose Inbox.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Solving a Problem with SAPNet 9LHZLQJ &XVWRPHU 0HVVDJHV 1. on the menu bar. Messages will be in the following three categories: < Messages – to be sent to SAP < Messages – in process at SAP < Messages – solution proposed by SAP 20–14 Release 4.6A/B . Choose Sent SAPNet Items. 3.

both the developer and the object that will be modified need to be registered with SAP. :K\ Only an SAP-registered developer can make changes to SAP objects. The developer requests a developer key 2. It is for this reason that on the registration screen either or both the developer or object access key would be required. Restricting access to registered developers provides a record of who has made changes to the system. < Registering an SAP object provides a record of which SAP objects have been modified by the customer. Restricting access to registered developers provides a record of who has made changes to the system. the developer does not have to register again. The system administrator obtains the key 3. A developer. an SAP object once registered for the installation. Similarly. The developer enters the key System Administration Made Easy 20–15 . The assumption is that if you requested an object access key.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 5HJLVWHULQJ D 'HYHORSHU RU 2EMHFW :KDW To modify an SAP object. 5HJLVWHULQJ D 'HYHORSHU To modify an SAP object. does not have to be registered again. :K\ < Only an SAP-registered developer can make changes to SAP objects. +RZ See the following sections for registering a developer and an SAP object. Once registered for the installation. the developer needs to be registered with SAP. does not have to register again. +RZ In the following procedure: 1. once registered for the installation. you will be modifying the object.

you need to obtain a developer access key.6A/B . choose SSCR.H\ 1. b a 7KH 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWRU *HWV WKH $FFHVV . This screen is seen by the developer when a developer key is required. If the developer Access key is blank. b.H\ 1. Give the developer User name (2) to the system administrator to get a developer access key. a. On the Online Services screen.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object *XLGHG 7RXU 'HYHORSHU 5HTXHVWV 'HYHORSHU . 1 20–16 Release 4.

select the one for which you wish to perform registrations. 3 4 System Administration Made Easy 20–17 . Choose Register. enter the developer’s user ID.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 2. 2. In Developer. If your site has several R/3 installations. Choose Register Developer. you can register and get keys for: < < Developers SAP objects that will be changed 3. 2 1 3. 4. Choose Start SSCR now. 3 5HJLVWHULQJ D 'HYHORSHU 1. On the SSCR screen.

If the registration date is not today’s date and the registration name is not the name of the user who just submitted the request to register a developer. the developer enters the key received from the system administrator.H\ In the development system: 1. 1 20–18 Release 4. The registration is done only once for each developer.6A/B . Record the Registration key. the developer has been previously registered. 6. The registration information for the developer is displayed.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 5. 6 (QWHU WKH 'HYHORSHU . The generated key enables the user to create or change customer objects and change SAP objects. In the developer Access key field.

1 4 2 3 5HJLVWHULQJ DQ 2EMHFW :K\ Registering an SAP object provides a record of which SAP objects have been modified by the customer. If the customer modifies an object and problems arise. Select Delete. enter the user ID of the developer to delete. 2. The developer requests a developer key 2. resolving the problem may be the customer’s responsibility. which displays a list of developers. Choose Register. 4. 3. In Developer. The developer enters the key System Administration Made Easy 20–19 . The system administrator obtains the key 3. +RZ In the following procedure: 1.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 'HOHWLQJ D 'HYHORSHU On the same screen that was used to register a developer: 1. resolving the problem is SAP’s responsibility. you will be modifying the object. The assumption is that if you requested an object access key. If an object is not modified and problems arise. choose Overview. To check if the deletion is successful.

Give the three object fields to the system administrator (for example. you need to obtain an object access key. If you are in a mixed release environment. also give the system administrator the SAP Release for the system. c. PROG. 1 20–20 Release 4. choose SSCR.H\ 1. RSPARAM).6A/B . On the Online Services screen. b c a 7KH 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWRU *HWV WKH $FFHVV . If the object Access key is blank.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object *XLGHG 7RXU 'HYHORSHU 5HTXHVWV 2EMHFW . This screen is seen by the developer when an object key is required: a. All three fields are required to obtain the object key. R3TR. b.H\ 1.

Choose Register Object. you can register and get keys for: < < Developers SAP objects that will be changed 3. 3 5HJLVWHULQJ DQ 2EMHFW 1. Choose Start SSCR now. 2 1 System Administration Made Easy 20–21 . 2.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 2. select the one for which you wish to perform registrations. If your site has several R/3 installations. On the SSCR screen.

Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 3. The entry is R3TR / PROG / RSPO0041.6A/B . 4 3 5 6. Registration information for the object is displayed. 5. 7. Choose Register. TADIR is the table that contains R/3 repository objects. If the registration date is not today’s date and the registration name is not the name of the user who logged onto SAPNet. we wish to change a program (PROG) named RSPO0041. and this note is an advance correction. Information must be entered in the following fields: < Program ID < Object < Object name In this example. 7 20–22 Release 4. 4. Record the Registration key. Select Advance correction to apply an SAP note. the object has been previously registered in this installation. Return to the Online Services main screen.

4. To check whether the deletion is successful. 4 1 2 3 System Administration Made Easy 20–23 . In TADIR Object. 10 'HOHWH DQ 2EMHFW From the Register Object Screen: 1. Select Delete. choose Overview. enter the Program ID/Object/Object name of the object to be deleted. which displays a list of developers. In Access key. 3. the developer would enter the object key received from the system administrator.H\ In the development system: 1. Choose Register. 2.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Registering a Developer or Object (QWHU WKH 2EMHFW .

In the left frame. 1 2. choose Online Correction Support.6A/B . *XLGHG 7RXU 1. On the Online Services screen. etc. choose Download. 2 20–24 Release 4. legal change packages.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support 2QOLQH &RUUHFWLRQ 6XSSRUW The SAP Online Correction Support provides information and tools to retrieve support packages such as hot packages. SPAM updates.

Choose the SPAM update for your release. To get the latest SPAM version. 3 System Administration Made Easy 20–25 . 2 3. 1 2. on the download screen. Use the date (for example. choose SPAM Updates.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support *HWWLQJ WKH /DWHVW 63$0 YHUVLRQ Make sure that you have the latest version of the SAP Patch Manager or SPAM on your R/3 System before you apply any support packages: 1. 17-Sept-1999) to determine if the SPAM update is a newer version than what you have. Choose SPAM Updates. The transport number for an R/3 release (example SAPKD00029) does not change.

The downloading process begins.6A/B . 8. Specify the directory where you want the update to be saved. Choose OK. Choose OK. Select Save this file to disk. 5 6 7. 4 5. 6. Choose Download. Choose Save. 9 20–26 Release 4.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support 4. 7 8 9.

Select the appropriate support package. select R/3 Support Packages. On the download screen. Select the appropriate release (for example.6A on the left frame). from the left frame. The file size column tells you how large the patch file is.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support 'RZQORDGLQJ 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJHV 1. 2 3. 1 2. 3 Make sure that your system has enough file space to: < < < Download the patch Upload the patch into usr/sap/trans/EPS/in Create the transport file in usr/sap/trans/da System Administration Made Easy 20–27 . select HP 4.

you have the following options: < < < Download the support package View the related SAP notes that apply to the support package View the objects that are affected by the support package 6SHFLILF 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJH5HODWHG 1RWHV To look at the notes related to the specific Support Package: 1. choose R/3 Notes.6A/B . On the Option screen. From this screen.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support 4. 1 20–28 Release 4.

click on it. To display a note. 2. You can print the note or save it as any other browser page. System Administration Made Easy 20–29 .Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support The listed notes appear. 3 2 3.

2 3 4. Select Save this file to disk.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support 'RZQORDGLQJ 6XSSRU 3DFNDJHV To download the Support Package: 1. Choose Save. On the option screen. Specify the directory. 5. Choose OK. 3.6A/B . 1 2. choose Download. 4 5 20–30 Release 4.

Unpack the patch archive file (see Unpacking a CAR file in chapter 22).ATT and *. choose OK. Transfer the resulting *. 2.Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support The downloading process has begun. After the download has completed.PAT files to the /usr/sap/trans/EPS/in subdirectory. Useful SAP Notes 83458 97621 169142 36579 152170 169329 86161 69224 Description OCS Info: Downloading patches from SAPNet OCS Info: Online Correction Support (OCS) Online Correction Support (OCS) Questions and answers on the topic: SSCR Migration of support functions to SAPNet-Web frontend New functions in the SAPNet as of 09/05-06/99 Registering developers and objects Access to the SAPNet server via OSS User ID System Administration Made Easy 20–31 . complete the following steps: 1. 6. 7 After downloading the support packages (whether SPAM update or support package).

Chapter 20: SAPNet—Web Frontend Online Correction Support 20–32 Release 4.6A/B .

......................21–3 Connecting to SAPNet–R/3 ...............21–3 Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3.................................................................................................................................21–2 Useful SAP Notes..................................&KDSWHU  6$31HW²5 )URQWHQG &RQWHQWV Overview ..................21–22 Opening a Service Connection..........................21–6 Registering a Developer or Object ............................................................21–30 System Administration Made Easy 21–1 ..............................................................................................................................................................................................

3UHUHTXLVLWHV < < The SAP Service connection must be set up and working Œ SAProuter must be installed and configured Œ OSS1 technical settings must be configured You must have a valid SAPNet/OSS user ID and password for your company 21–2 Release 4. or you could get a large phone bill for your SAP service connection. you will learn how to: < < < < Connect to SAPNet–R/3 Research problems about SAPNet–R/3 Open a service connection Register a developer and an object If you have an ISDN connection. screens may not appear as shown in this book or be the same over time. Manage the time that you are connected to SAPNet-R/3.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Overview 2YHUYLHZ SAPNet–R/3 Frontend [SAPNet-R/3 (formerly OSS)] is a group of services offered by SAP that is used to: < Search for solutions to problems < < < Enter problem messages Register developers and objects before changing SAP objects Open a service connection This connection allows SAP personnel to log on to your system(s) when solving a problem or performing an EarlyWatch session. ISDN is normally billed “by the minute” of connect time. the telephone bill can become high. Therefore. In this chapter. Check with your networking person or company about how your SAP service connection is configured. which could result in an even larger phone bill. < Retrieve patches from SAP Periodically. Some will hold the ISDN connection open even if there is no traffic. the SAPNet–R/3 user interface changes as the frontend is upgraded.6A/B .

2 3.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Useful SAP Notes 8VHIXO 6$3 1RWHV SAPNet R/3 – Note # 32789 33221 Description OSS – Quick reference sheet Easy to Use guide for transaction OSS1 – SAPSERV4 &RQQHFWLQJ WR 6$31HW²5 *XLGHG 7RXU 1. and the ISDN “billing meter” is running. In the Command field. 3 4 System Administration Made Easy 21–3 . Choose Continue. 2. Once you pass this screen. Select 1_PUBLIC. 4. the SAP service connection is open. Choose Logon to the SAP Online Service System. enter transaction OSS1 and choose Enter.

8 5 6 7 This screen shows System News. Choose . enter your language preference (for example. DE for German). We recommend that you periodically review these headlines to see if any apply to your system’s configuration. 8. In User. In Language. 6.6A/B . In Password. Choose Continue. 7. enter your password. enter your OSS/SAPNet user ID. The default language is English. 9.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Connecting to SAPNet–R/3 5. 9 21–4 Release 4.

this screen is repeatedly referenced as the first screen of each process. The Inbox is the main SAPNet–R/3 screen.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Connecting to SAPNet–R/3 10. System Administration Made Easy 21–5 . In the rest of this chapter.

On the main SAPNet–R/3 screen. 1 21–6 Release 4. choose Gen. you should first search the online documentation. )LQGLQJ 1RWHV LQ WKH 6$31HW5 *XLGHG 7RXU 1. If you have a particular problem or question. You can also access SAP notes through SAPNet-Web.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 5HVHDUFKLQJ D 3UREOHP ZLWK 6$31HW5 SAPNet-R/3 contains a large database of problem notes.6A/B . functions. then search these notes.

0B and higher 5 System Administration Made Easy 21–7 . Priority f. Additional search parameters include: a. sapserv4). 2 3 4. Choose . Note number e.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 2. 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 4 4a 4a 4a By using a combination of parameters. Keywords with and/or logic b. Choose Notes. Category 5. you can search for: “High priority” notes < < Microsoft SQL Server R/3 Release 4. Component d. 3. Release number c. Enter the search parameter(s) (for example. Choose Find.

a warning message appears. 7. choose Yes. SAP note 0016663). we chose Yes to list all 532 entries.6A/B . Select a note (for example. Choose . 6. 8 6 7 21–8 Release 4.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 If the search is too broad. If the warning window appears. 8. you have two options: < < Option 1: To view all matching entries. Option 2: To return to the previous screen and refine the search parameters or to narrow the results. choose No. In this example.

Once the note is downloaded to your PC. In File name. print it using a text editor or word processor. 10 11 12. 10. you can view and print the file using a text editor or a word processor. you can read the note online or download it to your local PC.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 From this screen. 12 13 14. choose System → List → Save → Local file. Select unconverted. System Administration Made Easy 21–9 . from the menu bar. 13. Once the file is downloaded to your local computer. Choose . 9. Choose Transfer. To download the note to your PC. 11. 9 You can also download a note to your PC by entering %pc in the Command field. A suggested filename is the note number and a short text description. enter <drive\path\filename>.

Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 (QWHULQJ &XVWRPHU 0HVVDJHV 3UREOHPV.

so the SAPNet Hotline consultants will be able to best help you. High This priority is for situations when important applications or subprograms fail in function. Messages entered into SAPNet are for reporting and getting resolution on SAP problems or bugs. This priority is for errors with less serious consequences than the above two cases. such as documentation errors. then submit a SAPNet message. Assign your message a priority from the following table below: Priority Very High Situation < < In your production system. assigning the message this priority will not guarantee you a quicker response time. If a message is interpreted as a request for consulting information. where the operation of the productive system is not seriously affected. only for system or application shutdown In your nonproductive system. during a critical project phase These messages are reviewed by an Online Service System/SAPNet consultant within 30 minutes of arrival. etc. your message may be downgraded. Medium Low Use care when assigning a priority to your message. If the problem does not fall within the defined description for a “very high” priority problem. Indicate where in the online documentation you have searched and the individual SAP notes you have reviewed. the priority is immediately reduced. The SAPNet message function does not replace consulting. or for a system shutdown in a nonproductive system. If the problem does not meet the Very High criteria. typographical mistakes. This priority is for minor errors.6A/B . and you will be advised to seek consulting assistance. If SAP attempts to call you and you cannot be reached. 21–10 Release 4. LQWR 6$31HW5 If you have searched both the online documentation and SAP notes and not found the answer to your question or problem. it will be returned to you. Do not assign a message this priority if you cannot be available to receive a call back from SAP. Include as much information as possible in your message.

BC-CCM-PRN rather than a level 4 BC-CCM-PRN-DVM). Information that is clear to you may not be clear to the hotline consultant. The SAPNet Hotline consultant can assign a specific component.” Keep your system technical information in SAPNet current and correct. Œ Provide the transaction or menu path describing where the error or problem occurred. It will take that much more time to resolve your problem. Œ Describe anything unique about the data entered in the transaction where the problem occurred. < Be aware that the cause of the problem may be in an area other than the module you are working on. < < System Administration Made Easy 21–11 . do not assign to a detailed component level (for example. Œ List which problem-related SAP notes that have been reviewed and which notes have been applied. Provide enough data so that SAPNet Hotline personnel will not have to ask additional questions before beginning work on your problem: Examples of complete data includes: Œ If there is an error message. This information is used by hotline personnel when they work on your problem.” Œ “The system is slow. the better the results. Œ List which actions and research you have already performed. assign it to level 3. Œ Describe the circumstances that created the problem. If you assign the message to a wrong component. 3UREOHP GHVFULSWLRQ < Be clear and descriptive. time is lost. assign it. The following examples are messages in which the SAPNet hotline requires more information before beginning on the problem: Œ “FB01 does not work. The better the information you provide. and it is forwarded to the incorrect person. If you do not know it.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 The following list contains hints that can improve total problem resolution time: &RPSRQHQW < If you know the specific component. Œ Indicate if the problem can be duplicated on your test system. enter it exactly as it appears.

Choose Create. choose Messages. 4. On the main SAPNet–R/3 screen. SAS).6A/B . this screen may not appear. 4 21–12 Release 4.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Choose . Depending on your installation. 2. Select your system <SID> (for example. 1 2 3.

request that you be contacted to: < Get the password < Open the SAP service connection System Administration Made Easy 21–13 . 11. to make a 6 7 15 9. 8. Select the priority (see the table on page 21–10 for a list of priorities. Choose Save. Verify the R/3 release (required). Describe any modification(s) you made to the standard system. Provide. 6. To control access to your system and mange how long the service connection is open. Enter a short description of the problem (required). 14. where possible. 13. You can also choose selection. Enter the Component area where the error occurred (required). 7.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 From the message entry screen: 5. Verify the system type (required). the following information: < Kernel patch level < < < < Kernel release Transaction code or menu path Program name Error message 9 8 10 11-14 12. Verify phone and fax numbers. Describe the sequence of your actions as precisely as possible. Provide the following remote access information: < < < < System ID Client number User ID Type of connection 15.) 5 10.

6A/B . Choose Yes.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 16. The Status changes to Sent to SAP. 18. 17 18 21–14 Release 4. 16 17. because in the future. Record the message number. A message number appears on the message line. you may need to reference it.

To resolve the problem. c. you can choose one of the following options: a.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 *HWWLQJ 6WDWXV RQ <RXU 0HVVDJH The response to your message is often in the form of an electronic message rather than a telephone call. choose Messages to view the status of your message. 2. 1 1a 1b 1c 1d 2 3 System Administration Made Easy 21–15 . Double-click on your message. It is. we have a message in Solution proposed by SAP. For this example. you need to respond in a timely manner. New at SAP is where the message has been sent to SAPNet but not picked up yet by a SAPNet consultant. In this section. Solution proposed by SAP is where the SAPNet consultant has proposed what they feel is a solution to your message. b. so choose this option. 3. d. In process by SAP is where an SAPNet consultant is working on your message. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Inquiry from SAP is where the SAPNet consultant has a question for you. therefore. important to monitor the status of your messages. On the main SAPNet–R/3 screen.

Action log – View the current status and stages through which the message has passed. and all subsequent messages that have been sent and received. if you are not satisfied with the proposed solution.6A/B . 6. 6 7 5 4 5HYLHZ WKH $FWLRQ /RJ 1. the original message. Confirm – Close the message if you are satisfied with the response. 1 21–16 Release 4.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 From this screen. there are four tasks that should be completed in the following order: 4. 7. Long text – View the full text message. Reopen – Reopen the message. 5. Choose Action Log.

3. Choose Close. Review the action log. 1 System Administration Made Easy 21–17 . 3 'LVSOD\ /RQJ 7H[W 1. Choose Long text.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 2.

and select a 3 2 21–18 Release 4. 3. 3. To provide a reason why the problem is being reopened. 3 2 5HRSHQ 1. Review the message. Choose Reopen.6A/B .Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 2. Choose Reopen. choose reason. 1 2. Choose Back.

6. Choose Additional info to reply to the message. 4 5. 6 5 System Administration Made Easy 21–19 .Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 4. Enter your reply to the SAP message. Choose Back.

A message appears in the status bar indicating the message has been changed.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 7. Choose Back.6A/B . Choose Send to SAP. 9. 7 8. 9 8 21–20 Release 4.

Choose Yes. 1 2. 2 System Administration Made Easy 21–21 . Choose Confirm.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3 &RQILUP 1.

5HJLVWHULQJ D 'HYHORSHU To modify an SAP object. :K\ Only an SAP-registered developer can make changes to SAP objects.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 5HJLVWHULQJ D 'HYHORSHU RU 2EMHFW :KDW To modify an SAP object. you will be modifying the object. does not have to register again. does not have to register again. once registered for the installation. both the developer and the object that is to modified needs to be registered with SAP. The system administrator obtains the key 3. the developer needs to be registered with SAP. Restricting access to registered developers provides a record of who has made changes to the system. Similarly. A developer. :K\ Only an SAP-registered developer can make changes to SAP objects. an SAP object once registered for the installation. A developer.6A/B . It is for this reason that on the registration screen either or both the developer or object access key would be required. does not have to be registered again. The assumption is that if you requested an object access key. Restricting access to registered developers provides a record of who has made changes to the system. The developer requests a developer key 2. Registering an SAP object provides a record of which SAP objects have been modified by the customer. The developer enters the key 21–22 Release 4. once registered for the installation. +RZ See the following sections for registering a developer and registering an SAP object. +RZ In the following procedure: 1.

Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object *XLGHG 7RXU 'HYHORSHU 5HTXHVWV 'HYHORSHU .H\ 1. This screen is seen by the developer when a developer key is required. b. From the main SAPNet–R/3 screen. choose Registration.H\ 1. b a 7KH 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWRU *HWV WKH $FFHVV . a. If the developer Access key is blank. 1 System Administration Made Easy 21–23 . you need to obtain a developer access key. Give the developer User name (2) to the system administrator to get a developer access key.

Choose Register developer. 820014122-R/3 SAP Tech Installation–NT/Intel/MSSQLSRV. In User. Choose . 2 3.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 2. Select the installation (for example.) This screen may not appear in your system. enter the user ID of the developer. 4. Choose Register.6A/B . 3 4 5. 5 6 21–24 Release 4. 6.

1 The easiest way to enter the developer key is to use “copy and paste. the developer enters the key received from the system administrator.” function and give the key to the developer. Record the key number for the developer.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 7.” This function can be done either: < < From screen to screen Into an intermediate file using a text editor. 7 (QWHU WKH 'HYHORSHU .H\ In the development system: 1. such as Notepad (NT) or vi (UNIX) System Administration Made Easy 21–25 . or use the “copy and paste. In the User name Access key field. Write down the key.

resolving the problem is SAP’s responsibility.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 5HJLVWHULQJ DQ 2EMHFW :K\ Registering an SAP object provides a record of which SAP objects have been modified by the customer. This screen is seen by the developer when an object key is required: a. If the customer modifies an object and problems arise. If an object is not modified and problems arise. you need to obtain an object access key. The developer requests a developer key 2. If you are in a mixed release environment. R3TR. If the object Access key is blank. +RZ In the following procedure: 1. RSPARAM). you will be modifying the object. resolving the problem may be the customer’s responsibility. The system administrator obtains the key 3. The assumption is that if you requested an object access key. c. also give the system administrator the SAP Release for the system. All three fields are required to obtain the object key. The developer enters the key 'HYHORSHU 5HTXHVWV 2EMHFW . b c a 21–26 Release 4.H\ *XLGHG 7RXU 1.6A/B . b. Give the three object fields to the system administrator (for example. PROG.

Choose Register Objects. choose Registration. On the main SAPNet–R/3 screen.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 7KH 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWRU *HWV WKH $FFHVV . 2 System Administration Made Easy 21–27 .H\ 1. 1 2.

8. 8 5 6 7 These three values are provided to you by the developer.6A/B .Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 3. such as via an SAP note. Choose Register and deliver the key to the developer. see the Enter user and SAP object key screen on page 21– 22. 46A). This screen may not appear in your system. 820014122-R/3 SAP Tech Installation–NT/Intel/MSSQLSRV). Choose . 21–28 Release 4.) 7. 4. 3 4 5. 6. Enter information in the following fields: < < < PGMID (Program ID) Object Name of the object (for example. Enter the SAP release (for example. Select the installation (for example. Select SAP patch only if the change that is being made is an SAPprovided advanced correction. R3TR PROG) RSP00041). (For more information.

Copy and paste can be done either from screen to screen or into an intermediate file using a text editor. Write down the key or use “copy and paste” and give the key to the developer. 9 (QWHU WKH 2EMHFW . the developer enters the object key received from the system administrator. In Access key. 1 The easiest way to enter the developer key is to use the “copy and paste” function. such as Notepad (NT) or vi (UNIX).H\ The developer completes this step: 1. Record the key number for the object. System Administration Made Easy 21–29 .Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Registering a Developer or Object 9.

you must apply SAP note 170102. 1RWH You can only specify the length of time for a connection to remain open. Entering test data. The service connection functionality is not available via SAPNet-web.6A/B . Testing is not an activity that should be done in the production system. If the problem is basis related. To schedule the time when a service connection will open.1G. EarlyWatch consultants use the connection to remotely review performance and system configuration. Request that SAPNet consultants call to request that the connection be opened at a specific time for a specified duration. :K\ < < SAPNet Hotline personnel use the connection to remotely examine and diagnose your system while investigating your question or problem. :K\ Problem solving may require making an entry into the system to observe the problem. 2. Open the connection at the time they request. 1RWH For security reasons: The customer opens this connection. SAP cannot access the customer’s system until the customer opens the connection. This note is valid back to Release 3.” could affect operational statistics. and only if the problem cannot be duplicated on the development or test server. grant access to the production server.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Opening a Service Connection 2SHQLQJ D 6HUYLFH &RQQHFWLRQ :KDW A service connection allows SAPNet/OSS Hotline and EarlyWatch personnel to remotely access your system. 21–30 Release 4. even if “reversed. not the start time. The Service Connection function has changed in September 1999. 2UGHU RI $FFHVV WR 6\VWHPV < < Try to first duplicate the problem in your development or test server. an “accident” could result in a disaster. and have SAP access that server first. As a last resort. To manage your telephone expense: 1.

1 System Administration Made Easy 21–31 . On the main SAPNet–R/3 screen.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Opening a Service Connection Review the following SAP notes for further information: SAP Note 31515 169296 169329 170102 171569 Description Service connections Integrating service connections into maintain system data New functions in the SAPNet as of 09/05-06/99 Automatic opening of a service connection Maintaining service connection in system data maintenance2 *XLGHG 7RXU To open a service connection: 1. choose Service.

6A/B . Under Service. Scroll down to find your system. this screen will be different. Under Service Connection. 3.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Opening a Service Connection 2. 2 3 4. 21–32 Release 4. choose Service connection. Depending on your installation. choose Service connection.

8 7 System Administration Made Easy 21–33 . select R/3 Support. 6. Select the <SID> of the system to open the connection to (for example. 8. 6 5 7. Choose . SAS).Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Opening a Service Connection 5. Choose . Under Service selection.

6A/B . choose . 12 13 21–34 Release 4. Enter the duration of the connection (in Days and Hours). Choose Save. Under Connections. 13. select the appropriate type of connection. Choose . 9 10.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Opening a Service Connection 9. To select the user contact. 11 10 12. 11. (It is usually R/3 Support).

1G. 14. This note is valid back to Release 3. you must apply SAP note 170102.Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Opening a Service Connection To schedule the time when a service connection will open. The connection status is shown. 14 System Administration Made Easy 21–35 .

Chapter 21: SAPNet–R/3 Frontend Opening a Service Connection 21–36 Release 4.6A/B .

22–2 EarlyWatch Session.&KDSWHU  5HPRWH 6HUYLFHV &RQWHQWV Overview ........................................................................ SAPSERV4 .22–14 System Administration Made Easy 22–1 ....................................................................................................................................22–2 Retrieving Files from SAP..............................................................

the IP address.sap-ag.16 194.39. server. such as: Œ R/3 System Œ Database Œ SAP GUI Miscellaneous downloadable files.sap-ag.139.2 194. we specifically discuss the U.204.2.de sapserv7.39.35 Long Hostname sapserv3. The difference between the various SAPSERV servers is the name. SAPSERV4.sfo.sin.sap-ag. readers will learn about SAPSERV4 and EarlyWatch. Various patches.79. The information in this chapter should help the user understand how to: < Retrieve files from SAP and SAPSERV4 < < < Connect to SAPSERV4 Download files Arrange for an EarlyWatch session 5HWULHYLQJ )LOHV IURP 6$3 6$36(59 :KDW SAPSERV is a series of servers that contain patches and other downloadable files for customers.de sapserv6.138.sap-ag.39. Location Walldorf Foster City Tokyo Sydney Singapore :K\ Host sapserv3 sapserv4 sapserv5 sapserv6 sapserv7 IP Address 147.sap-ag.6A/B .de The following types of files are retrieved from SAPSERV4: < < Updates to the R/3 System kernel.tyo.2 194.wdf. we are not aware of any plans to move this functionality to SAPNet–Web.de sapserv4.134. In this guidebook. < 22–2 Release 4.5 204.de sapserv5.Chapter 22: Remote Services Overview 2YHUYLHZ In this chapter. and the location (see table below).syd.199.S. At present.

you must connect from the computer where the SAProuter is installed and running. You must either: < < Be physically on the UNIX server where the SAProuter is installed Telnet to the server where the SAProuter is installed.. &RQQHFWLQJ WR 6$36(59 8VLQJ D *8. Use a remote control program to take over the server where the SAProuter is installed. 17 You must either: < < Be physically on the NT server where the SAProuter is installed. SAPSERV4 :KHUH If you cannot connect to SAPSERV4.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP. navigate within. 17. and download files from SAPSERV4 using: < < < Command prompt Windows FTP GUI client Internet browser For ease of use and navigation. The SAProuters at SAP are configured to only recognize their counterpart SAProuter on the customer’s side. you may not be on the machine where SAProuter is installed. +RZ You can connect to. 81. Therefore. use an FTP GUI client to access SAPSERV.

Also. Other FTP clients are listed in the resources section of appendix A. In this guidebook. SAP does not endorse any particular product. Using an FTP GUI client is much easier than using the command prompt. it is your responsibility to perform compatibility testing to determine if the software you select functions on your system without conflict (for example. we use only one of the many available FTP clients. System Administration Made Easy 22–3 . without crashing the system).

An FTP client is installed on the computer where the SAProuter is located. SAPSERV4 3UHUHTXLVLWHV Before attempting a connection to SAPSERV4 using a GUI. tested.79. 2. make certain that: < < < The SAP service connection to SAPSERV4 has been established.2 Œ Login user ID. 1. Connect to SAPSERV4. Start the FTP client program. 204. and is functional. 22–4 Release 4. The FTP client has been configured with the following parameters: Œ IP address of SAPSERV4. FTP Œ User password <your e-mail address> Œ Directory to download files to on the client PC (optional) $Q ([DPSOH RI DQ )73 &OLHQW *XLGHG 7RXU The following example of an FTP client is courtesy of Van Dyke Technologies.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP.199.6A/B .

info) that you should download and read. Select the file(s) you want to download. In some directories. Navigate down the tree structure to the directory that contains the file(s) you need. there are informational files ( . SAPSERV4 3. 4 5 System Administration Made Easy 22–5 . 3 4. *. 5.message and *.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP.CAR (program) files must be downloaded in binary format.

you can change to your download directory. The directory you are currently in is the directory into which file will be downloaded.2 If your network personnel put sapserv4 into the hosts file or DNS. NT is not. To download the file to a different directory. the file(s) will download to the root directory of the C drive. you can enter ftp sapverv4 after the prompt. In this example. Rel40B is not the same as rel40b). When navigating in SAPSERV4 or downloading a file. Enter ftp 204. to download programs Œ bye Log off < &RQQHFWLQJ DW WKH &RPPDQG 3URPSW *XLGHG 7RXU Both UNIX and NT use a command prompt window. Open a Command Prompt window. The NT command prompt window is shown in the following example.199.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP.79. SAPSERV4 &RQQHFWLQJ WR 6$36(59 8VLQJ WKH &RPPDQG 3URPSW 1DYLJDWLQJ LQ 6$36(59 SAPSERV4 is a UNIX server. dir [NT] = ls [UNIX] ). change to that directory after you open the command prompt window and before you enter the FTP command. 2. 2 22–6 Release 4. Œ UNIX commands differ from NT commands (for example. 3. As an option. Important UNIX commands: Œ ls List (similar to the dir command in NT and DOS) Œ cd Change directory (similar to the cd command in NT and DOS) Œ get Get or download a file Œ bin Switch to binary mode. enter the directory or filename exactly as it is displayed (for example. 1. < UNIX differences to remember for NT users: Œ UNIX is a case-sensitive operating system.6A/B . and the commands entered are the same.

On the NT desktop. SAPSERV4 4. use the cd command to navigate through the directory structure. Under screen buffer size. 4 5 6. A portion of the SAPSERV4 directory structure is provided at the end of this chapter to help you navigate within SAPSERV. In NT. 5. From this screen. System Administration Made Easy 22–7 . to increase the screen buffer size and prevent the text from scrolling off the screen: 1. Enter your e-mail address at the Password: prompt. increase the height to 100. Enter ftp at the User prompt.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP. choose My Computer → Control Panel → Console→ Layout tab. 2.

7 8 9 22–8 Release 4. The navigation commands are cd and ls.info) that we recommend you download and read.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP. This is the directory for Release 4.message and *. There are informational files (. Remember the file you want to download.0b HPUX Oracle 8. The files indicated are only for example. because you will enter the filename later. 9. SAPSERV4 7.6A/B .

CAR). such as patches. < Many of the files are in *. For binary files. kernels. to switch to binary mode. Filenames are case sensitive. and other files in binary format. enter bin at the ftp prompt. SAPSERV4 'RZQORDGLQJ )LOHV < Download patches.CAR extension). 2. Enter get <filename> to download the file (for example. Press Enter. skip to step 2.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP. This screen shows an example of an information file. transports.info). 1. Use the CAR program to unpack these files (see Unpacking a CAR file on page 22–13). in this case dw. 4. 1 2 4 System Administration Made Easy 22–9 . 3. get sapdba_60.CAR archives.message and *. and transports (with the . Wait for the download to finish and the ftp prompt to appear.info (a text file that contains the patch level of the kernel). *XLGHG 7RXU For text files ( . kernels.

Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP. See below for the SAPSERV4 structure. For those that are similar (release. Over time.6A/B . 22–10 Release 4. database. the directory structure may change or be reorganized. SAPSERV4 Scroll down to view a listing (by patch level) of what is fixed in the kernel patch. only one is expanded in detail. 3DUWLDO 2UJDQL]DWLRQ RI 6$36(59 Not all directories on SAPSERV4 are listed or expanded. operating system).

Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP. SAPSERV4 general ----------------------------------------------------------for all corrections that generally apply to customers 3rdparty --------------------------------------------database and hardware specific adabas compaq datageneral db2 informix mssql oracle sni (Seimens) frontend patches ----------------------------------patches to the SAPGUI rel31H rel31I rel40A rel40B windows win16 win32 rel45A sapgui -----------------------------------released SAPGUI apple nt 30f 30f_r2 31G 31H 40A pre_release os2 win saplpd (spool) barcode NT WIN LPRINT alphaosf hp NT rm600 rs6000 sun WIN NT rel30F rel31G rel31H rel40A rel40B rel45A rel45B WIN R3server A abap note.*-------------------------corrections specific to a note number binaries System Administration Made Easy 22–11 .

* binaries NT support i386 UNIX languages Note.6A/B .exe OS400 UNIX NT ALPHA I386 ---------------this dir has car. where most of the downloads will be COMMON ------------------Kernel. tar. sappad.exe MSSQL rel31H rel31I rel40A rel40B -----------------------Kernel release.exe. release-independent programs NT i386 ---this dir has car. sappad. db specific programs NT I386 MSS --------------MS SQLserver ORA --------------Oracle OS400 UNIX AIX DEC HPUX ORA HPUX_SHM RELIANT SOLARIS rel45A corrections specific to a note number 22–12 Release 4.exe.exe. hardware. OS. SAPSERV4 A R3server abap note.*-------------------------specific note numbers patches -----------------------------------R/3 patches.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP.exe. tar.

replace it with the latest version. To use the contents of these files. 3.exe.exe program in the unpacking directory. Open a command prompt window. sapdba_64.car). SAP delivers transports. you must unpack them using car. d:\sap\unpack). and other programs and files in CAR files. Create an “unpacking” directory where you “unpack” files (for example. Copy the file to be unpacked into the unpacking directory (for example. 2. 8QSDFNLQJ D )LOH *XLGHG 7RXU To reduce confusion: < < Begin the “unpacking” session with only the car. Complete everything for that file before proceeding to the next file. 1. Copy the file car. SAPSERV4 8QSDFNLQJ D &$5 )LOH :KDW A CAR file is a packaged file similar to a zip file. patches. 3UHUHTXLVLWHV 1.exe into this directory. Handle only one CAR file at a time. 3.Chapter 22: Remote Services Retrieving Files from SAP. Get car. Like a zip file.exe from SAPSERV4 (for the latest version) or from the directory NT: \usr\sap\<sid>\sys\exe\run\ UNIX: /usr/sap/<sid>/SYS/exe/run If your version of the CAR program is older than six months. Change to the unpacking directory. 2. System Administration Made Easy 22–13 . a CAR file may contain more than one file.

CAR). The goal is for satisfactory online performance. other than the 22–14 Release 4. review its performance-related configuration settings.Chapter 22: Remote Services EarlyWatch Session 4. not the development system. 5. not background performance. except the car. Analysis is done in five areas: < < < < < R/3 configuration R/3 application Server Workload Database EarlyWatch applies only to the production system. car –xvf sapdba_64. EarlyWatch diagnoses a system’s potential problems and resource bottlenecks so they can be resolved in advance.exe file. During an EarlyWatch session. Clean the unpacking directory by deleting all files. The file will be unpacked into the unpacking directory. 6. 4 6SHFLDO 6$31HW 1RWHV Note # 29372 63786 63845 96885 Function Unpacking CAR archives FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions: sapservX Corrections on SAPSERV4 – searching for files Downloading a front-end patch from SAPSERVx (DUO\:DWFK 6HVVLRQ :KDW The underlying concept of EarlyWatch is to prevent problems before they occur or escalate. A system. Execute the unpack command.6A/B . performance experts log on to your system (into client 066) to monitor its performance. and recommend changes to your system. car –xvf <file-name> (for example. Move the unpacked files to where you need them.

+RZ 1. As your system or company conditions change. You do not have to do an EarlyWatch session if your system or company conditions have remained the same. :K\ EarlyWatch’s primary function is to improve the online performance of the production system.” which excludes the network delay from the user’s PC to the R/3 System. System Administration Made Easy 22–15 . 3. EarlyWatch 600 East Las Colinas Blvd. :KHQ < < A couple of months after going live After implementing significant changes to your system. This difficulty is because the activity in a development or test environment is not regular or consistent. This delay is outside the scope and control of SAP. Client 066 is reserved exclusively for EarlyWatch. we recommend that you request a new EarlyWatch session. development activity can vary greatly from week to week. 1RWH The target response is “less than 1 second. This change could render the existing EarlyWatch parameters inapplicable. such as: Œ New modules Œ Expansion of existing modules Œ Addition of significant numbers of users to the system These and similar items change the workload to the system. Inc.Chapter 22: Remote Services EarlyWatch Session production.: (800) 677-7271 or (972) 868-2094 FAX: (972) 868-2108 2. < After experiencing significant degradation of online performance This condition should be a steady condition and not an intermittent spike. EarlyWatch connects to client 066 on the production system via SAP service connection to gather data and record configuration. These prerequisites may require technical assistance to apply. is difficult to tune to a moderate degree and is almost impossible to tune optimally. The customer opens the SAP service connection to the production system for EarlyWatch. 2000 Irving. Ste. 4. TX 75039 Tel. The customer contacts SAP to arrange for an EarlyWatch session at: SAP America. There are prerequisites to an EarlyWatch session and you will be advised of them.

After the review. apply the recommendations to your system. The customer reviews the report and recommendations. 22–16 Release 4. a report is generated and sent to the customer. the R/3 System is your responsibility. Try to understand the recommendations made by EarlyWatch. 8. Mistakes have been made. 7. If you have any questions about the report. If a recommended change seems drastic or does not make sense.Chapter 22: Remote Services EarlyWatch Session 5. Monitor your system for signs of problems.6A/B . discuss them with the EarlyWatch analyst. Once the customer’s system is analyzed. As a system administrator. Recommendations may be at any of three levels: < < < R/3 System Database Operating system 6. discuss it with the analyst before proceeding.

....................................................................................................&KDSWHU  6SHFLDO 0DLQWHQDQFH &RQWHQWV Overview .............................23–42 Production Refresh Strategies .....................23–2 Support Packages.......................................23–40 Client Copy ....................23–56 System Administration Made Easy 23–1 ....................................................................................................................................................23–2 Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) ...............................................................................23–11 Kernel Upgrade ..................................................................................

This topic includes the following: < Kernel upgrade < < Client copy Production refresh strategies &KDQJLQJ 6\VWHP 3URILOH 3DUDPHWHUV 7UDQVDFWLRQ 5=. the reader will learn about special maintenance.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Overview 2YHUYLHZ In this chapter.

Parameters may define how many of each work process to create. :K\ Change a value only for a specific purpose and only with proper knowledge of what is being changed and why it is being changed. 23–2 Release 4. Before making changes to the system profiles. < Default This parameter defines the profile for all instances in the system. :KDW The system profile parameters are what R/3 uses when it starts up. R/3 may not start. etc. which allows individual application servers to be configured differently for specific tasks and users. make certain that you have a recent. Changing system profile parameters should only be done under the instruction of the SAP Hotline. SAP EarlyWatch. or an experienced consultant. Do not modify the files at the operating system level. This backup is your last line of defense if a profile change is made that results in R/3 not being able to start.6A/B . the minimum length of the user password. This process could lead to inconsistency and confusion. < If a parameter is incorrectly changed. The system uses the following three parameters: < Start This parameter defines which R/3 services are started. < Instance This parameter defines the profile for the specific instance. < < Use RZ10 to maintain your profile parameters. usable copy of the system profile files.

choose Tools → CCMS → Configuration → RZ10 . SAS – DVEBMGS00 – PA100767). Choose . 2. choose .Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 4 4. 3 The profiles used by the system work in the following order: < < < Start profile Default profile (for all instances in the system) Instance profile (specific to the instance you are on) System Administration Made Easy 23–3 . In the Profile field. and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.Profile maintenance). 2 3. enter transaction RZ10. In the Command field. Select the instance or default profile as appropriate (for example. the instance profile.

Under Edit profiles. Basic maintenance (maintenance mode) This mode allows you to set the buffers. 5 < 6 7 23–4 Release 4. message server. 7. application server. < Extended maintenance (maintenance mode) This mode allows you to access all system profile parameters or start up profile entries. Step 32 in this procedure shows the version number has changed. etc. a batch application server).) in start up profiles. Choose Change. This form of maintenance protects most profile parameters from being changed by potentially incorrect settings.6A/B . It is used to change the name of the file where the profile should be activated. there are three selections: < Administration data This selection is not a maintenance mode. 6. work processes. and directories in the system profiles.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) Use the instance profile to make the parameters of a specific application server “different” than the other servers for specific reasons (for example. select Extended maintenance. SNA gateway. Note the Version number of the instance profile. It also allows you to specify the SAP components to be started (for example. Under Edit profile. 5.

Once you enter the profile parameter. But. abap/buffersize). 9. be careful where you choose to insert it. Click on the line above which you want the entry to be inserted (for example. group the logon parameters together). Therefore. Choose Parameter. 9 8 The point where you insert the new profile parameter has no effect on the process. 10 System Administration Made Easy 23–5 .. to make it easier to read.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) 8. it cannot be easily moved to another location. Click in the Parameter name and choose . you may want to group or order the parameters (for example. 10.

12 14. Choose . Enter the new value in Parameter val. The list that appears is long. 16.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) 11. A default value appears in Unsubstituted standard value. In Comment. Select the parameter. 12. 13. document your change by entering a description of why the change was made. To find the profile parameter you want 13 to add. 17. 15. enter 5 to increase the minimum length to five). (for example. Choose Copy.6A/B . The system attaches your user ID and date to your comment. 14 15 17 16 23–6 Release 4. scroll down.

Choose Back. 19. and when this change was made. 21. This screen shows the new parameter login/min_password_lng with a value of 5 inserted above abap/buffersize. This screen shows that the system inserted your user ID and the date and time of the change into the Comment. Choose Copy. In this way. you can determine who made a profile change.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) 18. 21 20 System Administration Made Easy 23–7 . 19 18 20.

Choose Save. 24 25 26. note the profile’s version number. Choose Back.6A/B . 26 23–8 Release 4. In Version. The message at the bottom of the screen indicates that the profile was changed.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) 22. 25. 23 22 24. 23. Choose Yes.

29. If this screen does not appear. 27 28. will this screen appear. Double-click on Yes. Choose . Choose . 29 System Administration Made Easy 23–9 . skip to step 32. 28 Only if you have operation modes configured.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) 27.

31 32. Review the check log. 32 Use transaction RZ11 to get the details of a specific profile parameter. Note that the profile’s version number has changed. Choose . 23–10 Release 4. 31.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10) 30.6A/B .

Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJHV :KDW 1RWH < Hot Packages are now known as R/3 Support Packages < Legal Change Patches (LCP) are known as R/3 HR Support Packages A Support Package is a collection of corrections that address serious errors in the ABAP repository. applying a LCP also meant applying the Hot Package. with the frequency of Support Package releases. and not applying Support Packages before they are scheduled to be applied. Œ This stance. These corrections affect the Basis and functional areas. However. System Administration Made Easy 23–11 . to be in legal compliance.5. but this is not always the case. A Support Package is not a cumulative fix for application modules. The reason is that the amount of testing required cannot be done continuously Œ This customer position is not unique to SAP and has been taken by many customers since the early days of computing.5. There are defined rules about what kind of fixes should be (and are) included in a Support Package. results in the Support Packages not being applied. Before Release 4. Hot Packages have been separated from the HR Legal Change Patch (HR LCP). You must still get and apply the notes for the functional modules.. :K\ The purpose of a Support Package is to fix problems before they become problems. the LCP contained the Hot Packages. The Support Package is not supposed to contain functional enhancements. SAP development is working on ways to make Support Package application easier. :KHQ There is a conflict about when Hot Packages should be (and are) applied: < < To prevent serious problems. SAP’s position is that customers should apply all Support Packages as they are released. since Support Packages contain patches for the various functional areas. The position of many customers is that all system changes must be regression tested. 1RWH As of Release 4. This separation allows LCPs to be applied quickly. some of the notes may be applied in the Support Package. Some rules are technical while other rules are policy.

” +LJK/HYHO 3URFHVV RI $SSO\LQJ 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJHV Applying Support Packages 1. Download the Support Package. 6. 3. 6. When successful. Steps 4 through 9 assume that the Support Package is to be applied and are repeated for all Support Packages that are to be applied at the current time. it can be obtained three ways: < Download it from the SAPNet–R/3 (formerly OSS).Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 6WUDWHJ\ Obtain the notes related to the Support Package. and review what it fixes: < < If there is nothing in the Support Package that applies to you. 6. Apply the Support Package. 4. Œ If the Support Package is to be installed. Request the Hot Package collection.6A/B . Download from SAPNet – R/3 (OSS) 5. The Support Package collection contains all Support Packages available at that point in time. Download from SAPNet –Web 5. confirm the Support Package. This option is size limited. < Upload it from the Support Package collection on CD. Execute the regression test. Upload the Hot Package. so large Support Packages cannot be downloaded via SAPNet–R/3. Download the Support Package. treat the installation as a “mini-upgrade. Get and review the notes for the Support Package(s). Request the Support Package from the SAPNet–R/3. If there is something in the Support Package that applies to you: Œ Determine if the entire Support Package (or just the note) must be installed. < Download it from SAPNet–Web. 9. 23–12 Release 4. 7. 8. N/A Support Package collection on CD 5. Obtaining the Support Package Depending on the size of the Support Package. 2. Determine if the Support Package should be or needs to be applied. do not apply it. Determine what Support Packages have been applied to your system.

Choose the Patches tab. 2. 3 System Administration Made Easy 23–13 .Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 'HWHUPLQLQJ :KDW 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJHV +DYH %HHQ $SSOLHG *XLGHG 7RXU 0HWKRG  1. under SAP System data. From the menu bar. 2 3. for additional choose component information. choose System → Status. On the right-hand side of this screen.

The Support Package name is interpreted as follows: < SAPKH<release><sequence_number> < SAPKH46A01. 3. In the Command field. Select Applied patches.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 4. < ? – Patch application has been aborted. Choose Display. enter transaction SPAM and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu.6A/B . In this example.6A Patch status values are: < N – The patch has not yet been applied. 2 3 23–14 Release 4. choose Tools → ABAP Workbench → Utilities → Maintenance→ SPAM . the following patches have been applied: < SPAM update 17-Sept-99 < Support Package 01 for 4. interpreted as SAPKH / 46A / 01. < I – Patch has been successfully applied.6A and is the first Support Package.Patches). is for Release 4. 2. 0HWKRG  1.

Choose SAP Patch Service. Under Applied Patches: a. Hot Packages / Support Packages applied.QIRUPDWLRQ RQ WKH 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJH IURP 6$31HW²5 *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 1 2 3 System Administration Made Easy 23–15 . In this example. the following patches have been applied: Œ SPAM update 17-Sept-99 Œ Support Package 01 for 4. 3. Choose R/3 support packages.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages This screen shows: 4.6A 4 *HWWLQJ . Choose Service. b. 2. SPAM Update version level.

then choose Notes for patch.6A/B . you can view the: a. 7. Download and apply the current version before applying any Support Package. 6. To display the notes for a specific Support Package. Search the extended list for your release. Hot Packages Extra Large indicates that the Hot Package may not be downloadable. 6 5 From this screen. Choose . SPAM update This is the SAP Support Package Manager (formerly Patch Manager). select it. b. 5. a b 10 23–16 Release 4.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 4. Click the node (+) to the left of your release to select it.

Select Download list from the popup menu (not shown). System Administration Made Easy 23–17 . 2. click the node (-) to the left of Application areas. Choose Expand. 8 9. Right-click anywhere on the screen. To view all notes. From this screen. you may view one of the following: < All notes < A specific note 9 7R 9LHZ $OO 1RWHV 1.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 8.

6 5 23–18 Release 4. 6. Select unconverted. This screen shows the saved note list as read by a text editor or word processor. in the File name field . Choose Transfer.6A/B . Choose . 3 4 5.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 3. enter the <drive\path\filename> where you want to save the notes. 4.

9 System Administration Made Easy 23–19 . Choose List selection.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages To create a file of all notes (in case there are too many notes to go through individually on the screen): 7. 8. Choose Select all. Choose Download to download the notes to a file. 7 8 9.

not to register the object for change. Here you only want to review the notes. Enter the path to your local PC and create a name for the file.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 10. Choose Transfer. 12. 13.6A/B . It could take 20 minutes (or more) to download the notes for a large Support Package. 11 1RWH The duration of the download depends on the number of notes addressed by the Support Package. After reviewing the notes. 10 11. Choose No related copy. 13 12 23–20 Release 4. you may decide not to install the Support Package. Choose No.

Double-click the node (+) for BCCCM. 4. BC). Choose Choose. 3 1 2 4 This screen shows the SAP note. Under BC-CCM-PRN-SPO.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 7R 9LHZ D 6SHFLILF 1RWH 1. BC-CCM-PRN and BC-CCMPRN-SPO. Double-click the node (+) to expand an individual branch (for example. 2. System Administration Made Easy 23–21 . select note 0168529. 3.

5 4 23–22 Release 4. Choose Request patch. 2. Choose SAP Patch Service. 3. select one of the following: < SPAM update < R/3 Support Package 5.6A/B . From the Support Packages screen. Choose R/3 support packages. 1 2 3 4.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 5HTXHVWLQJ 63$0 RU D 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJH IURP 6$31HW²5 *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Choose Service.

9 System Administration Made Easy 23–23 .Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 6. The next step is to download the patch (see the next section. Enter the <SID> for the system (for example. Select the installation that the patch is for. 8. The message in the status bar indicates that the patch request has been generated. 7. 10. SAS). Downloading SPAM or a Support Package). Choose Continue. 6 7 8 9.

Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 'RZQORDGLQJ D 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJH +RW 3DFNDJH.

In the Command field. choose Tools → ABAP Workbench → Utilities → Maintenance → SPAM-Patches). Back up the test server before applying the Support Package. 5. 3UHUHTXLVLWH The Support Package(es) must have been requested for the system/<sid> to which you are downloading it. *XLGHG 7RXU 1. 3 From this window you can specify which Hot Packages to download. Select the Hot Package (if not already selected). 3. ² 6$31HW²5 < < Always plan to first apply the Support Package on a test server to assure it will not create a problem. Log on to client 000. Choose . enter transaction SPAM and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 5 4 23–24 Release 4. Choose . 2. under any user that has the SAP* equivalent authorizations.6A/B . 4.

7. Progress bar with the Size [MB] of the Hot Package. 6. Choose Back. A message indicates that the SPAM or Hot Package download has finished.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages This screen shows the EPS Transmission (download) monitor: a. 8SORDGLQJ WKH 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJH IURP D &' RU 6$31HW²:HE Large Support Packages (those too large to download from the SAPNet–R/3) are available via the following two methods: < < Support Package Collection CD SAPNet–Web SAP periodically releases a Support Package Collection CD. Remaining time to complete for the download. b. c. System Administration Made Easy 23–25 . which contains all the released Support Packages up to a certain date. Elapsed Transmission time for the download. b c a 7 6 Make sure that the directory /usr/sap/trans/EPS/in has enough space to download the Hot Package.

Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJH &ROOHFWLRQ &' 1. UNIX: CAR –xvf /<CD_DRIVE>/<PATH>/<ARCHIVE>.CAR 6$31HW²:HE 1. Log on to the operating system as: < < < < < < NT: <SID>adm UNIX: <sid>adm NT: <drive>:\usr\sap\trans 3. Unpack the patch archive. 3. Change to the transport directory. Unpack the patch file by entering: car –xvf <patch-file> 4. Copy the downloaded patch files (example kh46a02. Load the CD containing the patches. Log on to the operating system as: < < NT: <SID>adm UNIX: <sid>adm 2.CAR 4. 2.car) into an “unpack” directory. UNIX: /usr/sap/trans NT: CAR –xvf <CD_drive>:\<PATH>\<ARCHIVE>.6A/B . Copy the unpacked files from the EPS\in directory to the directory to upload patches: < < NT: <drive>:\usr\sap\trans\eps\in UNIX: /usr/sap/trans/eps/in 23–26 Release 4.

Check that the Support Packages have successfully uploaded. Choose . Choose Back. 1. 4 5. 2. Log on to client 000. choose Patch → Upload. From the menu bar. under any user that has SAP*-equivalent authorizations.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages *XLGHG 7RXU The next step is to upload the patch from the operating system into R/3. enter transaction SPAM and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In the Command field. 6 5 System Administration Made Easy 23–27 . 3 4. 3. 6. choose Tools → ABAP Workbench → Utilities → Maintenance → SPAM-Patches).

The patch is under New patches. 7 6 9.6A/B . 8. 9 23–28 Release 4. Select All patches.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 7. Choose Display.

< < < If a SPAM update is available. choose Patch→ 2 Import SPAM update.PAT) should have been moved to the /usr/sap/trans/EPS/in subdirectory.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 8SGDWLQJ 63$0 3UHUHTXLVLWHV < The R/3 System should not be active. apply it before any Support Packages. the unpacked SPAM update files (. *XLGHG 7RXU Log on to client 000. enter transaction SPAM and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. To upload the SPAM update file. 2. System Administration Made Easy 23–29 . under any user that has SAP*-equivalent authorizations (not SAP*). When using SAPNet–Web. In the Command field. which means that no: Œ Users are logged on Œ Jobs are running All application servers should be shut down. Some Support Package changes require the new SPAM program to properly update the system. 1. The current SPAM update should have been downloaded from either SAPNet-R/3 or from SAPNet–Web. choose Tools → ABAP Workbench → Utilities → Maintenance→ SPAM-Patches).ATT and . from the menu bar.

Select All patches. 8.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 3. Choose . 9. Choose Disp. 4 After applying the SPAM update. Choose . Note the version number change. 5. 5 6. 7 8 9 23–30 Release 4.6A/B . 7. Choose . Restart transaction SPAM. SPAM must restart to use the latest version. 3 4.

so no: Œ Users are logged on Œ Jobs are running All application servers should be shut down. 10 $SSO\LQJ WKH 6XSSRUW 3DFNDJH 3UHUHTXLVLWHV < < < < The R/3 System should not be active. The following programs should be updated to the latest version: Œ r3trans Œ tp The Hot Package should have been downloaded from SAPNet or uploaded from the CD. You will see the SPAM update under Applied patches.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 10. < System Administration Made Easy 23–31 . The current SPAM update should have been downloaded from SAPNet and applied.

Select the component to import. $GGLQJ WKH +RW 3DFNDJH WR WKH 3DWFK 4XHXH 3. 2. Choose . choose Tools → ABAP Workbench → Utilities → Maintenance→ SPAM-Patches). Verify the patch to upload is selected. 7. Choose . 4 5 6.6A/B .Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages *XLGHG 7RXU 1. In this case. choose Patch→ Upload. From the menu bar. Log on to client 000 under any user that has SAP*-equivalent authorizations (not SAP*). enter transaction SPAM and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 3 4. 5. In the Command field. the Support Package is under SAP_APPL. 6 7 23–32 Release 4.

1 2. Verify that the patch is selected. 2 3 System Administration Made Easy 23–33 .Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 'HILQH WKH 3DWFK 4XHXH 1. Choose . Choose Display/define to define a patch queue. 3.

Choose to apply the patch queue. 4 1RWH Depending on the size of the Hot Package. 2 1 3. the patch application process could run for a long time. 3 4.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages $SSO\LQJ WKH +RW 3DFNDJH 1. The name of the first support package appears in Patch queue. 2. Choose . Choose .6A/B . 23–34 Release 4.

2 3 At this point. regression testing should be performed on the Hot Package. System Administration Made Easy 23–35 . Review the return codes. Choose . Choose Back. 3. the option is to confirm them after applying and then perform the regression testing. 1 2. Values greater than 4 indicate a failure.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages &KHFN WKH 3DWFK /RJ 1. If several Hot Packages are going in as a group.

1 2.6A/B . Check the status bar to see if the patch queue was confirmed. 2 23–36 Release 4. The next Hot Package cannot be applied until the previous one is confirmed. Choose .Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages &RQILUP WKH 3DWFK 1.

you could lose your modifications. Choose Display. 2. 1 2 3. :K\ If an object has been modified by you and is being changed in the Support Package. and the advanced correction is available before the future release. 3 Ã 2EMHFW &RQIOLFWV :KDW Object conflicts occur when SAP objects (such as programs. This problem usually occurs with an “advanced correction.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 9HULI\ WKH 3DWFK $SSOLFDWLRQ 1. Select All patches. System Administration Made Easy 23–37 .) that you modified are included in a Support Package. The support packages are found in the Applied patches section. tables.” where a fix is incorporated in a future release of the R/3 System. etc.

0). 2.0B and experience a problem. This process is the same as that performed during an upgrade. return to the SAP standard. Release 5. If the change is not included in the Support Package: 1.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages ([DPSOH If you are on Release 4. 3. Apply the modification. after applying the package. Check to see what needs to be done to reapply the modification. < < 23–38 Release 4. You do not have to wait for the upgrade. Test the modification. +RZ < Determine if the change is (or is not) included in the Support Package by: Œ Reviewing the code comparison (transaction SPAU) Œ Checking if the advanced correction is from a future release If so. it probably will not be included in the Support Package. Your problem has already been fixed in a higher release (for example. Thus. which will simplify future system maintenance. you may have to reapply the correction.6A/B . Support Packages may not always include this correction. The fix is available now for you to make as an advanced correction to your system. Œ Checking if the change is your own modification If the change is included in the Support Package.

Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Support Packages 5HJUHVVLRQ 7HVWLQJ Regression testing is necessary because many objects in many functional areas may be affected by changes from a Hot Package.” especially if it is large (for example.6 System Administration Made Easy 23–39 . Hot Package 10).1H Applying patches from CD Problems during upgrade with too new Hot Packages Known problems with patches Release 4. A Hot Package is a “mini-upgrade. All existing processes should continue to function as they did before the Hot Package was applied. the functional teams should have a script of test procedures to test the system.0B. 8VHIXO 6$31HW ² 5 )URQWHQG 1RWHV SAP Note # 19466 33525 53902 62119 73510 82264 83458 84962 85820 86241 87432 89089 97620 97621 97623 97630 104664 119738 173814 Description Downloading a patch from SAPSERVx Important information about SAP patches < 3.1H OCS Info: Downloading patches from SAPNet Info: SPAM update Patch is not displayed in patch queue HR Legal Change Patches for the HR component Contents of and applying LCPs Configuration of R/3 Systems for LCPs OCS Info: Overview of Important OCS Notes OCS Info: Online Correction Support (OCS) Patch types Known problems with patches >= 3. A review of the notes related to a Hot Package indicates what specific tests need to be performed by the technical and functional team.1H Conflicts between Hot Packages/LCPs and Add-ons Obtaining extra large patches Problems during upgrade of patched source releases Important information about SAP patches >= 3. Release 4. All functional areas must perform regression tests to verify that a Hot Package does not create new problems as it fixes old ones. As during the implementation. This script could also be used in the regression test.

Œ If you are on a release before 3.HUQHO 8SJUDGH :KDW The kernel upgrade process is the replacing of operating system level files (the kernel files) with updated versions of these files. SAPSERV4). Œ The kernel is backward compatible. All servers in a system must be on the same version of the kernel. Obtain the new kernel from: < SAPSERV4 This route is more current than getting the kernel via CD (see chapter 13. :K\ Kernel upgrades are normally done to fix “bugs” or other problems in the kernel. not the kernel version. Retrieving files from SAP. On rare occasions. +RZ To upgrade the kernel: 1. a SAP note instructs you to apply a fix based on the R/3 release of the system. Do not apply kernel patches for the old version of the kernel.0F with a 3. When getting which patches.6A/B . 3. apply kernel patches for the upgraded version of the kernel. Always first perform the upgrade on a test server. Some kernel upgrades provide enhanced functionality. remember that your R/3 release stays the same.1I. regardless of which version your kernel changes to. You must remember the R/3 release and kernel version you are running. < Special notes on the kernel version: Œ It is now independent of the R/3 release. review documentation to determine which kernel version is applicable to your release. which means that a user could be running a Release 3. Distribution CD (if provided) < 23–40 Release 4. Review all applicable documentation: < < < Kernel instructions SAP notes Upgrade manual 2.1I kernel.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Kernel Upgrade . After the kernel is upgraded.

Stop the R/3 System.CAR. Restart the SAP services that are using the kernel files (NT). Back up the system at the database and operating system levels. Restart. dw1_114.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Kernel Upgrade < The kernel files are: Œ dw1_nnn. 8. Start the R/3 System 3. 5HVWDUW 2SWLRQ  1.CAR In this filename. 5. Check the R/3 logs. 2. 6. Check the R/3 logs 5. SAPSERV4 for the unpacking procedure). Copy the new kernel files into the kernel directory This replaces the old programs with the new programs. Unpack the kernel files (see chapter 13. Start the R/3 System 4. 10.CAR Œ dw2_nnn. nnn is the patch level (for example. 9. Restart the server. 5HVWDUW 2SWLRQ  1. to be prepared in the event that you need to restore back to the old version if a problem occurs with the new version. System Administration Made Easy 23–41 . Monitor the system and system logs for problems. Stop the SAP services that are using the kernel files (NT). 2. Monitor the system and system log for problems. Check all logs for: < < Operating system Database 3. Backup the kernel directory NT: UNIX: <drive>:\usr\sap\<sid>\sys\exe\run /usr/sap/<sid>/sys/exe/run Copy the current kernel files to a backup directory. Retrieving files from SAP. 7.) 4. 4. Perform any special instructions contained in: < < < Kernel instructions Online Service System notes Upgrade manual 11.

In the left frame. choose Change and Transport System (BC-CTS) 5. Click the node (+) next to Basis Components. Choose Client Copy and Transport. 3. the data in the additional field is not copied. 7. click the node (+) next to Client Copy and Transport. To access the online help documentation on client copy: 1. click the node (+) next to SAP Library.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy &OLHQW &RS\ :KDW The client copy function copies client-dependent customizing and data. Tables are selected based on their delivery class. the table change is not copied to the target system. Client copy is not meant to copy client-independent objects. 6SHFLDO 1RWHV Read the current online documentation on client copy. Click the node (+) next to Client Copy and you will see the following list of files: < Technical Background < Copy profiles < Authorizations < Maintaining clients < Copying clients within the Same System < Copying Clients Between Systems < Transporting Clients Between Systems < Copying Transport Request within the Same System < Deleting Clients < Displaying Copy Logs 23–42 Release 4. From the menu bar. In this screen. 4. Client copy allows the copy or transport of the complete customizing environment from a source client to a target client within the same system (instance) or to another system. such as ABAP programs and table structures.6A/B . Thus. The client copy programs and functionality improve and change significantly with each new release. and the added field is then populated with data. If a table is changed to add an additional field. From the list that appears. 6. choose SAP Library 2.

System Administration Made Easy 23–43 . Since large volumes of data are involved. do not work in the source client or the target client.0 CC-TOPIC: Remote Client copy CC-TOPIC: Missing tables and data CC-TOPIC: Delete client CC-TOPIC: SM29 transfers data in spite of Cancel 3URFHVVLQJ 1RWHV During the copy process.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy < < Restarting Client Copy Error Handling You cannot separate “master” data from “transaction” data. functionality in 3.e.. 4. see SAP note 67205. The target client is locked for all users except SAP* and DDIC. Turn off logging (i. the copy time could take upwards of a day. For client copy of a large client. If you are copying a large productive client. Due to the long run time. A client copy produces a large amount of log activity.0F) CC info: Client copy. truncate on checkpoint) or monitor the filespace in the directory where the log file(s) is located. Do a SAP note search on component BC-CTS-CCO and search for notes beginning with CC*. the probability of an abnormal termination due to external factors is high.0. If this directory runs out of space. 8VHIXO 6$3 1RWHV SAP Note # 7312 13391 24853 47502 69556 70643 84504 Description Create client 066 for EarlyWatch Deleting/resetting a client (up to 3. The developer of client copy maintains several informational SAP notes. copying a client could take several hours. the database will stop.

A system administrator with the same authorizations as user SAP* will have all the required authorizations.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 6HFXULW\ To perform a client copy. 3 23–44 Release 4. then Administration → Client admin → Client maintenance). 2 3. &UHDWLQJ D &OLHQW *XLGHG 7RXU 1. the user ID of the person doing the copy must have the same authorizations in the source client and in the target client. choose Tools → Administration.6A/B . Choose . Choose . enter transaction SCC4 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 2. In the Command field.

Under Client-independent object changes. 10. 4 5.001. In this case we selected Automatic recording of changes. 7. 5 6 13 Do not use clients: 000. choose and select the appropriate option. 100) and name (for example. 12 System Administration Made Easy 23–45 . Choose New entries. enter the city name (for example. or 066. In Std. In this screen. choose role for the client. Currency. In City.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 4. These clients are reserved for 9 SAP. 6. test client for docu). 7 8 10 to select the 11 9. we selected Changes to Repository and client-ind. 8. In Client. enter the standard currency for the client (for example. select the appropriate option. enter the client number (for example. Under Changes and transports for client-dependent objects. Palo Alto). USD). In Client role.

Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy Customizing allowed. 11. we selected Protection level 0: No restriction.” 14 15. The new client is listed. To log on to the “new client.6A/B . Under Restrictions. verify that the passwords for all system user IDs in the new client are secure. this new client may be referred to as the “target client. 12. 14. In later steps. choose and select the appropriate entry. 23–46 Release 4.” enter SAP* for the user and PASS for the password. 13. Once the client copy is complete. Under Protection: Client copier and comparison tool. Do not leave the client in this condition for longer than absolutely needed. Choose Save. In this screen. select Allows CATT processes to be started. SAP* with the default password PASS is a known user ID password. if CATTs are allowed to be executed.

Be sure you are logged on to the correct target client. enter transaction SCCL and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. In Selected profile. To log on to the “target client. in the Source client user masters field. In the Command field. you will destroy that client. 6. enter the source client number (for example. 7.” enter sap* for the user ID and pass for the password. to 3. Choose Schedule as background job. If you are on the wrong client.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy &RS\LQJ D &OLHQW *XLGHG 7RXU &RS\LQJ RQ WKH 6DPH 6\VWHP6. choose select a copy profile that matches your requirements. 2.' To copy a client on the same system/<sid>. In Source client. 5. then Administration → Client admin → Client copy → Local copy). 001). choose Tools → Administration. 7 System Administration Made Easy 23–47 . In Background server. do a “local client copy.” 1. enter this client number (for example. choose to select the server on which to run the client copy. 001). 4. If your user masters will be copied from a specific client. 6 3 4 5 You will be taken to the background scheduling screen to complete the task.

6A/B . 10 11. Select the server to run the client copy on. 11 23–48 Release 4. Choose . 8 9 10.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 8. Choose Schedule job. 9. Choose Continue.

select Immediate. 16. Choose Save. 13 14 15. Choose . 12. enter the printer name (for example.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy At this point. To begin the copy immediately. 12 14. Choose Check. dcba). the scheduling proceeds as in scheduling any other background job. 13. In Output device. 15 16 System Administration Made Easy 23–49 .

Be sure you are logged in to the correct target client.6A/B . < Client must have been created. Choose . do a “remote client copy. 23–50 Release 4. 17 18. choose Tools → Administration → Administration → Client admin → Client copy → Remote copy). you will destroy that client. Log in to the target system and client.' To copy a client to a different system/<sid>. there is no intermediate storage on disk. Copying from one system to another using remote client copy uses the RFC interface. the: < Source system needs to be set up in transaction SM59.” 3UHUHTXLVLWH In the target system. 19. therefore. 2.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 17. enter transaction SCC9 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 19 18 &RS\LQJ WR D 'LIIHUHQW 6\VWHP6. If you are on the wrong client. Choose . *XLGHG 7RXU 1. In the Command field. The displayed message indicates the job was successfully scheduled.

to 7 6 8. use for a list of available RFC destinations. Choose Schedule job. choose select a background server. 8 System Administration Made Easy 23–51 . choose to select a profile that matches your requirements. Choose Continue. In Background server.. In Selected profile. 7. 4.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 3. and choose the source system. 5 3 4 6. In Source destinat. Verify the source System name and Source client. 5.

23–52 Release 4.6A/B . We recommend that you use SCC5 to delete the client. From this point. immediately change the default passwords for user SAP*.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 9. 3RVW&OLHQW &RS\ 7DVNV < Secure the passwords for SAP* and DDIC in the new client. there are two options: < < The Delete Client transaction. this message window will appear. < 'HOHWLQJ D &OLHQW To delete a client. A better solution is to create an administrative user ID. the user IDs and passwords for those users have been copied from the source client. Always have at least two administrative user IDs for each client. SAP* and DDIC should only be used for tasks that require those user IDs be used. The R3TRANS program (see SAP note 13391). schedule the job as you would any other background job. so you do not lock yourself out of the client. When you create a new client. The default password is well known and has been posted on the Internet. If you copied the user master. which is a copy of the user SAP*. When you have finished scheduling the client copy. 10. SCC5.

5 3 4 to 6. you will destroy that client. choose select the server to run the delete job. in the event of a major problem (for example. 3. Log on to the client that will be deleted. 500).Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy Before deleting a client. If you are on the wrong client. 7 6 System Administration Made Easy 23–53 . In Background server. Verify the Client to be deleted (for example. enter transaction SCC5 and choose Enter (or from the SAP standard menu. 5. you are logged onto the wrong client. Be sure you are logged in to the client you want to delete. Select Delete entry from T000. 7. deleting the wrong client). make certain you have a usable backup of the system. 4. The Client to be deleted field is a “nonchangeable” field and is the client onto which you log. 'HOHWH &OLHQW 7UDQVDFWLRQ *XLGHG 7RXU 1. Choose Background. 2. In the Command field. Choose Schedule job. choose Tools → Administration→ Administration → Client admin → Special functions → Delete client). If the client number is incorrect.

3. 8 5HYLHZLQJ WKH &OLHQW &RS\ /RJ 1. 4. enter transaction SM37 and choose Enter. In the Command field.6A/B . From this point. Log on to another client.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 8. 4 3 2 23–54 Release 4. Select Continue. Choose Execute. 2. garyn). the process is the same as scheduling a background job. In User name. enter the user ID that the client copy job was run under (for example.

6. 7 System Administration Made Easy 23–55 . 7.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Client Copy 5. 6 Review the log. At the bottom of the log is the message that the job has successfully finished. Choose Job log. Select the client copy entry.

Sync the configuration in the test and development systems with the production system. After the copy. Data security Œ Data from the production system is “real. the volume of data more than makes up any savings.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Production Refresh Strategies 3URGXFWLRQ 5HIUHVK 6WUDWHJLHV Because data in the target system is being replaced. You want the test system to mirror the production system. < Prepare for an upgrade. the configuration of the various systems could drift apart and not match the production system. subject to the same high level of security as the production system. With several copies of the entire production database. then. so that the upgrade in the test system mirrors everything you will encounter into in the production system. the total of all the databases could approach a hundred gigabytes for a small company to a terabyte (or more) for a large company. it could be confidential and sensitive. This data poses data security issues which must be addressed by the various data owners. Here are some are reasons for not to refresh the system: < Data storage is expensive Œ Even with cheaper disks. the standard procedure was to create your own test data. :K\ Refreshing a system from the production system helps: < < Get production data into the test environment. One major reason was that disk storage space was expensive. :K\ 1RW In the recent past. refreshing a system is an inherently dangerous. because personnel records are sensitive. actual production data exists in the test system. Financial.” Even if it is old. sales. The development and test systems are. < 23–56 Release 4. It is more critical if the HR system is installed. and other data may also be company sensitive.6A/B . There is much less issue with data confidentiality or sensitivity. Œ Created test data is “fake” and everyone knows that. :KDW Production refresh is where the other systems are refreshed with data from the production system. Over time.

after the database copy. table structures. Client-independent changes will also be captured and copied to the target system. the QAS system will have one client. these objects will not be copied (refer to the sections on Client Copy below). A client copy requires that the source and target systems are not in use during the copy. The other two clients are lost. The copy can be made using standard backup tapes. the target system must be reconfigured. If the PRD system has one client and the QAS system has three clients. which is usually: Œ Acceptable for the test/QA system Œ Not acceptable for the DEV system because version history is lost. 'LVDGYDQWDJHV < All revision history of the “refreshed” system is lost. Having both systems out of use may not be a practical action for many companies because the amount of time required to do the copy could be significantly greater than the amount of time that the production system can be “down. The target system loses its client structure and become a duplicate of the client structure of the PRD system. %HQHILWV < < The “refreshed” system will be a duplicate of the production system. The target database needs to be as large as the PRD database. After the copy. $GYDQWDJHV < < < Unlike a database copy.” < If there are any client-independent objects (programs. etc. the target system does not have to be reconfigured. < < < &OLHQW &RS\ RI WKH 3URGXFWLRQ 6\VWHP ZLWK 'DWD A client copy is done by performing a client copy of the active client from the PRD system (instead of copying the entire database. Making a copy also tests your backup and restore process.) that have been changed and are not the same in the two systems. The target system does not lose its client configuration. like a database copy). 'LVDGYDQWDJHV System Administration Made Easy 23–57 . so there is no impact on the production system.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Production Refresh Strategies +RZ There are two ways to refresh a system: < < Database copy of the production system Client copy of the production client 'DWDEDVH &RS\ RI 3URGXFWLRQ 6\VWHP A database copy is done by copying the entire production database.

Œ Data can be created to test specific items. Œ Real data may (or may not) have the appropriate data to test specific test items. and possibly no user data. 23–58 Release 4. only a basic client copy is performed (including customizing). 'LVDGYDQWDJHV These are the same as for a client copy with data above. test data has to be created anyway.6A/B . All test data is loaded into the new client using the following tools: < < Computer Assisted Test Tools (CATT) Data Transfer Workbench $GYDQWDJHV In addition to the benefits of the client copy above: < You can control the data being loaded into the new client.Chapter 23: Special Maintenance Production Refresh Strategies &OLHQW &RS\ RI WKH 3URGXFWLRQ 6\VWHP ² :LWKRXW 'DWD In this option. Œ You are not subject to the randomness of real data to test specific items. but no master or transactional data. In this case.

........................ A–2 System Administration Made Easy A–1 ....................................$SSHQGL[ $ 8VHIXO 7UDQVDFWLRQV &RQWHQWV Useful Transactions....................................

Although many of the transactions are not discussed in this guidebook. Access to these transactions should be restricted in all systems. < Dangerous These transactions are potentially damaging or fatal to the system if executed incorrectly.6A/B . Access to some of these transactions should be even further restricted in the production system. A–2 Release 4. most of the Basis transactions are potentially damaging. Traces and table display are the transactions of concern here.Appendix A: Useful Transactions Useful Transactions 8VHIXO 7UDQVDFWLRQV System administrators may find the following transactions useful. we are listing them for your convenience. 7UDQVDFWLRQ &RGH 6ZLWFKHV /n<trans code> /o<trans code> /nspad /ospad Exit the current transaction and start the new transaction Open a new session (window) and start the new transaction 7UDQVDFWLRQ &RGH 7DEOH The following are definitions of two of the column headers. this query has serious impact on performance because the system searches every record in the table to find those that meet the search criteria. When done on a large table. < Performance Impact These transactions could have a potentially adverse impact to system performance if executed. As a general rule. Many of these transactions are for more “advanced” functions than targeted in the scope of this guidebook. The problem with a table display occurs when the query does a “full table scan” for data.

0 ABAP reporting CATT management X System Administration Made Easy A–3 . alerts.0 Maintain settings for Alert Monitor 4.0) Operating System Alert Monitor Workload Alert Monitor Current active users (in system) Display operating system file from CCMS Display table buffer (buffer synchronization) ALE administration and monitoring Exclusive waits in Oracle database Database performance. tables and index Parameter changes in database Analysis of table with respect to indexed fields Backup logs DBA planning calendar DBA logs Generate table statistics Online Service System logon Graphical background job scheduling monitor Network graphical display of instance Server status.Appendix A: Useful Transactions Useful Transactions Transaction Description Dangerous Performance impact AL02 AL03 AL05 AL08 AL11 AL12 BALE DB01 DB02 DB03 DB05 DB12 DB13 DB14 DB20 OSS1 RZ01 RZ02 RZ03 RZ04 RZ06 RZ08 RZ10 RZ11 RZ20 RZ21 SA38 SCAM Database Alert Monitor (not supported for MS SQL Svr 7. maintain operations mode Maintain operations mode and instance Maintain alert threshold CCMS Alert Monitor Maintain system profiles Display profile parameter attributes Alert Monitor 4.

6A/B .Appendix A: Useful Transactions Useful Transactions Transaction Description Dangerous Performance impact SCAT SCC1 SCC3 SCC4 SCC5 SCC6 SCC7 SCC8 SCC9 SCCL SCMP SCU3 SE01 SE03 SE06 SE09 SE10 SE11 SE12 SE14 SE15 SE16 SE17 SE38 SECR SEU SFT2 SFT3 SICK Computer Aided Test Tool Client copy transport Client copy log Client copy administration Delete clients Client import Client import – post processing Client export Remote client copy Local client copy Table comparison Table history Transport organizer Workbench organizer: tools Set up workbench organizer Workbench organizer Customizing organizer Data Dictionary maintenance Data Dictionary display Utilities for ABAP Dictionary tables Repository Info System Display table content General table display ABAP editor Audit Information System R/3 Repository Browser Maintain public holiday calendar Maintain factory calendar Installation check X X X X X X X X X X X X A–4 Release 4.

maintain Operations mode. maintain (see related SM49) Maintain logon groups X X X X X X System Administration Made Easy A–5 .Appendix A: Useful Transactions Useful Transactions Transaction Description Dangerous Performance impact SM01 SM02 SM04 SM12 SM13 SM18 SM19 SM20 SM21 SM30 SM31 SM35 SM36 SM37 SM39 SM49 SM50 SM51 SM56 SM58 SM59 SM63 SM64 SM65 SM66 SM69 SMLG Lock transactions System messages Overview of users Database locks Update terminates Security Audit: Delete Old Audit Logs Security Audit: Administer Audit Profile (for SM20) System (Security) Audit Log System log Maintain tables (not all tables can use SM30) Maintain tables Batch input monitoring Schedule background jobs Overview of background jobs Job analysis External operating system commands. maintain Event trigger Background processing analysis tool Global work process overview External operating system commands. execute (see related SM69) Work process overview Instance overview Reset or check number range buffer Error log for asynchronous RFC RFC connection.

consistency check Intersection SAP transport/customer modifications. installation check SAP system trace Buffer statistics Workload analysis Database performance analysis SQL trace Operating system monitor Application monitor Network monitor Network Alert monitor Table call statistics – statistics on table accesses Display developer trace Application monitor Application analysis – statistics related to business document volume ABAP dump analysis X X X X A–6 Release 4. DDIC Spool.6A/B .Appendix A: Useful Transactions Useful Transactions Transaction Description Dangerous Performance impact SMX SNRO SP00 SP01 SP02 SP11 SP12 SPAD SPAM SPAU SPCC SPDD SPIC ST01 ST02 ST03 ST04 ST05 ST06 ST07 ST08 ST09 ST10 ST11 ST12 ST14 ST22 Display own jobs Maintain number range objects Spool Spool control Display output requests TemSe (temporary sequential objects) contents TemSe administration Spool administration (printer setup) SAP Patch Manager Intersection SAP transport/customer modifications Spool.

Appendix A: Useful Transactions Useful Transactions Transaction Description Dangerous Performance impact ST4A STAT STMS STUN STZAC SU01 SU01D SU02 SU03 SU10 SU12 SU2 SU22 SU3 SU53 TU02 Oracle: analyze the shared cursor cache Local transaction statistics Transport Management System Performance monitoring menu Customizing Time Zones User maintenance Display users Maintain authorization profiles Maintain authorizations Mass change to user records Delete ALL Users Maintain user parameters Authorization object check in transactions Maintain own user parameters Display authorization checked values Parameter changes – display active parameters and history of changes X X X X X X System Administration Made Easy A–7 .

Appendix A: Useful Transactions Useful Transactions A–8 Release 4.6A/B .

................................. B–13 System Administration Made Easy B–1 .......................................... B –2 Other Helpful Products: Contributed by Users........................$SSHQGL[ % 8VHIXO 5HVRXUFHV DQG 3URGXFWV &RQWHQWV Other System Administration Resources...........

com/sap).sap.com) or Barnes & Noble (www. guidebooks. white papers. B–2 Release 4. Books with ISBN numbers can be ordered from Fatbrain (www. and internet sites are constantly being created and updated.com). from your SAP account executive.com) or for items with an SAP part number.bn. 6$3 5HVRXUFHV SAP books and CDs can be ordered from the SAP online store (http://shop.fatbrain.6A/B .Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources 2WKHU 6\VWHP $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 5HVRXUFHV The references cited by no means represent an all inclusive listing of resources because SAP training classes. Amazon (www.amazon.

Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources %RRNV Title Complementary Software Program Directory R/3 System Getting Started SAP Dictionary R/2 System Release 5.0B) 1-893570-60-6 1-893570-61-4 1-893570-62-2 1-893570-41-X (3.x) 500-32525 1-893570-04-5 (4.1G/H) 1-893570-22-3 (4.0B) 1-893570-43-6 (4.0B/4.0B/4.1H) 1-893570-42-8 (4.0B) ISBN: 1-893570-14-2 (4.6A/B) System Administration Made Easy B–3 .0: Deutsch–English (SAP Dictionary R/2 System Release 5.x) SAPscript Made Easy (4.5x) 1-893570-05-3 (4.0B) (3-vol set) 500-32445 Fundamentals of Reporting Report Development Tools Commonly Used Reports System Administration Made Easy 500-32525 1-893570-65-7 (4.5A/B) 1-893570-24-X (4.6A/B) Data Transfer Made Easy (English) Data Transfer Made Easy (German) Printout Design Made Easy (3.6B) Reporting Made Easy (4.0: German–English) Authorizations Made Easy 500-23994 SAP Part Number 50-018-672 50-018-896 5000-5296 5000-5295 ISBN Number 1-893570-21-5 (3.0B) 1-893570-23-1 (4.1H) 1-893570-13-4 (4.0: English–German SAP Wörterbuch System R/2 Release 5.5x) 500-22337 500-32527 1-893570-12-6 (3.

before they can be used..S.sap. /HYHO  SAP50 – R/3 Basis Technology /HYHO  ² 7HFKQLFDO &RUH &RPSHWHQFH < < < < < BC310 – Windows NT/Oracle BC314 – Windows NT/MS SQL Server BC317 – Windows NT/DB2 BC360 – UNIX/Oracle BC361 – UNIX/Informix B–4 Release 4. production system administration information is available on this CD. call central registration at (888)-777-1SAP(1727) or visit SAP America’s training web site.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources &'V < Accelerated SAP (ASAP) While ASAP is an implementation project management methodology.com/simple 7UDLQLQJ &ODVVHV In the U.5 500-26902 < Computer Based Training (CBT) Œ Archiving CBT 500-20297 < R/3 Online Documentation < Report Navigator (pre-Release 4.0) Œ See SAP Simplification Group’s web site.com/usa/trainsupp for the most current class list. < Knowledge Products Knowledge products must be registered and a license installed (similar to saplicense).saplabs.6A/B . Rel 4. www. www. Œ Technical Implementation and Operation Mgt 500-27903 Œ SAP System Management 500-27391 Œ SAP System Monitoring 500-25694 Œ SAP Software Logistics 500-27393 Œ SAP Database Administration – MS SQL server 500-25696 Œ SAP Database Administration – Oracle 500-27392 Œ SAP Database Administration – Informix 500-25695 Œ SAP Database Administration – DB2-400 500-25697 Œ SAP Database Administration – Adabas 500-29389 Œ SAP Integration Technologies 500-25698 Œ R/3 Interface Advisor 500-21636 < SAP Terminology Database 500-30826 < SAP Business Information Warehouse 500-29281 < SAP Interface Advisor.

com/simple. see SAP note 39267 www. etc. TechEd.sapnet. 1HZV (YHQWV < < < < Press Release SAP INFO magazine Events (SAPPHIRE.Oracle BC511 – Database Administration – Informix BC520 – Database Administration – MS SQL Server BC525 – Database Administration – DB2/400 BC601 – Build and Use SAP Business Workflow BC615 – Archiving Technology BC630 – SAP Business Communication CA940 – SAP R/3 Security Concepts /HYHO  ² &URVV $SSOLFDWLRQ 2WKHU < R/3 Security Guide. to see what is available. Please be aware that SAPNet will change over time and the specific path to an item may change.com.saplabs.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources < BC370 – AS/400-DB2/400 /HYHO  BC340 – Going Live /HYHO  ² $GYDQFHG < < < < < < < < < < < BC305 – Advanced R/3 System Management BC325 – Software Logistics BC315 – R/3 Workload Analysis BC505 – Database Administration .sapnet.QWHUHVW “Explore” SAPNet at www. System and Client Deployment Strategy” can be downloaded from www.) Media Library Œ SAP Knowledge Store Œ Media by Type Œ R/3 Online Documentation System Administration Made Easy B–5 .sap. 6$31HW 6HOHFWHG . The amount of information that is obtainable is extensive and is growing. We selected a few items that we think would be of particular interest to you in the abbreviated tree structure that follows.com/securityguide :KLWH SDSHUV < System Landscape “The R/3 System Landscape.sap.WHPV RI .

data archiving. and remote archiving < < Education Services Œ Advanced Training Solution Œ SAP Standard Training Œ R/3 Knowledge Products Œ Computer Based Training Œ SAP TechNet. such as remote consulting. conversion services. remote Euro conversion service. DB Admin Oracle/Informix/MS SQL Server. going live check. remote upgrade. SAP Team SAP Support Services Œ Release Information • Release strategy • Release notes Œ SAP Methodology & Tools • ASAP • Ready to Run R/3 • Sizing • Interface Advisor • Outsourcing • Legacy System Migration Workbench Online Services Œ Installation/Upgrades • License keys • Installation/Upgrade guides • Sizing Œ Customer data • User Administration Œ Modifications • SSCR (SAP Software Change Registration) • Object registration • Developer registration Œ SAP Online Correction Support • Download • SPAM < B–6 Release 4. OS/DB migration service. technical SD/CO/PP.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources Œ R/3 Documentation Info Center for Customers & Partners 6HUYLFHV < Consulting Services Individual Consulting Services. etc. including software logistics. going live functional upgrade. ABAP Development Workbench.6A/B . system monitoring. EarlyWatch. system management.

0) (ISBN: 0-7821-2427-5) *This book is about technical/Basis implementation. The SAP R/3 Handbook. 1999. Supporting SAP R/3. SAP R/3 Implementation with ASAP. Prima.0/4.5) (ISBN: 0-7821-2564-6) Schneider. (Release 4. 1998. We recommend you check with your vendors (hardware. SAP R/3 Performance Optimization: The Official SAP Guide. (Release 4. (Release 4.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources • < R/3 Support Packages Customers & Partners Œ SAP Users Groups Œ Partners 7KLUG3DUW\ 5HVRXUFHV The following list of books is not all inclusive.x) (ISBN: 0-7645-0375-8) Parkinson. Sybex. 1999. Rüdiger.x) (ISBN: 0-07-135413-1)  1997. and Jürgen Galimow. 1999. Thomas. 1996. Liane. Robert. SAP R/3 Administration for Dummies. (ISBN: 0-7615-1750-2) System Administration Made Easy B–7 . Dennis. SAP R/3 Software Logistics. The Official SAP Guide. Second Edition. A listing of these books does not constitute an endorsement by SAP. and UNIX) (ISBN: 0-07-033121-9) Hirao. SAP R/3 Administrator’s Handbook. SAP R/3 System Administration: The Official SAP Guide.0) (ISBN: 0-7821-2426-7) 7KLUG3DUW\ $XWKRUV Hernandez. Sybex. Joey. as a starting point. Osborne. operating system. (Release 4. (ISBN: 0-201-40350-1) McFarland.x) (ISBN: 0-7821-2563-8) Will. Also. Addison-Wesley. and Jim Meade. (Oracle. %RRNV 5 %\ 6$3 Brand. The Official SAP Guide. and UNIX) (ISBN: 0-7615-1887-8) Prince. no one book will provide you with all the information you need. SAP R/3 System. You will typically need several books in each category in your library. There are good books that are not listed here. Basis Administration for SAP. Sybex. and other) and the various book sources (both online and in stores) and for additional titles.x. This listing is provided. (Release 3. Prima. IDG. (Release 4. McGraw-Hill. Sue and Susanne Roehrs. 1999. 1998. 1999. Oracle. Johan Marneweek. database. Hartwig. 1999. (Release 3. Sybex. Jose. A Client/Server Technology. for your convenience.* Buck-Emden.

. Windows NT Troubleshooting.0. (ISBN: 1-57231-818-X) Lambert. Christiane Hienger. Æleen. 1998. Microsoft Press. Audit. Windows NT 3. Volume 1. 1999. 5th Edition. Manish Patel. (ISBN: 0-201-59388-2) 17 Enck. and Rocco Himmer. (ISBN: 1-57231-6268)  1994. 1998. Audit. Andreas. 1999. Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit: for Windows NT Server Verison 4.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources Will. Neil Cooper.]. Audit. O’Reilly. (ISBN: 0-07-882363-3) Jumes. Unix for DOS Users. Cooper. Addison-Wesley. 1995. Unix for the MS-DOS User. 1998. Windows NT Backup & Restore. Microsoft Windows NT 4. Microsoft Press. Administrator’s Survival Guide. (ISBN: 1-57231-818X) Microsoft Corporation. Prentice Hall. (ISBN 0-7821-2163-2) B–8 Release 4. (ISBN: 1-55615-814-9) Minasi. Sybex. (ISBN: 0471049883) Frisch. and Control. Supplement Two. Kathy. 1998. Essential Windows NT System Administration.0. (ISBN: 1-56592-437-1) Ivens. John. Nevin. O’Reilly. (ISBN: 1-07882471-0) Jumes. Osborne McGraw-Hill. Osborne. Frank Strassenburg. SAP R/3 Administration Addison-Wesley. 1998. Mark.. Liane. and Todd M. 1994. 1995. Mastering Windows NT Server 4. Arick. Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit Verison 4. John Wiley & Sons. (ISBN: 1-56276-457-8) Leber. Jody Schivley. 1996. Unix System Administration Handbook. and Bob Chronister. Martin.5 Guidelines for Security. Microsoft Press. Prentice Hall. (ISBN: 188241988X) Frisch.Neil F. and Control (Microsoft Technical Reference). and Control. (ISBN: 1-56592-127-5) Nemeth. O’Reilly. (Release 3.x) (ISBN: 0-201-92469-2) 81. (ISBN: 1-57231-3447)  1997. John (Editor). 1997. 1998. The AIX Survival Guide. Microsoft Press. (ISBN: 0-13-151051-7) Pugh. Microsoft Windows NT4. Jody. Microsoft Press. Windows NT Backup & Recovery. O’Reilly. Duke Communications. Kenneth. Æleen. Essential Systems Administration: Help for Unix System Administrators. 1996. and Robert Denn (Editor).0 Security. ZD Press.0 Security. etal (PW Coopers). (ISBN: 0-13-146077-3) Siegert. [et al. James (Editor). James. Windows NT Magazine. Feinman. 1998. (ISBN: 1-56592-272-7) McMains. Evi. Windows NT Desktop Reference. Microsoft Windows NT Security. (ISBN: 1-56592-274-3)  1998. 1998.6A/B .

Microsoft SQL Server 7 Administrator’s Guide. 1999. 1998. Second Edition. Windows NT Security Guide. Kalen Delaney. Patrick. Stephen. 1997. The System Administrator’s Companion to AS/400 Availability and Recovery. (ISBN: 0-73840-573-6) (part# : GG24-4200-00) IBM. Osborne McGraw-Hill.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources Pearce. (ISBN: 0-13-594730-8)  1996. SQL Server System Administration. 1998. Mark. 1998. Sams. Ron. Ron. Prentice Hall. 1997. 1996.0. SQL Black Book (v6. Karanjit. Inside Microsoft SQL Server 7. Windows NT security: A Practical Guide to Securing Windows NT Servers and Workstations . Jose Fortuny. 1998. (ISBN: 0-201-41969-6) 26 IBM. John (Editor). and Beverly Scherf. (ISBN: 0-672-31190-9) Soukoup. IBM. Macmillan. 1997. Charles. Sams. Microsoft SQL Server 7 DBA Survival Guide. Chris Miller. Informix Performance Tuning. Prentice-Hall. New Riders Publishing. 1/e. (ISBN: 0-13-605296-7) Informix Software. Charleton. Sean. Sams. and Michael Hotek. Administering SQL Server 7. Prentice Hall. Addison-Wesley. Inc. 1999. Evolution of the High Performance Database. 1999. 2/e.5 DBA Survival Guide. Sams. Informix OnLine Dynamic Server Handbook. (ISBN: 1-56592-251-4) Rutstein. (ISBN: 0-13-079623-9) McNally. (ISBN: 1-56205-805-3) Sutton. Microsoft SQL Server 6. (ISBN: 1-562059556) Dalton. Jim Prajesh. 1/e. Microsoft Press.. Microsoft SQL Server 7. (ISBN 0-735605173) Spenik. Windows NT Server 4: Professional Reference. Prima. (ISBN: 0-672-30959-9) Talmage.0 System Administration Training Kit. IBM. Prentice Hall. Eric. and Robert Donat. Microsoft Press. An Implementation Guide for AS/400 Security and Auditing. SQL server 6. and Orryn Sledge. 1997.5 unleashed (3rd edition). O’Reilly. 1998. Ray. Windows NT in a Nutshell: A Desktop Quick Reference for Systems Administrators. McGraw-Hill (ISBN: 0-07-057833-8) Siyan. Robert Denn (Editor).5). [et al. Informix Unleashed. 1994. 1997. 1997. Paritosh. (ISBN: 0-73840-038-6) (part# : SG24-2161-00) 0LFURVRIW 64/ 6HUYHU Baird. (ISBN: 0-07-134168-4) Rankins. Glenn Miller. (ISBN: 0-672-30650-6) System Administration Made Easy B–9 . (ISBN: 0-672-31226-3)  1996. (ISBN: 0-7615-1389-2) . (ISBN: 1572318279) Prathak. Coriolis Group Books. (ISBN: 0-13-239237-2) Lumbley. 1997. 1998. (ISBN: 1-57610-149-5) Microsoft Corporation. Informix DBA Survival Guide. Joe.].QIRUPL[ Doe.

Jonathan Cook.com Œ Hoffman. Encyclopedia of Disaster Recovery. [et al. Oracle8: The Complete Reference. (ISBN: 0-471121754) < Security Œ Russell. 1997. 1995. Computer Security Basics. Perl 5 for Dummies. Crucible. Prentice-Hall. Deborah. Version 4. Osborne McGraw-Hill. 1998. O’Reilly. Disaster Recovery Planning. Erik Olson. 1995. 1994. and Rama Velpuri. 1999. (ISBN: 0-13-015819-4) Œ Œ Œ Rothstein. 1998. Advanced Perl Programming. 1992. 1997. 1999. Learning Perl on Win32 Systems. O’Reilly. Osborne McGraw-Hill.6A/B . Oracle NT handbook. Addison Wesley. (ISBN: 0-201-59622-9) Velpuri.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources '% Bullock. Kevin. John Wiley & Sons. Kevin. Sriram. Rothstein Associates. Learning Perl. (ISBN: 0-07-882534-2) Spence. (ISBN: 1-56592-284-0) Œ Schwartz. IBM DB2 for AIX and SAP R/3 Administration Guide. and Larry Wall. Osborne McGraw-Hill. Security & Risk Management. SAP R/3 and Oracle Backup and Recovery. Oracle Troubleshooting. et al. Osborne McGraw-Hill. IBM. (ISBN: 0-937175-71-4) < Scripting Œ Perl. IDG. O’Reilly. Osborne McGraw-Hill. 1997. Noorali Sonawalla. 1997.. Patrick. (ISBN: 0-07-882388-9) 2WKHU 7RSLFV < Disaster Recovery Œ Corrigan. Osborne. Oracle8 Administration & Management. Randal.perl.]. 1997. (ISBN: 1-56592-324-3) Œ Srinivasan. Diane. Greg. (ISBN: 0-13-082426-7) IBM. 1998. Randal. (ISBN: 0-07-882390-0) Koch. (ISBN: 0-7645-0044-9) Œ Schwartz. (ISBN: 0-07-882396-X) Loney. Oracle8 Backup & Recovery Handbook. and Tom Christiansen. (ISBN: 0-07-211917-9) Ault. Michael. 1998. and Eyal Aronoff. (ISBN: 0-966272900) Toigo. 1997. Loney. Osborne McGraw-Hill. GT Gangemi Sr. (ISBN: 0-07-882389-7)  1997. Oracle8 Advanced Tuning & Administration. (ISBN: 0-73840-990-1) (part# : SG24-4871-00) 2UDFOH Adkoli. Wiley & Sons. Disaster Recovery Testing: Exercising Your Contingency Plan. Tari. and Anand Adkoli. (ISBN: 0-07-882406-0) Loney. 1997. Rama. 1997. 1997. (ISBN 0471192341) Corey. DB2 Universal Database and SAP R/3. LAN: Disaster Prevention and Recovery. 2nd edition. Oracle8 DBA Handbook. Tom Christiansen. Jon. Paul. Oracle8 Tuning. Michael. Anand. (ISBN: 0-964164809) Schreider. www. Prentice Hall. Philip. O’Reilly. (ISBN: 1-56592-220-4) B–10 Release 4.

Programming Perl. www.saptechjournal.asug.com/CSP System Administration Made Easy B–11 . O’Reilly. www. www.com Note: you need a SAPNet user ID to access SAPNet < SAP America.com < SAPNet.drj. www. www. www. training.com/usa < SAP America. www. (ISBN: 1-56592-149-6) 0DJD]LQHV SAP Info: The Magazine of the SAP Group. Larry. Tom Christansen. www. O’Reilly.org IBM Business Recovery Services SunGard Recovery Services.com Disaster Recovery Journal.dr.com DRI International. www. and Randal Schwartz. www. John. www.mySAP.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources Œ Œ Vromans.com +HOSIXO 7KLUG3DUW\ . CA 94404 USA Tel.de SAP Technical Journal.sap.sap.sap.sap. Perl 5 Desktop Reference. www.QIRUPDWLRQ 6$3 6HUYLFH &RQQHFWLRQ SAP service connection to SAP (rcPack): HS Network Technologies 950 Tower Lane.com 2UJDQL]DWLRQV < Americas’ SAP Users’ Group (ASUG).saplabs. 2nd edition. www.sungard.press@sap-ag. www.sap.com. (ISBN: 1-56592-187-9) Wall.com/store_index. 1996. ASUG is the only vehicle to submit requests for upgrades and enhancement to SAP. FAX: (650)-287-3372 %XVLQHVV &RQWLQXDWLRQ < < < < < Comdisco. 1996.com < mySAP.recovery.sapnet.comdisco. 12th floor Foster City.sap.com/usa/trainsupp < SAP Labs.htm < SAP Complementary Software Program.com/simple < SAP Online Store. Simplification Group. www.com For customers in the Americas.: (650)-286-3018. :HE 6LWHV 6$3 < SAP.

* Databases Œ Oracle comp.com < ERP site.unix comp.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other System Administration Resources 6$3 $IILOLDWHG Americas’ SAP Users’ Group (ASUG).sap Other Œ comp.QWHUQHW 1HZV *URXSV < < < SAP-related Œ comp.os.databases.ibm-db2 Œ Informix comp.asug.databases.* comp.com < ERP central. www.* Œ DB2 comp. www.business.com .6A/B . www.sapclub.sqlserver.sapfans.databases.public.client-server Operating Systems Œ UNIX comp. www.databases.unix.com < SAP Assist.nt.ms-sqlserver < B–12 Release 4.* Œ NT comp.informix Œ MS SQL server microsoft.com 7KLUG 3DUW\ < SAP Fans.ms-windows.oracle. www.soft-sys. www.erpsupersite.com < SAP Club.sapassist.erpcentral.

htm Œ Sun Solaris.ibm. There are cases where a program many conflict with another program(s) or the hardware.com/ntserver Œ Microsoft TechNet. which meet different requirements. As a precaution.com/CSP.austin.software. It is your responsibility to test their compatibility with your requirements and needs. www.informix.oracle.com/servers/rm/rm_us/reliant. www.com/solaris < NT Œ Microsoft.com/sql < Informix Œ Informix. see Complementary Software Program at www. The following list is not all inclusive.com < SQL server Œ Microsoft.com/software/aix_os. and crashes the system. These products have different features and prices. you should test all third-party software for compatibility and stability on a test system before installing them in a production environment.digital. www.com/2_2_index.datacentersolutions.com Œ HP UX. Testing software applies to both the server and workstation that the system administrator uses. www.sap. A listing of these products does not constitute an endorsement by SAP.hp. www.microsoft. For products which have been certified by SAP to work with R/3.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other Helpful Products: Contributed by Users 2WKHU 5HVRXUFHV 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP < UNIX Œ Digital Unix.html Œ IBM AIX.microsoft.ibm.com/data/ 2WKHU +HOSIXO 3URGXFWV &RQWULEXWHG E\ 8VHUV The products listed here have been recommended by users and consultants and are provided as a starting point for your research.html Œ Siemens Reliant.com < DB2 Œ IBM.sun. www. www.unix. and to select the product that is appropriate to your installation.microsoft. www. System Administration Made Easy B–13 .com/technet 'DWDEDVH < Oracle Œ Oracle. www. www. www.siemens.

www.com Œ Provision Network Monitor (formerly AlertPage). www. Topcall Intl. www.com 17 %DFNXS < ARCserve. A dedicated system eliminates much of the potential for conflict.com/solutions/storage 0RQLWRU < Performance monitor Œ Stopwatch. Legato. NetIQ.com < Maestro.com 6FKHGXOHU < AutoSys.dazel.openview.netiq.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other Helpful Products: Contributed by Users In an NT environment. Seagate. www. Platinum.hp.com/network/products Œ NetIQ. www.topcall. %DFNXS < Networker. www.com B–14 Release 4. www. www. BEI Corp.legato.com/arcserveit < Backup Exec. www.tivoli. TNT software. www.openview. HP. HP.. www. www. 81. Computer Associates www.platinum.com 2WKHU < Messaging: TopCall. www.htm < System monitor Œ LANDesk Server Manager. HP.hp. Tivoli.seagatesoftware. Intel.” use a dedicated system to perform that task.com/products/provis/po/nmon_pv. if a particular task is “mission critical.ultrabac.com < OmniBack II. www. Envive..envive.tntsoftware.com 6SRRO 0DQDJHPHQW < Dazel for R/3.hp.com 0RQLWRU < Log monitor Œ ELM. Computer Associates.intel.com < Ultraback. Dazel.com < System monitor Œ OpenView.6A/B .com < OmniBack II. www.platinum.cai.

Ipswitch. www.cypressnet. www. DQG 17 < < UPS control Œ Powerchute. www.vinsoft.cypressnet. www.dazel. # ifdef Software. Symantec. Compaq.com RoboMon. Van Dyke Technologies. Cypress Technologies. CA. Vinzant. Œ InocuLAN. GlobalSCAPE. www.com Œ WS_FTP.com < NT monitor Œ Quick slice. www.com < pcANYWHERE32. Heroix.compaq. www.hp.nai. www.com 5HPRWH &RQWURO < Compaq Carbon Copy 32. Symantec.com < Launch Pad. www.symantec.ifdef.. www. Cypress Technologies. Dazel.openview.com Œ Norton AntiVirus.perl.cheyenne. www.com/products/networking/software/carboncopy < LapLink for Windows NT. Netopia. www.com < Event Control Server.com Scripting Œ Perl. www. NT Resource Kit &RPPRQ %RWK 81.com Œ NT shield. www.com/pca < Remote Desktop 32.robomon. www.com < Timbuktu Pro 32.travsoft.apcc. Inc.vandyke.com < Schedule Wizard 98 (shareware) 6SRRO 0DQDJHPHQW < Dazel for R/3. NT Resource Kit < Time sync Œ TimeServ.com 2WKHU < Anti-virus See SAP note 106267 for known problems with certain anti-virus programs. HP.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other Helpful Products: Contributed by Users Œ Œ OpenView ManageX.com System Administration Made Easy B–15 .com < crondSys. Network Associates.com Œ CuteFTP.com < FTP client Œ AbsoluteFTP.symantec.netopia.ipswitch.com 6FKHGXOHU < Auto Task 2000. APC.cuteftp. www. www. Traveling software.nai. www. Network Associates. www. www..

com B–16 Release 4. Network Associates.eecis.edu/~ntp 1HWZRUN < Network Analyser Œ Sniffer.6A/B .nai.Appendix B: Useful Resources and Products Other Helpful Products: Contributed by Users < Time sync Œ Network Time Protcol. www.udel. www.

... C–9 In this chapter you will learn: Œ Œ {Enter here} Objective 1 of this chapter is to {Enter here} Objective 2 of this chapter is to blah blah blah {Enter here} Objective 3 of this chapter is to blah blah blah blah {Enter here} Objective 3 of this chapter is to blah blah blah Œ Œ System Administration Made Easy C–1 ........... C–6 Database Notes .......................$SSHQGL[ & 8VHIXO 6$3 1RWHV &RQWHQWV Overview ................................................................................................................................................ C–2 R/3 Notes........... C–2 Operating System Notes ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

* SAP Notes used to be known as OSS notes.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Overview 2YHUYLHZ The SAP notes are grouped by major area: < < < R/3 Operating System Database Within each group. these are the notes we found important or useful. Over time. Many more notes exist for each group. reorganization jobs Batch input logs and reorganization Distribution of background jobs on application servers FAQ: Background jobs Background work processes reserved for job class A Error analysis: Background processing system C–2 Release 4. many of which are also important. You are encouraged to explore the SAP notes to see what other notes would be of interest or importance to you. the notes are grouped by category. 5 1RWHV Category SAP Note # 11886 15466 21559 31557 42074 45580 86985 Batch Batch Batch Batch Batch Batch Batch Batch 06604 11728 16083 18307 24092 31503 36280 37104 Description Central syslog cut off Customer name range Examination of SAPgui problems The multi-client concept of R/3 – overview Using the R/3 dispatcher monitor “dpmon” How are syslog files deleted? Release of SAP Releases for SAP add-ons (IS) Deleting job logs at the operating system level Background jobs with low priority Standard jobs. ** The Online Service System (OSS) is now known as SAPNet. some of these notes may become “obsolete” and get removed.6A/B . As we assembled this book.

0c.0 CC-TOPIC: Remote Client copy CC-TOPIC: Missing tables and data CC-TOPIC: Delete client CC-TOPIC: SM29 transfers data in spite of cancel RAM extension: Which changes to profile? System parameters: Defined where? Displayed how? Memory management (as of 3. ST03 (30c-31h) Create client 066 for EarlyWatch Deleting/resetting a client (up to 3.1H System Administration Made Easy C–3 .1H kernel Admin functions in Online Service System Important information about SAP patches >= 3. ST10.0c.1H Online Correction Support (OCS) Conflicts between Hot Packages / LCPs and Add-Ons FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions: sapservX Corrections on SAPSERVx – searching for files Problems during upgrade of patched source release Problems when unpacking CAR archives Installation of the 3. space still filled in database System changability and client control Tables missing after client copy CC info: Client copy. AS400) Operation mode switch without background processes Downloading a patch from SAPSERVx Unpacking CAR archives Important information about SAP patches < 3.0.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes R/3 Notes Category Batch CCMS Client Client Client Client Client copy Client copy Client copy Client copy Client copy Client copy Config Config Config Config Config Ops mode Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches SAP Note # 70639 71364 07312 13391 35952 40672 4010 24853 47502 69556 70643 84504 21636 31395 33576 39412 44695 16845 19466 29372 33525 37617 53902 63786 63845 73510 74545 79376 80117 82264 Description How are batch jobs scheduled Collective note: monitoring ST04. 4. functionality in 3.0f) Client deleted. Unix and NT) How many work processes to configure? Memory management (as of 3. DB02.

6A/B .6 Checklist: Performance analysis File system is full – what do I do Print/download in Online Service System OSS1: What to do if R/3 does not run? Online Service System registration form. North America (for customers without existing Online Service System accounts) Search procedure for notes and messages in Online Service System Service connections The priority of your Online Service System message is changed OSS – Quick reference sheet Easy to use guide for transaction OSS1 (SAPSERV4) Transferring customer files to sapservX via FTP Information required for registration keys User maintenance and creation in Online Service System for customer Access to the SAPNet server with Online Service System user id Inbox BIBO in OSS/O01 New customer messages in Online Service System C–4 Release 4.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes R/3 Notes Category Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches Patches patches Patches Patches Patches Problems Problems SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAP Note # 85820 86241 87432 89089 96885 97621 97623 97630 104664 119738 169142 173814 15374 16513 15641 22235 26740 29501 31515 32411 32789 33221 40024 40866 45027 69224 69378 74313 Description Patch is not displayed in patch queue HR Legal Change Patches for the HR component Contents of and applying LCPs Configuration of R/3 systems for LCPs Downloading a front-end patch from SAPSERVx OCS Info: Online Correction Support (OCS) Patch types Known problems with patches >= 3. 4.1H OCS info: applying patches from CD Problems during upgrade with too new hot packages Online Correction Support (OCS) OCS: Known problems with Support Packages Rel.

Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes R/3 Notes Category SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAPNet SAProuter SAProuter SAProuter Security Security Security Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool SAP Note # 75002 75686 80618 81908 169296 169329 170102 171569 30289 30374 87388 23611 39267 48018 02510 03255 06427 08462 09876 10551 10743 10755 11070 12550 18706 23389 25941 26009 27831 29666 Description Confirmation of Online Service System registration Changing/Deleting Online Service System users and installations Access to Online Service System services via the internet Change to Online Service System user data Integrating service connections into maintain system data New functions in the SAPNet as of 09-05-06/99 Automatic opening of a service connection Maintaining service connection in system data maintenance SAProuter documentation SAProuter installation Download SAProuter by FTP from sapserv# FAQ concerning R/3 security R/3 Security Guide Data security in R/3 Printer off: What happens to the data? Spool log with “bad print control Sxxxx” How do you transport a printer definition Performance problems – spool output Cannot read my hostname Table TST03 (tablespace PSAPPROTD) size increasing Name of PC longer than 8 characters Long name for routing computer Space requirements of TemSe and spooler Problems with remotely connected printers (WAN) Tuning the spooler Transporting printer definitions R/3 does not find host name R/3 does not print. first steps Priority of output requests? Authorizations for spool requests System Administration Made Easy C–5 .

startup fails Transporting report writer ojbects Reversing transports (not possible to do) Analyzing Correction & Transport System problems 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHP 1RWHV &RPPRQ WR 0XOWLSOH 2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHPV Category SAP Note # 80266 28781 Description Installation of NT application servers in a UNIX environment Central transport directory NT/UNIX 17 Category SAP Note # 28665 89510 Backup Config Config Config Config Config 71440 22240 28392 31559 31563 33772 Description Central syslog under NT Installation notes for pcANYWHERE Problems when restoring DLT tapes with NTBackup Windows NT Control Panel settings Two systems on one NT machine Setting environment variables for NT kernel Setting environment variables for NT kernel The correct configuration of Dr.Watson C–6 Release 4.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Operating System Notes Category Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Spool Start/stop Start/stop TMS/CTS TMS/CTS TMS/CTS SAP Note # 30187 48914 64333 64337 64628 78401 00387 17108 5668 11599 13807 Description Viewing completed print data for output device. Output requests are partially delayed Change default value for spool retention period Transport output devices (printer) Using network printers from R/3 Download a list from SAP spool Problems when starting up a DB Shared memory still present.6A/B .

0 SP 3 fail Windows NT: Event log message when starting R/3 Problems on STOP/START of R/3 via NT scheduler Central transport directory NT/UNIX Configuring a central transport host Problems with certain anti-virus software System Administration Made Easy C–7 .51/4.0A/NT Syslog messages in the NT event log Unpacking .Watson log file Problems with SAPPAD Win NT appears to hang.0 no longer responds (hangs) NT: Problems due to address space fragmentation SAProuter as a service Note for Oracle security on WinNT Service Packs on Windows NT High memory requests under NT 4.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Operating System Notes Category Config Config Config Config Config Eventlog Patches Patches Perfmon Perfmon Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems SAProuter Security Service pack Service pack Start/stop Start/stop TMS/CTS TMS/CTS Virus SAP Note # 65761 68544 74810 75354 88416 72616 29372 74545 102390 110529 10616 21790 44803 49776 51781 53211 70572 100972 122288 129813 41054 36462 30478 85582 32182 35388 28781 62739 106267 Description Configuration problems under Windows NT Memory management under Windows NT Notes on SAP services and NT registry Multiple SAP instances on NT Zero Administration Memory Management as of 4.car archives Problems when unpacking CAR archives Use of NT performance monitor Professional use of the NT performance monitor Saposcol or collector not running WinNT: problems with notepad. SAP service problems SAP R/3 background problems on Win NT Help for analyzing a Win NT “blue screen” Win 3.exe Connection reset by peer Evaluating Dr.

Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Operating System Notes 81.0D and 4. HP-UX 10.20.6 Time stamp is incorrect Y2K patches for SOLARIS $6 Category Config Copy CTS Patches Performance SAP Note # 44695 49023 37987 60856 49201 Description Memory management as of 3. fixes and patches R/3 relevant operating system patches for AIX Release of Digital UNIX 4.0E Sudden performance decrease. Category SAP Note # 21960 28781 80266 AIX AIX Digital Digital Digital HPUX HPUX HPUX HPUX HPUX HPUX HPUX SUN SUN SUN SUN SUN 48689 64885 72984 39698 136653 06599 41596 64884 99224 99527 101229 143527 64887 71479 101883 172524 182552 Description Two instances/systems on one UNIX computer Central transport directory NT/UNIX Installation of NT application servers in a UNIX environment IBM service.6A/B .10. in UNIX too HP-UX: problem solving using HP-UX patches R/3 relevant OS patches for HP-UX HP-UX Operating System patches Problems with MC Service Guard Informix: HPUX 10.01 R/3 relevant operating system patches for Solaris Solaris recommended patches R/3 relevant patches for Solaris 2.20 patches End of support for HP-UX 10.0C. AS/400 Client copy Importing transports OSS1 and hot packages Performance settings C–8 Release 4. HP-UX 10.0B for Oracle cpio generated when restoring “sparse files” Performance problems on Digital UNIX 4..

0 conv 7.0 7.0 7.0 conv 7.0: conversion on Alpha System Administration Made Easy C–9 .0 7.0 conv 7.0x/4.5/7.0 Additional info: conversion 6.0 7.5 – end of support Improvements for MS SQL Server 7.0 conv 82035 95600 138392 153802 160178 92410 104392 107471 107483 Description “news.0 MS SQL Server Special SQL Server 7.0 7.0 conversion methods SQL Server 7.0 Installation of SAP R/3 on SQL Server 7.0B kernel performance R/3 hangs in STARTSAP R/3 cannot be started/shmget fails Roll memory leak & SYSTEM_CORE_DUMPED Work process terminate abnormally SAProuter 'DWDEDVH 1RWHV 06 64/ VHUYHU Category SAP Note # 62849 28667 67320 85846 95901 126131 159171 163315 7.5 to 7. MS SQL Server specific profile parameters Basic knowledge of MS SQL Server Released operating systems R/3 4.6A minimum corrections DB conversion from MS SQL 6.x Recompilation of Stored Procedures MS SQL 6.5x MS SQL Server R/3 on MS SQL Server – release strategy Installing add-on on MS-SQL svr 3.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes Category Performance Problem Problem Problem Problem SAProuter SAP Note # 107104 125705 154599 162580 163022 65600 Description 4.” compilation of notes This note is important for SQL server installations.0 SQL Server 7 and Vertex database Deleting transaction log files in MSSQL 7 MSSQL 4.

6A/B .5 SAP database monitor for MS SQL Server 7. batch enhancements in kernel DBCC checks DBCC checks for SQL server 7.0 consultant companies Conversion of multiple R/3 systems from 6.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes Category 7.0 New scheduling calendar in the CCMS (DB13) SQL Server Client copy Moving database devices Restructuring a SQL Server installation Device management for MS SQL Server Running two SAP R/3 systems on one sever Configuration parameter for SQL Server 7.0 conv 7.0 SAP database monitor for MS SQL Server 6.5 New sched.0 conv Backup Backup Backup Backup Backup Backup Backup Backup Backup CCMS CCMS CCMS CCMS Client copy Config Config Config Config Config HA Kernel Maint Maint Performance Performance Performance Problems Problems SAP Note # 129122 130689 37152 44449 48585 50990 68818 70300 151603 153763 166588 36637 77434 139945 141118 85443 67071 70517 80102 97066 126808 111372 77012 67437 142731 38657 61340 76052 67297 79262 Description Conversion SQL Server 6.0 database Sub-optimal tape backup performance File backup with SQL server 7.0 SQL Server backup to a dump file Backup strategies with MS SQL Server Database copy DB – Backup/Restore of Microsoft SQL Server Error in SQL Server backup/restore Backup/restore (compilation of notes) Copying a SQL Server 7.5/7. Calendar in CCMS (DB13) SQL Server 6.0 Stand-by database for MS SQL Server Spool.0 Slow performance of R/3 on MS SQL Server Update statistics on MS SQL Server system tables Update statistics on database tables Error 1105 trans/db log full Incorrect database and log size in DB02 and ST04 C–10 Release 4.5 to 7.

Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes Category Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Recovery Recovery Recovery Recovery Security Security Service pack Service pack Service packs Service packs SAP Note # 79883 81692 87027 87029 111291 129190 150495 155402 166861 168408 50745 70161 82699 94213 28893 116225 62988 66365 159069 159268 Description Incorrect database freespace alert displayed Suspect database Fill level database logs Fill level of the database and log Analysis and avoidance of deadlocks Problems with Performance Monitor and SQL Server 7.0x DB2/CS 390: Homogeneous System Copy 390: R3trans performance improvements 390: R3trans performance improvement 390: Performance of the update System Administration Made Easy C–11 .x DB2 for OS/390 Released operating systems R/3 4.x/4.0 '%  8'% Category SAP Note # 80625 85842 Copy Performance Performance Performance 111206 92795 97014 122599 Description Released operating systems R/3 3.0 Deadlocks with MS SQL 7 Analysis of hanging situations Analysis of DB13 problems R3load process dies directly during a start Database restore for SQL Server SQL error 916 and 4001 after restore Rebuild master database Point-in-time-recovery fails Changing password of users sapr3 Password change for database user sapr3 Service Packs for MS SQL Server Windows NT service packs (problems caused by) SQL Server 7.0 service pack 1 install terminates Service Pack installation on MS SQL server 7.

3x C–12 Release 4.3 patches necessary with Informix Informix: Copying and renaming an R/3 database Informix: Copying and renaming an R/3 database CCMS Database administration (DB13) Installation of two R/3 systems on one host Database configuration via onconfig parameter Informix environment parameter for 7.QIRUPL[ Category SAP Note # 93264 53746 62340 64001 71776 85840 93868 AIX Backup Backup CCMS Config Config Config 102204 11462 167878 66322 12825 41360 141054 Description Informix: Important News Use of correct Informix versions INFCFGCHECK: ‘Download’ and ‘First steps’ INFCFGCHECK: Detailed messages of single checks INFCFGCHECK: Automate database checks Released operating systems R/3 4. SQL0901 390: Deadlocks on TPFBA and TPFID 390: Unspecified core dumps with HPDT UDP 390: Tablespace name not set 390: Generation of matchcode objects fail UDB: DB2adut1 displays no journals CS: Some work process end with SQL1403 390: Signal 11 during DDIC operations CS: Database crash/core in restore from ADSM CS: Restore Terminates with SQL0973 Security DB2 with R/3 under NT . SQL0904.6A/B .Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes Category Performance Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Problems Restore Restore Security SAP Note # 107123 54028 84270 97449 98306 141527 149292 151085 163356 78332 163731 80292 Description 400: Performance improvement on the database server 400: Overflow in SQL package.0x Informix BC511 Instructors contributions AIX 4.

* Problems with ORACLE TWO_TASK linking ORACLE TWO_TASK connect failed OS06: Unable to open file os_sys.0x Oracle End of “Cust Care Support” Oracle 7.0 with Informix IDS 7.>=4.log Do not alter MAXEXTENTS on dictionary tables Increased memory consumption with Oracle 8 Kernel extensions on AIX SMP computer cpio with BRBACKUP and BRARCHIVE BRBACKUP on several different tape drives Using BRBACKUP and BRARCHIVE Collective note: BRBACKUP.3.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes Category Document HPUX HPUX Maint Maint NT Performance Performance Performance Problems SOLARIS Y2K SAP Note # 154895 41596 101229 22941 29155 126175 38307 156766 184760 31171 48338 187183 Description Ordering additional Informix documentation HP-UX Problem solving using HP-UX patches Informix: HPUX 10.6A old strategy DB start/stop brings warnings Problem solution through SOLARIS/SUN patches Downloading the ON-Archive Y2K patch 2UDFOH Category SAP Note # 85838 112325 01039 01042 96397 125242 128221 AIX BR BR BR BR BR CBO 51396 02239 12593 13550 43494 43499 93098 Description Released operating systems R/3 4. BRARCHIVE. BRRESTORE Collective notes concerning DBA tools Changes to the upgrade to 4.X Reducing shared memory consumption Performance problems with Informix 7.20 patches Reogranization of table and dbspaces Consistency check of an Informix database Service Pack 4 on NT4.3x Update Statistics: SAPDBA Rel.0 – CBO Oracle System Administration Made Easy C–13 .

5 Current patch set for Oracle release 8. Which table? Restoring from a full backup General flowchart for Oracle recovery Tape management for recovery Complete recovery Reorganization of SYSTEM tablespace Reorganization (external tools) Collective note: SAPDBA – reorganization SAPDBA – speeding up reorganization SAPDBA – shrinking a tablespace SAPDBA – size and reorg of table space PSAPTEMP SAPDBA – reorganization of single table.0.0.4/all entries Archiver stuck in Windows NT Ora-1631 max extents reached.5 Performance problems NT 3.51 / Oracle / TCP/IP Performance problems with SQL*Net V2 System hang on AIX SMP computers under high load Performance problems Oracle 8. PSAPTEMP SAPDBA – new command line option – analyze Collective note: General SAPDBA Collective note: SAPDBA – Recovery Collective note: SAPDBA command line options C–14 Release 4.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes Category CBO CBO CCMS Config Config Config HPUX Patches Patches Performance Performance Performance Performance Problems Problems Recovery Recovery Recovery Recovery Reorg Reorg Reorg SAPDBA SAPDBA SAPDBA SAPDBA SAPDBA SAPDBA SAPDBA SAPDBA SAP Note # 93256 127715 85609 03809 09705 94801 92788 127395 181195 33868 72638 102042 114716 33735 38006 03804 04157 04160 04161 12921 40521 43487 12621 15465 19193 29348 42293 43486 43490 43491 Description CBO: changes for installation of 4.6A/B .1.0 CBO: Optimal parameters for performance Offline backup via CCMS/DB13 not possible Changing the size of the redo log files Mirroring the ONLINE REDO LOG FILES Environment variables for Windows NT HP-UX/Oracle: hanging LGWR Current patch set for Oracle release 8.

0. rollback segments too small Next-extents in ORACLE system tables are too large Maximum number of extents per tablespace Additional info: migrating to Oracle 8.4 necessary Additions Oracle upgrade to 8.3 Additional info: migrating to Oracle 8.3.4 NT/Oracle >= 7.5 UNIX 64 bit Oracle Y2K bugs and fixes System Administration Made Easy C–15 .3.Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes Category SAPDBA SAPDBA Security Start/stop SUN SUN SUN Tablespaces Tablespaces Tablespaces Tablespaces Upgrade Upgrade Upgrade Upgrade Y2K SAP Note # 44395 44595 36462 02775 44361 116453 183292 02425 03807 09321 39650 89691 98507 111922 126137 172380 Description SAPDBA: missing indexes after reorg run SAPDBA: general procedure for reorganizations Note for Oracle security on WinNT Oracle cannot be started Sun Solaris: database does not start after patch Backup via DB13 on Solaris Oracle 7.3.0.3 Oracle crash because of kernel AIO bug on Sun Function of tablespaces/Dbspaces on the database Tablespace PSAPROLL.0.

6A/B .Appendix C: Useful SAP Notes Database Notes C–16 Release 4.

.......................... D–3 System Administration Made Easy D–1 ........................ D–3 Other Considerations ............................................................................................................................................................................................ D –2 Upgrade Issues ....$SSHQGL[ ' 8SJUDGH 'LVFXVVLRQ &RQWHQWV Upgrade Discussion ...............................................

” Some of these factors are outlined below: < < < Desired functionality in new release Œ This can be found in the release note for the specific release. you cannot upgrade. ask yourself the following questions: < < < Have the reasons for upgrading and not upgrading been analyzed? Has the “business need” criteria been met? If you installed any Industry Solution (IS). :K\ The question of whether to upgrade your system to a new release depends on many complex factors.6A/B . Most importantly. You need to: Œ Upgrade the database and operating system (if required) Œ Purchase and install additional hardware (if required) Œ Test to find problems with the upgrade Œ Upgrade the SAPgui on the users computers Œ Find the time to do all the above < < < Disruption for users. Diversion of resources (Company resources that could be applied to other tasks would be assigned to upgrading the R/3 System.) Desire to be on the latest release (While desirable for a personal resume.Appendix D: Upgrade Discussion Upgrade Discussion 8SJUDGH 'LVFXVVLRQ :KDW An upgrade is an updating of your R/3 System. this reason is not a valid business reason to upgrade your system. the decision to upgrade should be based on “business need.) :KHQ WR 8SJUDGH In deciding to upgrade your system. Problem fixes and resolutions The need to be on a supported release 5HDVRQV 1RW WR 8SJUDGH Some reasons not to upgrade include the following: < Cost—the following items could increase the cost of your upgrade. D–2 Release 4. especially if there is no functional enhancement for them. are IS patches available for the new release? If the patches are not available.

Upgrade changes could require changing configuration.VVXHV The following software has to be compatible with the R/3 release you plan to upgrade to: < < < Database Operating system Third-party applications that compliment the R/3 System (for example.) +DUGZDUH < The upgrade requires free working space on disks to run. processing power and memory required generally tends to increase. job schedulers. the required disk space. Œ The amount of space required differs with operating system and database. The system is unavailable for users during a portion of the upgrade process. Changes require regression testing: Œ Do business processes function as they did before? Œ Does custom code need to be changed due to changes from the upgrade? < < < 2WKHU &RQVLGHUDWLRQV 6RIWZDUH . This failure would require you to recover the database (refer to the section on disaster recovery). external tax packages. Œ Some of the space is released after the upgrade. testing. As each release adds functionality. and documentation.Appendix D: Upgrade Discussion Upgrade Issues 8SJUDGH .VVXHV An upgrade can be more complex than a new implementation because: < There is “real data” on the system that is being upgraded. The following table is compiled from SAP notes: < System Administration Made Easy D–3 . etc. spool managers. The technical downtime is 6–12 hours. training. system monitors.1H to 4. If the upgrade fails. the company’s operations could be affected and business could stop. example upgrading from 3. many other tasks are performed around the backup that could increase this “downtime” significantly. In addition. This is especially apparent when jumping release levels. A system configuration that was adequate for one release may be inadequate for a later release. System downtime could significantly impact the operations of the business during this period.6B. other space is permanently used.

The following are a few of the factors that affect the performance of an upgrade: < < Database and operating system Hardware Œ Processor (number of processors and speed of each) Œ Memory (amount available) Œ Drive array – Performance factor (especially for writes) – Configuration (minimize or eliminate drive or channel contention) – Other I/O hardware (minimize or eliminate data channel contention) Data volume for changes to tables that contain data < D–4 Release 4. Performance is sensitive to a variety of variables.1H to 4. Therefore.6A/B .5B 4. some of which can have significant impact.0B to 4.0B 4.6A CPU increase % 30 20 10 Memory increase % 30 20 30 3HUIRUPDQFH Upgrade performance is difficult to predict. an upgrade of the test system should be done to determine timing values for your configuration.Appendix D: Upgrade Discussion Other Considerations SAP Release 3.5B to 4.

11–37 user defined. 10–5. 10–48 performing. 11–44 parameters. 16–2 Audit Information System (AIS) business. 9–4. 10–7 analyze alerts. 10–2 maintaining thresholds. 4–4. 4–15. 10–17 views. 20–16. 11–47 running. 11–55 parameters. 4–5 simple selection. 10–13 checking. 1–3 factors that determine. 10–12 Alerts acknowledge. 1–2 within R/3. 10–4 acknowledge alerts. 10–12 Annual tasks checklists database. 11–56 system.QGH[ A ABAP dump analysis free selection. 11–5. 11–42 user security jobs. 11–25 security logs filter group 1. 10–14 analyze. See System guidelines requirements of. 15–16 threshold. 10–43. See Audit Information System (AIS) security. 8–3 notes. See Audit Information System (AIS) Alert monitor accessing. 20–20. 4–11. 10–23 hiding SAP standard monitor sets. finding. 11–4 information system. 11–42 Active processes. 12–15 SAP logon. 11–41 check for validity. 15–15 operating system. 11–53 financial. 11–38 considerations. 11–4 in general.. 10–49 in general. 10–13 database. 16–4 incorrect. 11–54 Administrator access key. 11–39 tasks. 11–49 filter group 2. 21–27 guidelines. 9–15 Active users. 16–20 new. 10–55. 11–57 complete. 8–4 Application server. 12–34 Adding additional systems in general. 8–3 other. 16–8 housekeeing. 11–41 complete. 4–15. 8–4 operating system. 10–49 dump definition. 5–3. 1–4 roles external to R/3. 11–38 in general. 11–5 different users. 8–2. 1–14. 1–2 AIS. 12–15 Audits business. 15–9 views. 10–7 maintaining thresholds. 11–50 in general. 16–20 System Administration Made Easy I–1 . 10–56. 16–3 creating. 10–17 messages. 11–37 system. changing. 5–4 create new monitor set. 11–57 tools. 11–46 specific reports. 21–23. 15–9 alert. 10–19 in general. 10–14 adding a monitor. 11–56 execute. 10–48 editor. 11–39 user defined. 4–6 B Background jobs batch. 10–24 alert threshold. 10–5. 4–6 finding.

16–5 performance. 8–4 backup strategy. 7–4 operating system. 16–20. 16–20 Batch jobs. 16–4 performance factors. B–7 Buffers definition. 3–12. 3–7 frequency. See Alert monitor Central instance. 4–11. 3–11 in general. 19–8 hit ratio. 16–8 select. 3–11 verifying backups. 4–9 Backup archive procedures and policies. 3–13 checking. 17–9 managing transports. 4–4. 16–21 Books. 4–8. 17– 34 swaps. 3–3. 3–8. 16–5. 2–18 storage in general. 13–19 operating system level. 16–36 incremental. 16–5 regularly scheduled jobs. 7–3 other. 7–4 stopping R/3. 4–5. 17–25. 10–10. 3–6 UNIX level. 6–2 notes. 16–15 user ID. 8–3 notes. 16–4 tracking and documenting tapes. 3–23 periodic archivals. 9–5 2 I–2 Release 4. 22–13 Cascade failures. 7–2. 8–3 other. 3–13 labeling tapes.Index others. 3–9 differential. 16–38 dedicated drives. 9–11. 4–13. 13–13 tape management handling tapes. 3–21 in general. B–3. 13–15. 3–22 recovery. adding into import buffer. 16–41 offline. 16–36 on-demand. 4–8 monthly tasks database. 3–19 strategy. 19–9 importing.6A/B . 16–36 procedures archiving. 3–9 sites. strategy. 3–9 online. 3–17 Batch input. 3–20 options. 19–8 Business requirements. disaster recovery. See Disaster recovery. 3–23 design strategy. 7–5. minimizing. 3–8. 16–40. 17–12 Checklists annual tasks database. 3–13 retention requirements. 4–6 other. 6–3 other. 3–12 database. 3–10 scheduled. 3–7 initalizing tapes. 13–24. 4–6 notes. 16–40 verify. 3–10 database check. 3–20 faster devices. 8–4 operating system. 3–23 factors affecting. 16–36. 4–14. 3–12. 7–3 notes. 3–3. business requirements C CAR files. 16–40 performance database restore options. 6–5 operating system. 16–3. 2–19 CCMS alert monitor. 4–7 R/3 System. 3–18 onsite. 3–12 types. 3–10 tape label. 16–38 checklist. 19–8 special transport. 3–1. 3–18 offsite. 6–4 quarterly tasks database. 3–10 monitoring/controlling. 3–15 transaction logs. 3–16 in general. 3–12 daily tasks database. 3–7. 3–13. 3–21 parallel backup. 19–9 tune summary. 4–4. 3–6. 13–19. 4–14. 3–3 full. 13–18 NTBackup. 4–5. 3–5. 9–3 Change control in general. 4–7 operating system. 16–4 scheduling. 17–18 performance. 3–2 supplementary. 16–36 in general.

3–3. 23–47 create. up or downstream. 19–10 Deleting user session. 6–2 quarterly tasks. 13–28 in general. online. 4–7 operating system. 23–44 deleting a client. 13–15. See Locking. 11–15 Client-independent changes. 5–3 notes. 15–14 Correction support. 23–50 copy to same system/SID. 2–17 System Administration Made Easy I–3 3 . 23–42 log. 4–15 performance tables. 3–11. 4–6 monthly tasks. 23–52. 13–13 backups with Microsoft tools. 16–42 other considerations. See also Database (DB) activity. 8–5. 7–3 weekly tasks. 13–4 allocation. 4–9 Customer messages. 13–15 deleting planning calendar entry. 12–32 Deleting users. 4–6 backup. 4–6. 5–2. 11–17 recommended lock table. See Temporary Sequential (TemSe) Cleaning tape drive. 8–3 daily tasks. 2–13 location. 4–8 DB.Index weekly tasks database. 3–12. customer messages SAPNet-Web. 13–14 error logs. 2–18 in general. 20–8. 23–47 copying. 2–2 minimizing opportunities cascade failures. 2–12 inventory list. 13–19 checking backup. 11–14. 13–3 verify consistency. 23–43 security. 13–2. 13–9 starting the database. 5–4 operating system. 16–38 checklists annual tasks. 4–6 other. 4–9 verify R/3 is running. 11–21 Database (DB) administration. 13–1 initializing backup tapes. 13–29 Contracts. 16–42 critical. 23–58 SAP notes. 16–38 operating system level backups. 6–5. 23–57. 5–3 other. 11–15 Consumable supplies checking. 2–13 Critical tasks daily tasks. users Disaster definition. 2–19 human error. 13–7 backup tape label. 13–4 performance monitor. 11–36 performance. 13–2 statistics. 5–4. 4–9 database. 11–26. 23–52 processing notes. 19–11 performance analysis. 2–18 single points of failure. 13–4 scheduling. See Database administration (DBA) alert. maintenance. 9–3 TemSe. 6–2 server. 16–36 checking backup. 1–14. 13–4. 2–19 Dangerous transactions in general. 5–4. 5–3 restricted access table. 12–5 Defragmentation. 23–54 post-client copy tasks. 23–43 production system. 23–44 Client-dependent changes. See Database (DB) DDIC. 20–24 Crash kit in general. 13–18 Microsoft SQL server. 13–28 online backup. memory. 16–40 verify backups. 5–3 passwords. 6–5. 13–19 passwords. 4–4. 16–44 Database administration (DBA). 13–30 performance. 23–53 in general. 13–29 stopping the database. 4–6 notes. 4–7 R/3 System. 11–18 Disaster recovery applications. 20–8 D Daily tasks checklists database. See SAPNet – R/3 Frontend. 15–12 Client copy copy to different system/SID.

4–11. 11–30 service connection. 4–8. 2–7 other considerations. 11–21 logon. See System guidelines High availability (HA) options. 16–4 Human error. 2–16 offsite. See Support Packages Housekeeing jobs. 11–16 dangerous transactions table. 15–11 usage. 19–15 review. 19–9 Hot packages. 2–7. See Keep it short and simple (KISS) Downstream applications. See Update terminates File space old transport files. minimizing opportunities downtime. 1–7. 8–4. 11–11 G Graphical job monitor. See File space Frontend software. 2–3 Hit ratio. 11–17 users. 16–19 4 I–4 Release 4. 16–25 K Keep it short and simple (KISS). 19–15 in general. 10–42. 2–7 when to begin. 11–18. minimizing. 2–5 Guidelines. 2–8 hardware failure. 2–4 performance. 21–30 transaction codes. 2–6 testing. 17–14 Free space. 4–12. 19–15 memory. 19–15 disk. 2–5 integration. 2–6 scenarios corrupt database. 2–11 scripts. 11–3 Instance definition. dangerous. 4–12 Locking client modifiable. 2–17 E EarlyWatch session. 12–27 prohibited password table. 2–16 onsite. 2–4 crash kit. 2–6 process. minimizing.Index backup sites. See Disaster. 10–41. 2–15 business requirements defining. 2–8 loss or destruction of server facility. 2–3. 2–9 staffing. 12–6 Sample Transport Request. 2–15 time. 2–16 types. 2–18 I Insider trading. 15–15 Help. 2–8 in general. 2–17 planning. 17–10 R/3 User Change Request. See System guidelines H Hardware central processing unit. See SAP GUI Locks definition. 3–10 Kernel upgrade. 11–17 permanent. 9–15 L LCP. 2–4 recovery groups. 10–43 in general. 4–4. 2–11. 17–11 General Note Record. 1–14 operation mode. See Crash kit disaster. 8–3 transactions. 11–29 F Failed updates. 3–2 who provides. 2–18 business continuation. 10–41 deleting. See R/3 HR Support Packages Lock entry list. 22–14 External interfaces. See R/3 HR Support Packages Legal change patches (LCP). 7–5. 15–6 Forms Detailed Online Service System Note Record. 23–40 KISS.6A/B . 2–4 in general.

6–3 quarterly tasks. change change control. 16–25 in general. new user setup NTBackup. 5–3 file space usage. 12–24 in general. 19–11 NT event log. 19–15 Microsoft SQL server. 13–19 Modes. 16–32 assigning instance definition. 19–10 hardware. 23–1 table. 16–26 assigning. 6–3 other. 15–15 Passwords. 4–6 monthly tasks. 11–27. 4–11. 15–5. 16–36 monitor. 11–27 Operations consumable supplies. 11–36 database administration.Index M Maintenance basic. 23–4 special. 16–29 Management. 4–6. 14–18 spool check consistency. 11–30. 16–42 critical supplies. stopping R/3. 23–36 level. 8–3 daily tasks. 4–6. 15–6 full server backup. 11–35 purpose. 7–5. 11–34 database. 14–2 printing screen. 16–23 generate instance. See Users. 12–26 sample tables. 15–16 old transport files. 11–29 standards. See Operations. 17–34 Transporting objects. 13–30 eliminating easy. 15–14 extended. 11–29 lockout. 7–4. 18–5 Operational security System Administration Made Easy I–5 5 . 15–3 tasks. 11–32 security parameters. 7–3 weekly tasks. 13–24 P Paging system. 16–21 other considerations. 14–21 deletion. 13–1 online backup. 17–2 operating system level. 11–28 sharing of user IDs. See also Security. 15–11 system logs. 11–29 system administration. 6–4 OS. 13–28 in general. for. B–11 N New user setup. for. 11–9. 11–25 management change. 14–12 printing problems. 7–5 recording. 11–29 maintaining table of prohibited. 16–44 work processes defining distribution. 17–1 Memory defragmentation. 17–9 in general. 7–4. 15–15. 11–29 expiration time. 6–2 notes. 15–2 checklists annual tasks. 11–27 passwords. 16–42 in general. 23–4 contracts. 14–15 printer setup. See SAP notes Output management in general. 16–1 modes adding new. See Table maintenance user. 11–31 resetting. modes Monthly tasks checklists database. See Operating system (OS) OSS notes. 6–5 operating system. passwords changing. 15–2 transporting method. 14–1 output printing. 11–28 length. 7–2. 23–37 confirmation. 14–9 Multi-role tasks checklist. 16–25 define. 11–29 in general. 17–16 Patch application verification. 12–5 O Operating system (OS) alert threshold. 9–5 mySAP. 7–4. 7–4. 15–9 alerts.

11–13 preventing changes. 12–2 Profile parameters. 9–9 with application servers. 19–3 in general. 3–11 in general. 2–11 Production refresh strategies client copy with data. 19–8 critical assumption. 23–39 Remote services CAR files. 22–14 FTP client example. 3–21 parallel backup. 9–15 administration. 22–13 Production system not modifiable. 9–16 Permission creep. 3–22 recovery. 3–10 database check. 19–4 workload analysis. See Disaster recovery Recovery groups. 22–6 partial organization. 7–3 other. 7–4 R R/3 HR Support Packages. 3–20 faster devices. 12–5 user administration. 9–2 stopping. 19–1. 4–14 Q Quarterly tasks checklists database. 23–32. 19–2 database. 23–4 Profile. 3–10 monitoring/controlling. 23–11 R/3 System. 3–11 verifying backups. 23–33 extended. See System administration. 9–9 checklists daily tasks. 19–11 evaluation priority. 11–58 Policies backup frequency. system administration data. User administration batch jobs. 3–23 factors affecting. 22–10 retrieving files. 12–3 Printer setup in general. 1–14 external interfaces. 13–4.6A/B . 2–11 definition. 3–22 buffers. 3–21 in general. retrieving files. 2–6 Recovery scripts business continuation. 22–9 EarlyWatch. 4–14. 7–4 operating system. 4–8 stopping R/3. 23–58 database copy of production system. 5–4. 9–15 guidelines. 3–20 options. 2–15 creating. See Administrator Recovery. 3–10 system adminstration. 9–5 definition. 16–4 backup database restore options. 19–10 R/3. 3–10 system administration. 7–4. 3–23 to disks then tapes. 19–3 memory defragmentation. 22–3 connecting using command prompt. 22–1 SAP. 22–13 downloading files. 7–2. 23–56 Regression testing. 22–2 unpacking files. 23–35 queue. 12–3 R/3 system administrator. 3–3 supplementary backups. 23–57 client copy without data. definition. See Batch jobs checking for users. 23–2 maintenance basic. 22–2 SAPSERV4 connecting using a GUI (NT). 4–4. 23–57 in general. 7–3 notes. 23–4 editing. 8–4 Profile Generator. 12–5 user administration. See System guidelines performance. See Performance starting. 9–10 without application servers. 9–5.Index logs. 22–4 in general. 22–6 navigating. 14–2 Procedures backup archiving. 23–4 6 I–6 Release 4. 23–10 Performance background jobs. See also System active processes. 6–5. 3–11 roles and responsibilities.

11–10 DDIC. See System Administration Assistant (SAA) SAP GUI adding additional systems. 11–44 parameters. 11–8 NT audit function. 21–22. 12–8 presentation CD. 11–31 sample tables. 20–15. 7–4. 20–17. 20–15. 11–6 multiple user logins. 11–29 in general. 11–32 standards. 21–10 problem description. 21–3. 22–2 SAPSERV4. 11–11 network. 3–24. display. 11–15 controlling access. 23–43 SAP Patch Manager. 20–19 registration. 7–5 recording. 20–10. 22–14. 2–8 loss or destruction of server facility. 20–3 note searching. transport. 12–5 SAPNet. 12–14 software. 20–19. 3–2 strategy. 11–9 passwords. 21–11 finding notes. 20–10. 21–26 online correction support. from. disaster corrupt database. 11–14. 11–46 authorization maintenance. 11–15 client-independent changes. 11–11 data. 11–7 administration. B–5 SAPNet – R/3 Frontend action log. 21–22 in general. 20–5 Support Package Manager (SPAM). 22–3. 21–31. 11–29 lockout. See also Remote services. 21–17 message status. 21–15 notes. 10–41 client copy. See Support Package Manager (SPAM) SAP resources. prevent. 7–4. 17–38 SAPSERV. 21–30 SAPNet – R/3 Web Frontend developer deletion. 11–30 operating system level. 2–8 in general. 11–29 SAP notes. 11–26. 21–3 customer messages component. 20–31. 2–8 hardware failure. 7–4. 11–29 maintaining table of probibited. 11–29 purpose. 21–21 connecting to. 20–4 System Administration Made Easy I–7 7 . 21–1 long text. 11–29 expiration time. 3–3 problem solving. 11–9 audit log filter group 1. 3–2 testing. 20–23 registration. 11–28 length. 11–36 eliminating easy. 21–2 problem researching. 12–15 installing file server. 21–16 confirm. 12–8 Scheduling database tasks. See Support Package Manager (SPAM) Retrieving files. 5–2 running. 11–47 review. 11–2 layers. 21–18 service connection. 11–35 parameters. 13–9 Security. See SAP notes prerequisites. 23–44 client-dependent changes. 2–9 S SAA. SAPSERV4 Scenarios. 21–6 reopen. 20–7 logging on. from. 11–26 definition. 11–25 operational security. 22–2. 8–2 auto logout. 7–4.Index Restore reasons for. 20–24 online services. 15–5 operational. 21–6 in general. 11–34 database. 20–5 object deletion. 11–50 in general. B–2 SAP*. See also Passwords changing. See Security administration application. 20–1 installation note searching. 17–9. See also Security administration access. 23– 39. 21–11 in general. 22–2 Return codes. 11–49 filter group 2.

11–26 security reports. 23–39 SAPNet – R/3 Frontend (OSS). 23–22 strategy. 11–11 profile maintenance. See Profile parameters. 20–27. 1–6 non-SAP activity. 4–5. 20–25 System administration. 23–2. 10–2 multi-instance. from. 23–26 Server application. 23–32 applying. 10–38. See ABAP. 15–16 R/3. 20–31 download. 16–42 other considerations. 1–12 help. 5–2. from. 12–5 Supplies checking consumable. 1–10. 8–4 profile parameters. 9–6. 20–28 updating. 10–1 passwords. 23– 15 notes view all. 11–3 object conflicts. 2–19 SPAM. 5–4.6A/B . 18–6. 9–2 Stopping R/3. 23–37 patch application verification. 11–11 SAP*. 9–2. system R/3 definition. 23–26 in general. 12–36 preventing changes. 10–51 monitor. 10–44. 23–12 updating SPAM. 23–11 information. 23–25 web. See Support Package Manager (SPAM) Spool. See also User administration DDIC. 23–36 log. See also Security audits. 9–6 editing. 9–4 database. 11–54 Security administration. See Backup confirmation information. 23–34 applying. 12–33 Short dump. 11–4 data protection. 11–25 sharing of user IDs. 10–45. 20–30 notes. 15–15. 11–1. 4–6. 14–12. 23–21 System administration assistant (SAA). 12–32 terminate. 4–15. 12–5 Support Packages adding to patch queue. 12–5 SAP*. 19–9 System. 1–9 protecting the system. 11–27. 1–5 8 I–8 Release 4. 23–33 regression testing. minimizing. 15–3 NT. 16–42 critical. 21–30 Session delete user. 1–14 single-instance. 16–44 Support Package Manager (SPAM) after download. 11–7 production system changes. 23–29 uploading CD. 11–54 segregation of duties. 9–3 Swaps. 12–35 Service connection. 4–14. 10–54 in general. 23–17 view specific. 10–2 System administrator. 9–16 Super user DDIC. 11–58 physical. 23–31. 23–24 in general. 15–15 monitoring tools. 1–11 checklists. 4–13. 1–8 database access. 23–35 queue. 1–4. 15–5. making.Index permission creep. 1–13. 11–3 other requirements. 10–15 logs in general. getting from SAPNet – R/3 Frontend. high-level process of. 1–5 in general. 23–37 confirmation. 23–12 determining which applied. 23–13 downloading SAPNet – R/3 Frontend. 12–5 SAP*. 11–39 backup. 4–8. 9–5. 10–52 defining. 12–34 user audit jobs. 1–12 preventive maintenance. 14–21 Starting R/3. 15–15 messages creating. 12–5 in general. See Administrator System guidelines changes. See also R/3 System audits. preventing. 11–3 insider trading. 1–13 networking. from. 14–9. 4–4. 8–2 R/3. 10–28 System Administration Assistant (SAA). dump Single points of failure.

12–24. 16–16. 8–4. 4–14. 4–15. 17–28 transport request. 11–55. 10–34. 10–38. 8–2. 13–5. 7–5. 16–22. 23–54 SM50. 4–13. 5–2. 12–35 SM12. 11–56 SECR. 10–2. 17–6 SM31. 5–5. 23–14. 15–12 post-client copy. 15–2 DB02. 3–9. 4–12. 4–5. 10–46. 12–36 AL16. 5–2. 17–16 import all requests. 9–15. 4–8. 19–11. 5–2. 15–6. 17–35. 17–24 system. 1–13 System performance. 23–27. A–2 VA01. 4–14. 4–4. 14–23 TemSe. 12–33. 23–22. 7–2. 13–28 ST22. 5–1 Temporary Sequential (TemSe). 10–45. 12– 34. 15–12 Tasks annual. 19–8 VA02. 9–5. 4–8. 23–32 SSAA. 23–47 SE03. 10–54 SM04. 4–11. 11–13. 4–3. 19–8. 16–25. 23–52 quarterly. 10–40. 13–9. 8–2. 4–8. See Temporary Sequential (TemSe) Time daylight savings. 17–24 method. 16–2. 14–9. 23–24. 7–2. 10–4. 12–27. 17–27 main screen. 16–29 RZ10. 13–29. 13–16. 17–36 SE10. 14–12. 4–5. create. 9–5. 9–9. 6–5. 11–29. 16–7 master clock. 15–7. 5–4. 4–5. 16–8 daylight savings. 19–10 ST03. 17–6 in general. 17–6 SM35. 4–12. 6–2. 8–4. 4–11. 8–1 monthly. 4–4. 4–8. 4–5. 16–6 zone conversion table. 19–12 OSS1. 12–25. 4–5. 10–51. 10–43. 10–46. 4–8. 7–2. 10–55. 8–2. 10–44. 4–11. 11–59 SU03. 10–43 SM19. 5–4. 5–5. 11–24. 19–7 ST04. 11–38 SM01. 5–2. 5–2. 5–5 tp. 4–14. 4–14. 9–11. 14–22 SPAM. 9–5. 12–30 SU02. 8–2. 4–6. 23–2. 8–5. 16–26. 16–38. 11–13. start. 4–11. 7–2. 8–2. 10–43. 4–15. 4–10. 13–10. 12–4. 9–5. 10–48 SM30. 17–2 review. 11–59 TP. 10–43. 11–56 SCC4. 23–3 RZ11. 17–2. 9–2. 16–32 SP01. 14–21. consistency check. 13–9 weekly. 16–23. See Performance T Table maintenance deleting entry. 17–24 SU01. B–4 Transaction AL02. 3–12. 15–3 OS07. 5–3. 17–17 Training classes. 7–1 scheduling database. 10–48. 11–57. 11–47. 17–2 Tape drive. 3–9. 10–52. 4–6. 8–2. 8–4. 4–4. 16–22. 4–4. 12–26. 5–2 useful. 1–7 single points of failure. 15–2 other. 14–24 SPAD. 13–7 DB12. 23–44 SCC5. 12–32. 14–23. 9–6. 9–1 operating system (OS). 13–4. 4–4. 4–4. 17–36 SE38. 4–15. 12–21. 16–6 TMS documentation. 10–42 SM13. 11–44. end. 11–37. 10–28 ST02. cleaning. 7–5. 4–11. 11–46 SM21. 10–3. 10–43. 19–8 System Administration Made Easy I–9 9 . 17–30 selected requests. 4–14. 13–18. 4–13. 4–8. 11–14 SE09. 14–15 SP12. 12–28. 12–34. 17–16. 4–4. 16–19 RZ04. 16–15. 9–10. 19–8 RZ01. 23–52 SCC9. 9–9. 10– 17. 16– 3. 10–10 SA38. 5–5. 10–15. 4–6 AL08. 6–1 multi-role. 8–4. 10–47 SM51. 21–3 PA30. 23–10 RZ20. 18–5 SM63. 17–2. 16–39 OS06. 10–39. 23–50 SCCL. 12–4. 9–7. 13–9. 10–43. 11–22 SM02. 16–20 SM36. 9–5. 11–15. 16–8. 7–2 table entry. 12–16. 7–4. 8–3. 4–6. 23–29. 15–9 RZ21. 4–5. 4–5. 11–48 SM20. 10–32. 10–49 STMS. 12–17. 14–2. 5–4. 9–5. 4–5. 10–41. 19–4.Index recordation. 4–5. 19–9. 17–19. 5–2. 16–38 DB13. 16–9 SM37. 13–15.

10–37 user training. 12–21 in general. users. 4–11 unlocking. 12–27 maintenance. 17–36 managing transports. See also User administration active. 4–8. 12–16 creating new user. if occurs. See also System administration active users. new user setup policies and procedures. backup. 18–4 evaluate alternatives. 12–3 maintaining user. 17–24 method. 19–8 VL01. 7–2. 7–5. 4–12. 12–1 leaving. 11–18 restricted access table. 10–43. 17–30 buffer. See Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Upstream applications. 18–5 Support Packages. 4–10 groups. 8–4. See SAP GUI.6A/B . 15–11 directory check. 17–19. See User groups Troubleshooting basic techniques document changes. 12–3 terminated employees. 7–5 Update terminates in general. 7–2. 7–5. 3–12 Transactions dangerous in general. 12–26 service connection. 17–34 problem. 12–33 user groups. users. 12–16 installing SAP GUI. 23–26 in general. 17–34 selected requests. 12–27 password resetting. from. 4–4. 18–6 in general. 17–35. 19–8 VF01. 4–5. 23–25 web. 5–3 Unlocking 10 I–10 Release 4. 10–35 problems with short dumps. 10–32 looking for. 12–4 terminating session. 11–21 locked. 19–8 Transaction logs. 11–24 logon. 12–6 changing jobs. 4–5. 17–18 in general. 17–28 transport request using TMS. 17–12 operating system (OS) method. 12–7. 12–3 in general. 18–1 Users. 17–23 production system. 18–2 making changes. 18–3 error messages. 17–16. 15–13 W Web sites. 3–5. 12–27 Tune summary. 17–17 TMS documentation. analyze. . 4–7 shutdown process. 17–32. 17–18. 17–24 17–25 UPS. 12–29. 21–30 transaction codes. 18–3 problem. 12–3 change request form.Index VA03. listing. See Users. 12–34 adding users. 17–16. 4–8 managing. 15–13 program log. 2–17 User administration. 12–32 ID naming. 10–37 Transport files cleaning out old. 15–11 Uploading Support Packages CD. See Buffers. 18–3 SAP patch level. 17–34 standard process. 8–3 users. from. 18–2 in general. 17–21 special transports. 17–27 in general. 12–7 SM04. 12–3 changing users. 7–5. 12–24 new user setup. 12–24 new user setup copying an existing user. installing prerequisites. 17–15 log. 17–16 main screen. 7–5. 4–8. 12–30 IDs. 12–3 deleting user session. 8–5. 12–2. 11–17 recommended lock table. 11–27 locking. 17–15 releasing requests. 18–3 gather data. B–11 Weekly tasks checklists database. 10–43 AL08. 23–26 Transporting objects importing all requests. tune summary U Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) check.

4–5. 16–29 Workbench organizer tools. 4–4. 4–14. 10–47 Work processes checking. 5–3 other. 5–3 in general. 10–46 without application servers.Index notes. 4–14. 10–46 with application servers. 5–4 operating system. 4–5 defining distribution. 19–4 System Administration Made Easy I–11 11 . 8–2 Workload analysis.

6A/B .Index 12 I–12 Release 4.