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For IIT-JAM, JNU, GATE, NET, NIMCET and Other Entrance Exams
Pattern of questions : MCQs
This paper contains 55 Multiple Choice Questions
part A 15, part B 20 and part C 20
Each question in Part 'A' carries two marks
Part 'B' carries 3.5 marks
Part 'C' carries 5 marks respectively.
There will be negative marking
@ 25% for each wrong answer.
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CSIR NET - PHYSICAL SCIENCE
1-C-8, Sheela Chowdhary Road, Talwandi, Kota (Raj.) Tel No. 0744-2429714
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Total marks : 200
Duration of test : 3 Hours
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MOCK TEST PAPER

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PART A (1-15)
1. Twenty four clerk can clear 180 files in 15 days. Number of clerk required to clear
240 files in 12 days is
(1) 38
(2) 39
(3) 40
(4) 42
2. In the given figure, RA = SA = 9cm and QA = 7cm. If PQ is the diameter, then radius is
A
R
S
Q
P

(1)
65
cm
7

(2)
130
cm
7

(3) 8 cm
(4) None
3. If the circles are drawn with radii R
1
, R
2
, R
3
with centre at the vertices of a triangle as shown
in figure. Side of triangle is a, b, c respectively, then R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
is equal to

R
1
R
3

(1) 3(a + b + c)

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(2)
1
(a b c)
3
+ +
(3)
1
(a b c)
2
+ +
(4) 2(a + b + c)

4. Study the following graph and answer the question given below it

10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
1984 1985 1986
1987 1988
1989
N
o
.

o
f

T
o
o
l
s

(
i
n

'
0
0
0
)
Years
T
o
t
a
l

v
a
l
u
e

o
f

t
o
o
l
s

(
i
n

R
s

c
r
o
r
e
s
)
Production in a Tool Factory
Number of Tools
----- Value

What was the value of each tool in 1985?
(1) Rs
1
5
3
thousand
(2) Rs 50 thousand
(3) Rs 5, 103
(4)
5
5
9

5. The total adults in a city is 60000. The various sections of them are indicated below in the
circle

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108 II
54
18
III
IV
V
I employees in the public sector
II employees in the private sector
III employees in the corporate sector
IV self employed
unemployed

V
What percentage of the employed persons is self employed?

(1)
5
5
19

(2)
1
19
5

(3) 20
(4) 5

6. Look at this series: 14, 28, 20, 40, 32, 64, ... What number should come next?
(1) 52
(2) 56
(3) 96
(4) 128

7. A car owner buys petrol at Rs.7.50, Rs. 8 and Rs. 8.50 per liter for three successive years.
What approximately is the average cost per liter of petrol if he spends Rs. 4000 each year?
(1) Rs. 7.98
(2) Rs. 8
(3) Rs. 8.50

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(4) Rs. 9

8. In a certain store, the profit is 320% of the cost. If the cost increases by 25% but the selling
price remains constant, approximately what percentage of the selling price is the profit?
(1) 30%
(2) 70%
(3) 100%
(4) 250%

9. Today is Friday after 62 days, it will be :
(1) Thursday
(2) Friday
(3) Wednesday
(4) Tuesday

10. A car travelling with of its actual speed covers 42 km in 1 hr 40 min 48 sec. Find the
actual speed of the car.
(1)
6
17 km/ hr
7

(2) 25 km/hr
(3) 30 km/hr
(4) 35 km/hr

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11. P is a working and Q is a sleeping partner. P puts in Rs. 3400 and Q puts Rs.6500. P
receives 20% of the profits for managing. The rest is distributed in proportion to their
capitals. Out of a total profit of Rs.990, how much did P get ?
(1) 460
(2) 470
(3) 450
(4) 480
12. A lawn is the form of a rectangle having its side in the ratio 2:3 The area of the lawn is 1/6
hectares. Find the length and breadth of the lawn.
(1) 25m
(2) 50m
(3) 75m
(4) 100 m
13. An aeroplane covers a certain distance at a speed of 240 kmph in 5 hours. To cover the
same distance in 1 hours, it must travel at a speed of:
(1) 300 kmph
(2) 360 kmph
(3) 600 kmph
(4) 720 kmph

14. Find out the missing number of the given question:
2 7 4
5 2 3
1 ? 6
10 42 72
(1) 2
(2) 4
(3) 5
(4) 3

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15. All of the following are the same in a manner. Find out the one which is different among
them:
(1) BFJQ
(2) RUZG
(3) GJOV
(4) ILQX

PART B (16-35)
16. What is the solution of integral

0
[cos(3x) 2] (x )dx

+ o t
}

(1) 0
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 1
17 Solve the integral equation
0
1 , 0 1
f( ) cos d
0, 1

o s o s
u ou u =
o >

}

(1)
2
2(1 cos )
f( )
u
u =
tu

(2)
2
2cos
f( )
u
u =
tu

(3)
2
(1 cos )
f( )
2
u
u =
tu

(4)
2
(1 cos )
f( )
u
u =
tu

18. Find the function whose laplace transform is
2
2 2 2
s
(s a ) +

(1) +
1
[at sinat cos at]
2a

(2)
1
(a sin at cos at)
2a
+
(3)
1
[a cosat sinat]
2a
+ +

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(4)
1
[at cosat sinat]
2a
+
19. The Lagrange equation of motion of two rigid bodies of masses m and 2m are connected by a light
flexible spring of spring constant K. what is the Lagrange equation of motion.
(1)
k
x x 0
m
+ =

(2)
k
x x 0
2m
+ =

(3)
3k
x x 0
2m
+ =

(4)
5k
x x 0
2m
+ =

20. In the following indicator diagram, the net amount of work done will be
(1) Positive
(2) Negative
(3) Zero
(4) Infinity

21. A particle moves in a plane under the influence of a force, acting towards a centre of force whose
magnitude is
2
2 2
1 r 2rr
F 1
r c
| |
=
|
\ .

where r is the distance of the particle to the centre of force, then
the Lagrangian for the motion in a plane is
(1)
2 2 2 2
2
r r 1 1 r
L
2 2 r r c
u
= +

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(2)
2 2 2 2
2 2
r r 1 2 r
L
2 2 r c r
u
= + + +

(3)
2 2 2
2 2
r r 2 1 r
L
2 2 r c r
u
= + +

(4)
2 2
2 2
r 1 1 r
L
2 r c r
= +

22. Calculate the Fermi energy in electron volt for sodium assuming that it has one free electron per
atom. Given density of sodium = 0.97 g cm
3
, atomic weight of sodium is 23.
(1) 3.541 eV
(2) 3.451 eV
(3) 5.135 eV
(4) 3.145 eV
23. The paramagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility per m
3
of potassium, for which the Fermi
energy is 2.1 eV is at wt. of potassium is 39.1 gm and density of potassium is 0.86 10
3
kgm
3
.
(1) 420.5 10
8

(2) 450.2 10
+8

(3) 420.5 10
6

(4) 425.210
+6

24. The figure shows the inverse magnetic susceptibility (1/_) (dimensionless) as a function of
temperature for a paramagnetic material. Calculate the concentration of magnetic ions, if they are
assumed to be Co
2+
with configuration 3d
7
.
(1) 54 10
23

(2) 51 10
26

(3) 69 10
23

(4) 69 10
26

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25. A 3D structure of current carrying wire is as shown in the figure. The magnetic force experienced by
charge particle of mass m and charge q, when it is crossing origin with velocity v

## along +ve Y-axis will

be
(1)
0 0
q qV
8R 4 R
I v I | |
+
|
t
\ .
i
(2)
0
q 2

1
8R
( I v | |
+
( |
t
\ .
i k
(3)
0
q

8
I v
k
(4) Zero

26. If E
f( 0)
and E
f
are Fermi levels of a metal at 0K and 30000 K, then what is the value of
f
f (0)
E
E
if
E
f (0)
= 7 eV.
(1) 0.119
(2) 0.88
(3) 1.113
(4) 1.188
27. The small (rotational) Raman displacement for HCI molecule is 416 cm
1
. Find the internuclear
distance between the atoms forming the molecule. Given : h = 663 10
34
J s, c = 30 10
8
m s
1

and N
A
= 6023 10
23
mol
1
.
(1) 129 A
(2) 229 A
(3) 249 A
(4) 064 A

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28. For the given circuit the the open loop gain is 12000 and R
1
= 120 kO and R
f
= 600 kO. V
i
= 1.2 V.
Find the exact output voltage for the inverting operational amplifier.
(1) 5 V
(2) 6 V
(3) 599 V
(4) 499 V
29. Oxygen has nuclear spin of 5/2. The NMR of oxygen gives
(1) 2 lines
(2) 3 lines
(3) 4 lines
(4) 6 lines
30. A metal strain gauge factor of two. Its nominal resistance is 120 ohms. It undergoes strain 10
5
, the
value of change of resistance in response to the strain is
(1) 240 ohms
(2) 2 10
5
ohm
(3) 2.4 10
3
ohm
(4) 1.2 10
3
ohm

31. Evaluate
V
Fd , t
} } }

where
2
F xyz =

## over the prism placed at origin as shown in the Figure.

(1)
1
3

(2)
2
3

(3)
1
9

(4)
2
9

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32. A star initially has 10
40
deuterons. It produces energy via the processes

1
H
2
+
1
H
2

1
H
3
+ p and
1
H
2
+
1
H
3

2
He
4
+ n
If the average power radiated by the star is 10
16
W, the deuteron supply of the star is exhausted in a
time of the order of
(1) 10
6
sec
(2) 10
8
sec
(3) 10
12
sec
(4) 10
16
sec
The masses of the nuclei are as follows:
M (H
2
) = 2014 amu; M (p) = 1007 amu;
M (n) = 1008 amu; M (He
4
) = 4001 amu.

33. A -ray photon produces an electron-positron pair, each moving with a K.E. of 001 MeV. The energy
of the -ray photon is
(1) 102 MeV
(2) 104 MeV
(3) 208 MeV
(4) 103 MeV

34. The temperature of the two outer surfaces of a composite slab, consisting of two materials having
coefficients of thermal conductivity K and 2K and thickness x and 4x, respectively are T
2
and T
1
(T
2
>
T
1
).
2K
T
2
T
1
x 4x

The rate of heat transferred through the slab, in a steady state is
2 1
A(T T )K
f,
x
| |
|
\ .
with f equals to
(1) 1
(2) 1/2
(3) 2/3
(4) 1/3
35. In quark model what is the state of q

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(1) ud
(2)
1
(uu dd)
2

(3)
1
(uu dd)
2
+
(4)
1
(us su)
2

PART C (36-55)
36. The value of the counter integral
6
3
C
sin z
dz
1
z
6
| |
t
|
\ .
}
, if C is the circle z 1 = .
(1)
20
i
17
t
(2)
21
i
16
t
(3)
15
i
7
t
(4)
12
i
13
t
37. The matrix A, defined by
1 2 2
A 2 a b
2 b a
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .

Is orthogonal if
(1) a = 1, b = 1
(2) a = 1 , b = 2

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(3) a = 2, b = 1
(4) a = 2, b =
38. A reversible engine works between three thermal reservoirs, A,B and C . The engine absorbs an
equal amount of heat from the thermal reservoirs A and B kept at temperatures T
A
and T
B

respectively, and rejects heat to the thermal reservoir C kept at temperature T
C
. The efficiency of the
engine is o times the efficiency of the reversible engine, which works between the two reservoirs A
and C. which one of the following relation statement is correct ?
(1) ( ) ( )
A A
B C
T T
2 1 2 1
T T
= o + o
(2) ( ) ( )
A A
B C
T T
2 1 2 1
T T
= o + o
(3) ( ) ( )
C B
A A
T T
2 1 2 1
T T
= o + o
(4) ( ) ( )
A A
C B
T T
2 1 2 1
T T
= o + o
39. A quantum mechanical particle of mass m is confined in three-dimensional infinite square well
potential of side a. The eigen-energy of particle is given as E =
t
2 2
2
9
.
ma
The state is
(1) 4 fold degenerate
(2) 3-fold degenerate
(3) 2-fold degenerate
(4) Non-degenerate
40. Ten grammas of water at 20 C is converted into at 10C at constant atmospheric pressure.
Assuming the specific heat of liquid water to remain constant at 4.2 J/gK and that of ice to be half of
this value, and taking the latent heat of fusion of ice at 0C to be 335 J/g , the total entropy of the
system is .
(1) Zero
(2) 16.02 JK
1

(3) 15.63 JK
1
(4) 15.63JK
1

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41. A sphere rolls down a rough included plane; if x be the distance of the point of contact of the sphere
from a fixed point on the plane, find the acceleration.
(1)
5
g sin
7
o
(2)
5
g sin
14
o
(3) mg sin o
(4)
7
g sin
5
o
42. A symmetrical top with moments of inertia I
n
= I
y
and I
z
in the body axes frame is described by the
Hamiltonian
( )
2 2 2
x y z
x
1 1
H L L L
2I 2Ix
= + +
Here moments of inertia are parameters and not operators. L
x
L
y
and L
z
are the angular momentum
operator in the body axes frame.
(i) The eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian
(1)
2
2 2
x z x
1 1
( + 1) + m
2 2 2
| |
|
I I I
\ .

(2)
2
2 2
x z x
1 1
( + 1) + m
2 2 2
| |
+
|
I I I
\ .

(3)
2 2
2
x z x
1 1 m
( 1)
2 2 2
| |
+ +
|
I I I
\ .

(4)
2 2
2
x z x
1 1 m
( 1)
2 2 2
| |
+ + +
|
I I I
\ .

(ii) Expected value for a measurement of L
x
+ L
y
+ L
z
for any state is
(1) Zero
(2) m
(3) m
(4) m
2

43. If we take in the semi-empirical mass formula a
c
= 0.58 MeV and a
a
= 19.3 MeV. Then possible
atomic number of most stable nuclei of mass number 64.

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Page 16

(1) 26
(2) 29
(3) 32
(4) 33

44. 36 g of water at 30C are converted into steam at 250C at constant atmospheric pressure. The
specific heat of water is assumed constant at 4.2 J/g K and the latent heat of vaporization at 100C is
2260 J/g. For water vapour, assume pV = mRT where R = 0.4619 kJ/kg K, and
p
C
R
= a + bT + cT,
where a = 3.634,
b = 1.195 10
3
K
1
and c = 0.135 10
6
K
2

Calculate the entropy change of the system.
(1) 0.2181 kJ/K
(2) 0.0235 kJ/K
(3) 273.1 J/K
(4) 314.3 J/K
45. A perpendicularly polarized wave propagates from region 1(c
r1
= 8.5,
r1
=1, o
1
= 0) to region 2, free
space, with an angle of incidence of 15. Given
i
0
E 1.0 V/ m = , then
r
0
E , is
(1) 1.62 V/m
(2) 0.623 V/m
(3) 4.23 V/m
(4) 7.75 mV/m
46. A particle A of mass m moving along the positive x-direction with kinetic energy K suffers an elastic
head-on collision with a stationary particle B of mass M. After the collision the particle A moves along
the negative x-direction with kinetic energy K/9. What is the mass of particle B?
(1) 9 m
(2) 6 m
(3) 3 m
(4) 2 m

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Page 17

47. Calculate the amount of energy released if all the deuterium atoms in the water in the lake of area
5
sq. miles and of depth
1
20
the mile area used up in fusion.
(1) 2.18 10
38
MeV
(2) 43 MeV
(3) 1.56 10
39
MeV
(4) 6.9 10
38
MeV
48. The maximum wave length of photons that can be detected by a photo diode made of a
semiconductor of band gap 2 eV is about
(1) 620 nm
(2) 700 nm
(3) 740 nm
(4) 860 nm
49. The three electronic circuits marked (i), (ii) and (iii) in the figure below can all work as logic gates,
where the input signals are either 0V or 5V and the output is V
0
.

Identify the correct combination of logic gates (i), (ii), (iii) in the options given below.
(1) NOR, XOR, AND
(2) OR, NAND, NOR
(3) NAND, AND, XOR

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(4) AND, OR, NOR

Let f(z) = cos z
sin z

z
for non-zero z e C and f(0) = 0. Also, let g(z) = sinh z for z e C.
50(i). Then f(z) has a zero at z = 0 of order
(1) 0
(2) 1
(3) 2
(4) Greater than 2
50(ii). Then
g(z)
zf(z)
has a pole at z = 0 of order
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) Greater than 3
51. The Lagrangian of a system is given by

2 2 2 2
1
L mr ( sin ) V(r, , )
2
= u + | u |

The equation of motion is
(1)
2 2
d V
(mr sin ) 0
dt
c
u| =
c|

(2)
2 2
d V
(mr sin ) 0
dt
c
u| =
c|

(3)
2 2
d V
(mr sin ) 0
dt
c
u| + =
c|

(4)
2 2
d V
(mr cos ) 0
dt
c
u| + =
c|

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Page 19

A one-dimensional harmonic oscillator of a particle with mass an and potential energy v(x) =
2 2
1
m x
2
e
This particle has a charge q and is placed in a uniform electric field E parallel to the x axis, E = Ex .
52.(i). The Hamiltonian of the particle
(1)
2
2 2
P 1
m x x
2m 2
+ e c
(2)
2
2 2
P 1
m x x
2m 2
+ e +c
(3)
2
2 2
P 1
m x x
2m 2
e c
(4)
2
2 2
P 1
m x x
2m 2
e +c
52(ii). Perform a coordinate transformation y = ax+b (where a and b are constant / such that in the y
coordinate the Hamiltonian is similar to that of a one dimensional harmonic oscillator (with no
charge) What are a and b
(1) a = 1 , b = c / me
2
(2) a = 1 , b = c / me
2
(3) a = c / me
2
, b = 1
(4) a = c / me
2
, b = 1
52(iii). The energy eigenvalues of the system is
(1)
2
2
1 1
n
2 2 m
c | |
e +
|
e
\ .

(2)
2
2
1 3
n
2 2 m
c | |
e +
|
e
\ .

(3)
2
2
1 1 e
w n
2 2 2mw

| |
+
|
\ .

(4)
2
2
1 3
n
2 2 2m
c | |
e +
|
e
\ .

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Page 20

53. The equation x
3
x
2
+ 4x 4 = 0 is to be solved using the Newton-Rephson method. If x = 2 is taken
as the initial approximation using this method will be
(1)
2
3

(2)
4
3

(3) 1
(4)
3
2

54. A mass m is released from rest at height h. Find the Hamilton characteristic function of the system
(1)
1/ 2
2m(E mgz) dz
}

(2)
1/ 2
2m(E mgz) dz +
}

(3) 2m(E mgz) dz
}

(4) 2m(E mgz) dz +
}

55. At what temperature will the number of I
2
molecules in the v = 1 level be one-tenth of that in the v = 0
level? Given : e
c
= 214.6 cm
1
,
e
e
x
e
= 0.6 cm
1
, h = 6.63 10
34
Js, c = 3.0 10
8
ms
1
and k = 1.38 10
23
J/K.
(1) 155.3 K
(2) 135.5K
(3) 133.5 K
(4) 127.5 K

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Page 21

Que. Ans. Que. Ans. Que. Ans. Que. Ans.
1 3 16 4 31 3 45 2
2 1 17 1 32 3 46 4
3 3 18 4 33 4 47 4
4 4 19 3 34 2 48 1
5 1 20 2 35 2 49 4
6 2 21 1 36 2 50(i) 3
7 1 22 4 37 2 50(ii) 3
8 2 23 1 38 1 51 3
9 4 24 2 39 2 52(i) 1
10 4 25 2 40 3 52(ii) 2
11 2 26 2 41 1 52(iii) 3
12 2 27 1 42(i) 1 53 2
13 4 28 2 42(ii) 3 54 1
14 4 29 4 43 2 55 3
15 1 30 3 44 3

Solutions
PART A (1-15)
1.(3)
1 1 2 2
1 2
mD m D
w w
=

2
m 12 24 15
180 24

=
m
2
= 40

2.(1)
RA SA 9 9
PA PA
QA 7

= =
Diameter = PA + AQ

81 130
7
7 7
+ =
Diameter
2

65
7
=

3.(3) R
1
+ R
2
= a
R
2
+ R
3
= b
R
3
+ R
1
= c
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ R
3
+ R
1
= a + b + c

1 2 3
a b c
R R R
2
+ +
+ + =

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Page 22

4. (4) Value of each tool in 1985
=
7
3
10 10
18 10

[Since 1 crore = 10
7
]
=
5
5
9
Thousand

5.(1) The required percentage =
( )
18
100
360 18

(since total employed = 360 unemployed)
=
18 5
100 5 %
342 19
=

6.(2) This is an alternating multiplication and subtracting series: First, multiply by 2 and
then subtract 8.

7.(1) Total quantity of petrol =
4000 4000 4000
litres
7.50 8 8.50
| |
+ +
|
\ .

consumed in 3 years
2 1 2
4000 liters
15 8 17
| |
+ +
|
\ .

=
76700
litres
51
| |
|
\ .

Total amount spent = Rs. (3 x 4000) = Rs. 12000.
Average cost =
12000 51 6120
Rs. Rs.7.98
76700 767
| |
= =
|
\ .

8.(2) Let C.P.= Rs. 100. Then, Profit = Rs. 320, S.P. = Rs. 420.
New C.P. = 125% of Rs. 100 = Rs. 125
New S.P. = Rs. 420.
Profit = Rs. (420 - 125) = Rs. 295.
Required percentage =
%
295 1475
100 % 70%(approximately)
420 21
| |
= =
|
\ .

A student multiplied a number by
3
5
5
3

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Page 23

9.(4) Each day of the week is repeated after 7 days.
So, after 63 days, it will be Friday. Hence after 63 days,
it will be Thursday.
Therefore the required day is Thursday.

10 .(4)
4 51 126
40 min 1 hrs hrs.
5 75 75
= =
Time taken = 1 hr 40 min 48 sec = 1 hr
Let the actual speed be x km/hr.
Then,
5 126
x 42
7 75
=
x =
42 7 75
35km/ hr.
5 126
| |
=
|

\ .

11.(2) Given, Total profit = Rs. 990
Ration of their capitals = 34 : 65.
Now, profit amount got by P = 20% of total profit + Ps share in balance 80%
profit for his capital

34
0.2 0.8
34 65
(
+
(
+

= 470

12.(2) Now area = (1/6 1000)sq m = 5000/3 sq m
2x 3x = 5000/3 =>x x = 2500 / 9
x = 50/3
length = 2x = 100/3 m and breadth = 3x = 3 (50/3) = 50m

13. (4) Distance = (240 x 5) = 1200 km.
Speed = Distance/Time
Speed = 1200/(5/3) km/hr. [We can write 1 hours as 5/3 hours]
Required speed = 1200 x 3 km/hr = 720 km/hr.
14.(4) As, 2 5 1 = 20
and 4 3 6 = 72
Similarly, 7 2 ? = 42

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Page 24

42
? 3
14
= =

15.(1) According to question,

Therefore, B F J Q is odd.

PART B (16-35)
16.(4) From the property of dirac delta function

## f(x) (x a)dx f(a)

+

o =
}

so,
0
[cos(3x) 2] (x )dx
+
+ o t
}

Here f(x) = cos(3x) + 2
so, o(x t) = o(0)
x = t
so,
0
[cos(3x) 2] (x )dx

+ o t
}
= cos(3t) + 2 = 1 + 2 = 1
17.(1) We know Fourier cos transform is

c
0
2
F f(x)cos sx dx

=
t
}

c
0
2
2 (1 ), 0 1
F ( ) f( )cos d
0, 1

s<

= u u u =
t

t

>

}

By inversion formula of F
c
(), we get

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Page 25

f(u) =
c
0
2
F ( )xcos d

u u
t
}
= ( )
1
0 1
2 2
1 cos d 0 d
(
u +
(
t t
(

} }

1
2
0
2 sin cos
f( ) (1 ) ( 1)
( u u | | | |
u =
| | (
t u u
\ . \ .
=
2 2
2 cos 1
0 0
u (
+
(
t u u

2
2(1 cos )
f( )
u
u =
tu

18.(4) (ii) We have f
1
(s) = f
2
=(s) =
2 2
s
L{cosat}
s a
=
+

By convolution theorem

t
1
1 2 1 2
0
L {f (s)f (s)} F (y)F (t y)dy

=
}

t 2
1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
s s s
L L cos aycosa(t y)dy
(s a ) s a s a

| || |
= =
` `
| |
+ + +
\ .\ . ) )
}

=
t
0
1
[cosat cos(2ay at)]dy
2
+
}

t
0
1 1
ycosat sin(2ay at)
2 2a
(
= +
(

=
1 1 1
t cosat sinat [at cos at sin at]
2 a 2a
(
+ = +
(

19.(3) Reduced mass of two body system is
M =
m 2m 2m
m 2m 3

=
+

So, kinetic energy T =
2
1 2m
x
2 3
| |
|
\ .

Potential energy of system V =
2
1
kx
2

So, Lagrangian L = TV

2 2
1 2m 1
L x kx
2 3 2
| |
=
|
\ .

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Page 26

Lagrangian equation is

d L L
0
dt x x
c c | |
=
|
c c
\ .

d 2m
x (kx) 0
dt 3
(
=
(

2m
x kx 0
3
+ =

3k
x x 0
2m
+ =

20.(2) Cycle 1 is clockwise so work done during cycle 1 is positive . Similarly cycle 2 is anticlockwise and
work done during cycle 2 becomes negative.
But area of cycle 2 is greater than area of cycle 1. So resultant work is negative.

2
p
V

21.(1) Here the expression for F represents the force between two charges in Webers electrodynamics.
We have
2
r 2 2
1 r 2rr
F 1
r c
| |
=
|
\ .

Taking U = q| q(A v) and F
r
=
2
U d U

r dt r
c c | |
+
|
c c
\ .

in usual notation,

2
r 2 2
1 r 2r r
F 1
r c
| |
=
|
\ .

=
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 c r 2r r 1 c r 2rr
r c c r
| | | | + +
=
| |
\ . \ .

=
2 2
2 2 2 2
1 c 1 2rr r
c r c r
| |
+
|
\ .

=
2
2 2 2
1 1 2rr r U d U
r dt r r c r
| | c c | |
+ = +
|
|
c c
\ .
\ .

Yields,

2
U 1

r r
c
=
c
which gives an integration U =
1
r
= arbitrary constant say a function of r.
Assuming U =
2
2
1 1 r
,
r r c
| |
+
|
\ .

we get

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Page 27

2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
U 1 r 1 1 r

r r c r r c r
c | |
= + =
|
c
\ .

and
2
U 1 2r
r r c
c
=
c

so that
2
2 2 2
d U 2 d r 2 r r
dt r dt r c c r
| | c | | | |
= =
|
| |
c
\ . \ .
\ .

Thus
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
U d U 1 r 2rr 2r 1 r 2rr
1
r dt r r c r c r c r r c
| | c c
+ = + +
|
c c
\ .

(on simplification)
Justifies F
r
=
2 2
1 r 2rr
1
r c
| |
|
\ .

as given
As such the generalized potential U
2
2
1 1 r
r r c
+

also T
2 2 2
1
[r r ]
2
+ u

Lagrangian L = T U =
2 2 2 2
2
r r 1 1 r

2 2 r r c
u
+

22.(4) We know Fermi energy of electron

2/ 3
2 2
f
N
E 3
2m V
( t
=
(

23
N 1 6.06 10
V M

=
=
23
1 6.06 10 0.97
23

=
N
V

= 2.5510
22
/cm
3
=2.55 10
28
m
3

m = 9.1 10
31
kg
So, E
f
=
34 2
2/ 3
2 28
31
(1.05 10 )
3 (3.14) 2.55 10
2 9.1 10

( (

= 0.66 10
37
[7542]
2/3
(10)
18

=
19
1/ 3
(754.2)
0.66 10 Joule
(754.2)

E
f
= 4.9710
19
J
E
f
=
19
19
4.97 10
eV 3.10eV
1.6 10

23.(1) Paramagnetic susceptibility is given by

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Page 28

_
p
=
2
0 B
B F
n
k T

where
B
is Bohr magneton = 9.3 10
24
J/tesla

0
is magnetic permeability of free space = 4t 10
7
hnry/m.
n is no. of free electrons per unit volume.
Assuming one free electron per atom the number of atoms per cubic meter of potassium is
23 3
3
6.02 10 0.86 10
3.91 10

Hence no. of free electrons (per m
3
) n =
23 3
3
6.02 10 0.86 10
39.1 10

or n = 1.2 10
28
m
3

E
F
= k
B
T
F
or T
F
=
F
B
E
k

T
F
=
19
4
23
2.1 1.6 10
2.43 10 K.
1.38 10

Substituting the values we have

7 28 24 2
8
p 19
4 10 1.3 10 (9.3 10 )
420.5 10 .
21. 1.6 10

t
_ = =

24.(2) We know magnetic susceptibility
_=
2
2 0 B
N
g J(J 1)
3KT

+ =
2
0
N 4S(s 1)
3kT
u
+

For co
+2
having 3d
7
configuration,
m
s
=

s
1 1 1 3
m s
2 2 2 2
= = + + =

From grap
Slope
dy 1 4000 3000
dx T 20

= =
_

=
1000
50
20
=

1
50
T
=
_

7 2
0
4 10 N/ A

= t

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Page 29

24 2
B
9.27 10 Am

=
K = 1.38 10
23
J/K
J = S = 3/2
g = 2
So,
2
0 B
3K( T)
N
3 5
4
2 2
_
=
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

=
23
7 24 2
3 1.38 10
4 10 (9.27 10 ) 15 50

t

26
N 5.1 10 =
25.(2) The magnetic field at O is

0 0 0 0
2

= + + = + 1+
4 R 8R 8R 8R
( I I I I | |
( |
t t
\ .

B k k i i k

0
2

= q(v ) = q
8R
( ( I | |
v + + (
` ( |
t
\ . ( )

F B j i 1 k k
=
0
qv 2

+ 1+
8R
( I | |
( |
t
\ .
k i

26.(2) We know E
f
= E
f(0)

2
2
B
f (0)
K T
1
12 E
(
| |
t
(
|
|
(
\ .

Given E
f(0)
= 7 eV = 7 1.6 10
19
J
T = 3 10
4
K
So,
f
f (0)
E
E
=
2
2 23 4
19
1.4 10 3 10
1
12 7 1.6 10
( t
(

=
2
2
0.2 3
1
12 1.6
t (
(

= 1
2
9
12 64
t

= 1
2
(3.14) 3
4 64

= 1 .115

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Page 30

f
f (0)
E
0.88
E
=

27.(1) We know in Raman effect
Au =4B
3
J
2
| |
+
|
\ .

So given 4B = 41.6 c.m
1

So, rotation constant B =
1
41.6
10.4cm
4
=
B = 1040 m
1

We know B =
2
h
8 C t I

So, I =
2
h
8 BC t

I =
34
2 8
6.6 10
8 (3.14) (1040) (3 10 )

I = 2.7 10
47
kgm
2

So, r
I
=

reduce mass Of HCl molecule
So,
H Cl
H Cl
M M
M M
=
+
=
23 2
23
(1 35) /(6.023 10 )
(1 35) /(6.023 10 )

+

= 1.61 10
24
gm
= 1.6 10
27
kg.
So, r =
47
27
2.7 10
1.6 10

= 1.29 10
10
m
r 1.29A =

28.(2) Given R
in
= R
1
= 120 kO
R
f
= 600 kO
V
i
= 1.2 V
V
0
= ?
For inverting O.P Amp voltage gain

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Page 31

A
V
=
f f
in 1
R R
R R
= =
600
120

A
V
= 5
A
V
=
0
i
V
V

So, V
out
= A
V
V
i

= 5 1.2

out
V 6V =

29.(4) Given I
P
=
5
2

We know number of spectral levels (lines) in
NMR is = (2I
p
+ 1)
2
5
2
+ 1
6 lines

30.(3) g = 2

5
= 10
A

R = 120 ohm
So, New resistance R = Rg
A

= 120 2 10
5

= 240 10
5

3
R' 2.4 10 ohm =

31.(3) x runs from 0 to (1y)
2
Fd xyz dx dy dz t =
} } } } } }

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Page 32

=
1 2 2
2
0 0
(1 y)
z y dy dz
2

`

)
} }

=
1 2
2 2
0 0
1
z y(1 y) dy dz
2

`

)
} }

=
1 2
2 3 2
0 0
1
z (y y 2y )dy dz
2
(
+
(

} }

=
2
1 2 4 3
2
0 0
1 y y 2y
z dz
2 2 4 3
(
+
(

}

=
1
2
0
1 4 16 2.8
z dz
2 2 4 3
(
+
(

}

=
1
1 3
2
0 0
1 2 1 2 Z 1 1 1
z dz
2 3 2 3 3 3 3 9
| |
= = =
|
\ .
}

32.(3)

2 2 3
1 1 1
2 2 4
1 1 2
2 4
1 2
H H H P
H H He n
3 H He P n
+ +
+ +
+ +

Am = (3M(
1
H
2
) M(
2
He
4
) M
P
M
n
)
Am = 3 2.014 4.001 1.007 1.008
Am = 0.026 amu
So, energy E = Am c
2
= 0.026 931 1.6 10
13
J
E = 38.72 10
13
J
So, energy of total deuteron
W = E
T
= 10
40
38.72 10
13
J
P =
W
t

t =
W
P
=
40 13
16
38.72 10 10
10

= 38.72 10
11

12
t 3.87 10 sec. =

33.(4) In pair production process, electron-positron pair is produced. So,
hv = E
+
+ E

+ 2m
0
c
2

E
+
kinetic energy of positron

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Page 33

E

kinetic energy of electron
hv incident photon energy
Given E
+
+ E

= 0.01 MeV
Rest mass energy 2m
0
c
2
= 2 9.1 10
31
(3 10
8
)
2
J.
2m
0
c
2
= 1.02 MeV
So, hv = 0.01 MeV + 1.02 MeV
h 1.03MeV v =
34.(2) Photons are particles having spin 1 (integer) and pions are spin less particle so, they are Bosons.

35.(2) q is meson having zero charge.
So, quark structure is uu or dd
So, normalized quark structure is

( )
1
uu dd
2
=
PART C (36-55)
36.(2) We know f
(n)
(1) =
n 1
C
n! f(z)dz
,
2 i (z a)
+
t
}

Put f(z) = sin
6
z, which is analytic within and on the circle |z| = 1, whose centre is z = 0 and radius 1,
also put n = 2 and a =
1
,
6
t which lies within the given circle C, in the above formula then we get
f
6
3
C
1 2! sin z
dz.
6 2 i
1
z
6
| |
t =
|
t
\ . | |
t
|
\ .
}
.(1)
Now f(z) = sin
6
z which gives f(z) = 6 sin
5
z cos z
and f(z) = 6[5 sin
4
z cos
2
z sin
6
z] = 6 sin
4
z (5 cos
2
z sin
2
z)
f( t/6) = 6 sin
4

2 2
1 1 1
5 cos sin
6 6 6
(
| | | | | |
t t t
( | | |
\ . \ . \ .

= 6(1/2)
4
[5(\3/2)
2
(1/2)
2
] = (3/32) [5(3) 1]
From (1) we have
6
3
C
sin z dz 21
i.
16
1
z
6
= t
| |
t
|
\ .
}

37.(2) (i) If we take a = 1, b = 1

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Page 34

then
1 2 2
1
A 2 1 1
3
2 1 1
(
(
=
(
(

A
T
=
1 2 2
1
2 1 1
3
2 1 1
(
(
(
(

A square finite matrix A is said to orthogonal if
AA
T
= I

T
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 1
AA 2 1 1 2 1 1
3 3
2 1 1 2 1 1
( (
( (
=
( (
( (

1 4 4 2 22 2 22
1
2 22 4 1 1 4 1 1
9
2 22 4 1 1 4 1 1
+ + + + (
(
= + + + + +
(
(
+ + + + +

9 2 2
1
2 6 2
9
2 2 6
(
(
= = I
(
(

So, this is not correct value of a, b.
(ii) If we take a = 1, b = 2
Then A
1 2 2
1
2 1 2
3
2 2 1
(
(
=
(
(

A
T
=
1 2 2
1
2 1 2
3
2 2 1
(
(
(
(

AA
T
=
1 2 2 1 2 2
1
2 1 2 2 1 2
9
2 2 1 2 2 1
( (
( (
( (
( (

=
9 0 0
1
0 9 0
9
0 0 9
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0
1
9 0 1 0
9
0 0 1
(
(

(
(

=
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
(
(
= I
(
(

So, the matrix is orthogonal if a = 1, b = 2.

38.(1) q of H.E. between A and C

C
A
A
T
1
T
| |
q =
|
\ .

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Page 35

q of engine =
C
A
T
1
T
| |
o
|
\ .

Here Q
2
=
1 1
C 3 C
A B
Q Q
T , Q T
T T
=
Total Heat rejection
(Q
2
+ Q
3
) = Q
1
T
C

A B
1 1
T T
| |
+
|
\ .

Total Heat input = 2Q
1

q of engine =
1 C
A B
1
1 1
Q T
T T
1
2Q
(
| |
+
( |
\ . (
(
(
(

C C C
A A B
T T T
1
T 2T 2T
o
o =
Multiply both side by T
A
and divide by T
C

or
A A A
C C B
T T T 1 1

T T 2 2 T
o o =
or
A A
B C
T T
(2 1) 2(1 )
T T
= o + o
39.(2) Energy eigen value of three dimension well is

t
=

2 2
2
E
2ma
+ +
2 2 2
x y z
(n n n ) ...(1)
given E =
t
2 2
2
9
ma

E =
t
2 2
2
18
2ma
...(2)
compere equation (1) and equation (2).
+ + =
2 2 2
x y z
n n n 18
If n
x
= 4, n
y
= 1, n
z
= 1
then + + = + + =
2 2 2
x y z
n n n 16 1 1 18
So, possible values (combinations) of n
x
n
y
n
z
are (n
x
, n
y
, n
z
) = (4, 1,1) (1, 4, 1), (1, 1, 4)
So, the state is 3-fold degenerate.

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Page 36

40.(3)
273
p
2 1
293
mc dT
S S
T
=
}

273
0.01 4.2 In kJ/ K
293
=
S
2
S
1
= 0.00297 kJ/K = 2.97 J/K

3 2
mL
S S
T

=
=
0.01 335 1000
273

S
3
S
2
= 12.271 J/K
268
p
4 13
273T
mc dT
4.2 268
S S 0.01 In kJ/ K
T 2 273
| |
= =
|
\ .
}

= 0.3882 J/K
So, S
4
S
1
= S
2
S
1
+ S
3
S
2
+ S
4
S
3
= 15.63 JK
1

41.(1) For one-dimensional free electron gas, energy level separation

2 2
2
n
E
2mL
t
A =

So,
2
2
n'
E
L
A

42.(i)(1) We begin by writing the Hamiltonian as

2 2 2 2 2 2
x y z z z
x z x x z x
1 1 1 1 1 1
H (L L L ) L L L
2 2 2 2 2 2
| | | |
= + + + = +
| |
I I I I I I
\ . \ .

where L is the total angular momentum.
We know eigen values of L
2
= ( + 1)
2
and, L
2
= m
2
2 2
m
x z x
1 1
E ( 1) m
2 2 2
| |
= + +
|
I I I
\ .

So the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian are those of L
2
and L
z
, i.e., the s [hetrical harmonic with the
eigen energies E
m
..
(ii)(3)
m m
x y z
Y ( , ) | (L L L ) | Y ( , ) ( u | + + u | >

m m
z
L L L L
Y ( , ) | L | Y ( , )
2 2i
+ +
+ | |
< u | + + u | )
|
\ .

=
m m
z
Y ( , ) | L | Y ( , ) < u | u | >

= m
43.(2) Binding energy according to semimpirical mass formula
E
b
=a
v
A = a
s
A
2/3
a
c
z (z1) A
1/3
a
a
(A-2z)
2
A
1
apA
3/4

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Page 37

A nuclie will be most stable isobar which has maximum binding energy.
For maximum binding energy
E
b
=E
bmax
when
b
dE
0
dz
=
For maximum binding energy
E
b
= E
bmax
when
dEb
0
dz
=
a
c
(2z1)A
1/3
+ 4a
a
(A 2z) A
1
=0

1/ 3
a
1/ 3 1
c a
aA 4a
z
2a A 8a A

+
=
+

1/ 3
1/ 3
0.58(64) 4 19.3
8 19.3
2 0.58(64)
64

+

=
0.145 77.2
28.62
0.29 2.4125
+
=
+

z 29 ~

44.(3) m = 36 g = 0.036 kg
T
1
= 30C = 303 K
T
2
= 523 K
(AS)
water

=
P
373
mc n kJ/ K
303
| |
|
\ .

= 0.03143 kJ/K

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Page 38

(AS)
Vaporization
=
2
mL
T

=
0.036 2260
373

= 0.21812 kJ/K
(AS)
Vapour
=
523
p
373
dT
mc
T
}

=
523
373
a
mR b CT dT
T
| |
+ +
|
\ .
}

=
523
2
373
CT
mR a n T bT
2
(
+ +
(

=
523
2
373
CT
mR a n T bT
2
(
+ +
(

=
2 2
523 C
mR a n b (523 373) (523 373 )
373 2
(
+ +
(

= 0.023556 kJ/K
(AS)
System
= (AS)
water
+ (AS)
vaporization
+ (AS)
vapour
= 273.1 J/K.

45.(2) The intrinsic impedances are
q
1
=
0
r1
120
129
8.5
q
= = O
c
and q
2
= q
0
= 120t O
and the angle of transmission is given by

t 0
sin15
sin 8.5
c
=
u c
or u
t
= 48.99
Then
r
0 0 i 1 t
i
2 i 1 t 0
E cos cos
cos cos E
q u q u
=
q u + q u
= 0.623 or
r
0
E = 0.623 V/m

46.(4) Since the kinetic energy of A after collision is one-ninths of its initial kinetic energy, the momentum of
A after collision is one-third of its initial momentum.
Since the momentum is to be conserved, we have
p = p p/3 where p is initial momentum of A and p is the momentum of B after the collision.
[The final momentum of particle A is negative since its direction is reversed].
Therefore, p = 4p/3

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Page 39

The kinetic energy gained by particle B due to the collision is p
2
/2M where M is the mass of particle
B.
The kinetic energy lost by particle A due to the collision is (8/9)p
2
/2m.
[Note that the initial kinetic energy of particle A is p
2
/2m and its final kinetic energy is (1/9) p
2
/2m].
Since the kinetic energy too is conserved in elastic collisions, the kinetic energy gained by particle B
is equal to the kinetic energy lost by particle A. Therefore, we have
p
2
/2M = (8/9) p
2
/2m
Substituting for p = 4p/3, we have
(16/9) (p
2
/2M) = (8/9) p
2
/2m from which M = 2 m.

47.(4) The volume of water = 10
5

1
20
= 5000 cubic miles.
Mass of water = 5000 (1.609 10
3
)
3
10
3
kg = 2.08 10
16
kg.
or No. of molecules of water = 2.08 10
16
6.02214 10
26
/18 = 6.97 10
41
molecules.
As the abundance of deuterium is 0.0156% so that the total number of deuterium atoms
= 6.97 10
41
2 0.0156 10
2
= 2.18 10
38
.
As the fusion of 6 deuterium atoms gives an energy release of 43 MeV, hence the total energy
released = 2.18 10
38
(43/6).
= 1.56 10
39
MeV.

48.(1) The wave length (in Angstrom unit) of a photon of energy E (in electron volt) is given by
E = 12400, very nearly.
Therefore, = 12400/E
[The above expression can be easily obtained by remembering that a photon of energy 1 eV has
wave length 12400 and the energy is inversely proportional to the wave length].
Since E = 2 eV we have = 12400/2 = 6200 = 620 nanometre.
Photons with wave length greater than 640 nm will have energy less than 2 eV so that they will be
unable to produce electron hole pairs in the semiconductor of band gap 2 eV. So the correct option is
(1).

49.(4) Circuit (i) is shown the logic circuit of AND GATE and here output
Y = A B
Circuit (ii) is shown the logic circuit of OR GATE and output
Y = A + B
Similarly circuit (iii) is shown the logic circuit of NOR GATE and output is
Y = A B +

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Page 40

50(i).(3) Since f(z) = cosz
sinz

z

to find zeros of f(z) put f(z) = 0
cos z
sinz

z
= 0

3 5
2 4
z z
z .....
z z
3! 5!
1 ......... 0
2! 4! z
(
+
(
(
( + =
(
( (

(

2 4 2 4
z z z z
1 ........ 1 ........ 0
2! 4! 3! 5!
| | | |
+ + =
| |
| |
\ . \ .

z
2
1 1
........ 0
3! 2!
(
+ =
(

so z = 0 is a zero of f(z) of order 2

50(ii).(3)
g(z) sinhz
zf(z) zcosz sinz
=
To find poles z cos z sin z = 0

3 5
z z
z .......
2! 4!
(
+
(
(

3
z
z ....... 0
3!
(
+ =
(
(

3 5
1 1 1 1
z z 0
3! 2! 5! 4!
( (
+ + =
( (

g(z)
zf(z)
have pole at z = 0 of order 3
51.(3) The Lagrangian of a is given by
L = T V =
2 2 2 2
1
mr ( sin ) V(r, , ).
2
u + u| u |

..(1)
In this case the only two generalized co-ordinates are u and |, therefore there will be only two
Lagrangian equations, one in u and the other in |.
The Lagrangian equation in coordinate u is given by

d L L
0.
dt
c c | |
=
|
cu cu \ .

..(2)
From equation (1), we have

2 2 2
L L V
mr and mr sin cos
c c c
= u = u u|
cu cu cu

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Page 41

With these substitutions, equation (2) becomes

2 2 2
d V
(mr ) mr sin cos 0
dt
c
u u u| + =
cu

(3)
The Lagrangian equation for conservative system in the variable | is given by

d L L
0
dt
| | c c
=
|
c| c|
\ .

Again equation (1) gives

2 2
L V L
and mr sin
c c c
= = u|
c| c| c|

(4)
With these substitutions equation (4) becomes

2 2
d V
(mr sin ) 0
dt
c
u| + =
c|

52(i).(1) We have E = Ex and we seek ( ) x,t | such that
E = V| (1)
Since B = 0, we seek a gauge in which A = 0. Intergrating (1) we obtain |(x) = - cx + c, where c is a
constant of integration. Let us choose c = 0; then
( ) x x | = c (2)
The total Hamiltonian is

2
2 2
p 1
H m x x
2m 2
= + e c (3)
The first term on the right-hand side of (3) is the standard kinetic term, the second term is the
harmonic oscillator potential energy, and the third term is the electrical potential energy.

52(ii).(2) We will now write part (i) eq.(3) in the following form:
H
y
=
2
y 2 2
y 0
p
1
m y H
2m 2
+ e + (4)
Where H
0
is a constant and y = ax + b. Consider the kinetic term. We see that p
y
= p
x
, so a = 1. Now we
can substitute y = x + b into (4) and obtain
H
y
= ( )
2 2
2
2 2 2 2 x x
0 0
p p 1 1 1
m x b H m bx m b H
2m 2 2m 2 2
+ e + + = + e + e + (5)
From Eq. (3) of part (i) we see that H
x
= H
y
only if b = c/me
2
and H
0
= c
2
/ 2me
2
.

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Page 42

52(iii).(3) To conclude, if we perform the coordinate transformation y = x c/me
2
, we get a one-dimensional
harmonic oscillator with no charge, and the energy eigenvalues of a one-dimensional harmonic
oscillator are
n
1 1
E w n
2 2

| |
= +
|
\ .
..(6)
Corresponding to the eigenstate
n
| . We have a shifted harmonic oscillator; thus, the energy
eigenvalues are now.
En =
2
2
1 1 1
n
2 2 2 m
c | |
e +
|
e
\ .

53.(2) f(x) = x
3
x
2
+ 4x 4
f(x) = 3x
2
2x + 4
f(2) = 8 4 + 8 4 = 8
f(2) = 12 4 + 4 = 12

n
n 1 n
n
f(x )
x x
f '(x )
+
=
x
n + 1
= ( )
8
2 2 2/ 3 4/ 3
12
= =

54.(1) Taking earth as reference level for zero potential energy, we have
V(q) = mgz ..(1)
The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamiltons principal function is

2
1 S S
V(q) 0
2m q t
(
| | c c
( + + =
|
c c
( \ .

..(2)
The first term in bracket is function of q only, while the second term is function of t only, therefore
each term must be equal to the same constant with opposite signs.

2
1 S
i.e. V(q)
2m q
S
and
t

| | c
+ = o
|
c
\ .
`
c
= o

c )
...(3)
Then we have S = W(q, o)ot,
...(4)
W being a constant of integration.

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Page 43

As
s W
,
q q
c c
=
c c
therefore the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamiltons characteristic function W takes
the form

2
1 W
V(q)
2m q
| | c
+ = o
|
c
\ .
...(5)
This gives { }
W
2m V(q)
q
c
( = o

c
...(6)
Integrating above expression, we get
W = { }
1/ 2
2m V(q) dq ( o
}
...(7)
Now { }
1/ 2 S W
p 2m V(q)
q q
c c
( = = = o

c c
...(8)
and
S W
t
c c
| = =
co co

= { }
1/ 2
2m V(q) dq t
c
( o

co
}

i.e.
1/ 2
m dq
t
2 [ V(q)
| + =
o
}
...(9)
The Hamiltonian of system is
H =
2
p
mgz E
2m
+ = = o ...(10)
From (9)
1/ 2
1/ 2
m dz m 2
t (E mgz)
2 2 mg [E mgz]
| |
| + = =
|
\ .
}

=
1/ 2
1 2
(E mgz)
g m
...(11)
Thus
2
2
1 2
( t)
m g
| + = (E mgz)
Solving for z, we get
z =
2
1 E
g( t)
2 mg
| + + ...(12)
Initial conditions are
At t = 0, z = h, v = z 0 =

and so p = mz 0 =

...(13)
Using (12), equations (10) and (12) yield

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Page 44

E = mgh, h =
2
1 E
g
2 mg
| +
Solving these equations, we get | = 0
Now p =
W
mz mgt using (12)
z
c
= =
c

...(14)
Thus we have from (12) and (14)
2
1
z h gt
2
p mgt

=
`

=
)
...(15)
These are required equations with S = W Et
where
1/ 2
W (2m) (E mgz) dz =
}

55.(3) From Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law, the number of molecules in the vth state relative to that in
the v = 0 (lowest) state at T Kelvin temperature is given by

0
G ( )hc / kT
0
N
e
N
v v
=
=
G( ) G(0)hc / kT
e ,
v

where G(v) =
2
e e e
1 1
x
2 2
| | | |
e v + e v +
| |
\ . \ .

2
e e e e e
( n x n x n)hc / kT n
0
N
e
N
e e e
=

For the n = 1 level, we have

e e e
( 2 x )hc / kT 1
0
N
e
N
e e
=
Here
1 1 1
e e e
0
N 1
, 214.6cm and x 0.6 cm (given)
N 10
= e = e =

1 1
(214.6 cm 1.2 cm )hc / kT
1
e
10
=
or
1 1
(213.4 cm )hc / kT (21340m )hc / kT
10 e e = =
Taking natural logarithm:
Log
e
10 = (21340 m
1
) hc/kT.

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Page 45

T =
1
21340 m hc
2.303 k

=
34 8 1
1
23 1
(6.63 10 Js)(3.0 10 ms )
(9266 m )
1.38 10 JK

= 133.5 K.