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VIPASSANA Awareness in the Moment


CONTENTS PART 1 Dedication Acknowledgement Forward Fundamentals of Vipassana Meditation Maha Satipatthana Sutta (English) CHAPTER I A General Outline of Vipassana Meditation Some Guidelines to Begin Training CHAPTER II Meditation Exercises and Miscellaneous CHAPTER III Progressive Practice Insight into the Three Characteristics Reference Notes Vipassana Jhanas More Reference Notes PART 2 Progress of Insight Introduction The Progress of Insight in Vipassana Meditation Maha Satipatthana Sutta (Pali) 3 5 6 11 20

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Published by Leong Yok Kee/ Law Mi-Lan Carol Blk 226, Ang Mo Kio Ave 1, #08-603 Singapore 560226 Email: yokkee122@gmail.com Copyright @2013 by Leong Yok Kee/ Law Mi-Lan Carol (Ma Hninsi)

This Publication is a Gift of Dhamma. Any part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording without prior written permission from the publisher. Front and back cover by Leong Yok Kee and Law Mi-Lan Carol (Ma Hninsi). April 2013 Bukit Tinggi Bentong Pahang

Title: Vipassana Awareness in the Moment Author: Leong Yok Kee/Law Mi-Lan Carol (Ma Hninsi) Buddhism - customs and practices Buddhism - doctrines

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DEDICATION
To the memory of
THE LATE VENERABLE ACARA SUVANNO MAHATHERA
(1920 - 2007)

A Teacher of Great Compassion


Wise and virtuous, gentle and keenkeen-witted, humble and amenable;

guide, instructor, leader; such a one to honour may attain. Generosity, sweet speech, helpfulness to others, impartiality mpartiality to all; as the case demands. These four winning ways the the wise appraise in every every way; to eminence they attain and praise they rightly gain.
Sigalovada Sutta (Digha Nikaya 3I)

PUBLISHED FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Sabbadnam Dhammadnam Jinti The Gift Of Truth Excels All Other Gifts To all who sincerely wish to share The Practice of the Dhamma And to the Family who Inspired the Completion of this Manual Tapo ca brahmacariyaca, Ariyasaccna Ariyasacc na dassanam, Nibbna Nibb na sacchikiriy sacchikiriy ca, ca, Etam mangalamuttamam. mangalamuttamam.

Ardent effort, the divine life Leading Insight into the Noble Truths and Realisation of Nibbana This is the Highest Blessing

FORWARD The Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw (1904 - 1982) A Short Biography


The Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw was born in the year 1904 at Seikhun, a large, pleasant and prosperous village lying about seven miles to the west of historic Shwebo Town in Upper Burma. His parents, peasant proprietors by occupation, were U Kan Taw and Daw Oke. At the age of six, the Sayadaw was sent to receive his early monastic education under U Adicca, presiding monk of Pyinmana Monastery at Seikhun. His interest in the Satipatthana Vipassana Meditation took him then to neighbouring Thaton where under the well-known Mingun Jetawan Sayadaw's instructions, he took up intensive practice of Vipassana Meditation for four months with such good results that he was in turn able to teach it correctly to his first three disciples at Seikhun while he was on a visit there in 1938. It was not long before Mahasi Sayadaw's reputation as an able teacher of Vipassana Meditation spread far and wide. The name Mahasi became an icon of Vipassana Meditation known throughout Burma and acclaimed internationally. The man who has not penetrated the Truth of Suffering has an unrealistic optimism of life and in his ignorance will not see that it is tainted with pain and suffering. It is not possible to seek the truth of suffering in books, it is to be realised only in one's own body. Seeing, hearing, in short, all nama-rupa arising from the Six Senses are suffering. Our (as well as all others) existence is impermanent, undesirable and unpleasant. It may end at any time and while in existence, all experience pain and suffering.

This suffering and pain (dukkha) is not perceived as such by ordinary living beings as they look upon their existence as blissful and good. They seek pleasant sense-objects, such as beautiful sights, soothing sounds, delicious food and multitudes of sensual cravings. Their effort to possess what they believe to be the good things of life is due to their delusion regarding their existence. They are mired in sensual pleasures because they see everything through rose-tinted glasses. They harbour illusions about the nature of sense-objects and the realities of nama-rupa. A blind man is easily deceived into accepting a worthless stone as treasure. He will be upset when he finds out that this was not so. Likewise, an ignorant (avijja) person enjoys life, blind to its characteristics of anicca, dukkha and anatta. He will be disenchanted once he realises the unwholesome nature of his existence. Realisation of the realities of nama-rupa (mind and matter) cannot be achieved through book knowledge. It has to do with the mindful observing and ceaseless contemplation of all psychophysical phenomena that comprises the sense-objects and the corresponding consciousness. The practice of Vipassana Meditation leads to full awareness of their nature. As contemplative concentration intensifies in the practice, the meditator realises the true nature of the arising and instant disappearing of these psycho-physical phenomena, thereby gaining an Insight into their characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and self-lessness; in the language of the Buddha, anicca, dukkha and anatta. Those who do not practise Vipassana Meditation, fail to see realities and leave this life without realising the phenomena of nama-rupa.

The true nature of mentality (the mind) and physicality (the material body) can only be realised through the practice of Vipassana *Meditation, the foundation of supramundane wisdom. Such wisdom does not arise when mindfulness and concentration are not systematically trained and heightened. Illusion or conceptualised consciousness precedes meditative practice and so the beginner does not gain a clear Insight into the nature of living beings. It is only through steadfast practice that concentration and mindfulness mature, leading to true Insight Knowledge. Illusion dominates the un-mindful person and blinds him to the unsatisfactory nature (dukkha), of all senseobjects. It hides dukkha with sukha (pleasurable sensations). Man seeks and clings to pleasant sense-objects because of his ignorance and misconception of the reality of his existence. His ignorance leads to unwholesome efforts and activities. Ignorance is a source of suffering and gives rise to craving (tanha) and attachment (upadana); craving and attachment stem from the desire for pleasure.
Note: (Meditation* Bhavana is a Pali word derived from the Latin word meditatio, from a verb meditari, meaning to think, contemplate, devise, ponder. In terms of Vipassana, the word Meditation or Bhavana is meant a trained mental state where the mind is in constant concentration, known as Momentary Concentration, where it is capable of delving profoundly into the mental and physical phenomena conditioned by the senses of the ear, nose, eye, tongue, bodily sensations and thoughts, arousing profound mental insights. Through such deep insights the mind is able to contemplate the nature of the arising mental and physical phenomena and to come to the realisation that such arising phenomena are inconsistent, never stable and of an impermanent nature. By such realisation the mind realises the unsatisfactory nature of the arising phenomena and arriving at the conclusion that all such phenomena are without a core, self or soul. Such a state of Momentary Concentration is brought about by a process of meditation as taught by the Buddha known as Satipatthana or Mindfulness Meditation; commonly named Vipassana Bhavana or Insight Meditation)*

Ignorance of the Origin of Suffering (Dukkha) Craving is the source of suffering; many do not realise this truth. On the contrary, these ignorant putthujjana believe that it is craving that makes them happy, that without craving and attachment, life would be dreary. So they ceaselessly seek companionship, pleasurable sense objects, fine apparel, food and so forth. In the absence of these desirable objects they feel ill at ease and find life monotonous; for them, life without craving and attachment would be devoid of pleasure. Thus, people seek to gratify their cravings and these sensuous desires inspired efforts are the fount of suffering; desires and their causes are evident in daily life, but the subtleties of these delusions are difficult to penetrate by the ordinary spiritually untrained person. They are camouflaged and cannot be realised through intellectual reflections; only through the practice of Vipassana Meditation can their veil of illusion be penetrated. Ignorance of the Way to the Cessation of Suffering is widespread and the Supreme Goal is described in different ways in different beliefs. Some believe that suffering will come to an end in due course of time. Some regard sensual pleasure as the highest good and reject the idea of a future life. Such variety of beliefs are due to the ignorance of the Supreme Goal, Nibbana. In reality, Nibbana is the total extinction of the nama-rupa process which occurs ceaselessly on the basis of Causal Relationship. This total eradication of dukkha is Nibbana. Nibbana does not appeal to those who have strong cravings for life. To them the Cessation of nama-rupa process would mean nothing more than eternal death. Nevertheless, intellectual acceptance of Nibbana is necessary because the meditators whole-hearted and persistent effort to attain the Supreme Goal depends on it.

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Truth of the Way leading to the end of Suffering (the Fourth Noble Truth) is of vital importance. Due to ignorance, there are various speculations and teachings about the Way. Some advocate ordinary morality such as love, altruism, patience, almsgiving and so forth, while others stress the practice of mundane Jhana. All these practices are commendable; however, they only lead to relative welfare in the worlds of deva-brahmas, they do not ensure freedom from suffering in samsara; they do not form the correct Way to Nibbana. Some resort to self-mortification such as fasting, living in a state of nature and so forth. Some worship devas or animals. The Only Way, the Buddha taught, is to practise a moralistic way of living founded on the principles of: Right View, Right Intention, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration; in short the Noble Eight-fold Path. This Path is three-pronged; Basic, Preliminary and Ariyan. Of these, the most vital is the Ariyan Path but this Path should not be the primary objective of the yogi nor does it require him to spend much time and energy on it. For as the meditation practice develops, Insight Wisdom occurs. It requires much time and effort to produce fire by friction but ignition is a matter of a moment's duration. Similarly, the Insight into the Ariyan Path is instantaneous but it presupposes much practice of meditation on the Preliminary Path.

Mahasi Sayadaw

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FUNDAMENTALS OF VIPASSANA MEDITATION By Mahasi Sayadaw The Blessed Ones Teaching is not just another system of metaphysical philosophy, but a practical way of life. It examines the ills of this sentient life, indicates their causes, prescribes the removal of these causes, and points the Way to the release from all suffering. Those desirous of liberation can walk along this Way; except that they must make the effort to walk the Way themselves. The Blessed One very pointedly tells us that there is but One Way; the Way of Establishing the Four Foundations of Mindfulness that serves as the corner stone of the whole system of Insight Meditation (known also as Vipassana), which is the practical aspect of the Buddhas Teaching, and can only be realised by oneself through self practice. The Blessed One Himself found the Way, traversed it, and from His own experience did He teach it to beings. The Buddha: Even so have I, monks, seen an ancient way, an ancient road, followed by the wholly Awakened Ones of olden times. Along that way have I travelled, and the matters that I have come to know fully as I was going along this ancient way, I have taught the monks, nuns, men and women lay followers.
(Samyutta ii 105)

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Knowledge and Freedom Insight Knowledge will arise in the course of meditation and contemplating on the Five Aggregates of Clinging. When a carpenter is about to plane or saw off a timber, he draws a straight line using a thread. In the same way, when we want to live the holy life we use the thread or sutta to guide us in our actions. The Blessed One has given us instructions on how to train in morality, develop concentration, mindfulness and wisdom. Material shape, monks, is impermanent; what is impermanent, that is the source of unsatisfactoriness and suffering. Suffering is thus a causal condition, and not an entity or a self; does not belong to him, her, or anyone. The Buddha taught that; that which is not a self is not-self, insubstantial, soul-less and coreless, which no living being can call mine, I, or myselfone should discern right wisdom in this way. One notes arising phenomena in the course of Vipassana Meditation so that one will realise (by oneself) the impermanent nature of phenomena; that such phenomena are sources of suffering and do not possess a self or an ego. Concomitantly with Material Shape (rupa), one should also contemplate on Feelings, Perception, Mental Activities and Consciousness. Upon realising that these aggregates too, are impermanent, sources of suffering and is not possessed of a self entity; the Blessed One taught: Seeing all these things, the instructed disciple of the Noble Ones disregards Material Shape, disregards Feeling. He who realises the impermanent, suffering and non self nature of the Five Aggregates is wearied of material form as he is of Feelings, Perception, Mental Activities and Consciousness. By disregarding, he is passionless. Through passionless-ness, he is emancipated; that is to say, he has reached the Noble Path.
(Samyutta iii 68)

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Once one has attained the Noble Path of passionless-ness, one has arrived at the Four Fruitions of Freedom from defilements. In freedom the knowledge comes to be I am free from all defilement. When one is freed, one knows for oneself that one is so. In other words, when one has become an Arahant in whom the defilements are extinguished, one knows by oneself. Mind and Matter are Impermanent Insight Knowledge begins with the defining and understanding of mind and matter with respect to their characteristics, function, mode of appearance and proximate cause. When this Knowledge is clearly known by the meditator, he gains the Analytical Knowledge of Mind and Matter (nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana), and when this Knowledge matures, Purity of Views is developed. The practice of observing and meditating on arising mental and physical phenomena is to realise the importance of the elements that constitutes a living being; beginning with the air element. Air-element has the characteristic of support; this is its intrinsic nature. Moving is the function of the air-element; it manifests as bringing out. Manifestation is that which appears to the meditators intellect. As he meditates on the air-element, it appears to his intellect as a sensation of bringing out, pushing and pulling. This is the manifestation of the air-element. As he meditates on the rising-falling abdomen, all the firmness, moving, bringing out, becomes clear to the meditator. These are the characteristics, function and manifestation of the airelement. The Blessed One taught: Gacchanto va gacchami ti pajanati. (When he walks, he is aware I am walking) and that the meditator should be mindful of the form walking by noting walking, walking, when he walks.

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How knowledge is developed from meditating thus is explained. The thought I am walking arises. This initiates air movement in the body. The air produces the intimation. The bringing forward of the whole body as the air-element spreads is said to be walking. The meditator who is practising walking meditation, notes thus; walking, walking, when he walks. Firstly, the intention I will walk arises. This intention gives rise to tense movement all over the body, which in turn causes the material body to move forward, move by move. Thus, it is said: I walk, or He walks. In reality there is no I or He that walks. The meditator realises; there is only the intention to walk and the form walking. Here, the emphasis is on the realisation of the moving of the airelement. Thus, one has to understand the air-element by way of its characteristics, the function and manifestation. The function of the air-element is moving. It moves from place to place when it is strong. It is the air-element that makes the body bend, stretch, sit, rise, go or come. It may be construed that when one notes bending, stretching, as the case may be, only concepts like arms will appear in the mind. Further when one notes left, right as one walks, only concepts like legs will appear in the mind, and if one notes rising, falling, only concepts like the abdomen will appear in the mind. This situation will be the case in the initial phase of practice as both concepts and realities will appear to the beginner; to ignore concepts is not practicable at the beginning of the training. Concepts and realities will intertwine at the early stages. However, as the student advances in his Insight realisation, concepts and realities will be strictly defined and concepts will not arise.

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The Blessed One Himself applied concepts and taught I am walking, etc., when we walk, bend or stretch. Thus, He did not teach applying realities only in His Teachings, as He realises that there will be those who cannot see realities as such and not seeing it as such will be confused. The Ariyan Connection Once, the Venerable Maha Kotthika questioned the Venerable Sariputta: What things, friend Sariputta, should be attended to thoroughly by a monk of moral habit? Note the attribute of moral habit in this question. If the meditator wants to practise Insight Meditation with a view to attaining the Path and Fruition and Nibbana, the least qualification the meditator needs is to be of good moral habit. If the meditator does not even have good moral habit, he cannot hope for the higher conditions and wisdom. The Venerable Sariputta gave a brief and clear reply: The Five *Aggregates of Clinging, friend Kotthika, are the things which should be thoroughly attended to by a monk of moral habit, as being impermanent, suffering, as a disease, as a boil, as a dart, as pain, as illness, as alien, as decay, as void, as not self. What is the good of meditating like that? he enquired further. Sariputta replied: Indeed, friend, it is possible for a monk of good moral habit to thoroughly attend to the Five Aggregates of Clinging to realise the Fruits of Stream-winning.
Note: (Five *Aggregates or Khandha; groups: the Buddha analyses a living being into these five groups which constitute all beings. These groups are not entities in themselves, they are merely categories into which all aspects of beings can be analysed. None of them are self, of self, in self, or my self; they have nothing to do with selfhood and there is no self apart from them. These five khandha or aggregates are: rupa (material quality), vedana (feeling), sanna (perception), sankhara (mental formation) and vinnana (consciousness). When they attach or are attached to the five, they are known as the upadanakhandha; aggregates of clinging.)

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Thus, to be a Stream-winner and never to be reborn in the four lower states, one has to contemplate the Five Aggregates to realise their impermanence, suffering and not self nature. Kotthika goes on to ask: What things, friend Sariputta, should be attended to thoroughly by a monk who is a Stream-winner? Sariputta answered that it is the same Five Aggregates of Clinging that should be thoroughly attended to by a Stream-winner, as impermanent, suffering and not self. He continued to explain that the same Five Aggregates should be attended to by the one who has attained to a Once returner, a Non-returner and an Arahant. From this it is clear that the Five Aggregates are the things one has to meditate on even when one has become an Arahant. Without realising the Knowledge and Insight of Vipassana, people see themselves and others as being endowed with permanent existence that has been carried over from the past and exist again in the future. With this view, they believe that there is a self within them that oversees and dictates what they see, hear, smell, taste, touch or think. With constant and habitual thinking and imagining, human beings have been conditioned to incorrectly view the self or I as permanent. They also conceive that thinking or imagining as being enjoyable, as being pleasant. Thus, when one believes that thinking is happiness and when told that the thinking will disappear, one do not accept this truth. One is not pleased; this is because one clings to the wrong view that thinking is happiness and goodness. In this way, one clings to whatever comes through the Six-Sense Doors, as being permanent, as being happy, as an ego, as a self. One delights with craving and clings to it. One is ignorant of reality and clings to erroneous views.

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To overcome these views, one has to meditate and contemplate on the Five Aggregates to realise their true nature of clinging and attachment. Attachment and clinging are deeply entrenched defilement; they are very difficult to eradicate. They arise due to ignorance. Vipassana Insight enables the realisation of the truth that one had viewed things in the wrong way, paving the way for the erosion and final termination of all defilement. When Insight Knowledge is well developed, it will prevail over wrong views and thoughts. The meditator will then be able to see things in their true light; that all things are impermanent; that they are the source of suffering; that they do not possess any self or substantial inner core; they are without self. A mind without Vipassana Insights will not see into the real nature of things. Once a meditator realises the reality of impermanence, he will realise too, how impermanence stresses with their rising and passing away, how no pleasure can be derived from them, how they can never be a refuge, how they can perish at any moment, how they can be frightening and how they cause suffering, etc. Initially, the thought arises: This body will not perish so soon. It will last for quite a long time. So, a meditator takes the body as a dependable refuge. Later, he reflects and realises that there is only incessant rising and passing-away of phenomena. Peace at Last Through contemplation and reflection with Insight Knowledge, the meditator will realise that all things are impermanent; that being the nature of all things, they are sources of suffering and they do not possess a central core, an independent entity, a self; only then will he not cling to sense objects as permanent, happy, beautiful and wholesome. Nor will he cling to them as possessing a self, soul, an I.

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Attachment, clinging and all defilement are done away with by attaining the Noble Path and Nibbana is realised. One who has no attachment does not long after things. One who does not long after things is calmed in himself.
Majjhima.ii 318

As the meditator progresses in the attainment of Insight Knowledge, and as he continues to note the arising mental and physical phenomena, he realises that all things are impermanent, sources of suffering and not an independent self; he will have no obsession with the objects noted. As such no clinging arises. There is no clinging to what he sees, hears, smells, tastes, touches or is aware of. The objects appear to arise each in its own time and then pass away. He realises that they are impermanent in nature. There is nothing to cling to. They trouble with their rise and fall. They are causes of all sufferings. There is nothing in them to cling to as happy, good or beautiful. They rise and fall as is their nature, so there is nothing to cling to as a self, a soul, or an I. All these are made very plain to the meditator in his notings. At that, the attachment and clinging are done away with. When that is so, the meditator realises Nibbana through the Noble Path. One who contemplates on the mental and material objects that appear at the Six Sense Doors and knows their intrinsic nature of impermanence, suffering and are not-self in nature, does not delight in them or cling to them. As he does not cling to them, he makes no effort to enjoy them. As he does not make any effort, there arises no kamma called becoming. As no kamma arises, there is no new birth. When there is no new birth, there is no occasion for old age, dying and grief; therein the process of causal relationship becomes affective.

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Noble Path Every time the meditator notes arising and ceasing of mental and physical phenomena, there is an effort being made. This is the Right Effort of the Noble Eightfold Path together with Right Mindfulness. Then there is consciousness which penetrates the object noted as well and remains fixed on it. This is Right Concentration. Together with Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood, they constitute the Eight Factors of the Noble Path. When this knowledge matures, the meditator will arrive at the Noble Path in due course. To sum up: Insight Wisdom or Knowledge is developed by meditating and contemplating on the Five Aggregates of Clinging. We meditate on the aggregates whenever they arise in order that we do not cling to them. If we fail to meditate on mental and physical phenomena, clinging arises. We cling to them as permanent, good and as an independent self. It is plainly seen that all conditioned things are impermanent, that they are sources of suffering, mere processes. Once clinging ceases, the Path arises, leading to Nibbana. These, then, are the elements of Insight Meditation. Mahasi Sayadaw

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Maha Satipatthana Sutta (abridged) The Great Discourse on the Four Foundations of Mindfulness
(The Words of the Buddha)

Thus Have I Heard:


Once, the Blessed One was living in Kammasadamma, a market town of the Kurus. There He addressed the monks: "O! Bhikkhus" and the bhikkhus respectfully responded, "Venerable Sir". The Blessed One spoke as follows: This is the *Only Way, bhikkhus, bhikkhus, for the Purification of beings, for the Overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the Disappearance of pain and grief, for Reaching the Noble Path, for the Realisation of Nibbana, Nibbana, namely: The Four Foundations of Mindfulness. What are these Four Four Foundations? Foundations?
Note: [*The Only Way: a path going in one direction; leading to the purification of beings. In the Samyutta Nikaya: On one occasion (and this was immediately after His Enlightenment) the Blessed One was dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara, at the foot of the Goatherds Banyan Tree (so named because goat herds tending their goats used to sit under the tree). Then while the Blessed One was alone in seclusion, a reflection arose in His mind: This is the one-way path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the passing away of pain and displeasure, for the achievement of the method, for the realisation of Nibbana, that is the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Then Brahma Sahampati, having known with his own mind the reflection in the Blessed Ones mind, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, disappeared from the brahma world and reappeared before the Blessed One. He arranged his upper robe over one shoulder and raised his joined hands in reverential salutation and said to Him. So it is, O Blessed One! So it is, Venerable Sir, this is the One Way Path for the purification of beings. that is the Four Foundations of Mindfulness

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Again in the Buddhas last days as stated in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta: Then the Lord, having recovered from His sickness, as soon as he felt better, went outside and sat on a prepared seat in front of the dwelling. Then the Venerable Ananda came to him saluted and sat down on one side and said: the Lord will not attain final Nibbana until He has made some statement about the order of bhikkhus. But, Ananda, what does the order of bhikkhus expect of me? I have taught the Dhamma, Ananda, making no inner and outer (meaning no esoteric teachings). The Tathagatha has no teachers fist in respect of doctrine Ananda, I am now old, worn out you should live as islands unto yourself, being your own refuge and how does a bhikkhu live as an island unto himself with no other refuge? Here, Ananda, a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as body, earnestly, clearly aware, mindful likewise with regards to feelings, mind, mind objects. Countless such statements have been made by the Buddha regarding the Only Way. The above demonstrate the Buddhas endorsement of that statement. The more important and poignantly remarkable it becomes when one realises that these two statements were made one at the beginning of His Enlightenment and the other at His Parinibbana! In the Papanca-Sudani, the Commentary to the Majjhima-Nikaya; Satipatthana is the sole, one and only way because it is a single and straight path, not one that branches off. It is a way that has to be taken by oneself. It is the only way because it is the way of the Exalted One, the Buddha, who is the best of all beings. Though others, too walk on that Way, it is the Buddhas Way because He had discovered it and it exists only in His Teaching and Discipline. It is also the Only Way because no other roads lead to Nibbana].

The Four Foundations of Mindfulness: 1. In this teaching, a bhikkhu contemplates the body in the body, ardently (atapi), clearly comprehending (sampajano) and mindful (satima), removing covetousness and grief in the world; 2. he contemplates the feeling in the feelings, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world; 3. he contemplates the consciousness in the consciousness, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world;

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4. he contemplates the Dhamma in the dhammas, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world.
Note: [The essence of atapi, sampajano and satima: 1. Ardent effort (atapi); the mental quality of energy or effort. Effort must be made to arouse and maintain mindfulness. This refers to Right Effort, the Sixth Factor of the Noble Eightfold Path, which guards against and abandons what is unwholesome and creating and maintaining what is wholesome. 2. Clear comprehension (sampajano); is the Wisdom-faculty. Clearly comprehending what practices are helpful and what are not. Also to comprehend one's state of mind to ensure that the appropriate amount of energy is being applied; that there is no under-exertion or over-exertion and also to distinguish the inherent characteristics of the object of attention (impermanence, un-satisfactoriness and selflessness). 3. Mindfulness (satima), is being aware of what is happening within oneself or to oneself at any given moment of experience. This quality of awareness is an essential foundation or quality of mind that is needed for both concentration and wisdom. To see things as they really are, one must examine them with mindfulness. Mindfulness is that essential mental quality by which we apply awareness to illuminate and to understand our bodily and mental experiences. This mindfulness must build up momentum through continuous practice. When appropriate strength of mindfulness is developed, it is capable of uncovering Insight Knowledge. The combination of ardentness, clear comprehension and mindfulness leads to concentration]. Reference Note: For detailed study of the Mahasatipatthana Sutta, refer to Digha Nikaya Sutta No. 22, Majjhima Nikaya Sutta No. 10.

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CHAPTER I A GENERAL OUTLINE OF VIPASSANA MEDITATION


The final goal of Satipatthana, also known as Vipassana or Mindfulness Meditation, is Nibbana. Mindfulness Meditation is a non-religious, ethical discipline that can be practised by all, as its sole purpose is to teach a way of life that totally eradicates defilement from the mind. Apropos to this, people generally identify thoughts, feelings, impulses, emotions or sensations that they experience as belonging to them; as their personal properties; that such phenomena are associated with an entity, a person. Each mental phenomenon takes them on a mental trip. I am happy, I am angry, this is mine, my wealth and so forth. The Practice By practising mindfulness, they learn to observe; the rise and fall, the appearance and disappearance of various thoughts and feelings; the cause and origin of these thoughts and feelings and thus understanding their nature, gradually develop a sense of distance and detachment from them. This will assuredly enable them to develop inner calmness. Through further practice, they will develop Insight and Wisdom that will enable them to comprehend the intrinsic realities that had been clouded by illusion and ignorance. As mindfulness matures in progressive stages they will realise that the workings of the mind is in reality an impersonal process. Ideally, a prospective learner should spend 16 hours a day in the practice of Vipassana meditation, alternating between one hour of sitting meditation and one hour of walking meditation continuously without any break in between. Keen awareness of the moment to moment arising and falling away of mind and body processes should be noted without a break.

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The practice is strenuous mentally and physically, involving mindfulness training to investigate the mind and the body, noting impartially each aspect of mind and body phenomenon as it arises to consciousness. One is to be fully mindful of each mental or physical activity incessantly going on; without involving the concept of I or Self, and directly experiencing these mind and body phenomena as they arise and fall away. Mahasi Sayadaw, a successful exponent of Vipassana, advises observing the rising and falling of the abdomen as the primary object of mindfulness training. Mindfulness is the essential factor in observing things with Clear, Detached Awareness and see realities as they truly are. There are two kinds of Realities: (1) Conventional Realities (pannatti) are the references of ordinary conceptual thoughts and conventional modes of expression. They include such entities as living beings, persons, men, women, animals and the apparently stable persisting objects that constitute our unanalysed picture of the world. These concepts or notions do not possess ultimate validity, for the objects which they signify do not exist in their own right as irreducible realities. Their mode of being is conceptual, not actual. They are products of mental construction, not realities existing by reason of their own nature. (2) Ultimate Realities (paramattha) in contrast, are things that exist by reason of their own intrinsic nature. These are the dhammas: the final, irreducible components of existence, the ultimate realities which result from a correctly performed analysis of experience. Such existents admit of no further reduction, but are themselves the final terms of analysis, the true constituents of the complex manifold of experience. The Pali word paramattha is applied to them, which is derived from parama; meaning ultimate, highest, final; and attha; meaning reality, thing.

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With the deepening of awareness, stages of Insight Knowledge will be progressively experienced. From the very beginning the meditator should know that no two individuals will have exactly the same experience in the practice. Thus, it is not advisable that the meditator has preconceived expectations in the progress of his meditation. The meditator should be clearly mindful of what is actually experienced moment to moment. When the practice has matured, and all the mental faculties are balanced; a natural unfolding of Insight Knowledge and Wisdom will arise. Through mindful observation, one comes to realise that there is no permanent abiding entity, self or ego within the physical frame of the human body and that what constitutes within that frame are: The Five Aggregates of human existence known as khandha. The result of this realisation is detachment from the sensations: feelings, thoughts, ideas, impulses, etc., which are continuously arising in the mind. The Insight into this and full realisation of it, is known as panna or wisdom. If one sincerely desires to attain Insight Knowledge here and now, one must renounce worldly thoughts and actions during Vipassana meditation and concentrate on: the Purification of Conduct (Sila); the essential preliminary step towards gaining Insight Knowledge.

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SOME GUIDELINES TO BEGIN TRAINING


Wherever possible, the meditator should begin his practice with an experienced and competent teacher, who has practical meditation experiences and a broad knowledge of the Dhamma. The meditator must stick to the instructions of the teacher very carefully and listen to the structured Dhamma talks attentively. If the meditator pays careful attention to the teacher, he will progress well and develop faith in the practice. In every training there is theory and practice. Reading alone cannot lead to true understanding, but theory and practice together will give a profound understanding of the Dhamma. In the course of his practice, the meditator will encounter various experiences. In reporting these to the teacher, he has to do so factually. The meditator must be honest and straight forward in reporting to the teacher. Meditators in some cases report what they consider the good side and fail to report plainly and frankly on other experiences. Though the meditator may think that his practice is not good, it may not be so in the view of the teacher and only by knowing the true situation, can the teacher be able to give correct and beneficial guidance. There are bound to be difficulties initially, as there are in anything new. Only after some practice can results be forthcoming. Hence, it is very important that the meditator reports his experiences to the teacher very plainly, frankly and factually. The meditator must be industrious and diligent. He must always be alert and ready to note. It is the main and primary duty of the meditator to note whatever feelings and sensations arising in his body and mind. Even minor physical movements such as moving of the hands, changing of clothes, etc. have to be noted with keen awareness.

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A meditator may, in a hurry, try to do two things at a time. This is to be discouraged as details in these actions and movements will be missed. In eating, in using toilet facilities, too, the meditator must do so with full awareness. He must note all movements with awareness without missing anything whatsoever. There is nothing which should not be noted. Every physical and mental occurrence has to be noted mindfully. The meditator must refrain from talking, eating and sleeping excessively. Talking is a major obstacle in the practice of meditation. Avoid talking while practising intensive meditation. Should there be a necessity to talk, the meditator must note the intention to talk and limit the duration of such talks. The meditator should not over-eat. In eating, the Buddha has advised that meditators must never eat to a full stomach, but should leave at least about four or five morsels less, and fill the stomach with water, soup or fluid of any kind. Sleep should be reduced to a minimum. During intensive practice, four hours of sleep will not cause a problem to meditators, and they should not have any anxiety about having four hours of sleep in their daily schedule. In intensive practice, the meditator must try very hard and have unshakeable resolution that says, "I will persevere in my practice and even if my blood should dry up and my flesh, skin, bones and sinews alone remain in my body, I will carry on". This kind of steadfast resolution has to be made to practise Vipassana Mindfulness Meditation successfully; the attachment to the body must be disregarded. If the meditator has too much affection of or attachment to his body, the progress of Insight Knowledge will be very slow.

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The meditator should practise mindfulness at all times. If a meditator is not mindful, for example, of the sound he hears, he may develop either attachment or aversion to the sound. Therefore he should always note sound as such, so that the sound will pass away as merely sound, without any accompanying attachment or aversion. The meditator must act as if he is a sick person and not move quickly in whatever he does. He should walk very slowly, eat very slowly and even talk very slowly. In so doing, he can note all the mental and physical sensations and will soon develop the habit of mindfulness. He should make persistent and continuous effort to note without let up. He must note from the moment of waking up in the morning until going to sleep at night, not only in sitting and walking sessions, but also in the daily activities. When the moment to moment concentration is sustained, the meditator will be able to develop progressive Insight Knowledge successfully within a reasonable time.

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CHAPTER II MEDITATION EXERCISES AND MISCELLANEOUS


Meditation in the Sitting Posture Begin the training in a quiet and peaceful place. Settle down in the most comfortable posture that will enable the meditator to meditate for some time. Sit with the legs crossed to maintain a good balance. It might be more comfortable if the legs are not inter-locked but evenly placed on the ground, without pressing one against the other. If sitting on the floor is not comfortable, sit on a cushion or obtain a more comfortable way of sitting. If this still does not work, sit on a chair, with no back support though. Maintain a straight back, looking straight ahead. Whatever position he selects, it must enable him to sit comfortably for a considerable period. When meditating with observing the rising and falling of the abdomen, the meditator should keep his attention on the movement of the abdomen. He will be able to identify the upward movement (expansion) of the abdomen when breathing in, and the downward movement (contraction) when breathing out. Note: rising, rising for upward movements and falling, falling for downward movements. If these movements are not clearly noticed, it is acceptable to feel the movements with the hands. He should not alter the normal tempo of his breathing. Neither should he slow down his breathing by the retention of his breath, nor quicken it by deep breathing. By changing the normal flow of his breathing he will soon tire himself. He must keep to the natural breathing, and proceed; with the noting of rising and falling. On identifying the upward movement note; rising, rising and on the downward movement; falling, falling.

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The labelling of these movements need not be done verbally, it is more important to know the actual state of the object than to know it by the term or name. It is therefore essential that the meditator makes every effort to be mindful of the movement of the rising of the abdomen, from the beginning till the end of the in-breath and also of the falling of the abdomen, from the start to the finish of the out-breath, as if these movements were seen by the eyes. As soon as rising occurs, there should be; the Knowing Mind firmly locked onto the Movements. The movement of rising as it arises and the mind knowing it must impact on every occasion, similar to a pebble striking a wall. They must impact at the same point. Similarly, the movement of falling as it falls and the mind knowing it must converge on every occasion. The meditator should carry on the exercise of continuously noting these two movements of: rising, rising; falling, falling; only interrupting to note mental and other physical activities as they arise. Thus, note every mental activity as it occurs. For instance, it should be noted: thinking, thinking; at the moment of thinking; reflecting; planning; knowing; attending; rejoicing; feeling lazy; feeling happy; disgust, etc., as the case may be on the occurrence of each mental activity. In the process of developing concentration, the meditator should reflect on the process of breathing; the air when inhaled sets up pressure that pushes from the inside; try to feel and know or realise this pushing up of the air from the inside and not so much on the abdomen, as the abdomen is only a label. This pushing outward of air from inside is the real thing that is happening when meditator is breathing in; the out flowing of the air on the out breath and the abdomen contracting as the air gradually falls away.

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Thus, the meditator must be mindful of these two movements that take place: When inhaling, the abdomen extends gradually, note; rising, rising. When exhaling, the already extended abdomen gradually falls back into place; note; falling, falling. At the same time that he is mindful of these two movements, he will concentrate more on the gradual force of air extending the abdomen, and the gradual contraction of the abdomen when breathing out. With this he should be able to develop concentration. If these two points of mindfulness; rising, rising and falling, falling are not effective in gaining concentration, add another point and note; rising, rising; falling, falling; touching, touching. In noting touching, the meditator should not note the shape of the limbs or objects that are touching each other, but concentrate on the hardness at the point of contact and note; touching, touching, rising, rising, falling, falling. If concentration is still difficult with three notings, he may note the sitting position as well; rising, rising; falling, falling; sitting, sitting; touching, touching. When the meditator is sitting, he will realise the fact that the upper part of the body is erect and taut. He must not bring up the shape of the head, body, hands or legs, but he must be aware that the body is taut with the force of air that has pushed him up into the sitting position and the hard feeling, at the point of contact that he experiences when he is sitting. With noting four mental phenomena; rising, falling, sitting, touching, the meditators mind will become calm. When his mind is calm and peaceful, his concentration will become keener and Insights will arise. If his noting of; rising, falling, sitting, touching, is effective in gaining concentration, he may concentrate on them, however reverting to any notings of two, three or four phenomena is quite in order.

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From this exercise, the meditator learns the actual manner of noting the upward and downward movements of the abdomen. He should NOT be concerned with the form of the abdomen, hence, DO NOT dwell on the form of the abdomen. What he actually needs to observe is the sensation of pressure on the body caused by the rhythmic movement of the abdomen as he breathes. For the beginner, it is a very effective method of developing the faculties of attention, concentration of mind and Insight in meditation. As practice progresses, the manner of the movements will be clearer. The ability to know each successive occurrence of the mental and physical processes at each of the Six Sense Doors is acquired only when Insight Meditation is fully developed. Initially, when attentiveness and power of concentration are still weak, meditator may find it difficult to keep the mind on each successive rising and falling movement as it occurs. In view of this difficulty, bear in mind that this is a learning process. The rising and falling movements of the abdomen are always present and therefore there is no need to look for them and it is quite sufficient for a beginner to keep his or her mind on these two simple movements. Continue with this exercise in full awareness of the abdomen's rising and falling movements.

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Meditation Using Breath as the Main Object Sayadaw U Silananda For those meditators whose choice of the primary meditation object is the breath: Focus attention on the breath, keeping the mind at the tip of the nose, or at the entrance of the nostrils. The in-breath and the out-breath each last about four or five seconds. Be mindful of the breaths. The meditator may feel a sensation of air at the tip of his nose or in his nose (depending on the shape and position of the nose). Be mindful of it. Observe and pay attention to the nature of the breath; be mindful of the moving nature or the supporting nature of the breath, rather than the shape or form of the breath. When breathing in, be mindful of the in-breath for the whole duration of the in-breath, or from the beginning to the end. When breathing out, be mindful of the out-breath for the whole duration, or from the beginning to the end. Do not allow the mind to follow the breath into the body or outside the body. Be mindful of the in-breath and out-breath as two separate phenomena, not just one and the same breath going in and coming out. The mind is like a gatekeeper standing at the gate, taking note of people going in and coming out. Do not force or strain the breathing; just calmly be mindful and watch the breaths. The meditator may make a mental note when he breathes in and when he breathes out, as in, out; in, out. Making mental notes, or labelling, is to help concentrate the mind on the object; keeping mindfulness on the object at all times. What is important is mindfulness of the object at the moment. If his mind can be on the breaths only, that is very good. However, the mind has a tendency to wander quite often.

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While noting the breaths, the meditators mind wanders or goes out and he is aware of it; be mindful of its going out and note, going out, going out, going out, two or three times and then revert to noting the breaths. If the meditator sees something or someone in his thoughts; he should mindfuly note, seeing, seeing, seeing, momentarily; then revert to noting the breaths. If he hears somebody talking in his thoughts, be mindful of hearing and note, hearing, hearing, hearing, and then go back to noting the breath. If the meditator talks to someone in his thoughts, or if he talks to himself, be mindful of talking and note, talking, talking, talking, and then continue noting the breaths. If he speculates about something, be mindful of speculating; if he analyses something, be mindful of analysing; if he makes judgments, be mindful of making judgments. Note each phenomenon as it arises and as it passes away. In Vipassana Meditation, the meditator applies *bare attention onto the object, without any additions of his own, such as beautiful, ugly, good, bad or such descriptive terms. In other words, he should take the object as it is, without subjective additions of his own. If he remembers something, be mindful of remembering and note, remembering, remembering and then continue noting the breaths.
*Bare attention is the clear and single-minded awareness of what actually happens to us and in us, at the successive moments of perception. It is called bare, because it attends just to the bare facts of a perception as presented either through the five physical senses or through the mind which constitutes the sixth sense. When attending to that six-fold sense impression, attention or mindfulness is kept to a bare registering of the facts observed, without reacting to them by deed, speech or by mental comment which may be one of selfreference (like, dislike, etc.), judgement or reflection. If during the time, short or long, given to the practice of Bare Attention, any such comments arise in ones mind, they themselves are made objects of Bare Attention and are neither repudiated nor pursued, but are dismissed, after a brief mental note has been made of them (Nyanatiloka).

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If he thinks of the future and makes plans, be mindful of it and note, thinking, thinking or planning, planning and then continue noting the breath. If he feels lazy, he must be mindful of it and note, lazy, lazy, and then continue noting the breaths. If the meditator feels bored, be mindful of boredom and note, bored, bored, then continue noting the breaths. If he experiences resistance, be mindful of it and note, resisting, resisting and continue noting the breaths. Any thoughts of attachment, greed or lust, must be noted, and then revert to noting the breaths. If he is upset or angry for any reason, he must be mindful of that anger, or, make that anger the object of his meditation. Concentrate momentarily on the anger and note, anger, anger, then revert to noting the breaths. If the meditator has painful or unpleasant feelings in the body (numbness, stiffness or heat), he should focus his mind on these feelings and mindfully note each of these feelings consecutively. He will have to be very patient with painful feelings. Pain may not go away. He has to be patient and be mindful of it. It may go away or it may become more acute. Stay with it as long as possible. In reality pain is a good object for meditation. It is a strong object. The meditators mind is pulled towards the pain. So be mindful of it and try to see it just as a sensation. It is important that he does not identify pain as himself, so do not note, it is my pain or I feel pain. There is just the pain, just the sensation. If the pain becomes so intense that he feels he cannot bear it, he may ignore the pain altogether and revert to noting the breaths, or he may make movements or change posture to ease the pain. When he makes movements or changes posture, first mindfully note the intention to change; and then mindfully move slowly; one at a time, following each movement with mindfulness. When the changes are made, he should return to noting the breaths.

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The breath is the primary object of meditation. Whenever there are no other objects to be mindful of, just be mindful of the breaths. If there are more prominent objects, then the meditator should take note of them, be aware of them, or be mindful of them, and then revert to the breaths. Do not force or strain, just calmly watch the objects, take note of them and be mindful of them. Do not try to forcefully push distractions or emotions or feelings in the body away, just watch them and let them go by themselves. The rest is the same as for taking the rising and falling of the abdomen as main object. The only difference is to substitute movements of the abdomen with breaths. Common to Both Methods In the course of contemplation in either mode of meditation, noting the breath or the rising and falling of the abdomen, the meditators mindfulness must be precise, that is, aligning concurrently with the objects. Take only one prominent object at a time and be mindful of it. If he cannot decide which is most prominent, select one and be mindful of it. What is important is to be mindful of the object at the present moment; so whether he is mindful of the main object or the secondary object, so long as he is mindful, he is doing correctly. Do not have any expectation; do not expect strange experiences, such as seeing visions or specific results or even to attain to certain degree of concentration. Expectations may motivate practice, but when the meditator is at the point of meditation, they become obstacles to concentration. That is because expectations are a mild form of greed or attachment which is a hindrance to concentration. If expectations come up in spite of himself, he must not be irritated by them; he must be mindful of these expectations and note; expecting, expecting, expecting.

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Then revert to noting the breaths or the movements of the abdomen. When practising mindfulness, the meditator is making ardent mental effort; the effort he makes thus, must be neither too much nor too little. If he makes too much effort, he will become agitated and he will not be able to concentrate; and if effort is slack, he will become sleepy and again unable to concentrate. The effort he makes must, therefore, be well balanced. If he misses to be mindful and then remembers his lapse, he must then be mindful of that lapse of missing and note; missing, missing, missing, or forgetting, forgetting, forgetting. Above all, he must not feel guilt, be tight or tense in his mind; he must be relaxed, mindfully and calmly making mental notes. Changing Positions During Sitting It may be that after sitting for a considerable amount of time (either watching the breath or the rise and fall of the abdomen) there will arise in the body, unpleasant feelings of stiffness, warmth, pain and so forth. These sensations should be noted as they are observed. Mind should be fixed on the spot and a note made, thus; stiffness, stiffness on feeling stiff; warm, warm on feeling warm; painful, painful on feeling pain; prickly, prickly on feeling a prickly sensation and tired, tired on feeling tiredness. In contemplating these arising of unpleasant, painful feelings, the meditator is developing Insight into feeling. When there is lack of wisdom and knowledge of Insight into feeling, there will prevail a wrong view of one's personality or self, that these feelings belong to an entity, a body or a self as: I am feeling stiff; I am feeling hot; I am feeling painful; I was feeling well formerly but now I feel uncomfortable. In reality, feelings arise owing to impressions on the body.

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Like the light of an electric bulb which continues to burn on the continuous supply of energy, so is the case of feelings, which arise anew on every occasion of coming into contact with impressions. It is essential to understand these feelings clearly. When noting stiff, stiff, hot, hot, painful, painful, the meditator may feel that such disagreeable feelings appear to grow stronger. Due to such uncomfortable feelings, he may notice the arising of a desire to change his posture. This mind desiring to change should be noted desiring, desiring. Then a return should be made to the feeling and noting stiff, stiff or hot, hot and so forth. If noting is continued with great patience in this manner, such unpleasant feelings will pass away. Patience Leads To Nibbana; this is especially true in meditation than anything else. If a meditator cannot bear unpleasant feelings with patience and frequently changes posture in the course of his meditation, he cannot gain concentration. Without concentration, Insight Knowledge (Vipassana-nana) will not be possible. Without this, the attainment of Path, Fruition and Nibbana is also not possible. Cultivation of patience is imperative in Vipassana and bearing up with unpleasant feelings is essential. A meditator should not change his posture immediately when unpleasant sensations arise, but must proceed with noting them as stiff, stiff; hot, hot and so on. Such painful sensations will ordinarily subside, and when concentration is strong and well developed, it will be found that even great pain will fade away when they are being noted with patience. On the fading away of suffering or pain, the usual noting; rising, rising, falling, falling be continued. Only in the event that pain or unpleasant feelings do not subside in spite of patient and prolonged noting, that the meditator initiates change in his position.

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When concentration is not strong enough pain will remain. In these circumstances there will often arise a mind wanting to change the position, and this mind should be noted; wanting, wanting after which continue to note; lifting, lifting on lifting the hand; moving, moving on moving it forward. These actions of changing position should be carried out slowly and mindfully, and these movements should be noted: lifting, lifting; moving, moving; touching, touching in the consecutive order of their movements. If the body sways, a note should be made as swaying, swaying; on raising the leg as raising, raising; on moving as moving, moving; on putting down as putting, putting. If at any time there is no further movement to note, revert to noting the rising and falling of the abdomen; rising, rising, falling, falling. There should be no break in between notings. The preceding noting and the one following should be continuous. Similarly, the preceding concentration and the one following should be continuous, the preceding knowledge (nana) and the one following should be continuous. In this way, the gradual development by stages of Mindfulness, Concentration and Insight Knowledge takes place, and on their full development the final stage of Insight Knowledge of the Path (magga-nana) will be attained. The practice of Vipassana meditation is similar to building a fire by rubbing two dry sticks together. As the sticks become hotter, due to the increasing friction, increasing vigorous effort will be needed. Only then will fire be produced. The essential ingredient is a sustained vigorous action without break. Similarly, a meditator should exert continuous and incessant effort without any break in between notings, thus ensuring continuity of concentration and gaining success in his meditation.

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Thus, occupied with his usual exercise, the meditator may feel an itch or such other sensations affecting certain parts of his body. He should fix his mind on the spot and note; itching, itching. Itchiness is an unpleasant sensation. As soon as it is felt there arises a mind wanting to rub or scratch. This should be noted; wanting, wanting, after which rubbing or scratching should not be attempted as yet, but a note of itching, itching, be made. Itching may disappear, in which case, the meditator should continue to note rising, rising; falling, falling. If on the other hand it is found that the itch does not disappear and it is necessary to rub or scratch; the contemplation of the process of rubbing or scratching should be carried out by noting; wanting, wanting. Continue noting; raising, raising on raising the hand; moving, moving on moving the hand; touching, touching when the hand touches the spot; rubbing, rubbing, scratching, scratching when rubbing or scratching; withdrawing, withdrawing on withdrawing the hand; touching, touching when the hand touches the body, and thereafter revert to the usual exercise of noting; rising, rising, falling, falling. In every case of changing positions during meditation, such actions should be carried out slowly and mindfully, noting each action as it arises. Simulated Behaviour: As a Sick, a Blind and a Deaf Person During the course of practice, it is most appropriate if a meditator acts like a weak, enfeebled person; slow in all his activities, similar to a person suffering from an injured leg. The patient must be cautious and move slowly to avoid pain. In like manner, a meditator should slow down his actions. Having lived a hurried and materialistic lifestyle prior to his mental training, a meditator now endeavours to develop mindfulness and concentration. To do this, it is necessary that meditative exercises be carried out in a deliberately slowed down manner.

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This will be conducive to the development of concentration and mindfulness, leading to Insight Knowledge. Thus, a meditator should imitate a blind person throughout the entire course of training. A mentally unrestrained person will not be dignified as he is usually inattentive. He does not possess a steady and calm manner, unlike a blind person, who is mindful, calm and composed and though spoken to, seldom turns around unmindfully. This composed manner is worthy of imitation. A meditator while meditating, should act in the same manner. He should not look around aimlessly and his mind must be concentrated solely on the object of meditation; mindfully noting: rising, falling. He should not react to external occurrences, but instead should note them as seeing, seeing, or knowing, knowing, and continue noting, rising, falling. It is also necessary for a meditator to behave like a deaf person. Ordinarily, a person on hearing a sound turns around and looks toward the direction of the sound. Or he turns around towards the person who speaks to him and makes a reply. He may not behave in a mindful manner. While on the other hand, a deaf person behaves in a composed manner and seldom takes heed of any sound or talk because he does not hear them. Similarly a meditators conduct should be of like manner; neither taking heed nor listening to any talk. If he happens to hear any sound or talk he should at once make a note; hearing, hearing, and then return to the usual exercise of noting rising, falling. He should proceed with his meditation intently just as if deaf. It should be remembered that practising meditation intently is the sole concern of a meditator; other things seen or heard are not his concern. He should not take heed of them. In the case of body actions he must act slowly and feebly as if sickly and weak.

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Walking Meditation The act of pulling up the body to the standing position, in preparation for walking meditation, should be carried out slowly with mindfulness. On coming to an erect position this should be noted standing, standing; if the meditator happens to look around, this should be noted looking, seeing; and on walking, each step should be noted right step, left step or walking, walking. In each step, attention should be fixed on the movement from the point of lifting the leg to the point of putting it down. While walking in quick steps or taking a long stride, it should be sufficient that each section of each step should be noted; right step, left step or walking, walking. However, in the case of taking a slow walk, each step may be divided into three sections of: lifting, pushing forward, putting down. In the beginning of the exercise, a note should be made on two sections in each step lifting, lifting, by fixing the attention on the upward movement of the leg from the beginning to the end, and putting, putting, on the downward movement from the beginning to the end. Here it may be mentioned that, at the time of noting putting, putting, when the leg is put down in the first step, the other leg usually lift up to begin the next step. This should not be allowed to happen. The next step should begin only after the complete ending of the first step. After two or three days this exercise would be easy and a meditator should carry out noting each step in three sections; lifting, lifting, pushing, pushing, putting, putting. For the present, a meditator should start the exercise by noting; right step, left step, right step, left step; walking, walking while walking quickly; and by noting lifting, lifting, putting, putting while walking slowly.

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In the course of his walking meditation the feeling may arise of wanting to sit down. He should note the intention; intention, intention. If he then happens to look up, looking, seeing, looking, seeing; on walking to the place to sit, lifting, lifting, putting, putting; on stopping, stopping, stopping; when turning, turning, turning; when he feels wanting to sit, wanting, wanting. In the act of sitting there occurs a heaviness in the body and also a downward pull. Attention should be fixed on these physical movements and a note made, sitting, sitting. After having sat down there would be movements of bringing the hands and legs into position. These actions as they arise should be appropriately noted; moving, bending, stretching, and so forth. If there is a lull in noting, and when sitting quietly he should revert to the usual exercise of noting rising, rising; falling, falling of the abdominal movements. During meditation, feelings of pain, tiredness or warmth should be noted, and then revert to the usual exercise of noting; rising, rising; falling, falling. If the meditator feels sleepy he should note sleepy, sleepy, and proceed with the noting of all acts of preparing for lying down and bringing into position the hands and legs, raising, raising; pressing, pressing; moving, moving; supporting, supporting; swaying, swaying when the body sways; stretching, stretching when the legs stretch; lying, lying when the body drops and lies flat. These trifling acts in lying down are also important and they should not be neglected. There is every possibility of attaining Enlightenment during this limited time. On the full development of concentration and Insight Knowledge, Enlightenment is attainable during a moment of bending or stretching.

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The Steps in Walking Meditation During practice, the exercise in walking meditation is to observe the steps closely and carefully as one, two, three or six sequences of movement. This is to develop concentration to see through and break up the continuity of the movements of the steps into their moment to moment arising and falling away. When concentration improves, steps in walking can be seen to coincide with the speed in noting. More movements will be observed as concentration strengthens. The First Stage: Note the step as one sequence of movement; left foot forward, right foot forward; left foot forward, right foot forward. The Second Stage: Note each step as two sequences of movement; lifting, lifting; dropping, dropping. The Third Stage: Note each step as three sequences of movement; lifting, lifting; pushing, pushing; dropping, dropping of one foot, and lifting, lifting; pushing, pushing; dropping, dropping of the other foot. The meditator should direct the mind to be aware and note the forward movement of the steps and not the image of the foot. Be aware of the element of motion that is going up gradually when lifting the foot. Knowing that it goes up and being aware of it is the real thing that is happening at the moment, that is, mental and body process; the mind knowing the physical lifting and dropping. When lifting the foot, the meditator must attentively note the gradual upward movement of the foot. When the foot is being pushed forward, he must be aware of the foot moving forward slowly and then when dropping the foot, he must be aware of the foot falling or dropping down slowly lower and lower.

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All these sequences of movement must be clearly noted so that when the foot is being lifted slowly moment by moment, the meditator will realise that it gets lighter and lighter as it is being lifted. When the foot is being pushed forward he will notice and observe the gradual forward movement. When dropping or putting down the foot, he will experience the heaviness of the foot descending lower and lower to the floor. When he has this awareness in mind it is the beginning of Insight Knowledge. Lightness is brought upon by tejo, element of warmth and vayo element of motion or movement. Heaviness is caused by pathavi, element of toughness or hardness and apo, element of liquidity. The knowledge or awareness of such mental and physical phenomena is the beginning of gaining penetrative knowledge of the intrinsic nature of mental and body processes as it really is. The Fourth Stage: Observe each step as three pairs of movement; beginning to lift, lifting; beginning to push, pushing; beginning to drop, dropping. When the foot is being lifted, the heel is lifted first. Only after that are the toes raised and lifted when the leg is lifted. When the foot is being pushed forward, the meditator must know that the movement of the foot is going forward and not backward. When dropping the foot, the forward movement is checked a bit, and when he begins to put the foot down it drops downwards slowly and finally the foot touches the ground and the foot is dropped. While meditating, the meditator must constantly be mindful of each mental and physical phenomenon at the instant of its arising. He can advance to noting each step as six sequences of movement; lifting, raising, pushing, dropping, touching and pressing. When lifting the foot, be mindful of the lifting movement, note; lifting, lifting; as the toes raise upwards, note; raising, raising; next, push the foot forward, note; pushing, pushing.

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After pushing the foot forward, gradually drop it and carefully observe the foot coming down slowly to the floor, note; dropping, dropping. As it gradually comes down, know and feel the touching of the foot on the ground, note; touching, touching. Finally in order to lift the other foot, pressure will be exerted on this foot, note; pressing, pressing. The Benefits of Walking Meditation By Sayadaw U Silananda The practice of Vipassana mindfulness meditation can be compared to the process of boiling water, where one fills the kettle with water, puts the kettle on a stove, and then turns the heat on. If the heat is turned on and off repeatedly the water will not boil. In the same way, if there are gaps between the moments of mindfulness, one will not achieve a steady and continuous momentum to attain concentration. That is why meditators are instructed to practise mindfulness all the time that they are awake, from the moment they wake up in the morning until they fall asleep at night. Consequently, walking meditation is integral to the continuous development of mindfulness. The Buddha said: "A monk applies clear comprehension in going forward and in going back". Clear comprehension in contemplating the phenomenon arising will enable Insight Knowledge to arise. To correctly contemplate the arising object, a meditator must have concentration, and in order to have concentration, he must apply mindfulness. Therefore, when the Buddha said, "Monks, apply clear comprehension", we must understand that not only clear comprehension must be applied, but also mindfulness and concentration. Thus, the Buddha was instructing meditators to apply mindfulness, concentration and clear comprehension while walking, while "going forward and back.

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The meditator is instructed to be completely mindful and to make mental notes of the stages of the foot's movement: "lifting, moving forward, putting down, pressing the ground". At first, he may find it difficult to slow down, but as he has been instructed to pay close attention to all of the movements involved, and as he actually pays closer and closer attention, he will naturally slow down. He does not have to slow down deliberately, but as he pays closer attention, slowing down comes to him naturally. When driving on the highway, one may be driving at sixty or seventy or even eighty miles per hour; driving at that speed, one will not be able to read some of the signs on the road. If one wants to read those signs, it is necessary to slow down. Nobody has to say, "slow down" but the driver will naturally slow down in order to see the signs. In the same way, if a meditator wants to pay closer attention to the movements of lifting, moving forward, putting down, and pressing the ground, he will subconsciously slow down. Only when he slows down can he be truly mindful and fully aware of these movements. Initially, although he pays close attention and slows down, he may not see all of the movements and stages clearly. The stages may not yet be well-defined in his mind, and these movements may seem to constitute only one continuous movement. However, as concentration develops, he will observe these different stages in each step clearer and easier. The four stages at least will be easier to distinguish. He will know distinctly that the lifting movement is not an action continuous with the moving forward movement, and he will know that the moving forward movement is not continuous with either the lifting movement or the putting down movement. He will observe all movements clearly and distinctly and realise that these movements are distinctly separate.

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Whatever he is mindful and aware of will become very clear in his mind. As his practice develops, he will observe much more. When he lifts his foot, he will experience the lightness of the foot. When he pushes the foot forward, he will notice the movement from one place to another. When he puts the foot down, he will feel the heaviness of the foot, because the foot becomes heavier and heavier as it descends. When he puts the foot on the ground, he will feel the touch of the heel on the ground. Therefore, along with observing lifting, moving forward, putting down, and pressing the ground, he will also perceive; the lightness of the rising foot, the motion of the foot, the heaviness of the descending foot, and then the touching of the foot, which is the hardness or softness of the foot on the ground. When he perceives these processes, he is perceiving (an interdependent grouping of) the four essential elements: Tejo, fire or temperature; Vayo, the element of air; Apo, the water element and Pathavi, the earth element. By paying close attention to the various stages of walking meditation, the four elements in their true essence are perceived, not merely as concepts, but as actual processes, as ultimate realities.

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Steps in Walking Meditation

1st

Right Step

Left Step

2nd

Lifting

Placing

3rd

Lifting

Pushing

Placing

4th Lifting

Raising

Pushing

Placing

5th

Lifting

Raising

Pushing

Dropping

Placing

6th

Lifting

Raising

Pushing

Dropping

Touching Pressing

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Contemplating the Characteristics of the Elements in Walking Meditation Initially, when lifting the foot, the meditator senses lightness, and when he senses lightness, he virtually cognises characteristics of the fire element. One aspect of the fire element is that of making things lighter. As things become lighter, they rise. In the lifting of the foot, besides lightness there is also movement. Movement is another aspect of the air element. But lightness, a characteristic of the fire element, is dominant, so we can say that in the stage of lifting, the fire element is primary, and the air element is secondary. These two elements are realised by the meditator when he pays mindful attention to the lifting of the foot. The next stage is moving the foot forward. In moving the foot forward, the main factor is the air element, because motion is one of the primary characteristics of the air element. So, when the meditator pays close attention to the moving forward of the foot in walking meditation, he is virtually experiencing the essence of the air element. The next stage is the movement of putting the foot down. When the meditator puts down his foot, there is a kind of heaviness in the foot. Heaviness is a characteristic of the water element, as is trickling and oozing. When liquid is heavy, it oozes. So when the meditator experiences the heaviness of the foot, he virtually realises the water element. In pressing the foot on the ground, he will note the hardness or softness of the foot on the ground. This pertains to the nature of the earth element. By paying close attention to the pressing of the foot against the ground, the meditator virtually notes the nature of the earth element. Thus, we see that in just one step, the meditator can virtually experience numerous processes. He is able to realise the characteristics and the nature of the four elements. Only those who practise can realise these Insight Knowledges.

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As the meditator continues to practise walking meditation, he will come to realise that: With every movement there is the noting mind and the awareness of the movement. There is the lifting movement and also the mind that is aware of that lifting. In the next moment, there is the moving forward movement and also the mind that is aware of the movement. Moreover, he will realise that both the movement and the awareness arise and disappear in that moment. In the next moment, there is the putting down movement and also the awareness of the movement, and both arise and disappear in that moment of putting the foot down on the ground. The same process occurs with the pressing of the foot: there is the pressing and the awareness of pressing. In this way, the meditator realises that along with the movement of the foot, there are also the moments of awareness. The moments of awareness are nama (mind), and the movement of the foot is rupa (matter). Thus, the meditator will observe mind and matter rising and disappearing at every moment. At one moment there is the lifting of the foot and the awareness of the lifting, and at the next moment there is the movement forward and the awareness of that movement, and so on. These can be seen as a pair, mind and matter, which arise and disappear at every moment. The meditator advances to the realisation of the pair-wise occurrence of mind and matter at every moment of observation. Another thing that he will discover is the role of intention in effecting each movement. He will realise that he lifts his foot because he intends to; moves the foot forward because he intends to; puts it down because he intends to; presses the foot against the ground because he intends to.

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That is, the meditator realises that intention precedes every movement. After the intention, action occurs. He realises the conditionality of all of these occurrences; these movements occur due to conditions; they are not created by any deity or any authority; these movements never happen without a cause. There is a cause or condition for every movement, and that condition is the intention preceding each movement. This is another discovery the meditator realises when he pays mindful attention to his noting. When the meditator realises the conditionality of all movements, and that these movements are not created by any authority or any god, then he will understand that these movements are initiated by intention and that intention is the condition for the movement to occur. Thus, the relationship of conditioning and conditioned, of cause and effect, is understood. On the basis of this understanding, the meditator realises that, nama and rupa do not arise without conditions, eradicating all doubts regarding their arising and disappearing. With the clear understanding of the conditionality of things, and with the transcendence of doubt about nama and rupa, a meditator is said to have reached the stage of a "lesser sotapatti". A sotapatti is a "stream-enterer"; a person who has reached the first stage of enlightenment. A "lesser sotapatti" is not a true stream-enterer but is said to be assured of rebirth in a happy realm of existence, such as in the realms of human beings and devas. That is, a lesser sotapatti cannot be reborn in one of the four woeful states, in one of the hells or animal realms. This state of lesser sotapatti can be reached just by practising walking meditation, just by paying close attention to the movements involved in a step. This is the great benefit of practising walking meditation. This stage is not easy to reach, but once the meditator reaches it, he is assured that he will be reborn in a happy state, from where he will attain to higher levels if he continues the practice ardently.

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When he comprehends mind and matter arising and disappearing at every moment, he will come to comprehend the impermanence of the processes of lifting the foot, and he will also comprehend the impermanence of the awareness of that lifting. The occurrence of disappearing after arising is a mark or characteristic by which we understand that something is impermanent (anicca). Through the power of meditation, the meditator will be able to determine the state of impermanency or permanency, as he is able to see with clear comprehension, the process of coming into being and then disappearing of phenomena. In this way, he will observe clearly that there is the lifting movement and awareness of that movement, and then that sequence disappears, giving way to the pushing forward movement and the awareness of pushing forward. These movements arise and disappear, arise and disappear, and this process he realises by himself; he does not have to accept this on trust from any external authority, nor does he has to believe in the report of another person. When the meditator comprehends that mind and matter arise and disappear, he understands that mind and matter are impermanent. When he sees that mind and matter are impermanent, he then realises that mind and matter are unsatisfactory (dukkha) because he is stressed by their constant arising and disappearing. While comprehending the two characteristics of the impermanent and unsatisfactory nature of phenomena, he observes that there is no mastery over these things; that is, he realises that there is no self or soul within that can order mind and matter to be otherwise than rising and disappearing; a state of impermanence. Things just arise and disappear according to conditions.

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By comprehending this, he realises the third characteristic of conditioned phenomena, the characteristic of anatta, the characteristic that things have no self. One of the features of anatta is that of non-mastery or control, meaning that it has Nothing; it has no Identity; it is Soul-less; it has no Power to master or control over the nature of things. At this stage of his practice, the meditator will have comprehended the three characteristics of all conditioned phenomena; that they are of an impermanent nature, full of suffering and that it does not have a self, soul or core identity. In the words of the Buddha, they are anicca, dukkha and anatta. He can comprehend these three characteristics by observing closely the mere lifting of the foot and the awareness of the lifting of the foot. By paying close attention to the movements, he sees mental and physical phenomena arising and disappearing; and consequently he experiences for himself the impermanent, unsatisfactory and non-self nature (anicca, dukkha and anatta) of all conditioned phenomena. Let us examine in more detail the movements of walking meditation. Suppose one were to take a moving picture of the lifting of the foot. Suppose further that the lifting of the foot takes one second, and let us say that the camera can take thirtysix frames per second. After taking the picture, if we were to look at the separate frames, we would realise that within what we thought was one lifting movement, there are actually thirty-six movements. The image in each frame is slightly different from the images in the other frames, though the difference will usually be so slight that we can barely notice it. But what if the camera could take one thousand frames per second? Thus, there would be one thousand movements in just one lifting movement, although the movements would be almost impossible to differentiate.

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If the camera could take one million frames per second then there would be one million movements in what we thought to be only one movement. Our effort in walking meditation is to discern the walking movements as closely as the camera sees them, frame by frame. We also want to observe the awareness and intention preceding each movement. We can also appreciate the power of the Buddha's wisdom and Insight, by which he actually saw all of the movements. When we use the word "see", discern or "observe" to refer to our own situation, we mean that we see directly and also by inference; we may not be able to see directly all of the millions of movements as did the Buddha. Before begin practising walking meditation, the meditator may have thought that a step is just one movement. After observing, he sees that there are at least four distinct movements within that one movement. Upon further contemplation, he realises that even one of these four movements consists of millions of tiny movements. He sees the arising and disappearing of nama and rupa (mind and matter), as he sees their nature of arising and disappearing he realises their state of impermanence. Ordinarily, we are unable to see the impermanence of things; that is because Impermanence is hidden by the illusion of continuity. We think that we see only continuous movement, but if we look close enough (through Vipassana), we will be able to see through the illusion of continuity. This illusion of continuity can be broken by the direct observation of physical phenomena bit by bit, segment by segment, as they originate and disintegrate. The value of Vipassana meditation lies in its ability to remove the cloak of continuity in order to expose the real nature of impermanence. The meditator is able to discover the nature of impermanence directly through his own efforts.

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After realising that things are composed of segments, that they occur in bits; and after observing these segments one by one, he will realise that there is really nothing in this world to be attached to, nothing to crave for. If we see that something which we once thought was beautiful, but now has holes, and that it is now decaying and disintegrating, we will lose interest in it. For example, we may see a beautiful painting on a canvas. We think of the paint and canvas conceptually as a whole, solid thing. But if we were to put the painting under a powerful microscope, we would see that the picture is not solid - it has many holes and spaces. After seeing the picture as composed largely of spaces, we would lose interest in it and we would cease being attached to it. Physicists too have observed, with powerful instruments, that matter is just a vibration of particles and energy constantly changing - there is nothing substantial to it at all. By the realisation of this endless impermanence, the meditator understands that there is really nothing to crave for, nothing to hold on to in the entire world of phenomena. We can now understand that the practice of meditation is for the removal of attachment to and craving for objects. It is by comprehending the three characteristics of existence; impermanence, suffering and the non-self nature of things; that we remove craving. We want to remove craving because we do not want the suffering that is companion to it. As long as there is craving and attachment, there will always be suffering. If we do not want that suffering, we must remove craving and attachment. We must comprehend that all things are just mind and matter arising and disappearing, that things are insubstantial. Once we realise this, we will be able to remove attachment to things. As long as we do not realise this, however much we read books or attend talks or talk about removing attachment, we will not be able to get rid of attachment.

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It is necessary to have the direct experience that all conditioned things are marked by these three characteristics. Hence, we must pay close attention when we are walking, just as we do when we are sitting or lying down. Know that walking meditation is as valid a practice as sitting meditation or any other postures of Vipassana Meditation. Walking meditation is conducive to Insight development. It is as powerful as mindfulness of breathing or mindfulness of the rising and falling of the abdomen. It is an efficient tool to help us remove mental defilements. Walking meditation can help us gain Insight into the nature of things, and it should be practised as diligently as we practise sitting meditation or any other postures in Vipassana meditation. Daily Application of Mindfulness In intensive meditation, continuous mindfulness should be applied in daily activities as such application of mindfulness will go a long way in the uninterrupted practice of Vipassana. Daily activities such as; opening and closing doors, making beds, folding the sheets, changing clothes and washing them, arranging or preparing meals, eating, drinking and other regular daily activities should be performed with ardent mindfulness. Note all other activities, such as preparing to eat: seeing food on the table seeing, seeing; stretching to take the food stretching, stretching; touching the food touching, touching; preparing food preparing, preparing; bending the head bending, bending; opening the mouth opening, opening; putting the food in putting, putting; and so on. The earnest and diligent meditator who is new in the practice will not find it easy to be aware of all movements at the beginning.

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Some movements may be missed, but meditators should not be discouraged if this happens. Later, when Knowledge or Mindfulness becomes stronger and advanced, the penetrative Insight Knowledge will enable mindfulness of every phenomenon arising. When applying mindfulness on daily activities, meditators should be keenly aware of the activities that are the most prominent. For example, if stretching of the hand is the most distinctive, note; stretching, stretching; if bending the head is more prominent, note; bending, bending; if chewing is more prominent, note; chewing, chewing. Meditators must remember to be mindful of only one prominent movement at any one moment. If the mind which is focussed on that one distinctive movement becomes really concentrated, then other movements should be noted as they arise, until contemplation becomes deep and advanced leading to Insight. Mahasi Sayadaw has said that chewing is the most outstanding and distinct movement. It is only the lower jaw that is working when we note chewing. If the meditator is aware of this lower jaw movement he will be able to contemplate on the chewing movement easily and well. When the intention to sit appears foremost in the mind, the meditator should note; intending to sit, intending to sit, and when seated, note; sitting, sitting. A meditator, in the act of sitting must gradually and slowly lower the body onto the chair, at the same time paying attention to the HEAVINESS of the body. He should reflect on the mental and body processes. When the intention to stand comes to mind, he should note; intending to stand, intending to stand.

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The mind which desires to get up is caused by the element of motion; vayo, which pushes the body up; note, filling up energy, filling up energy, supporting, supporting. When energy is sufficient, the meditator will gradually move upward with the hands supporting the body and eventually stands, note; standing, standing. He must note and reflect on the slow and gradual upward movement. Watch it precisely, closely and well. He must know and observe closely and enthusiastically the slow gradual motion involved in standing up, as this is ultimate reality. A meditator knows that; when standing, the body becomes light and when sitting, the body becomes heavy. Rising makes the body light and that is a combination of heat or temperature, and motion or air. Sitting makes the body heavy and that is the characteristic of a combination of the earth and water elements within us. Physical actions or movements (rupa) are impermanent; the knowledge of mindfulness (nama) is impermanent; thus physical (rupa) and mental (nama) phenomena are impermanent. Whatever arises is subject to passing away; this is the impermanent nature of existence. The arising and passing away or birth and decay of mental and physical phenomena is quick and troublesome, this is the troublesome or suffering nature of existence. Nothing within us can protect us or stop this suffering nature from arising or disappearing. This is the non-self nature of existence. Mindfulness of Sleep A diligent and dedicated meditator must be prepared to face the risk of spending many nights without sleep. The ancient theras are emphatic on the necessity of developing the qualities of energetic vigour in the practice of meditation.

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In the hard struggle one may be reduced to a mere skeleton of skin, bone and sinew (as was the case with the Bodhisatta Gotama). Flesh and blood wither and dry up, but one should not give up trying so long as one has not attained whatever is attainable by perseverance, energy and endeavour. These instructions should be adhered to with great determination. It may be possible to keep awake if concentration is strong enough to beat off the sleep but one will fall asleep if sleep gets an upper hand. When one feels sleepy one should make a note; "sleepy, sleepy, when the eyelids are drooping; drooping, drooping and so on. After meditating in the manner indicated, one may be able to shake off the sleepiness and feel fresh again. This feeling should be noted; feeling fresh, feeling fresh, after which revert to the usual noting; rising, rising, falling, falling. However, in spite of such determination one may still be unable to keep awake. A beginner should therefore try to keep himself mostly in the postures of sitting and walking, as in a lying posture it is easier to fall asleep. At night at the instance of going to bed a meditator should lie down mindfully and proceed with the contemplation of rising and falling, before falling asleep. In this position he may perhaps fall into relaxing sleep at which time it is not possible to carry on with meditation. Three or four hours of sleep is sufficient for a meditator. When sleepy, make a note; sleepy, sleepy. If the meditator is unable to overcome the drowsy feeling, he must continue noting drowsiness until he falls asleep. The state of sleep is the continuity of sub-consciousness. It is similar to the first state of rebirth consciousness and the last state of consciousness at the moment of death. This state of consciousness is feeble and therefore, unable to be aware of an object.

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When the meditator is awake, the continuity of subconsciousness arises between moments of seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, touching and thinking. Because these phenomena are of brief duration they are usually not clear and therefore not noticeable. Continuity of sub-consciousness remains during sleep; a fact which becomes obvious when the meditator wakes up; for it is in the state of wakefulness that thoughts and sense objects become clear. Meditation should begin the moment the meditator is awake. A beginner may not be able to meditate at the very first moment of wakefulness but a start should be made once he is ready. For example, if on awakening he is reflecting, he should be aware of this and begin his meditation by noting, reflecting, reflecting. Then proceed with the noting of rising and falling on getting up from the bed; mindfulness should be directed to every detail of the body's activity. Each movement of the hands, legs and body must be performed in complete awareness. If thinking of the time of day when awakening, note; thinking, thinking. If intending to get out of bed, note; intending, intending. When preparing to move the body into position for rising, note; preparing, preparing. When slowly rising, note; rising, rising. Should the meditator remain sitting for any length of time, revert to noting the abdominal movements; rising, rising; falling, falling. As soon as one awakes and prepares to leave the bed, there may be body movements in turning this side or that side, and in moving the hands and legs and so forth. These actions should be noted in their order of occurrence. Or if one becomes aware of the various body movements, one should begin to note the arising physical or mental phenomena. Or if one becomes aware firstly of the painful sensations one should start by noting the painful sensations and then proceed with body movements. If one stays quietly without moving, attend to the exercise of noting; rising, rising; falling, falling.

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When intending to get up one should note intending, intending, and then proceed with the noting of all actions successively in bringing the legs and hands into position in readiness to getting up. Note; raising, raising, on raising the body, sitting, sitting, when the body is erect and in a sitting position, and if there are any other actions of bringing legs and hands into position these actions should also be noted. If there are no phenomena arising revert to the usual exercise of noting; rising, rising; falling, falling. Standing Meditation Standing posture in meditation serves a very basic antidote to overcome sloth and torpor. In the course of sitting meditation, the meditator may experience periods of severe sloth and torpor. In the event that he has applied all the measures to counteract this hindrance as outline above, he may apply the technique of standing meditation. Mindfully note the intention to stand and slowly rise to the standing posture, observing all the while the various movement of the legs, body as he executes the position of standing. Mindfully place the hands onto a support (back of a chair, window railings and such). Stand erect and observe the standing position. The Buddha said: Know that you are standing when you are standing. As usual note the movements of the rising and falling of the abdomen. Contemplate as usual as in sitting position. In this position sloth and torpor will not be able to be present. Note all rising phenomena as usual. Lying Down Meditation In the act of lying down, noting should be carried out with due care. When one feels sleepy and wants to lie down, note: sleepy, sleepy; wanting, wanting; on raising the hand, raising, raising; on stretching, stretching, stretching; on touching,

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touching, touching; on pressing, pressing, pressing, and on lying down, lying, lying. The action of lying down (as in all actions) should be carried out very slowly. On touching the pillow, note; touching, touching. There are many places of touch all over the body but each spot only needs to be noted at one time. In the lying position there are many body movements for bringing the legs and hands into position also. These movements should be noted carefully; raising, raising; stretching, stretching; bending, bending; moving, moving; and so on. On turning the body, note turning, turning, and at the moment when there is no other phenomenon arising, the usual exercise of noting; rising, rising; falling, falling, be reverted to. When lying on the side or on the back and there is nothing particular to be noted, then revert to the usual exercise. Miscellaneous Exercises on Mindful Noting While occupied with the exercise of observing each of the abdominal movements, other mental activities may arise between the noting of each rising and falling. Thoughts or other mental functions, such as intentions, ideas, imaginings, are likely to arise between each mental note of rising and falling. They cannot be disregarded. Note each as it arises. If the meditator imagines something, he must know that he has done so, note; imagining, imagining. If he is thinking of something, note; thinking, thinking. If he reflects; reflecting, reflecting. If he intends to do something; intending, intending. When the mind wanders from the object of meditation, which in this case is the rising and falling of the abdomen, note; wandering, wandering. Should the meditator imagines he is going to a certain place, note; going, going; when arriving; arriving, arriving. Thinking of meeting a person, note;

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meeting, meeting. Should the meditator speaks to him; speaking, speaking. If the meditator imagines he is arguing with somebody, note; arguing, arguing. If he envisions or imagines a light or colour, note; seeing, seeing; any mental vision must be noted as it occurs. No time should be spent in being distracted by such visions. In all the above situations, after noting the arising of each and every phenomenon, the meditator should mentally note their arising. Pay no further attention to any of them (these are hindrances that will distract his concentration) and continue with being fully aware of and noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. Proceed carefully, without slackening. If he intends to swallow while thus engaged, note; intending, intending. While in the act of swallowing; swallowing, swallowing. Should he intend to bend the neck; intending, intending. In the act of bending; bending, bending. When the meditator intends to straighten the neck; intending, intending. In the act of straightening the neck; straightening, straightening. The neck movements of bending and straightening must be done slowly. After noting each of these actions, proceed in full awareness and note the rising and falling of the abdomen. While continuing meditating in one position, the meditator may experience feelings of fatigue, stiffness in the body, arms or legs, if so, keep the knowing mind on that part of the body and carry on meditating, noting tiredness or stiffness. Do this naturally, that is, neither too fast nor too slowly. These feelings will gradually become faint and finally cease. Should these feelings become intense or unbearable, he may then change position, noting; intention to change, before he proceeds to change position. When making position changes, each movement must be noted in its respective order and in detail.

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Perform these actions in a slow and deliberate manner. As soon as he is settled in the new position, continue with the meditation in this position, keeping to the procedure outlined in the following paragraph. Should an itching sensation be felt, keep the mind on that part and note; itching, itching. Do this in a regulated manner, neither too fast nor too slowly. When the itching sensation disappears in the course of full awareness, continue with the exercise of noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. Should the itch continues and becomes too distracting, he may intend to rub the itchy part, if so, be sure to note, intending, intending. Slowly lift the hand, simultaneously noting the actions of lifting, lifting and touching, touching; when the hand touches the part that itches, rub slowly in complete awareness and note; rubbing, rubbing. When the itching sensation has disappeared and the meditator intend to discontinue rubbing, mindfully note intending, intending. Slowly withdraw the hand, concurrently noting, withdrawing, withdrawing. When the hand rests in its usual place touching the leg; touching, touching. Then again he should devote time to noting the abdominal movements. If there is pain or discomfort, keep the knowing mind on that part of the body where the sensation arises. Note the specific sensation as it occurs, such as; painful, painful; aching, aching; pressing, pressing; piercing, piercing; tired, tired. It must be stressed that the mental note must neither be forced nor delayed but made in a calm and natural manner at the moment of its arising. The pain may eventually cease or increase. Do not be alarmed if it increases. When he continues meditating, he may find that the pain will almost always cease. But if, after a time, the pain has increased and becomes unbearable, he should ignore the pain and continue with the noting of rising and falling.

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As he progresses in his practice, he may experience sensations of intense pain, stifling or choking sensations, pain as from the slash of a knife, the thrust of a sharp-pointed instrument, unpleasant sensations of being pricked by sharp needles, or of small insects crawling over the body. He might experience sensations of itching, biting, intense cold. As soon as he discontinues the meditation he may also feel that these sensations cease. When meditation is resumed he will have them again as soon as he gain mindfulness. These sensations are not to be considered as something wrong. They are not manifestations of disease but are common factors always present in the body and are usually obscured as the mind is normally preoccupied with more conspicuous objects. As the mental faculties sharpen, the meditator will be more aware of these sensations. With the continued development of meditation the time will come when he overcomes them and they will cease altogether. If the meditator continues, firm in purpose, he will not come to any harm. He may lose courage, become irresolute in meditation and discontinue for some time. However, when he resumes, he may encounter these unpleasant sensations again repeatedly as his meditation proceeds. If he continues with determination he will most likely overcome these painful sensations and may never again experience them in the course of his practice. He may occasionally notice the body swaying back and forth. Do not be alarmed; neither be pleased nor wish to continue to sway. Should he intend to sway the body, then mindfully note; intending, intending. While in the act of swaying, note; swaying, swaying. The swaying will cease if he keeps the knowing mind on the action of swaying and continue to note. If swaying increases in spite of his noting it, then lean against a wall or post or lie down for a while.

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Thereafter continue with meditation. Follow the same procedure if shaking or trembling is felt. When meditation has progressed he may sometimes feel a thrill or chill pass through his back or the entire body. This is the feeling of intense interest, enthusiasm or rapture, a natural occurrence in the course of a good practice. When the meditators mind is in contemplation he may be startled at the slightest sound. This is because he feels the effect of sensory impression more intensely while in a state of concentration. If he is thirsty while contemplating, note, thirsty, thirsty. When he intends to stand, intending, intending. Keep the mind intently on the act of standing up, note; standing, standing. When he looks forward after standing up straight, note; looking, looking; seeing, seeing. Should he intend to walk forward, intending, intending. When he begins to step forward, note each step as walking, walking, or left, right. Be aware of every moment in each step from the beginning to the end when he walks, strolls or when taking walking exercise. When intending to have a drink, looking at the water faucet looking, seeing. When he stretches the hand; stretching, stretching. When the hand dips the cup into the water; dipping, dipping. When the hand brings the cup to the lips; bringing, bringing. When the cup touches the lips; touching, touching. Should he feel cold at the touch; cold, cold. When he swallows; swallowing, swallowing. When returning the cup; returning, returning. Withdrawing the hand; withdrawing, withdrawing. Touches the side of the body; touching, touching. If he intends to turn back; intending, intending.

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If he remains standing for some time continue the noting of rising and falling. But if he intends to sit, intending, intending. Sit down slowly, and keep the mind on the downward movement of the body. Mindfully, note every movement in bringing the hands and legs into position. Then resume noting the abdominal movements. Should he intend to lie down, note intending, intending. Then proceed with the mindful noting of every movement in the course of lying down: lifting, lifting, stretching, stretching, putting, putting, touching, touching, lying, lying. Then take as the object of meditation every movement in bringing the hands, legs and body into position. Perform these actions slowly. Thereafter, continue with noting rising and falling. Should pain, fatigue, itch, or any other sensations be felt, be sure to note each of these sensations. Note all feelings, thoughts, ideas, considerations, reflections, all movements of hands, legs, arms and body. If there is nothing in particular to note, revert to the rising and falling process. Perform the acts of washing the face or taking a bath in due order and in complete awareness of every detailed movement as in; looking, looking; seeing, seeing; stretching, stretching; holding, holding; touching, touching; feeling cold, feeling cold; rubbing, rubbing. He should not waver in his effort. He will make fewer omissions if he persists in his practice. When he reaches an advanced stage of the practice, he will also be able to notice more details than the examples given here. Progress in the Practice While engaged in noting the body movements the meditator need not be concerned with objects of seeing and hearing. As long as he is able to keep his mind on the abdominal movements of rising and falling it is assumed that the purpose of noting the acts and objects of seeing is also served.

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However, should he intentionally look at an object; then simultaneously note, two or three times, seeing, seeing. Then return to the awareness of the abdominal movements. Should someone come into view, make a mental note of seeing, seeing, two or three times and then resume attention to the rising and falling movements of the abdomen. When he hears a sound, he should note: hearing, hearing, and revert to noting rising and falling. Should loud noises be heard, such as the barking of dogs, loud talking or shouting, he should immediately note, hearing, hearing, after which he should return to the basic exercise. Should he fail to note and dismisses such distinctive sounds as they arise, he may fall into reflections about them instead of proceeding with intense attention to rising and falling, which may then become less distinct and clear. It is by such weakened attention that mind-defiling passions breed and multiply. If such reflections do arise, note reflecting, reflecting, two or three times, then again take up the noting of rising and falling. Should he forget to note body, leg or arm movements, and should he realise it later, then note; forgetting, forgetting, and resume the usual noting of the abdominal movements. If breathing slows down and rising and falling movements are not clearly perceived, noting should be on sitting, sitting; touching, touching; or when lying down, to lying, lying; touching, touching. While noting touching, the meditators mind should not be kept on the same part of the body but on different parts successively. There are several places of touch and at least six or seven should be noted, such as thigh and knee, or the hands together.

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By now the meditator have devoted much time to the practice. He may feel discouraged thinking that he has not made progress, if so, then note; discouraged, discouraged. Before he gains sufficient strength in attention, concentration and Insight, he may doubt the correctness or usefulness of this method of training. If so, note; doubt, doubt. Should he anticipate good results, he should make such thoughts the subject of reflections; anticipating, anticipating or wishing, wishing. Recalling the manner in which training was conducted up to this point, note; recollecting, recollecting. Examining the arising phenomena note examining, examining. Regretting that there is no improvement in his progress; note; regret, regret. Conversely, should he feel happy that his noting is improving, then note the feeling of being happy, happy. This is the way in which the meditator notes each and every item of mental phenomenon as it arises, and if there is no intervening thought or perception to note, revert to the noting of rising and falling. Earnest practice is from waking moment till the last moment before sleep. The meditator must be occupied constantly either with the basic exercises or with mindful attention throughout the day and at night when he is not asleep. There should be no relaxation. Upon reaching a certain stage of progress he will not feel sleepy in spite of prolonged hours of practice. On the contrary, he will be able to continue day and night. Some Salient Recap It has been emphasised during this brief outline of the training exercises that the meditator must note each mental occurrence good or bad, on each body movement large or small, on every sensation (body or mental feeling) pleasant or unpleasant and so on.

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If, during the course of the training, occasions arise when there are nothing special to contemplate upon, then return to paying full attention to the rising and falling of the abdomen. When the meditator has to attend to any kind of activity that necessitates walking, then, in complete awareness; note each step walking, walking or left, right; left, right. But when performing a walking exercise, he should contemplate each step in three sections; up, forward, down. The student who thus dedicates himself to the training night and day, will be able to, in not too long a time develop concentration to attain to the initial stages and then to the higher stages of Insight Meditation. As rising occurs, the mind makes a note of it, and thus the object and the mind coincide. As falling occurs the mind makes a note of it and thus the object and the mind coincide. It is always the mind which cognises the object at every stage of noting. These two elements of material object and knowing mind arise in pairs, and apart from these two there does not exist any other thing either in the form of a person or self. This truth will be realised personally in due course. The reality that matter and mind are separate will be clearly perceived during the time of noting, "rising, falling". The elements of matter and mind are linked up in a pair and their arising coincides, that is: The material process of rising coincides with the mind knowing it, the material process of falling coincides with the mind knowing it, and the respective processes of lifting, pushing and putting coincide with the respective minds knowing them. This knowledge in respect of matter and mind rising separately is the Insight Knowledge of mind and matter (nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana). It is the preliminary stage in the whole course of Insight Knowledge. It is important to have this preliminary stage developed in a proper manner.

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On practising for some time, there will be a considerable progress in Mindfulness and Concentration. At this level it will be realised that, on every occasion of noting, each process arises and passes away at the very moment. But it is, on the other hand, considered generally by uninstructed people that body and mind remain in a permanent state throughout the life or existence, that the child that is now the adult, is the same; that the same meditating mind has matured and that both body and mind are one and the same person. The reality is that it is not so. Nothing is permanent. Everything comes into existence for a moment, then passes away. Changes are taking place very swiftly and these will be perceived in due course.

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CHAPTER III PROGRESSIVE PRACTICE


Understanding Body and Mind (rupa and nama) The elements of mentality (nama) and materiality (rupa) are classified as states with object and states without object, respectively. The element of mentality has an object, holds an object, knows an object, while that of materiality does not have an object, does not hold an object, and does not know an object. It will therefore be seen that materiality has no faculty of knowing an object. A meditator also perceives in like manner that materiality has no faculty of knowing. The meditator practising Vipassana Meditation observes matter and mind (the two Aggregates we call a being), with a view to realising their true nature. By continuous and constant mindfulness, the necessary concentration is gained and when it is sufficiently sharp, the ceaseless course of arising and passing away of matter and mind will be clearly noted. Matter (rupa) The body consists solely of two distinct Aggregates: matter and mind. There are altogether twenty-eight kinds of elements that make up the matter group, chief among which are earth, water, fire and air. Body matter, or rupa, is like a doll made of clay or wheat and has no faculty of knowing, though most people tend to have the mistaken concept that material elements of a living body cognises. In reality rupa changes form under physical conditions of heat and cold and does not possess any faculty of knowing an object. Like logs, pillars, bricks, stones and lumps of earth; they are a mass of inert matter and do not possess any faculty of knowing. It is the same with material elements in a living or dead body. They do not have the faculty of knowing.

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Mind (nama) Tendencies of the Mind Mind as we know it, is not a single, universal entity that exists on its own volition within us, but arises one after another in succession depending on conditions. New units of mind are incessantly arising at every moment, and though appearing to arise simultaneously, are in reality appearing successively. One arises, ceases and another arises, continuously following one another. In Reality a Single New Unit of Mind Arises at Every Moment. This reality of the mind can be realised after a period of ardent and mindful practice in Vipassana. Mind, imagining or planning, is clearly perceived and disappears as soon as a note is made, imagining, imagining, or planning, planning. Minds arising, noting and disappearing appear like a string of beads. oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo. The preceding mind is not the following mind. Each is distinctly a single unit by itelf. These realities are realised only through Vipassana Meditation. Mind has no substance or form. It is not easy to recognise as it is with matter, which having form of body, head, hands or legs is easily discernible. Matter can be handled and shown, whilst mind has no substance or form. It is essential to contemplate the mind at each and every moment of its arising to realise and gain Insight into its true nature. When meditation practice and contemplation is fairly advanced, the mind's approach to an object is clearly comprehended. It appears as if the mind is making a leap towards the object. In order to know the true manner of mind, Vipassana Insight Meditation is thus prescribed. With a mind restrained, the meditator will be freed from the bondage of the fear of Death. For this reason, it is important to note every phenomenon arising from the mind. As soon as it is noted, that unit of mind disappears. For instance, by noting once or twice; "intending, intending" it is found that intention disappears at once.

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To cite an example; during the practice, one may feel the need to swallow. This feeling should be clearly and mindfully noted; wanting, wanting or intention, intention, and on preparing to swallow; preparing, preparing, and when swallowing; swallowing, swallowing. The rationale is that, clearly and mindfully knowing and noting the act of swallowing prevents the wrong view that the action of swallowing; wanting to swallow is a personal I decision; swallowing is also I; thus forming the deluded view that there is an entity that decides and empowers swallowing. In fact the reality, wanting to swallow is a mind state, a mental process and NOT a personal I, and the process of swallowing is accomplished by matter, a physical process and NOT I. There exists only mind and matter at the time of swallowing. By means of Vipassana, one will understand clearly this process of reality of swallowing. Mind (nama) comes into being depending on the arising of Matter (rupa). Mind inclines towards an object, and is wrongly viewed to be "thought" or "consciousness". Mind arises depending on Matter as will be described herewith. Thus, depending on: Eye (body object) Eye-Consciousness (seeing) arises; Ear (body object) Ear-Consciousness (hearing) arises; Nose (body object) Nose-Consciousness (smelling) arises; Tongue (body object) Tongue-Consciousness (taste) arises; Body (object) Body-Consciousness (touch) arises. While sense of touch has a wide field of sensitivity throughout the entire body, inside and outside; the sense of sight, hearing, smell, or taste can only come into being respectively in its own particular sphere. The eye, ear, nose and tongue, occupy a very small and limited space in the body.

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These five senses are elements of mind. There is also the sixth mind-consciousness of thoughts, ideas, imaginations and so forth depending on the mind-base. These six senses are elements of mind. Mind knows an object, while Matter does not! The practice of Vipassana gets rid of the view that seeing belongs to or is a self, or an ego, or a living entity, or a person. Most people hold the view that: Seeing is I or I am seeing or I know, this is known as sakkaya-ditthi (the delusion that there is a self). In reality, as in the case of seeing, there are TWO separate things of eye and seeing: Neither is eye seeing, nor is seeing the eye, yet there cannot be an act of seeing without the eye. In fact seeing comes into being depending on eye. It is now evident that in the body there are only two distinctive elements of matter (eye) and mind at every moment of seeing. However, in addition there is also a third element of matter (visual object). At times the visual object is noticeable outside the body. If the third one is added there will be three elements, two of which (eye and visual object) are material and the third of which (seeing) is mental. Eye and visual object being material element do not possess any ability of knowing an object, while seeing being a mental element can know the visual object and what it looks like. Now it is clear that there exists only two separate elements of matter and mind at the moment and the arising of this pair of two separate elements is known as seeing. Thus, in seeing three distinctive Aggregates of elements are involved: The Visual Object (the external matter); Eye (internal object); and Mind (realisation of seeing at every moment of seeing).

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Hence, in seeing, three elements come together: The Visual Object (which is external to the body), the Eye (an internal object) and the act of Seeing. To summarise; eye and visual objects are material elements and do not possess any ability of knowing, only seeing a mental element, knows the visual object and what it looks like. Now it is clear that what we know as seeing is only the arising of this pair of separate elements. Thus, at the moment of seeing, the things that are in actual existence are the eyes, the external visual object, both of which belong to the material group, and the seeing consciousness, which belongs to the mental group. When one is not free from the view that there is a Personal Self, one cannot expect to escape from the existence of hell, animal, or peta. Though living in the human or deva world by virtue of ones accumulated merits, one is liable to fall back into the state of miserable existence at a time when conditions cause ones demerits to arise. For this reason the Buddha pointed out that it is essential to work for the total removal of the deluded concept of a self. Though all living beings wish to be rid of old age, disease and death, yet they must succumb to the inevitable. Rebirth follows death, which in any state of existence does not depend on one's wish. Whatever one sows, one reaps the fruits thereof, may or may not be in this life-time, but surely in some existence when conditions ripen. Life does not exist by itself, but in a complex of compounded phenomena. It depends upon conditions for its existence. It is not possible to avoid rebirth in the realms of hell, animal, or peta by the mere act of wishing.

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Rebirth takes place in any state of existence as the circumstances of one's own past and present deeds provide and so far as one does not understand the law of kamma, and work towards wholesome kamma, one has no choice as to ones future existence. For these reasons, samsara (the rounds of rebirth) is very dreadful. Every effort should therefore be made to acquaint oneself with the miserable conditions of samsara and then to strive for an escape from this incessant cycle through the attainment of Nibbana. If such an escape is not possible for the present, an attempt should be made for an escape at least from rebirth in the suffering realms of hell, animal, asura or peta; in this case it is necessary to strive energetically for the total removal of the deluded view that there is a self (sakkaya-ditthi), a view which is the root-cause of rebirth in those miserable states. This deluded view can only be eradicated completely by achieving ariya magga and phala, the Holy Path and its Fruition, the virtues of concentration and wisdom. It is, therefore, imperative to develop these virtues, by the practice of constantly noting or observing every phenomenon arising from the Six Sense Doors, which in effect is the practice of Vipassana Meditation. The deluded concept of a self will then be totally removed and security against the danger of rebirth in the realms of suffering will be gained. Arising of Physical and Mental Phenomena The training in Vipassana is to note mental and physical phenomena at the moment of their arising at the Six Sense Doors. For example; when an object is visually seen or consciousness of seeing is apparent, a note must be made of seeing it; seeing, seeing. If not, basing on this act of seeing, or any consciousness of knowing through any of the Six Sense Doors, there will arise the deluded view of an entity, seeing or hearing.

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Thus, the wrong view that the phenomenon; seeing or hearing was by a person or belonging to a person or that there is a permanent entity that sees or hears, further conditioning a conceptual sense of nicca (permanence), sukha (happiness) and atta (self), which will arouse attachment and craving, a defiling state of mind. This defiling state of mind will in turn prompt deeds, and the deeds will cause rebirth to a new existence. In this way, the process of Dependent Origination operates and the whole vicious cycle of samsara revolves incessantly. To abort this process, it is necessary to note each and every phenomenon arising from the Six Sense Doors. Similarly, in the case of hearing, there are only the two distinct Aggregates of Matter and Mind. Hearing consciousness arises depending on the ear. While ear and sound are two elements of matter, hearing consciousness is an element of mind. To fully realise the reality of this pair of Matter and Mind, a note should be made on every occasion of any phenomenon arising from any of the Six Sense Doors. Similarly, in the sensation of touch on any part of the body; there are the material nerve tissues, which receive the impressions of touch. Every kind of touch, either agreeable or disagreeable, comes in contact with these nerve tissues causing to arise a touch consciousness which feels or knows the touch on each occasion. It will be seen that at every instant of touching there are two elements of matter: Sense-organ and Impression of touch, and one element of mind: Knowing of Touch. Thus, to realise these things in its reality, at every time of touching; touching, touching has to be noted. This merely refers to the common form of sensation of touch.

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There are other forms which accompany painful or disagreeable sensations, such as, to feel stiff or tired, to feel hot, to feel pain, to feel numb, to feel ache, and other body feelings. Because feeling predominates in these cases, it should be noted as; feeling hot , feeling tired , painful or others as they arise. There are constantly arising various sensations of touch in the hands and legs, and other tactile sensations on each occasion of bending, stretching or moving. Due to mind wanting to move, stretch or bend, the material activity of moving, stretching or bending, and so on, arises consecutively. It may not be possible to notice each and every one of these incidents for the present, especially so in the case of a new meditator. They can only be noticed after some time, on improvement of practice. All activities in movements and in changing, are done by the mind. When the mind originates an intention to bend; there arises a series of inward movements of hand or leg; when the mind intends to stretch or move; there arises a series of outward movements or movements to and from respectively. They disappear or are lost soon after they arise and at the very moment of arising. (One will notice these incidents later on.) In every kind of activity, such as bending or stretching, there arises foremost in the mind, a Series of Intending Minds, on account of which there will occur in the hands and legs; a Series of Material Activities, such as stiffening, hardening, bending, stretching, moving to and fro. These activities conjoin with other material elements, such as nerve tissues, and on every occasion of contact between material activities and sensitive qualities, there arises touch consciousness, which feels or knows the sensation of touch. It is, therefore, clear that material activities are the predominating factors in these cases.

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It is necessary to be aware of and to note these predominating factors as arising on its own, dependent solely on conditions. If not, there will arise the wrong view that there is this I, who originates such activities, or that I am bending, I am stretching, or My hands, My legs. Therefore, the exercise of noting: bending, stretching, moving, is for the purpose of removing such wrong views. As regards thoughts, imaginations and so forth depending on mind-base, there arise a series of mental activities or phenomena, depending on the body. In reality each arising activity or phenomenon is a composition of matter and mind, mind-base or body matter; while thinking and imagining, are mind. In order to be able to notice matter and mind clearly, a note must be made of each and every mental and physical phenomenon as they arise. While contemplating during meditation, the meditator will realise that his mind tends to wander far and wide and visit places that he has been before. This fact is apparent only upon reflection. After having carried out the exercises for a period and depending on individuals, there should be improvement in concentration. One will notice that the mind no longer wanders about but remains fixed on the object to which it is directed. At the same time the power of noting has considerably developed. On every occasion of noting, the meditator will realise that there are only the twin processes of: Matter and Mind (Rupa and Nama). A set of object and mind, the mind noting the object; mind comes into existence.

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INSIGHT INTO THE THREE CHARACTERISTICS


On contemplation, one realises that nothing remains permanent and that everything is in a state of flux. New things constantly arise; each noting passes away immediately after arising; immediately another arises, which is again noted and which then passes away. The process of arising and passing away goes on. One is therefore convinced that: "things are not permanent". They arise and pass away at every instance of noting. This is Insight into impermanency (Aniccanupassana-nana). One is also convinced that arising and passing away are not desirable, as one usually experiences many painful sensations in the body, such as tiredness, heat, aches and pains. When noting these sensations, one feels that this body is a mass of suffering. This is Insight into suffering (Dukkhanupassana-nana). Then at every time of noting, it is realised that matter and mind arise according to their respective nature and conditioning, not according to one's wish! One is therefore convinced that they are not governable and they are not persons or living entities. This is Insight into the absence of a self (Anattanupassana-nana). On having fully acquired this knowledge: Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta, the maturity of magga nana and phala nana, Insight Knowledge of the Path and its Fruition, takes place; the first stage of realisation of Nibbana is won. By this first stage, one is freed from the rounds of rebirth in the unhappy lower existence. Everyone should, therefore, endeavour to attain the first stage as a minimum measure.

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Vipassana Meditation is to note, observe and contemplate the successive arising of phenomena at the Six Sense Doors. These phenomena arise very swiftly! Seeing appears to arise at the time of hearing; hearing appears to arise at the time of seeing; it appears that both seeing and hearing arise simultaneously. It appears that three or four phenomena of seeing, hearing, thinking, imagining arise simultaneously. It is not possible to determine the sequence of their arising due to their rapidity. In Reality, Neither seeing arises at the time of hearing Nor hearing arises at the time of seeing. THEY ARISE individually and successively, one following the other. A meditator who is new to the practice and who has not sufficiently developed Mindfulness, Concentration and Insight Knowledge will not be able to observe all these arising phenomena. There is no immediate necessity to observe each and every phenomenon that arises, until practice improves. A few prominent phenomena should be noted as far as is possible for the present. Seeing or hearing arises only when due attention is given. If one does not pay heed to any sight or sound, one may meditate without noting seeing or hearing. Smelling arises rarely. Experience of taste arises only at the time of eating. In cases of seeing, hearing, smelling and tasting, meditators note them as they arise. However, body impressions are always present. They are usually evident quite distinctly all the time. During the time that one is sitting, the body impressions of stiffness or the sensation of hardness in this position are distinctly felt. Attention should therefore be fixed on the sitting posture and a note made; sitting, sitting. Sitting is an erect posture of the body consisting of a series of physical activities which are induced by the consciousness consisting of a series of mental activities.

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It is just like the case of an inflated rubber ball which maintains its round shape through the resistance of the air inside it; so is the posture of sitting, in which the body is kept in an erect posture. A good deal of energy will be required to pull up and maintain in erect position such a heavy load as the body. People generally assume that the body is lifted and kept in position by means of sinews. This assumption is correct only in the sense that sinews, blood, flesh and bones are also material elements. The element of stiffening which maintains the body in an erect posture belongs to the material group and arises in the sinews, flesh, blood, etc. throughout the body similar to the air in a rubber ball. This element of stiffening is vayo-dhatu, the air element. The body is kept in the erect position by the presence of the air element in the form of stiffening, which is continually coming into existence. At the time of heavy drowsiness one may drop flat, because the supply of new material (air) to maintain stiffening is reduced. The state of mind in heavy drowsiness or sleep is unconsciousness (bhavanga). During the course of unconsciousness or sleep, mental activities are absent, and for this reason the body lies flat during sleep or heavy drowsiness. During waking hours strong and active mental activities are continuously arising, and because of these there arises a series of air elements, stiffening the form. In order to realise these phenomena, it is essential to note mindfully sitting, sitting. This does not necessarily mean that the body impressions of stiffening should be particularly searched and noted. Attention need only be fixed on the whole form of sitting posture, that is, the lower portion in a bending circular form and the upper portion in an erect posture. It will be found that the exercise of observing a single object of sitting posture is simple and does not require much effort.

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In the circumstances, vigour (viriya) is less and concentration is in excess, and one generally feels lazy to carry on the noting of sitting, sitting, repeatedly for a considerable time. Laziness (sloth) generally occurs when there is excess of concentration and less of vigour. This gives rise to a state of torpor. More vigour should be exerted, and for this purpose the number of notings should be increased. The practice of Vipassana is the contemplation of physical and mental phenomena arising and disappearing; of the two, the mental group is subtle and less prominent while the material group is coarse and more prominent. Distinctive Matter and Mental Processes When mindfulness and concentration have improved, the meditator will note the simultaneous awareness of an object and the knowing of it, such as: Rising and awareness of it, Falling and awareness of it, Sitting and awareness of it, Bending and awareness of it, Stretching and awareness of it, Lifting and awareness of it, Putting down and awareness of it. Through concentrated attention (mindfulness) he distinguishes each material and mental process; the rising movement is one process, the knowing of it is another. He realises that each act of knowing has the nature of going towards an object. Such a realisation refers to the characteristic function of the mind as inclining towards an object, or cognising an object. He realises that the clearer a material object is noted, the clearer becomes the mental process of knowing it. When the meditator comes to know the difference between a material and a mental process, he would reflect from direct experience that there is the rising and the knowing it; the falling and knowing it; that there is nothing else besides.

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The words man or woman refer to the same process; there is no person or soul. He would then have direct knowledge of the difference between a material process as object and a mental process of knowing it; that there is only body and mind, besides these, there is no such entity as man or woman. When such reflections arise, the meditator must note "reflecting, reflecting", and then return to observing the rising and falling of the abdomen. This describes the Analytical Knowledge of Body and Mind (nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana). With further progress, the consciousness of a mental state of an intention is evident before a body movement occurs. Though at the beginning of the exercises, he notes "intending, intending" (for instance, to bend an arm); at this early stage, he may not be able to define this consciousness as a mental state distinctly. Now, at this advanced stage, he distinctly perceives the consciousness consisting of the intention to bend. He notes the mental state of an intention to make a body movement, then he notes the particular body movement. In the beginning, because of the omission to note an intention, he thinks that a body movement precedes the mind knowing it. Now, he realises that mind is the forerunner. The meditator readily notes; the intention of bending, stretching, sitting, standing, going and so on; the actual bending, stretching and other body movements. He realises that the mind knowing a body process is quicker than the material process itself. He experiences directly that a body process takes place after a preceding intention. Again he knows from direct experience that the intensity of heat or cold increases while he is noting "hot, hot, or "cold, cold". In contemplating regular and spontaneous body movements such as the rising and falling of the abdomen, he notes them one after another continuously.

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He also notes the arising of various other mental images such as the Buddha, an arahant, as well as different kinds of sensations that arise (such as itch, ache, heat), with attention directed onto the particular spot of the body, where the sensation arises. One sensation has hardly disappeared, then another arises, and he notes them all accordingly. While noting every object as it arises he is aware that the mental process of knowing the arising is due to an object first appearing. Sometimes, the rising and falling of the abdomen is so faint that he finds there is nothing to note. Thus, it occurs to him that there can be no knowing without an object! Reflecting that material processes of bending, stretching and so on, follow mental processes of intending to bend, stretch and so forth. He further reflects that Ones body becomes hot or cold because of the element of heat or cold; the body exists on food and nourishment; consciousness arises because there are objects to note; seeing arises through visual objects; hearing through sounds, and also because there are the Six Sense Doors, as conditioning factors. The meditator further reflects: Intentions and notings are results of volitional actions from experiences and feelings of all kinds in previous life cycles. Thus material and mental processes take place ever since birth as a result of kamma inherited and arising from previous existences. No being or entity creates this body and mind, and all that happens is due to causal factors. Such reflections come while he is noting each object as it arises. He does not stop noting while reflecting. While noting objects as they arise, these reflections are so quick that they appear to be arising together. He must then note; "reflecting, reflecting; recognising, recognising; and continues noting objects as usual.

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After having reflected that material and mental processes being noted are conditioned by kamma from previous existences, the meditator reflects further that body and mind in the former existences were conditioned by causes preceding that existence, that in the following existences body and mind will result from the causes initiated in this and previous existences. Apart from this dual process, there is no separate being or person; only cause and effect taking place. This is Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality (paccaya-pariggaha-nana). Such reflections must also be noted and then the exercises should go on as usual. Such reflections will be many in the case of people with a strong intellectual bent and less in the case of those without. Energetic noting must be made of all these reflections. Noting them will result in their reduction to a minimum, allowing Insight to progress unimpeded by an excess of such reflections. Such reflections should be reduced. When concentration is practised in an intensive manner, the meditator may experience unbearable sensations, such as itching, aches, heat, dullness and stiffness. Such sensations arise in consequence of the bodys natural sensitivity and are not due to symptoms of a disease. If they are noted with energetic concentration they fade away gradually. Principal attention should be given to sense objects which can be noted easily, and to those mental processes which arise in connection with sense perceptions. Images and Reflections The meditator may see unusual and extraordinary images. These are but imagination created by his own mind, sharpened by intense concentration. They are similar to dreams and are neither to be welcomed nor enjoyed, nor need one be afraid of them. These objects seen in the course of meditation are not real; they are mere images or imagination.

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To the mind, they appear real! These are purely mental processes, unconnected with the fivefold sense impressions. Noting them is difficult as they are without clear details. So whatever object appears, the meditator should note, "seeing, seeing". It will either move away, fade away or disintegrate. At the outset, this will take several notings, say about five to ten. But when Insight develops, the object will disappear after a couple of notings. At this later stage, whether or not the meditator comes across extraordinary objects or feelings he knows clearly the initial, the intermediate and the final phase of each noting. In the early stages of the practice, while noting one object, the meditator may switch noting to other objects as they arise, without noting clearly the passing away of the previous objects. Now, at these developing stages, only after cognising the passing away of an object, does he note the new object that arises. Thus, he has a clearer knowledge of the initial, the intermediate and the final phase of the object noted. As the meditator progresses, he observes that in every act of noting, the object appears suddenly and passes away instantly. His observation is so clear that he reflects; all things come to an end, they pass away; all are truly impermanent. They are impermanent, in the sense of non-existence after having been. There is only a continuous arising and passing away by which we are harassed. At any moment we may die and everything is sure to come to an end. This universal impermanence is truly unsatisfactory and brings no joy. (Characteristics of Impermanence).

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He also reflects that what is impermanent is painful, painful in the sense of fearfulness; painful because of the uncertainty and stress of rise and fall. All is pain, all is suffering. He looks on pain as a barb, a boil, a dart. (Characteristic of Suffering). He also realises that the material body is a source of suffering; suffering that is beyond any ones control, ceaselessly arising and passing away. It is beyond anyones power to change or stop the process. It takes its natural course. He further realises that the pain is not an individual self; that the pain has no core and there is no exercising of power over it. (Characteristic of Non-self). The meditator must note all these reflections and go on meditating as usual. Thus, by inference of having realised these three characteristics experientially, he comprehends all other objects as impermanent, subject to suffering, and is self-less. In respect of objects not personally experienced, he concludes that they too are constituted in the same way; impermanent, painful and without a self. This is an inference from his direct experience. Such excessive reflecting, however, can be a hindrance to the progress of Insight! Even if no such reflections occur at this stage, comprehension will nevertheless become increasingly clear at the higher stages. Hence, no attention should be given to reflections. While giving more attention to the bare noting of objects, the meditator must, however, also note these reflections if they occur, but he should not dwell on them. This is Knowledge of Comprehension. After comprehending the three characteristics, the meditator no longer reflects but goes on with noting those body and mental objects which present themselves continuously.

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Balancing the Five Mental Faculties The Mental Faculties are altogether five: Confidence (saddha), Effort (viriya), Mindfulness (sati), Concentration (samadhi) and Insight (panna). These faculties are personal virtues which a person must develop as part of his mental make-up. These are prime virtues of great importance on which the success or failure of mental training depends. At the moment when these Five Mental Faculties are correctly developed and balanced, the mental process of noting accelerates as if it becomes uplifted, and the body and mental processes to be noted also arise much quicker. Here balancing the Five Mental Faculties refers to their heightened maturity and being well refined so as to empower the practice. Once they are correctly harmonised, well balanced and co-ordinated, the Five Faculties become dynamic powers, conducive to meditative contemplation enhancing the acquisition of Insight. The essence of co-ordinating the Faculties consists in harmonising Confidence with Insight and Energy with Concentration. Mindfulness is to be applied in full measure regardless. That Confidence or Faith is to be harmonised with Insight means that Faith must not outweigh Insight to the extent that it becomes blind faith, mere superstition, which is harmful. What is required in the practice is faith that is based on truth and stands the test of reason. The same applies to Insight. If not accompanied by confidence, it will be mere theorising. The meditator must have confidence; for example, in the Enlightenment of the Buddha, as a support for his knowledge gained by listening and studying (sutamaya-panna). He then investigates, examines and contemplates until he confirms and further enhances this acquired knowledge (cintamaya panna). He then tests such knowledge through ardent practice.

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When such practices are correctly taken up, he would then be able to realise the truth of the Dhamma through his own effort. He then gains spiritual knowledge through such experiential realisation and mental development (bhavanamaya-panna). Thus, there are three different levels of Insight, each of which must be accompanied by confidence or saddha based on or supported by it. At the first (1) level, one hears and simply believes in what someone says and does. Then after having considered and understood (2), having found the statement to be reasonable and in agreement with previous ideas, one has a higher degree of confidence. Finally, when one has actually practised (3) and realised the fruits of the practice, one has confidence at the highest level; that is, belief in a truth that has become evident to ones own mind, based on neither authority nor reasoning. This is what is meant by balancing Faith and Insight (saddha and panna). The meditator must be aware of all this and see it in himself. He will then be able to co-ordinate belief and Insight correctly, keeping them suitably balanced and in harmony. If he allows either one to predominate, his practice will go amiss. Balancing Energy with Concentration can easily be explained in terms of an analogy. Energy (viriya) is like speed and Concentration (samadhi) like the governor that regulates it. If the two are not co-ordinated, progress in meditation will not be achieved. Concentration is like the weight of a bullet, Energy like the force of the gun powder that propels it. If Energy exceeds Concentration, that excess energy is undirected and is dissipated. If Concentration exceeds Energy, then the meditator becomes lax and sluggish and may make no progress at all. So, activating the mind and restraining it must go together; Energy and Concentration must be properly balanced.

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Concentration too must be balanced with Insight; this may take place by itself, naturally, if the meditator is habitually restrained in his mental activity. If he always make his mind steady before thinking over any object, first concentrating on it and only then considering it, he will gain full insight of that object according to reality. This is investigating with a steady mind or steadiness in investigation. Mindfulness is needed in all cases. Mindfulness occupies a central position, as if it were arranging the other Faculties into pairs and advising them how to perform their respective duties properly and harmoniously from beginning to end. For example, Mindfulness enables Confidence to judge how much to believe; it introduces Confidence to the companionship of Insight; it compels Confidence and Insight to go together. The meditator needs Mindfulness as a means of controlling various other things, most particularly the other four faculties. With care, he can co-ordinate them steadily and harmoniously. With the faculties working suitably together, the mind is steady; it has agility and adaptability and so can do progressively finer work. This is what is meant by Balancing the Faculties: the coordinating of all the qualities necessary for successful practice.
[Condensed Excerpt from Anapanasati by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu]

In a moment of in-breathing, the rising of the abdomen presents itself in quick succession and the falling also becomes correspondingly quicker. Quick succession is also evident in the process of bending and stretching. Slight movements are felt spreading all over the body. In several cases, prickly sensations and itching appear in quick succession momentarily. By and large, these are feelings hard to bear.

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The meditator cannot possibly keep pace with the quick succession of varied experiences if he attempts to note them by name. Noting has to be done in a general manner, but with mindfulness. At this stage, one need not try to note details of the objects arising in quick succession, but one should note them generally. If one wishes to name them, a collective designation will suffice. If one attempts to follow them in a detailed manner, one will get tired soon. The important thing is to note clearly and to comprehend whatever that arises. Brilliant Lights At this stage, reflections focussed on a few selected objects should be set aside and mindful noting be directed towards every object that arises at the Six Sense Doors, and as usual when there is no further notings, one should revert to the noting of the rising and falling of the abdomen. Body and mental processes are many times swifter than a wink of an eye or a flash of lightning. If the meditator goes on noting these processes he will fully comprehend them as they happen. Then mindfulness will become very strong. As a result, mindfulness seems as if plunging into an object that arises. The object too, seems as if alighting on mindfulness and is noted clearly. The meditator then realises that body and mental processes are very fast indeed and can be as fast as a machine; and yet, they can be noted and comprehended. As a result of Insight, brilliant lights may appear to the meditator. There arises in him rapture, causing falling of tears, tremor in the limbs. These sightings produce in him a subtle thrill and exhilaration. He feels elated. Then, there arises tranquillity of mind and along with it appears mental agility.

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When sitting, lying, walking or standing, he feels quite at ease. Both body and mind are agile in functioning swiftly, they are pliant and wieldy in being able to attend to any object for any length of time desired. He is free from stiffness, heat or pain. Insight penetrates objects with ease. Mind becomes sound and straight, and the meditator wishes to avoid all evil. Through firm faith, mind is very bright. When there is no object to be noted, the mind remains tranquil. There arises in him thoughts that the Buddha is truly omniscient and things are as He says, the body-and-mind process is impermanent, painful and without self. While noting objects he comprehends the three characteristics. He wishes to advise others to practise meditation and communicates his feelings and experiences to others. Sloth and torpor free, his energy is neither lax nor tense. There arises in him equanimity associated with Insight. His happiness exceeds those of his former experiences. There also arises a subtle attachment of a calm nature that enjoys the Insight associated with the brilliant lights, mindfulness and rapture. He comes to believe it to be just the bliss of meditation. The meditator should not reflect on these happenings. As each arises, he should note them accordingly; brilliant light, faith, rapture, tranquillity, happiness and so on. These are the ten corruptions of Insight. They have the character of corruptions only when they cause attachment in the meditator, or lead to conceit. For example, if, in misjudging these phenomena and overrating his achievements, he may believe he has attained to the Holy Paths. These corruptions occur at the stage of Weak Knowledge of Rise and Fall.

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When there is brightness, the meditator should note "bright, bright, momentarily and return to mindful noting of rising and falling. Similar acts of noting should be made in the other cases. Initially when a brilliant light appears, the meditator tends to forget noting and enjoys watching the bright light. Even if the meditator applies mindful noting of the lights, it will be mixed with feelings of rapture and happiness, and it is likely to linger on. Sometimes, the light becomes so brilliant that he finds it difficult to make it pass away by the act of noting mindfully. However, when his concentration has developed sufficiently well, such phenomena will disappear, never to arise again. In any case, with such phenomena, the meditator should cease to pay attention to them and turn energetically to the noting of other phenomena arising. The meditator should not ponder as to whether the light is still there. If he does so, he is likely to see it. If such a thought arises, he should disperse it by vigorously directing his attention to that very thought, thinking, thinking, and revert to other phenomena as they arise or if nothing immediately arises, to revert to noting rising and falling of the abdomen as usual. While concentration is intense, not only a brilliant light but also several other phenomena may continue to arise if the meditator inclines to one or the other of them. In such instances, the meditator must note each phenomenon as it arises. In some cases, even if there is no such inclination towards any object in particular, faint objects appear one after another like a train of railway carriages. The meditator should respond to such visual images by noting "seeing, seeing"; such objects will pass away. If the meditator's Insight is not well developed, the objects may become more distinct, however, as each of them arises it must be noted until the whole train of objects passes away.

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The meditator must recognise the fact that cherishing an inclination towards a brilliant light, and being attached to it, is a wrong attitude. The correct response, in conformity with the Path of Insight is to momentarily note these objects mindfully. Then he should cease to pay attention to it and turn energetically to the noting of other phenomena arising. This is Purification by Knowledge and Wisdom of What is Path and Not-Path. Concluding Note Those who are keen to work for their own deliverance from the ills of the world and attainment of magga-phala-Nibbana; the highest goal of Vipassana Meditation, will be well advised to practise by the aforesaid way of contemplation of body, feeling, consciousness and mental objects, called Satipatthana Meditation. It is, in fact a must for them. What has been described in these pages may not be experienced in to-to by every meditator. There are bound to be differences as capabilities and paramita are not the same in each individual. Faith, desire and diligence, too differ in different individuals. A meditator, depending entirely on book instructions, need to be as cautious and hesitant as a traveller who has never been on a particular journey. Therefore, it is obviously not very easy for such a person to attain the Path, Fruition and Nibbana. This being so, one who is really keen to meditate until he attains his goal, must find a teacher who is fully qualified by personal attainments to guide him all along the way from the lowest stage of Insight to the highest Knowledge of Path, Fruition and Reviewing. In the course of meditation, bearing in mind the following advice of the Buddha, one should go all out to win the goal. For it is said: No slacker nor the man of puny strength may win Nibbana, freedom from all ills.

End of Instructions on the Practice.

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REFERENCE NOTES
Wandering Mind There are times when the mind wanders. This wandering mind should be noted: wandering, wandering, when it wanders away; arriving, arriving, when it reaches a place; planning, planning, reflecting, reflecting; as the case may be, noting other phenomena as they arise. There may also be instances of swallowing, feeling of painful sensations, hot sensations, itching sensations or of body actions in changing the position and moving the limbs. They should be noted as they arise. Mind generally passes away on being noted once or twice. (When sufficient strength in concentration is gained it will be possible even to carry on with the noting of each act of opening and closing of the eyelids and winking.) On imagining meeting a person, it should be noted as meeting, meeting. When speaking with the imaginary person, note as speaking, speaking, after which revert to noting rising and falling. At first it may take some time to observe wandering thoughts but later, with mindfulness, they will disappear quickly. Not only will wandering thoughts disappear, mindfulness of those wandering thoughts will disappear too, nothing is everlasting or permanent; "transient indeed are all component things, ... this is anicca. All component things arise but perish within a twinkling of an eye. It is obvious that they are all subject to ''birth and decay". This coming into being and then perishing or disappearing is indeed suffering this is dukkha. This suffering cannot be warded off in anyway or by anyone and nothing can be done about it. Uncontrollable by any force or means, that is anatta. There and then, the meditator will come to realise the truth that: All Conditioned Things are Transient; They are Objects of Suffering and are Uncontrollable.

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Pain and Patience As the meditator goes on meditating for some time, his limbs will start to ache, be painful or become numb. When this occurs, he should note this painful suffering. There are three ways of mindfulness meditation as regards pain. The first is to concentrate on the pain so as to end it. The second is to make this pain go away in an aggressive manner. The third is to meditate, contemplate and realise the truth about the pain. Firstly, when the meditator concentrates his mind on the pain to be relieved of it, he is actually desiring to attain pleasure, this is greed, that is, greed for pleasure, but mindfulness meditation is not for pleasure but to eradicate greed. Thus, he should not meditate in this way. The second way is where he is determined to be rid of this suffering; this is not desirable either, as determination can be accompanied by anger, and mindfulness meditation is not about allowing anger to creep in. The third way is to contemplate on the pain itself; how it has come about and what are its qualities. Whenever pain occurs, a meditator will usually become tense and anxious, thinking; "Will I have to stay like this for the whole hour?" or "Will I have to go on suffering like this all the time?" This reaction is undesirable, instead he should let the body and mind relax. Pain or suffering will come as it will and a meditator should be mindful of that pain. He must be patient and keep a calm mind. Patience is the only solution, as it is with patience that Nibbana is attained. Patience is an essential quality in mindfulness meditation, and the meditator must remain calm in mind and body; noting in a relaxed manner. He should not be too taut and tense*, but keep the mind on the pain, feel the pain, and pinpoint its source. *(In the Sona Sutta a monk, taking the Buddhas
advice not to be over-strung or over-lax in his practice was able to quickly attain Arahantship).

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The meditator must concentrate very deeply on the particular part of the body where the pain arises and note; pain, pain; and know exactly where it arises from and how painful it is. Superficial mindfulness in meditation is ineffective. If he is mindful of such pain, numbness and aches, he will note that those pains and aches will become more severe and may become unbearable. Just as the pain arises and becomes unbearable, so also will that pain lessen and subside naturally, but he should not lessen his concentration. The meditator should earnestly and enthusiastically continue being mindful of the pain, and note; paining, paining; aching, aching, until they disappear one by one or until the painful areas change places. When he becomes very energetic and enthusiastic in mindfulness meditation, Insight Knowledge will arise. As concentration becomes stronger or advanced, the pains and aches will disappear as soon as they are noted. It will be noted that the pain does not last, neither does the meditators mindfulness, nor does the knowledge of the pain. All things are neither lasting nor are they permanent; they are all impermanent and transient. Birth and decay are quick and painful, and protection from such transience and pain is not possible. So we come to know that, the nature of Pain is anicca, dukkha, anatta. The meditator may hear sounds, see and smell things around him. Cockerels crowing, birds singing, hammering and beating sounds, people speaking and cars running. When such sounds are heard, the meditator should note, hearing, hearing, but the mind must not follow those sounds. If concentration is powerful and strong, these sounds will become indistinct and appear to be from far away or they may become loud and near or hoarse and not clear.

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In time, the meditator will come to realise that by mindfully noting, hearing, hearing, the sounds will disappear slowly, as will the knowledge or awareness of hearing, and mindfulness meditation of hearing. The sounds will disappear one by one or the syllables of a word heard will not be connected. Just as the sounds disappear, so will the awareness of hearing and the mindfulness meditation disappears naturally; that is anicca, not everlasting, impermanence. The occurrence of sounds and their disappearance is so quick and obvious that it is dukkha or suffering. Nothing can be done to ward off the arising and disappearing of sounds, it is uncontrollable; this is anatta. Thus will the meditator realise: sounds are not lasting; the knowledge of mindfulness meditation is also impermanent and nothing can be done to stop them from arising and disappearing. That is the realisation that will be experienced from mindfulness meditation of sound. Meditation is Now Meditation cannot be based on phenomena in the past or those that may happen in the future; as such meditation will not enable one to understand reality or eradicate defilement. While living in the present few can recall past existences. Even in this very existence, one remembers very little of ones childhood. Thus, it is of no benefit to meditate on things past as one will not be able to realise things as they really were. Things of the more recent past may be recalled. But, as one recalls them; one thinks: I saw, I heard, I thought. It was I who saw at that time and it is I who am seeing now. Thus, there is the I notion. There can even be notions of permanence and happiness. Thus, meditating on the past do not serve the purpose. One may have clingings to things in the past, which may be hard to overcome, even though one may view them as mind and matter. Even with this knowledge, the I notion may persist, as one may already have clingings to the past.

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One may intellectually understand, Impermanence, but one may subconsciously cognise things as permanent. One notes suffering, but thoughts of happiness keep turning up. One meditates on non-self, but the self remains strong and firm. The future is unsure. When one meditates on it in advance, one may be disappointed when it turns up. Cravings, wrong views and defilement will arise anew. To meditate on the future will not let one see things as they really are, nor is it the way to eradicate defilement. Moment to moment is the reality one is in. If one fails to meditate on phenomena as they arise, one will not know their real nature of impermanence, suffering and non-self. Defilement clouds ones mind. This is a case of latent defilement because they arise from objects; it is called object-latent. Defilements are latent in contacts with the Six Senses. What do people cling to and why do they cling? They cling to things or persons they have seen because they have attachment to the things seen. If they fail to meditate and contemplate on them as they arise, attachment and clinging arise. When the meditator contemplates, he finds that what he sees passes away, what he hears passes away. They pass away in no time at all. Once he sees them as they really are, there is nothing to love, nothing to hate, nothing to cling to. If there is nothing to cling to, there can be no clinging or attachment. Meditation is now, moment to moment. It cannot be put off. Purchases can be put on credit, but meditation is for now, only then will clinging be extinguished.

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Incessant Work in Noting To arrive at Insight Knowledge one needs determined, thorough and dedicated effort. There is no guarantee that a meditator will gain such knowledge at one sitting. In the time of the Buddha, there were those who attained Path and Fruition after listening to a single stanza from the Buddha. This was because the Buddha knew the disposition of the listeners. The listeners on their part were people of perfection, developed and matured through aeons in time. Todays teachers may be teaching from what little they have learnt. They are not able to know the disposition of their listeners. It is also difficult to say that listeners are men and women of perfection. How long do we have to work? Understanding impermanence, suffering and selflessness begins with investigative effort leading to knowledge. Acquisition of such knowledge does not happen immediately. It can only be acquired through purity of mind, purity of views and purity of transcending thoughts. A specially gifted person may achieve this knowledge in two or three days. Most will take five, six or seven days working assiduously and those who are slack may not gain it even after fifteen or twenty days. So one must work earnestly from the very beginning. Make a quick note whenever the meditator sees, hears, smells, tastes, touches or thinks without missing anything! For the beginner, to note everything is quite difficult. Resolve to note as much as he can. It is comparatively easy to note the rising and falling of the abdomen. Note without a let-up; rising, falling; rising, falling. As the meditators mindfulness and concentration grows and intensifies, touching and sitting should also be noted; rising, falling, sitting, touching. As he continues noting, ideas may come up, too. Note them also, thinking, planning, knowing. These are in fact, hindrances.

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Unless he gets rid of them, he will not have purity of mind and a clear understanding of mind-matter (nama-rupa) phenomena. Note them and be rid of them. When unbearable feelings of tiredness, warmth, pain, itch and others appear during meditation, he should turn his attention to them, label and note; tired, tired, or hot, hot, as the case may be. If a thought appears to stretch or bend the limbs, note these thoughts; desire to stretch, desire to bend as the situation dictates. When he bends or stretches, every move must be noted as it arises. When he stands, moves, walks, sits, lies down and so on, note each move as it arises. Should there be any lull in nama and rupa activities, revert to noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. Noting must be done in earnest without let-up. The meditators mindfulness and concentration will be improving at which time he will be able to increase his notings appreciably. He will be noting with ease. Thus, he will have developed purity of mind.

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VIPASSANA JHANAS Sayadaw U. Panditabhivamsa


How Wisdom Softens The Mind Right Effort, Right Aim, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration: all these are factors of the Noble Eightfold Path. When they are present in the mind, the defilement (kilesa) are unable to arise. The defilement which harden the mind, making it rigid and agitated are dispelled when one is with the moment, and so the mind has a chance to soften. With continuous noting, the mind is able to penetrate into the true nature of things. There comes the Insight that everything is just Mind and Matter, and the mind experiences a huge sense of relief. No one is there, just Mind and Matter, with no one creating them. When we can further see how these phenomena are conditioned, the mind will be free of doubts. As we go deeper into the moment, the mind becomes softer and more relaxed as the defilement loosen. Observing the fleeting nature of Mental and Physical Phenomena, one gains Insight into their impermanence. As a direct consequence of this process, one is freed from pride and conceit. If one sees clearly the tremendous mental and physical stress brought about by phenomena, one gains Insight into their dis-ease and suffering nature and thereby is freed from cravings. If one sees the absence of self in all phenomena, realising that the process of Mind and Matter is empty and not at all related to ones wishes, one can be freed from the wrong view that there is some permanent entity called the self within the body we call our body. This is only the beginning. The deeper we penetrate into the true nature of reality, the more our mind becomes flexible, pliable, workable and dextrous. If one attains the first path consciousness, the first experience of Nibbana, certain defilement will never make the mind tense and rigid anymore.

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Blowing Out Suffering The Buddha: The mind should not be allowed to wander without, neither should it be allowed to stop within. He who is able to be mindful in that way will be able to extinguish all sufferings. If the mind comes into contact with a pleasant, desirable, tempting object, it naturally fills with greed. This is the moment it has wandered off. When it touches a disgusting, painful object, it fills with aversion, it becomes a wandering mind. The mind veiled in delusion, unable to see what is happening, is also a mind that has run away. Thus, the Buddhas instruction not to allow greed, aversion and delusion to arise. The Sensing Process With and Without Mindfulness Sensing processes occur through a series of consciousness which are neither wholesome nor unwholesome. Immediately after this series, if mindfulness does not intervene, there will occur a second, perhaps a third or fourth series of consciousness accompanied by greed, hatred and delusion. The efficacy of Vipassana practice is its ability to sharpen mindfulness until it can recognise the bare sensing process at the end of the amoral series of consciousnesses and forestall the arising of further series accompanied by greed, hatred and delusion. If the mind does this, it is not wandering. The wandering mind is the mind that has been polluted by kilesa as it reflects on what has happened or what is happening. Practically speaking, if we begin to reflect upon the characteristics of the object; we know the mind has wandered off. If we activate precise and penetrative mindfulness and diligent effort at the moment of seeing that coloured object, we have the chance to understand the seeing process for what it really is. This is the chance to develop wisdom and observe the relationship of Mind to Matter, the conditionality that relates them, and the characteristics of impermanence, suffering and absence of self they share.

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The meditator might like to try an experiment right now. Direct attention to the rise and fall of the abdomen. If the mind makes an effort to be precisely aware of these movements, actually to feel them from beginning to end, it will be freed of greed, hatred and delusion. There are neither thoughts of pleasurable objects, nor aversion to unpleasant objects, nor deluded confusion about what is going on. CRASH! Sound suddenly becomes predominant. At this moment, we leave behind the rising and falling movements. Even so, we do not consider that the mind has wandered if we are able to recognise immediately that this is a sound, and note it as: hearing, hearing; without getting carried away by reflections about what caused the sound. There is no greed, no hatred or delusion in the mind. It is another matter if the mind is drawn away by a familiar tune and we begin to remember the last time we heard it and what the singers name was. Even during a sitting some meditators wriggle and tap their fingers when they remember songs from the past. They certainly suffer from wandering minds. Jhana There are yet deeper aspects of not wandering. The mind that is not wandering is the mind that is penetratively mindful of what is happening. The word penetrative is not used casually. It refers to a jhanic factor that must arise in the mind. Jhana is usually translated as absorption. Actually it refers to the quality of mind that is able to stick to an object and observe it. Imagine the meditator finds something in the mud and wants to pick it up. If he takes a sharp instrument and stick it into that thing, it will penetrate the object so that he can lift it out of the mud, he can then look at it closely. The same goes for the food on his plate. The way his fork pierces a morsel of food illustrates this jhanic factor. There are two types of Jhana; Samatha and Vipassana Jhana.

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Samatha Jhana is pure concentration, fixed awareness of a single object; a mental image, for example, such as a coloured disk or a light. The mind is fixed on this object without wavering or moving elsewhere. Eventually the mind develops a very peaceful, tranquil, concentrated state and becomes absorbed in the object. Different levels of absorption are described in the texts, each having specific qualities. Vipassana Jhana, on the other hand, allows the mind to move freely from object to object, staying focussed on the characteristics of impermanence, suffering and absence of self that are common to all objects. Vipassana Jhana also includes the mind which can stay focussed and fixed upon the bliss of Nibbana. Rather than the tranquillity and absorption which are the goal of Samatha Jhana practitioners, the most important results of Vipassana Jhana are Insight knowledge and wisdom. Vipassana Jhana is the focussing of the mind on paramattha dhammas. Usually these are spoken of as ultimate realities, but actually they are just the things we can experience directly through the Six Sense Doors without conceptualisation. Most of them are sankhara paramattha dhamma, or conditioned ultimate realities: mental and physical phenomena which are changing all the time. Nibbana is also a paramattha dhamma, but it is not conditioned. Breathing is a good example of conditioned process. The sensations a meditator feels at the abdomen are conditioned ultimate realities, sankhara paramattha dhamma, caused by his intention to breathe. The whole purpose of concentrating ones attention on the abdomen is to penetrate the actual quality and nature of what is happening there. When the meditator is aware of movement, tension, tautness, heat or cold, he has begun to develop Vipassana Jhana. Mindfulness at the respective sense doors follow the same principle.

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If there is diligent effort and penetrative awareness, focussing on what is happening in any particular sense process, the mind will understand the true nature of what is happening. These sensing processes will be understood in individual characteristics as well as common ones. According to the fourfold way of reckoning, which admits of four levels of Jhana, the first Jhana possesses five factors which we will describe below. All of them are important in Vipassana practice. The Five Jhanic Factors The first of them is called vitakka. It is the factor of aiming accurately, directing the mind towards an object. It also has the aspect of establishing the mind on the object, so that the mind stays there. The second factor is vicara, generally translated as investigation or reflection. After vitakka has brought the mind to the object and placed it firmly there, vicara continues to rub the mind onto the object. The meditator can experience this himself when observing rising and falling. First, the meditator makes the effort to be precise in aiming the mind at the rising process. Then his mind reaches the object and it does not slip off. It impinges on the object, rubs against it. As he is mindful in an intuitive and accurate manner from moment to moment, the mind becomes increasingly pure. The hindrances of desire, aversion, sloth, restlessness and doubt weaken and disappear. The mind then becomes crystal clear and calm. This state of clarity results from the presence of the two jhanic factors we just discussed. It is called viveka, which means seclusion. The consciousness is secluded, far away from the hindrances. This viveka is not a jhanic factor. It is merely a descriptive term for this secluded state of consciousness.

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The third jhanic factor is *piti, rapture, a delighted interest in what is occurring. This factor may manifest physically as a tingling sensation, as feelings of being dropped suddenly as if in an elevator, or as feelings of rising off the ground.
(*piti - zest, joy, rapture: Joy dissociated with sensual desire. This kind of joy is associated with renunciation rather than with sensual desire, can be defined as rapture resulting from success in overcoming sensual desire; pleasurable interest of mind; buoyancy of mind.)

The fourth jhanic factor, *sukha, happiness or comfort, comes on the heels of the third. One feels very satisfied with the practice.
(*sukha bliss: This jhanic factor is pleasant mental feeling. It is born of detachment from sensual pleasure. It is spiritual happiness. It counters the hindrance of restlessness and worry.) (Though piti and sukha are closely connected, they are distinguished in that piti is a conative factor belonging to the aggregate of mental formations (sankharakkhandha) while sukha is a feeling belonging to the aggregate of feeling (vedanakkhandha). Piti is compared to the delight a weary traveller would experience when coming across an oasis, sukha to his pleasure after bathing and drinking from it.)

Both the third and fourth jhanic factors come about as a result of seclusion from the hindrances, and is a state of rapture, joy and happiness born out of seclusion. Think of this sequence as a causal chain. Seclusion of mind comes about because of the presence of the first two jhanic factors. If the mind is accurately aimed at the object, if it hits and rubs it, after some time the mind will become secluded. Because this mind is secluded from the hindrances, one becomes happy, joyous and comfortable. When these first four jhanic factors are present, the mind automatically becomes calm and peaceful, able to concentrate on what is happening without getting scattered or dispersed. This one-pointedness of mind is the fifth jhanic factor; samadhi or concentration.

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Access to The First Vipassana Jhana Requires Insight Into Mind and Matter It is not sufficient to have all five factors present for one to say one has attained the first Vipassana Jhana. The mind must also come to penetrate into the Dhamma a little bit; enough to see the inter-relationship of mind and matter. At this time we say that access to the first Vipassana Jhana has occurred. A meditator whose mind is composed of these five jhanic factors will experience a new accuracy of mindfulness, a new level of success in sticking with the object. Intense rapture, happiness and comfort in the body may also arise. This could be the occasion for him or her to gloat over the wondrousness of the meditation practice. Oh, Im getting really precise and accurate. I even feel like Im floating in the air! A meditator might recognise this reflection as a moment of attachment. Stop Within Anyone can get caught up in rapture, happiness and comfort. This attachment to what is happening within us is a manifestation of a special kind of craving, a craving not connected with ordinary, worldly sensual pleasures. Rather, such a craving comes directly out of ones meditation practice. When one is unable to be aware of this craving when it arises, it will interfere with ones practice. Rather than directly noting, one wallows in the pleasant phenomena unmindfully, or thinks about further delights that might ensue from ones practice. Threefold Seclusion The sutta implies that one should avoid certain things when one practises meditation. One avoids contact with kama or sensual pleasures and with unwholesome dhammas. One avoids these two things precisely by practising the threefold seclusion of:

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(1) Seclusion of the body (kaya viveka); (2) Seclusion of the mind (citta viveka) and as a result of the first two; (3) a state where defilements and hindrances are very far away and weak (vikkhambhana viveka). Seclusion of the body actually refers to seclusion not from a physical body, but from the body of objects related to sensual pleasures. This means simply the objects of the senses considered as a group: sounds, visual objects, smells, tastes and tactile objects. Seclusion from unwholesome dhammas comes under the category of Seclusion of the mind from the various hindrances which obstruct the growth of concentration and Insight. In a practical way, Seclusion of the mind simply means activating mindfulness moment to moment. A meditator who can maintain continuity of mindfulness moment to moment has activated Seclusion of the mind. These two types of Seclusions do not come without an effort. For Seclusion of the body, we must remove ourselves from an environment of sensual pleasures, taking the opportunity to practise in a place conducive to peace of mind. This removal is not in itself sufficient, of course. In a Nut-Shell To acquire Seclusion of the mind, we become mindful of all objects that arise at the Six Sense Doors. To be mindful, one must direct the mind towards an object. The effort to be mindful is instrumental in bringing a sense of accuracy in the mind. This aim, this effort towards accuracy in placing the mind squarely on the meditation object is the first jhanic factor; vitakka. So, we must have aiming. The meditator tries to observe the rising and falling of the abdomen. Eventually the mind hits the bulls eye, clearly noticing sensations of hardness, tension, movements. It begins to impinge and rub against the object. This is vicara.

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After the mind has been rubbing against its object for some time, it will become engrossed and absorbed into it. When the meditator stays with the rise and fall of the abdomen, fewer thoughts arise. He may even go for some time without having a single thought. Clearly, the mind is free from objects of sense pleasure and also from defilement (kilesa) which are caused by these objects. Seclusion of the body (kaya viveka) and Seclusion of the mind (citta viveka) are therefore present. With continued practice, effort and continuity, the defilement will fade into extreme remoteness. At last, the meditator has the third type of Seclusion, a state where defilements and hindrances are very far away and weak; vikkhambhana viveka. A Special Kind of Happiness In a state where defilements and hindrances are far away and weak (vikkhambhana viveka), the mind becomes soft and subtle, light and buoyant, dextrous and flexible. A special kind of happiness, nekkhamma sukha arises, the happiness and comfort that come from being free from sensual objects as well as from unwholesome defilement which react to those objects. So, in place of ordinary apparent happiness, this liberating comfort appears. In relinquishing the comfort of the senses, one gains a very comfortable state of being liberated from the very senses we have relinquished. This is the true renunciation of sense pleasures. Seclusion of the mind from unwholesome dhammas actually means seclusion of the mind from all defilement. There is no opportunity for defilement to arise because the immediate cause of defilement; sense objects, have been given up. Now the word Jhana, the state of being absorbed, takes on a whole new meaning. As a result of other jhanic factors of vitakka (aim) and vicara (rubbing), sensual pleasures have been given up and the defilement put away. Not only does Jhana allow absorption, but it also removes defilement like fire burning them away.

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The Relationship of Vitakka and Vicara (Accurate Aim and Impingement) In the development of jhanic states, these two factors are absolutely important. The two have a close relationship which is much discussed in the texts. Below are two examples. Imagine that the meditator has a brass cup that is covered with stains. He applies polish on a rag. Holding the cup in one hand, he uses the other hand to rub the rag against its surface. Working diligently, he will soon have a shiny cup. In the same way, the meditator must hold his mind in the particular place where the primary object is occurring; the abdomen. He keeps applying mindfulness at that place, rubbing it until the stains and pollution of the kilesa disappear. Then he will be able to penetrate into the true nature of what is happening at that spot. He will comprehend the process of rising and falling. Of course, if other objects become more prominent than the primary object, he must note them, applying vitakka and vicara toward the new phenomena. Holding the mug with one hand is comparable to vitakka, while the polishing action is comparable to vicara. If he only held on to the mug and did not polish it, it would remain as dirty as before. If he tried to polish it without holding it steadily, it would again be impossible to do a good job. This illustrates the interdependency of the two factors. The second example is that of a compass used in geometry. A compass has two arms, a pointed one and another which holds the pencil. The meditator must firmly place his mind on the object of meditation, as if his mind were the pointed end of the compass; and then he must rotate the mind, so to speak, until it can see the object as a whole and very clearly. A perfect circle will result. The placing of the pointed end is comparable to vitakka, and the rotation to vicara.

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Direct, Intuitive Knowledge Vicara is translated as investigation or sustained thought. This is very misleading. People in the West have been educated since young to use their intellect, always to seek the whys and wherefores. Unfortunately, this kind of investigation is inappropriate for meditation. Intellectual learning and knowledge is only one of two kinds. The other means of knowledge and learning is direct and intuitive. In Vipassana Meditation, one examines the ultimate realities or paramattha dhammas, directly. One must actually experience them, without thinking about them. This is the only way to attain Insight wisdom relating to things as they really are, the natural state of affairs. One may understand a lot intellectually about ultimate reality. One may have read a great deal, but without experiencing reality directly, there can be no Insight. The reason why Samatha Jhana can grant tranquillity, but do not lead directly to wisdom is that they have concepts as their objects, rather than objects which can be directly experienced without thinking. Vipassana Jhana lead to wisdom, because they consist of direct, sustained contact with ultimate realities. Even though the meditator have heard that apples are delicious, he will not know for sure till he has tasted the fruit itself. So too, with meditation; the meditator may vividly imagine what a certain experience is like, but he has not experienced the real thing until he has actually made the effort to practise in the right way. Then he will have his own Insight.

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Hindrances and Antidotes Just as darkness engulfs a room at night, so the darkness of delusion and ignorance arises in the human mind when it is not properly attuned to the object of meditation. In each moment of ignorance the mind is continually seeking and grasping after desirable sights, sounds, thoughts, smells, tastes and sensations. Beings in this condition spend their time seeking, grasping and clinging. They are so enmeshed that it is difficult for them to appreciate the possibility of another sort of happiness beyond those sensual pleasures which are so familiar. Meditation, the practical way of achieving a higher happiness, will be meaningless to them. The practice of Vipassana is a full and continuous attention to the object. This involves two aspects of concentration, vitakka and vicara. These two jhanic factors keep the mind absorbed in the object of noting. If they are absent, the mind will stray. Bombarded by sense objects and defilement, especially the defilement of longing for sensual objects, the mind will be engulfed by delusion and ignorance. There will be no light, no chance for the remaining three jhanic factors to assemble with the first two to create the environment of peace, clarity and joy where Insight blossoms. The Five Hindrances The five specific ways in which the mind strays from its object are known as the Five Hindrances. Of the endless variety of defilement (kilesa), they represent the five major types. They are hindrances because each of them has a particular power to obstruct and impede our practice. As long as the mind is seduced by temptations of the senses, it cannot remain steadily observing a meditation object. Drawn away time and again, it will never travel that path of practice which leads beyond ordinary happiness.

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Sensual Desire (kamacchanda), is the first and greatest hindrance to our practice. For an object to be distracting in an unpleasant way is another frequent occurrence. Upon contact with an unpleasant object, the mind is filled with Aversion or Anger (vyapada). This too, leads the mind away from the object and also away from the direction of true happiness. At other times alertness and vigilance vanish. The mind becomes drowsy, unworkable and sluggish. Once again, it cannot stay with the object. This is Sloth and Torpor (thinamiddha), third on the list of hindrances. Sometimes the mind becomes very frivolous and dissipated, flirting with one object and then another. This is Restlessness and Agitation (uddhaccakukkucca). The mind cannot stay onepointed on its object but is scattered and dissipated, full of memories of past deeds, remorse and regret, worry and agitation. The fifth and last major hindrance is Sceptical Doubt and Criticism (vicikiccha). Surely a meditator has experienced times when he has doubted himself, the method of practice or his teachers. He may compare this practice to what other meditators have done or heard about, and he becomes completely paralysed, like a traveller at a crossroad who, unsure of the right way, cannot decide which path to take. The presence of hindrances means that rapture, comfort, onepointedness of mind, right aim and continuity of attention are lacking. These five wholesome factors are the factors of the first Jhana; they are integral parts of successful Vipassana practice. Each jhanic factor is the antidote for a specific hindrance and each hindrance is the enemy of a jhanic factor.

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Concentration: The Antidote for Sense Desire The hindrance of sense desire is responsible for keeping us in darkness. Concentration is its antidote. When the meditators mind is concentrated on meditation, it does not attach itself to other thoughts, sights and sounds. Pleasurable objects lose their power over the mind. Dispersion and dissipation cannot occur. Rapture: The Antidote for Aversion As concentration takes the mind to more levels, deep interest arises. Rapture and joy fill ones being. This development frees the mind from the second hindrance, for anger cannot co-exist with joy. Hence, the scriptures say that joy and rapture are the antidotes to anger. Happiness or Comfort: The Antidote for Restlessness Now, with meditation well developed, a great sense of comfort can begin to arise. The mind watches unpleasant sensations peacefully, without aversion. There is ease in the mind, even if the objects are difficult. Sometimes pain even disappears under the influence of mindfulness, leaving behind a sense of physical release. With this physical and mental comfort, the mind is content to remain with the object. It does not fly about. Comfort is the antidote for restlessness and anxiety. Aim: The Antidote for Sloth and Torpor The jhanic factor of vitakka or aim has the specific power to open and refresh the mind. It makes the mind alive and open. Thus, when the mind is continually and diligently trying to be accurate in aiming at the object, sloth and torpor do not arise. A mind attacked by drowsiness is a mind that has been constricted and withered. Vitakka is the antidote to thina and middha.

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Continuous Attention or Rubbing: The Antidote For Doubt If aim is good, the mind will hit its target of observation. This impinging or rubbing against the object is the jhanic factor of vicara, which has the function of continuity, keeping the mind stuck to its object of observation. Continuous attention is the opposite of doubt, for doubt is indecision. The doubting mind cannot fix itself on any particular object; instead it runs here and there considering possibilities. Obviously, when vicara is present the mind cannot slip from the object and behave in this manner. Immature wisdom also contributes to the spreading of doubt. Without a certain depth and maturity of practice, it is obvious that very profound Dhamma will be obscure. Beginning meditators may wonder about things they have heard about but never experienced. They may be confused. Frustration will eventually lead to criticism. For this vicious cycle, continuous attention is the antidote. A mind stuck to its object uses all its power to observe; it does not generate critical thoughts. Comprehending the Nature of This World Maintaining attention on the rising and falling from the very beginning of its occurrence to the very end; developing that penetrative, accurate mindfulness from moment to moment in an unbroken and continuous manner, the meditator may come to notice that he can see clearly with his minds eye the entire rising process. From its beginning, through to the middle, to the end, there is not a single gap. The experience is utterly clear. He begins to move through the progression of Insights that is only available through Vipassana, the direct observation of mind and body. First he makes the subtle distinction between the mental and physical elements constituting the rising and falling processes. Sensations are material objects, distinct from the consciousness that perceives them. As he observes carefully, he begins to see how mind and matter are mutually connected, causally linked.

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An intention in the mind causes the appearance of a series of physical objects constituting a movement. The meditators mind starts to appreciate how mind and matter come into being and disappear. The fact of arising and disappearing comes into crystal clear focus. It becomes obvious that all objects in his field of consciousness have the nature to come and go. Sounds begin and then end. Sensations in the body arise and then dissolve. Nothing lasts. At this point in the practice, there begins to be a strong presence of all five factors of the first Jhana, discussed above. Aiming and impinging, vitakka and vicara, have strengthened. Concentration, rapture and comfort join them. The first Vipassana Jhana is said to be complete, and Vipassananana or Vipassana Insight knowledge can begin to arise. Vipassana Insight knowledge is concerned specifically with the three general characteristics of conditioned phenomena: Impermanence (anicca); Unsatisfactoriness or Suffering (dukkha) and Absence of an Abiding Self (anatta). Impermanence (anicca) As the meditator observes objects come and go, he will begin to appreciate their momentary nature, their impermanence. This knowledge of impermanence is direct, first hand; he feels its truth anywhere he places his attention. During the moment the meditators mind is in contact with the object, he sees clearly how the object dissolves. A great sense of satisfaction arises. He feels a deep interest in his meditation, and rejoice at having discovered this fact and truth about the universe. Simple and general observation tells us that the whole body is impermanent. Impermanence or anicca refers to the whole body. Looking closer, we see that all phenomena which occur at the Six Sense Doors are impermanent; they are impermanent things.

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We can also understand impermanence to mean all the impermanent things comprising mind and matter, mental and physical phenomena. There is no object we can find in this conditioned world that is not impermanent (anicca). The fact of rising and falling away is the characteristic or sign of impermanence (anicca lakkhana). It is precisely in the arising and passing away that impermanence can be recognised. Vipassana Knowledge of impermanence is the intuitive comprehension which realises the fact of impermanence; it occurs in the very moment of noting a particular object and watching it disappear. It is important to make this point, that Vipassana Knowledge of impermanence (anicca Vipassana nana) can only occur in the precise moment when one sees the passing away of a phenomenon. In the absence of such immediate seeing, it is impossible to understand impermanence. True Insight only occurs in the presence of a non-thinking, Bare Awareness of the passing away of phenomena in the present moment. When the meditator is observing the rising and falling of the abdomen; in the moment of rising, he may be aware of tautness, tenseness, expansion and movement. If he follows the rising process from beginning to end, the ending of these sensations is clear to him; it is possible for Vipassana knowledge of impermanence (anicca Vipassana nana) to occur. All sensations that can be felt at the abdomen or anywhere else are impermanent (anicca). Their characteristics of having appeared at the beginning of the rising process and having disappeared at the end, constitute characteristic of impermanence (anicca lakkhana). The realisation that they are impermanent can only occur in a moment when one is observing their disappearance. Impermanence is not confined to ones abdomen.

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Everything that occurs in seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, thinking, touching; all the sensations of the body, heat and cold, hardness and pain and all of ones miscellaneous activities; bending, turning, reaching out, walking; all these things are impermanent. When the meditator sees the vanishing of any of these objects, he will be involved in Vipassana knowledge of impermanence (anicca Vipassana nana). He will lose the illusion of permanence. Conceit (mana) will also be absent. In fact, during times when he is mindfully aware of impermanence, his general level of conceit will progressively diminish. Suffering or Unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) The second characteristic of conditioned reality is suffering or unsatisfactoriness (dukkha). It can be discussed under the same categories: Unsatisfactoriness or suffering (dukkha), Characteristic or sign of suffering (dukkha lakkhana) and Vipassana knowledge of suffering (dukkha Vipassana nana). During the meditators observation of impermanence, very naturally the factor of unsatisfactoriness and/or suffering will also become apparent. As phenomena arise and pass away, he will realise that nothing is dependable and there is nothing fixed to cling to. Everything is in a flux and this is unsatisfactory. Phenomena provide no refuge. Suffering itself is actually a kind of synonym for impermanence, referring to all impermanent things. Whatever is impermanent also is suffering. At this point of development in meditation practice, painful sensations can become very interesting. One can observe them for some time without reacting. One sees that they are not solid at all; they do not actually last more than the briefest instant. The illusion of continuity begins to crumble.

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A pain in the back: one sees fiery heat transform itself into pressure, and then into throbbing. The throbbing changes its texture, its shape and intensity moment by moment. Finally, a climax occurs. The mind is able to see the break-up and disintegration of that pain. Pain vanishes from the field of consciousness. Observing the pain disappearing, one is filled with joy and exhilaration. The body feels cool, calm, comfortable, yet one is not deluded into thinking that suffering has been abolished. The satisfying nature of sensations becomes clearer. One begins to see this body as a mass of painful and unsatisfactory phenomena. The characteristic of suffering is stressed by impermanence. Precisely because all objects arise and pass away from moment to moment, we live in a highly stressful situation. Once arising has occurred, there is no way to prevent passing away. Vipassana knowledge of suffering, the Insight that comprehends suffering, also occurs at the moment when one is contemplating the passing away of phenomena, but it has a different flavour from Vipassana knowledge of impermanence. One is suddenly seized by a great realisation that none of these objects is dependable. There is no refuge in them; they are fearsome things. Again, it is important to understand that the appreciation of suffering we gain through reading books, or through our own reasoning and reflection, does not constitute the real thing. Vipassana knowledge of suffering (dukkha Vipassana nana) only occurs when the mind is present with bare awareness, watching the arising and passing away of phenomena and understanding that their impermanence is fearful, fearsome, undesirable and bad. The true realisation that suffering is inherent in all phenomena can be very powerful. It eliminates the deluded view that these things are pleasurable. When such an illusion vanishes, craving cannot arise.

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The Absence of Self (anatta) One realises and appreciates that no one (anatta) is behind these processes. Moment to moment phenomena occur; this is a natural process with which self is not identified. This wisdom relating to the absence of self in things; Vipassana knowledge of selflessness (anatta Vipassana nana), is also based on two preceding aspects, selflessness (anatta) and characteristic of selflessness (anatta lakkhana). Selflessness (anatta) refers to all impermanent phenomena which possess no self-essence; in other words, every single element of mind and matter. The only difference from impermanence (anicca) and suffering (dukkha) is that a different aspect, the third characteristic of existence, selflessness, is being highlighted. The characteristic of selflessness (anatta), sign of selflessness (anatta lakkhana), is seeing that an object does not arise or pass away according to ones wishes. All mental and physical phenomena that occur in us come and go of their own accord, responding to their own natural laws, which is beyond our control. We can see by observing the weather. At times it is extremely hot, at other times freezing cold. At times it is wet, at other times dry. Some climates are fickle, such that one does not know what will happen next. Weather is subject to its own natural laws, just like the elements that constitute our minds and bodies. When we fall ill, suffer and eventually die, these processes are contrary to our wishes. While diligently observing all the mental and physical phenomena arising and passing away within, one may be struck by the fact that no one is in control of the process. Such an Insight comes quite naturally. It is not affected or manipulated in any way. Nor does it come from reflection. It simply occurs when one is present, observing the passing away of phenomena. This is Vipassana knowledge of selflessness or anatta Vipassana nana.

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When one is unable to see the momentary arising and passing away of phenomena, one is easily misled to think that there is a self, an individual unchanging entity behind the process of body and mind. With clear awareness, this false view is momentarily eliminated. Verified Knowledge by Comprehension: Fulfillment of the First Vipassana Jhana When awareness is clear, especially when the passing away of things is noticeable, one can appreciate intuitively the characteristics of impermanence, of suffering or of absence of self that are inherent in all phenomena. The intuitive understanding of all three of these characteristics is included in a particular stage of Insight, Verified Knowledge By Comprehension (sammasana-nana), meaning the Insight that arises out of verification. One comprehends or verifies the three characteristics through personal experience of seeing the disappearance of phenomena. Though it is very commonly used, the word Insight may not be an appropriate translation of the Pali word Vipassana. The word has two parts, vi and passana. Vi refers to various modes and passana is seeing. Thus, one meaning of Vipassana is seeing through various modes. These various modes, of course are those of impermanence, suffering and absence of self. A more complete translation now becomes seeing through the modes of impermanence, suffering and absence of self. Another synonym for Vipassana nana is pacceka-nana. Pacceka here refers to direct experiential perception. Because true Vipassana nana only arises when one is mindful, because it occurs intuitively rather than from reasoning, it is called a direct experiential Insight, pacceka-nana.

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As Vipassana nana recurs in ones practice, the mind is led into a natural and spontaneous reflection that impermanence, suffering and non-selfness are not only manifest in the present situation; one realises by deduction that these three qualities have also manifested throughout the past and will continue to prevail in the future. Other beings and objects are constituted of the same elements as oneself, all impermanent, unsatisfactory and empty of self. This reflection is called deductive knowledge, and it is a further aspect of the jhanic factors of vitakka and vicara, manifesting in this case on the thinking level. At this stage the first Vipassana Jhana is considered to be fully developed and the stage of practice called Verified Knowledge By Comprehension (sammasana-nana) is fulfilled. One has a deep and clear appreciation of the three general characteristics of conditioned phenomena: anicca, dukkha and anatta. One has reached the deductive conclusion that in this world there never has been, or will there ever be, a situation that is not pervaded by these three aspects. Deduction and reflection tend to be present in the first Vipassana Jhana. They are harmless unless they begin to take over ones mind, especially in a person who is highly intellectual, who has a vivid imagination or is philosophically bent; too much reflection can get in the way of personal and direct experience. It can actually put a stop to Insight. If one has this tendency and finds ones practice undermined, one can console oneself with the knowledge that this is not wrong thinking. In this instance, reflection is connected with the Dhamma rather than with greed or aversion. Despite this fact, of course, one should make the effort to return to bare observation, simply experiencing phenomena.

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Wholesome and Unwholesome Vitakka The word vitakka, used for the jhanic factor of accurate aim, includes this reflection on a thinking level, directing ones attention toward a thought. There are wholesome and unwholesome kinds of vitakka. Directing ones attention toward sense pleasure is said to be unwholesome vitakka. Its wholesome counterpart is vitakka connected with renunciation. Vitakka connected with aversion and aggression is unwholesome. Vitakka connected with non-aversion and with non-violence is wholesome. When deductive knowledge of anicca, dukkha and anatta arises as explained above, the vitakka connected with sensual pleasures is absent. In the series of thoughts that come out of direct personal Insight, some desires may be present, but it probably will not be concerned with the pleasures of this world; fame, sex, wealth and possessions. More likely one will feel a very wholesome desire to renounce the world or to be generous to spread the Dhamma. Though these thoughts constitute vitakka or reflection, they are connected with non-greed or renunciation. Vitakka connected with anger is an aggressive state of mind, in which one desires that another suffer harm and misfortune. Rooted in anger, it has a destructive quality behind it. Nonaversion or non-hatred refers to the lovely quality of metta, loving kindness. In contrast to the aggressive, destructive quality of hatred, metta wishes the welfare and happiness of others. When one has tasted the flavour of the Dhamma through personal experiences as mentioned above, it is not unusual to want to share it with loved ones. A meditator would want others to have the same experience. This kind of thought is connected with metta, for it wishes the well-being of others. The last path of vitakka is connected with causing harm. It has two branches: cruel thought and non-cruel thought.

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A cruel thought contains the desire to harm, hurt, torture or torment or kill other beings. It is another very destructive quality of the mind rooted in hatred. Non-cruelty, on the other hand, is the quality of compassion or karuna, wanting to help others and to relieve them of any suffering or distress they may feel. One who has strong compassion will not only feel it emotionally, but will also seek ways and means to relieve the sufferings of others. Vicara as Reflective Knowledge If such reflective thoughts recur again and again, this process takes the name of vicara. This is the same word used for the more sustained, rubbing aspect of focussed attention. Here it means repeated reflection on the thinking level. First, one experiences a direct intuitive Insight; and afterwards, deductive knowledge arises concerning the Insight. Deductive knowledge is spicy and enjoyable, but in excess it develops into long trains of thoughts which interrupt the process of direct observation. These may be very noble thoughts; of renunciation, metta and compassion, but nonetheless one is caught by them and carried away. At this time Insight cannot occur. Attaining the Higher Vipassana Jhana The first Vipassana Jhana operates up to the point where a meditator attains the Insight into rapid arising and passing away of phenomena. Experiencing this Insight and going beyond it, he grows up, as it were. The Second Vipassana Jhana The meditator leaves behind the childhood of reflective thinking and enters the maturity of simple bare attention. Now his mind becomes lucid and sharp. He is able to follow the very fast rate at which phenomena appear and disappear from moment to moment.

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Because of the continuity and sharpness of mindfulness, there is little discursive thinking. Nor is there doubt about the impermanent, momentary nature of mind and matter. At this time, the practice seems effortless. In the absence of effortful application and reflective thought, there is space for joy and rapture. This non-thinking, bare attention is the second Vipassana Jhana. Initially, in the First Vipassana Jhana the mind is congested with effort and discursive thinking. It is only when the Second Vipassana Jhana arises at the beginning of Insight into the arising and passing away of phenomena that clarity, rapture, faith and great comfort begin to predominate. The Danger of Faith, Calm, Rapture and Happiness The mind is able to become more precise and concentration deepens. This deepened concentration leads to the clear, verified faith that arises from personal experiences. It also brings believing faith; faith that if one continues the practice one will gain the benefits promised by the Blessed One and by ones teacher. Rapture, mental and physical comfort also become strong at this stage. When the meditator attains the Second Vipassana Jhana there is a strong likelihood that he will become attached to these extraordinarily pleasant states of the mind. He experiences the deepest happiness of his life. He may even believe he has become enlightened. In such a case, the prospect of further progress grows dim. He will have done what the Buddha called stopping within. If the meditator has extraordinary experiences, he should make it a point to note and label them. Be clearly aware that rapture, faith, tranquillity and so forth are no more than mental states. If while noting them, he realises that he is attached to them, he should turn his attention to the primary object at the abdomen. Only then will progress continue and bring even sweeter fruits.

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Meditation teachers have to be tactful in dealing with students who are at this stage of practice. The students are so excited by their experiences that they tend to be discouraged if the teacher is too deflating. Paying heed to instructions, the meditator returns to sitting and carefully notes the lights, faith, rapture, happiness, tranquillity and comfort. It dawns on him that this simple noting actually is the correct path of practice. Thus reoriented, he can proceed with great confidence. The Arising of the Third Vipassana Jhana Rapture will gradually fade, but mindfulness and concentration will continue to deepen. Then Insight into the true nature of what is happening will become very strong. At this point, the enlightenment factors of upekkha (equanimity) becomes predominant. The mind remains unshaken by pleasant objects as well as unpleasant ones and a deep sense of comfort arises in the body and mind. Meditators can sit for long hours without pain and their bodies become pure, light and robust. This is the Third Vipassana Jhana, whose two jhanic factors are comfort and onepointedness of mind. The Third Vipassana Jhana arises at a more mature stage of the Insight into arising and passing away. The Climax of Happiness The transition from the Second to the Third Jhana is a critical turning point in the practice. Human beings have a natural attachment to thrills and excitement which agitate the mind. Rapture is one of these agitating pleasures; it creates ripples in the mind. It is rather adolescent, though. So, when the meditator experiences it, be certain to increase vigilance and note as meticulously as he can. As long as a meditator remains attached to rapture, he will not move forward into the more mature, subtle happiness that comes with peace and comfort.

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The happiness or comfort that can be tasted in the Third Vipassana Jhana is said in the Pali text to be the peak or climax of happiness that can be experienced in Vipassana practice. It is the sweetest. Nevertheless, the meditator can dwell in it with equanimity and without attachment. To continue noting precisely remains crucial, lest the comforts of mind and body, the sharpness and clarity of Insight, give rise to a subtle attachment. If he feels that his Insight is good, sharp and clear, he should note this. However, attachment is less likely to arise, since a comprehensive, panoramic mindfulness is present which notes each object easily and without slipping. Dissolution of Phenomena: The Comfort Disappears The Third Jhana is called the climax of happiness because there is no more happiness in the next Jhana. As the meditator notes phenomena, he will gradually pass beyond the stage of Insight into arising and passing away into the stage of dissolution of phenomena. At this point, the beginnings and the middles of objects are no longer clear. Instead the mind perceives continuous dissolution of phenomena, which disappear as soon as they are noted. Often it seems as if there is no body at all, only bare phenomena dissolving away continuously. The meditator tends to get distraught and upset, not only because he feels a lack of comfort, but also because the rapid disappearance of phenomena can be quite disconcerting. Before he can note an object, it is gone. The next phenomenon behaves in the same way. Concepts become indistinct. Up to now, he may have seen phenomena clearly, but the mental factor of perception, or recognition was still mixed in. Hence, he was able to see both the ultimate, non-conceptual reality of objects and also the concept of form: body, arm, leg, head, abdomen, and so forth. At the dissolution stage of Insight, concepts fall away.

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The meditator may be unable to tell where the phenomena are located; there is only disappearance. What happened? he may wonder. I was doing so well, and now my practice is falling apart. It is out of control. I cant note a single thing. Self judgement, dissatisfaction, fill his mind. Obviously there is discomfort. Eventually it is possible to gain ease in this new stage. The meditator can just coolly settle back and watch the continual flow of phenomena. This stage of Insight is called Insight Into Dissolution of Phenomena. It has an interesting quality. There is no more physical or mental happiness or ease, nor are there outright discomforts or pains in the body at this time. The feeling in the mind is rather neutral, too. The Appearance of the Fourth Vipassana Jhana During the maturation of Insight into arising and passing away of phenomena, the rapture of the second Jhana gave way to the third Jhana factor of comfort. The bountiful pleasure of rapture was replaced by milder and subtler feelings of comfort and peace. As comfort disappears in the dissolution stage of Insight, it still does not incur mental displeasure. Now the Third Jhana gives way to the Fourth Jhana, whose characteristic Jhana factors are equanimity and one-pointedness of mind. With a mind that is neither pleased nor displeased, comfort nor uncomfortable; upekkha or equanimity arises. Upekkha has a tremendous power to balance the mind. In this particular aspect, it is known as tatra majjhattatta. In this environment of balance, mindfulness can become perfectly pure, keen and sharp. Subtle aspects of phenomena can be seen with incredible and uninterrupted clarity as particles and tiny vibrations. In fact, tatra majjhattatta is present in each of the Jhana from the beginning. Yet in the First, Second and Third Jhana, it is hidden by more assertive qualities, like the moon in daylight which cannot compete with the sun.

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Summary of the Four Vipassana Jhana In the First Jhana, balance is quite undeveloped. Predominantly instead are vitakka and vicara, (reflective and repeated thinking). Vitakka and vicara of the First Jhana often include large amounts of discursive thinking. In the Second Jhana, the thrills and chills of rapture overshadow equanimity. Come the Third Jhana, there is the sweetest happiness and comfort, so that balance has no chance to show itself. When comfort evaporates, however, bringing about that feeling which is neither pleasant nor unpleasant, then balance has a chance to shine. In just this way, when dusk sets in and darkness begins to thicken, the moon reigns splendidly over all the sky. After the Insight into dissolution come successive Insights into fear, disgust and wanting to be liberated. Equanimity is not strongly shown until the stage of Insight known as Equanimity regarding all Formations. This is a deep level of practice where things begin to move very smoothly. Mindfulness is so agile now that it picks up the objects before the mind can begin to be perturbed by pleasantness or unpleasantness. There is no chance for attachment or aversion to arise. Objects which normally are very unpleasant lose their influence completely as do thrilling and exciting objects. Because this is true at all Six Sense Doors, the kind of equanimity now present is known as six-limbed equanimity. A great subtlety of awareness is another feature of this time in practice. The rising and falling process becomes a vibration. It breaks into particles and may eventually disappear. If this happens, the meditator should try to look at the sitting posture as a whole and perhaps some touch points such as buttocks and knees. These, too may disappear, leaving behind no perception of the body whatsoever.

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Sickness and pains disappear, for no physical phenomena remain to be perceived, no itches left to scratch. What remains is only the consciousness which knows the absence of physical phenomena. At such a time, this consciousness itself should be taken as the object of knowing. As the meditator notes; knowing, knowing, even that consciousness can begin to flicker and reappear. Yet, at the same time, there will be clarity of mind and extreme sharpness. This state of extreme mental balance is said to be like the mind of an arahant, which remains unshakable in the face of any object capable of arising in the field of consciousness. However, even if the meditator has attained this stage of practice, he is still not an arahant. He is only experiencing a mind similar to an arahants during this particular moment of mindfulness. Each of the Four Vipassana Jhana is characterised by a distinct type of happiness. In the First Vipassana Jhana, one can experience the happiness of seclusion. The hindrances are kept away and so the mind is remote and secluded from them. In the Second Jhana, one experiences the happiness of concentration. Good concentration brings happiness in the form of rapture and comfort. As rapture is abandoned, the happiness of the Third Jhana is simply known as the happiness of comfort. Finally in the Fourth Jhana, the meditator experiences the happiness of wisdom. The fourth type is the best happiness of course. Like the first three, however, it still occurs in the realm of conditioned phenomena. Only if the meditator transcends this realm can he experience the ultimate happiness, the happiness of real peace. This is called santisukha. It occurs when the objects of meditation and all other mental and physical phenomena as well as the noting mind itself come to a complete stop.

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Samatha Jhana and Vipassana Jhana in the Context of the Abhidhamma Texts All meditators reach the supramundane paths and fruits through the development of wisdom (panna) Insight into the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering and non-self. However, they differ among themselves in the degree of their development of concentration (samadhi). Those who develop Insight without a basis of Jhana are called practitioners of bare Insight (sukkhavipassaka). When they reach the path and fruit, their path and fruition citta occur at a level corresponding to the first Jhana. Those who develop Insight on the basis of Jhana attain a path and fruit which corresponds to the level of Jhana they had attained before reaching the path. The ancient teachers advance different views on the question of what factor determines the Jhana level of path and fruit. One school of thought holds that it is the basic Jhana (padakajjhana), that is, the Jhana used as a basis for concentrating the mind before developing the Insight that culminates in attainment of the supramundane path. A second theory holds that the Jhana level of the path is determined by the Jhana used as an object for investigation by Insight, called the comprehended or investigated Jhana (sammasitajjhana). Still, a third school of thought holds that when a meditator has mastered a range of Jhana, he can control the Jhana level of the path by his personal wish or inclination (ajjhasaya). Nevertheless, no matter what explanation is adopted, for bare Insight meditator and Jhana meditator alike, all path and fruition citta are considered types of Jhana consciousness.

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They are so considered because they occur in the mode of closely contemplating their object with full absorption, like the mundane Jhana, and because they possess the Jhana factors with an intensity corresponding to their counterparts in the mundane Jhana. The supramundane Jhana of the paths and fruits differ from the mundane Jhana in several important aspects. First, whereas the mundane Jhana take as their object some concept, like the sign of the kasina, the supramundane Jhana take as their object Nibbana, the unconditioned reality. Second, whereas the mundane Jhana merely suppress the defilements while leaving the underlying seeds intact, the supramundane Jhana of the path eradicate defilements so that they can never arise again. Third, while the mundane Jhana lead to rebirth in the finematerial world and thus sustain existence in the round of rebirths, the Jhana of the path cut off the fetters binding one to the cycle and are free from the round of birth and death. Finally, whereas the role of wisdom in the mundane Jhana is subordinate to that of concentration, in the supramundane Jhana wisdom and concentration are well balanced, with concentration fixing the mind on the unconditioned element and wisdom fathoming the deep significance of the Four Noble Truths.

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MORE REFERENCE NOTES


Rising and Falling of the Abdomen It is quite in agreement with the Buddhas Teachings to meditate on the rising and falling movements of the abdomen. Such rising and falling is a physical process (rupa) caused by the pressure of the wind element, comprising: the tactile object of the Twelve Sense Bases (ayatana); the body impression of the Eighteen Elements (dhatu); the wind element of the Four Material Elements (maha-bhuta); the Truth of Suffering of the Four Noble Truths (sacca); the wind element of the Corporeality Group (five khandha). Corporeality group, a tactile object, a body impression and truth of suffering are objects for Insight meditation. The rising and falling movements of the abdomen is a proper object for meditation, and while so meditating, being aware that it is but a movement of the wind element, subject to the laws of impermanence, suffering and insubstantiality, is quite in agreement with the Buddhas discourses on: ayatana, dhatu, maha-bhuta, sacca and khandha. While the abdomen is rising and falling, the pressure and movement experienced thereby is a manifestation of the wind element which is tactile, and perceiving that rightly as such is in accord with what the Buddha taught as briefly shown below: Apply your minds thoroughly, O monks, to the body and regard it in its true nature as impermanent. When a brother sees the body which is impermanent, as impermanent, this view is the right view. Herein, a brother reflects: Such is material form, such is its genesis, such is its passing away. Apply your minds thoroughly to the tactile objects and regard their true nature as impermanent. When a brother sees tactile objects which are impermanent, as impermanent, this view is the right view.

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But by fully knowing, by comprehending, by detaching himself from, by abandoning the tactile objects, one is capable of extinguishing it. In him that knows and sees tactile objects as impermanent, ignorance is eradicated and knowledge arises. Herein, O monks, a brother is aware of the organs of touch and tangibles. Whatever is an internal element of motion, and whatever is an external element of motion, just these are elements of motion. By means of perfect intuitive wisdom it should be seen of these as they really are, thus: This is not mine, this I am not, this is not myself. Contemplating the Four Great Elements The meanings of these Four Elements should be well understood and constantly contemplated on. 1. The Earth Element Pathavi-dhatu; element of Extension Its character is that of hardness. Both hardness and softness is experienced by the sense of touch. It functions as a foundation for the other three elements. After the meditator has calmed the body and the mind through contemplating on the rising and falling of the abdomen, call to mind some of the body parts mentioned in the texts on meditation on the earth element. See the solidity of the parts, the hardness and mass of bones and teeth, and the softer solidity of some of the other parts. Now picture an animal and see the mass and solidity of the corresponding parts of that being. Now identify the solid element within a plant: the harder woody parts and those parts of softer solidity. Reflect on that. Reflect on the solidity of a house, of a rock, of some soil and of the floor or the ground the meditator is sitting on. Sit holding the aspect of solidity in mind. Alternate between reflecting on the solidity outside the body and the solidity within the body. Sense the sameness of solidity wherever it is located.

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When reflecting on the earth element, adopt the earth touching position, with the right hand draped over the right knee or shin and the fingertips lightly touching the ground. Now both the internal earth element and the external earth element are simply earth element. Analysis of the Element of Extension By pathavi is not meant any substance; not even a hundred thousandth part of an atom. It lacks shape, mass, form, core or solidity. This Element exists in very clear spring water or river water; in all forms of light including sunlight and moonlight or even the lustre of gems; in sound; all vibrant sounds including the sounds of gongs or pagoda bells; in moving air; from the softest breeze to gales; in smells, good or bad, that spread near and far. The rationale for this peculiar property lies in the state of inseparability of the Four Great Elements. The Buddha said: "Depending on one of the Great Elements, the remaining three arise; depending on three of them, the remaining one arises; depending on two of them, the remaining two arise." It is the function of the Earth Element (pathavi) to receive the three other (co-nascent) elements of Water, Wind and Fire. The nature of Water, Wind and Fire Elements are such that they cannot exist without Earth Element as their basis. In all forms of water, colour, sound, wind and smell, there exists the Earth Element. Proof By Empirical Data In any mass of water or of wind, it is fairly evident that the lower layers are supporting the successively upper ones. Now this function of supporting is not the property of apo whose characteristic is cohesion. It is not the property of tejo either, for tejo is characterised by its thermal quality only.

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Support is the joint function of pathavi and vayo. Support implies hardness or the capacity to bear, and it also implies lifting or the capacity to resist. The former is the characteristic of Earth Element, the latter that of Wind Element. Wind Element acquires its property of resistance on the strength of hardness, the characteristic of Earth Element. It cannot function alone. One should try to understand the distinction between hardness and resistance that co-exist in the function of supporting. Thus, we can discern the pressure of the element of hardness in water or in wind, and from that we can safely conclude that the element of extension or hardness, the ultimate Earth Element, exists in water and wind. In the case of light and smell, however, although the element of hardness or extension is definitely there, this element is too subtle to notice. No empirical data can be drawn from them. The fact of the presence of pathavi in the clearest water, light, wind, sound and smell, is stated here to impress the truth that it is the mere property of hardness that we mean by the ultimate Earth Element, to drive home the point that the property of hardness does not mean any particle that has any form or solidity, any minutest substance of even a hundred thousandth part of an atom. The mere property of hardness must not be confused with the manifestation of hardness in things. By 'hardness' we should understand the term as a relative concept. What is hard or soft is spoken of by comparison: thus we have varying degrees of hardness at the bottom of which we call it softness. With the cutting diamond at one extreme and the corporeality of a moonbeam at the other, we should discern the same property of hardness in varying degrees in all materiality.

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That is the character of Earth Element. This character of hardness can only be discerned as an ultimate truth. For if conventional perception stands in the way, no 'hardness' can ever be found in subtle materiality such as moonlight, etc. When hundreds of thousands of crores of Earth Element; by themselves the mere property of hardness, happen to be held together by the Element of Cohesion or Water Element, Apo, a form appears, which is given the name 'atom'. When thousands of crores of such atoms come together certain forms (of life) come into being, beginning with tiny insects. It is the Earth Element with its property of hardness that serves as the basis of all forms of materiality, animate or inanimate, from atoms and insects to the whole universe. No other element has the property of assuming form or shape. The three other elements of Water, Wind and Fire depend on Earth for their existence. Thus, one should realise the importance of Earth as the basic Element in all materiality. If one wants to contemplate Earth as an ultimate reality one should concentrate only on the property of hardness which lacks substance. As one concentrates only on its function (giving support to all forms of materiality) it will be seen as a reflection in a mirror on a clear surface of water, without the obstruction of the tiniest substance, not even an atom. If there remains the faintest idea of substance or form or solid mass, even as much as an atom, ones view is not on the ultimate truth of Earth. It is not free from the concept of form conventionally accepted throughout. This conventional truth stands in the way of understanding the true characteristics; arisings and vanishings of materiality.

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If one is to understand the property of hardness only, unencumbered by any conventional concept of substance or form, one should find it much easier to comprehend this ultimate truth in lesser objects, animate or inanimate. Images reflected in the mirror are liable to vanish, when opportune, over a hundred times as fast as the blink of an eye or a flash of lightning, because there is actually no trace of any substance in them. Exactly so, the Earth Element in all materiality is liable to vanish, when opportune, in an equally fast manner, because there is in the ultimate truth no substance, not even as much as an atom, in it. This fact will dawn on the meditator. When he contemplates the Earth Element in his own body with a view to gaining Insight into physical phenomena, he should concentrate on a specific part at a time. So when he is contemplating Earth Element in the head he should exercise his thought throughout the head both inside and out. While doing so the concept of colour might come in which is not the ultimate property of Earth Element. Also the concept of form or shape might stand in the way. All these obstructionist concepts must be discarded with great mental alertness. As he proceeds to the lower parts of his body, down to the soles, he should specify his field only to the extent of his practical capability in concentration. Having thus covered the whole body piecemeal, he will now be in a position to contemplate on a part, say, the head, and yet be able to comprehend the whole body. Once such comprehension has arisen within oneself, one comprehends the same phenomenon in all other things, animate or inanimate, in all the universe; indeed, all other universes. Once the Earth Element is thus comprehended, one finds no difficulty in comprehending the three remaining Elements.

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2. The Water Element Apo-dhatu, the Element of Cohesion Representing fluidity and cohesion, its character is trickling or oozing. It functions to intensify the co-existing material states. Repeat the above exercise for the water element in ones own body, picturing the shape and cohesiveness of the solid parts and substances and the fluid quality of blood, lymph, etc. Concentrate on ones own body, then on the body of an animal, a plant, a building, a rock and some soil. Press a handful of moist sand and reflect on the fragile cohesiveness that lets it hold its shape or break into smaller shapes rather than collapse like dry powder. See the one factor of fluidity and cohesion as common to all. Now both the internal water element and the external water element are simply water element. Analysis of the Element of Cohesion Apo has the property of cohesion. This property alone is Water Element in the ultimate sense. When the property of cohesion is strong it tends to ooze and become fluid - hence apo is expressed as Water Element. This (basic) property of cohesion in the ultimate sense bears no substance whatever, not even a hundred-thousandth part of an atom: it is just a property or a function. Its function is to bind together the three other coexisting elements of Earth, Fire and Wind so that the four exist interdependently. Once the Water Element disappears the three other elements become disintegrated and vanish at once. This is the crucial function of the Water Element in any given group or unit of materiality. All material shapes and forms in the living world, as well as all physical phenomena exist in the world, due to the Water Element. Apart from this Water Element there is no other element that holds materiality together. All the elements in the ultimate sense, with the exception of Nibbana, are in the nature of being formed or conditioned (interdependently); so they cannot exist for a moment, not even for the blink of an eye, or a flash of lightning, without outside help or support.

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If one means to understand Water Element in the Great Earth, one should concentrate only on the property of cohesion, without being distracted by the hardness therein (which is the property of Earth Element). Concepts of colour and form are likely to obscure the meditator's comprehension. In such cases, Knowledge lacks definition with the result that as one proceeds to contemplate the arisings and vanishings of phenomena, the mind gets murky. Unless the ultimate truth of a given phenomenon (here Water Element) is comprehended well, the reality of impermanence (anicca), suffering (dukkha) and nonself (anatta) will not be understood. As has been explained in connection with Earth Element, here too when one clearly comprehends cohesion as the ultimate truth about Water Element, one will realise that no substance, solidity, the Great Earth, mass or form truly exists; and that apart from the cohesion that characterises all materiality, one's concept about shape or form or colour are just unsubstantial and as illusive as reflected images of shapes and colours; such as those of clouds, the sun, the moon, trees etc.; in the mirror or on the clear surface of water. When such clear comprehension of cohesion is gained in respect of the Great Earth there can be no difficulty in realising this fact in living things as well; may it be man, deva or Brahma. In fact one must necessarily comprehend it in respect of living things. We begin our reference to the Great Earth to impress the fact of falsity (concept of form, shape and colour) even in the greatest masses of material phenomena so that it will be more readily seen in respect of lesser materiality such as living beings. However, one should first master the skill in comprehending this element in oneself from head to foot before contemplating it in others.

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3. The Fire (Temperature) Element Tejo-dhatu, the Element of Heat It has the character of heat; both heat and cold are modes in which it is experienced and functions to mature or ripen other material phenomena. Reflect on the heat in ones own body. Ponder the energy stored in the food eaten, the digestive processes, which extracts the energy from the food, the absorption of the sugars and other substances from the digestive tract and the burning of the sugars in the body cells. Notice the temperature of the body surface during sitting and walking meditation. Notice this also as the meditator goes about his daily tasks. Reflect on these phenomena in any animal. Reflect on the higher body temperature of a dog or bird. Reflect on the heat stored in the soil, in rocks, or in the walls of a house. See all these as the heat element. Now both the internal and the external heat element are simply fire element. Analysis of the Element of Heat The Fire Element has the property of heat or cold. This property alone is the Fire Element in the ultimate sense. Heat or cold is responsible for the growth and sustenance of the three other coexistent elements. Through maintaining an appropriate thermal degree in things, tejo provides the necessary function of maturing and invigorating the three other elements in a given physical phenomenon. Eggs in a nest need the mother hen's body heat by constant brooding so that they hatch successfully. Without the mother's warmth going into them, the inborn heat acquired while in the mother's womb could not sustain them and they would simply rot. Even so, tejo is like the mother hen and the remaining three elements are like the yolk of an egg. Only in combination with the Fire Element can hardness (Earth Element) come into existence. Only in combination with it can cohesion (Water Element) take place. Only in combination with it can quivering (Wind Element) occur.

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Without the pressure of the Fire Element, therefore, the three co-existing elements cannot function. The cold (Fire) element is responsible for the existence of all forms of water, beginning with that of the Great Oceans, the seas and the great layer of water that supports this Great Earth. It is this element that sustains them. When one singles out tejo as one's object of contemplation, one concentrates only on coldness in cold objects, and heat in hot objects without letting in concepts of colour, form or size. The fact that either in heat or cold there exists not the slightest substance, even so much as an atom, is quite evident. This fact having been clearly comprehended, the meditator understands that what he has all along considered as big or grand forms, shapes and colours such as sun, moon, clouds, etc., are mere concepts, that they have no more real substance than reflections in a mirror or in clear water. In contemplating Fire Element in one's body, one takes up such portion of the body as one's concentration can manage. When one has fully understood the ultimate truth of this element in one's body it will become clear that all the living world also comes under the same truth. The Air Element Vayo-dhatu, the Element of Motion The characteristic of the Air Element is support. This is its intrinsic nature. The function of the air element is moving. Its manifestation is bringing out. Manifestation is what appears to the meditators intellect. Reflect on the movements in the meditators own body: the beating of the heart and the response in the flow of blood and in the walls of the blood vessels; the voluntary movements made in chewing food and swallowing; the automatic movements of digestive organs in digesting, ingesting and propelling the matter through;

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the slower movements of the lymph, propelled by incidental use of muscles; the movements of messages from the brain and the response of muscle aggregates in voluntary actions; the movements of the body in response to forces from outside, such as a strong wind. Reflect on these same actions in the body of an animal. Reflect on the movements in nature: the movements of plants as they grow or as they adjust to the position of the sun or as they bend, resist and spring back under the influence of the wind; the movement of the wind and water in its various forms; the movements, sometimes catastrophic, of the earth, the creep of soil, the slow movement of tectonic plates, the sudden release of pressures in earthquakes and volcanoes. See these as all the common elements of movement. Reflect on the rise and fall of these elements in the body as the meditator changes position: how the earth element is strongest when we stand or sit and somewhat less strong when the muscles relax when we are lying down; how the heat changes with exercise or rest; how the air element is strongest when walking or running; how the strength of the elements relative to each other changes during action, for example, when we walk, solidity predominates as the foot is planted, air is strongest when the foot is swung forward. Reflect on these same changes: in the walking or running of animals, in the flight of birds; in the movements of plants and in inanimate matter and objects; observe the changes in the air, the water and the soil through the course of the day and the cycle of the seasons.

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As the meditator reflects on the air element, it appears as bringing out, pushing and pulling. This is the manifestation of the air element. Reflecting on the rising and falling of the abdomen, the firmness, moving, bringing out, become clear. These are the characteristics, functions and manifestations of the air element. This air element is important. One should be mindful primarily of the air element in preference to the other three. The Buddhas instruction is to be mindful of the form of walking when noting walking, walking: When he walks; he is aware: I am walking. Mahasi Sayadaw explains how knowledge is developed from meditating thus: The thought I am walking arises. This produces air. The air produces the intimation. The bringing forward of the body as the air-element spreads is said to be walking. The meditator who is contemplating on walking, realises the Arising of the Intention: I will walk. This intention gives rise to tense movements all over the body, which in turn causes the material body to move forward in a gradual process. Thus we say: I walk or He walks. In reality there is no I or He that walks. Only the intention to walk and the form walking. This the meditator realises. Emphasis is on the movement of the air-element. The airelement has the characteristic of support. In a ball, it is the air that fills out and supports the ball so that it expands and remains firm. In colloquial speech we say that the ball is full and firm. In philosophical terms it is the air-element that is in support. When the meditator stretches his arm, he feels stiffness there. This is the air-element in support. In the same way, when resting on an air-pillow or mattress, his body remains supported by a cushion of air, just as when bricks are piled on top of each other; those above are supported by those below, otherwise, they will tumble down.

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In the same way too, the human body is filled with the airelement giving it support so that the body retains its firmness. This bringing out and drawing in, is the manifestation of the airelement. When meditator bends or stretches his arm, it appears a force is drawing it in or pushing it out. It is easily discernible when walking. To the meditator whose concentration has grown sharp by noting; walking, right step, left step, lifting, putting forward, putting down; this moving forward as if being driven from behind becomes quite plain. The legs seem to be pushing forward of their own accord. How they move forward without the meditator making any effort is very plain. So, when he reflects on the air-element, he observes it by way of its characteristic of supporting, its function of moving, and its manifestation of bringing out. Only then is his Knowledge right and as it should be. Now both the internal air element and the external air element are simply air element. Analysis of the Element of Motion A flame is constantly in motion; so also is the accompanying smoke. As Fire Element is responsible for the combustion, so also Wind Element assists in keeping the combustion in the form of a flame or living fire. The growth of the fire, of its heat and light, the quivering of the flame, the spread of smoke and the further catching of fire around itself, all are the functioning of vayo, the Element of Motion or Wind Element. Exactly the same function of Wind Element is there in all materiality. It is due to its pressure that heat and cold is transmitted throughout a given material object. If we kindle a fire we start it with a tiny piece of fire which we put to the fuel. The little fire catches on to the fuel assisted by Wind Element, which in fact is the motive force of Fire Element. This motive force carries the heat (of Fire Element) to all inflammable things around the original fire.

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When the motive force is weak, we assist with external motive force by using a fan or blow-pipe. Heat has the accompanying motive force and so also has cold. Now, note carefully that heat is one ultimate fact and the accompanying motive force, another. The same with cold. The property of heat or cold is a distinct property that belongs to the Fire Element. The motive force is another distinct property belonging to the Wind Element. Wind Element, due to its motive force, is the vital energy of the three other coexistent elements of Earth, Water and Fire. Those three are borne by Wind Element to wherever it carries them. When the force gets very strong there is a gale. This force is present in air pillows or air mattresses, etc., where it provides the necessary function of a cushioning effect. In all physical phenomena and the rock formation of the Great Earth, the element of Cold, assisted by its motive force of Wind Element, arises every moment to sustain the prolonged existence of those physical phenomena until their total disintegration at the destruction of the universe after an aeon of time or kappa. (Contemplate this fact with mindfulness.) The arising of mind-originated materiality (cittajarupa) throughout the body as a result of a certain consciousness (citta); the arising of temperature-originated materiality (utujarupa), the dissemination of nutriment throughout the body when food is taken, the gradual growth and development of the embryo right from its ultra-microscopic liquid form (kalala) to a full-size living thing, the germination and growth of all vegetation; all these phenomena arise due to the motive force of vayo. Visualise this and contemplate the phenomenon of vayo in all things animate or inanimate, from the Great Earth, until the mere property of motion becomes vivid. (Then contemplate the same truth in the meditators body.)

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Contemplate it from head to foot. Here also, as with the other elements, the ultimate absence of form or substance; just like mirror-images; will become clear to the meditators perception. Concepts of colour, form and shape; formerly accepted as truth by convention, will stand in the way. These are mere concepts (pannatti), not real, non-existent. They must be dispelled by penetrating knowledge (nana). See that these processes of change in materiality are the same as in the meditators body, in both living and inanimate objects in his surroundings. Do these reflections during meditation, through visualisation during sitting meditation, through concentration on the action of walking. He can also do them during his daily activities, when handling the soil in gardening, when a bird flies over head and so on. Use events this way at the moment they occur. Each element should be seen as it actually is with appropriate wisdom thus: This is not Mine, This I am Not, This is not My Self. Interdependence of the Four Great Elements In the ultimate sense, there is no personal entity in what is generally called a person or a being, nor a soul or a self or a life anywhere. What really exist are the Four Elements; apo-dhatu, pathavi-dhatu, tejo-dhatu, and vayo-dhatu. In conventional truth we speak of a person or a being or a life but these are mere conceptual terms. Let us take one example. We have around us a variety of structures built of timber or bamboo, such as a house, a monastery, a temple, or a rest-house. When we speak of a certain structure as a 'house' we are not referring to the timber or the bamboo of which it is built; rather we are referring to a certain type of structure generally recognised as a house which is only a secondary name of the timber or bamboo in it.

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When these materials; timber or bamboo; were in the form of standing trees, they were not called a house. Only when they have assumed the shape of a house do they acquire the secondary name of 'house'. This name is a mere coinage, something that has suddenly appeared from out of the blue. It is actually foreign to the true material that it is built of. In the ultimate sense, therefore, we see that there is no such thing as 'house', but only timber or bamboo. Further, let us say, these materials are re-used in the construction of a rest-house, the name house disappears, and the new name of 'rest-house' is used in respect of the same materials. When forms are destroyed, names disappear. Only when forms appear, names also come into common usage. That is why it is said that in the ultimate sense, there is no such thing as 'house', monastery', 'temple', or 'rest-house' only timber or bamboo exist in truth and reality. Yet when we say the house exists, it is not telling a falsehood, for in the conventional sense the statement is true, and it does not mislead anyone. In the ultimate sense, however, it is wrong to say the house exists because what we call a house is merely a certain structural form built by the architect, conventionally accepted as a house. If someone asks, "What actually is the thing called 'house'?" and someone points to the building and says, "This is a house", here in conventional usage this is correct; however, in the ultimate sense it is incorrect. This is how conventional truth differs from the ultimate truth. This difference should be well understood. Of these two, conventional truth is used in the mundane sphere and is valid in its own sphere only. The ultimate truth, on the other hand, is useful to get one beyond the mundane sphere to the supramundane sphere of Nibbana.

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In respect of person, being, self (soul) or a life too, these terms are valid conventionally only. In the ultimate reality, there exists no person, being, self (soul) or a life; only the Four Basic Elements such as pathavi exist. No such thing as man or deva, Sakka or Brahma, cow, buffalo or elephant exists in truth; in reality only the Four Basic Elements exist in the entire world. Woman, man, this or that person, I, meditator, etc., are conventional terms for that which do not really exist; what really exist are the Four Basic Elements only. There is no head, leg, hand, eye, ear, nose, etc., all are the Four Basic Elements in the final analysis. All the organs of the body such as hair, body-hair, nails, teeth. skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, stomach, bowels (faeces), etc., do not exist: but only the Elements such as pathavi etc., really exist. All along the long, vast extent of Samsara's journey, we have become ingrained in misconcepts about things all about us and around us, believing mere forms as facts of life. The fact lies in the truth that all things, big or small, in the ultimate analysis, are a mere heap of elements, a mass of elements, a collection of elements, a lump of elements, and nothing more. Such definitive Insight is the Light of Knowledge called 'being firmly settled in the Dhamma'. The Four Properties: hardness, cohesion, heat or warmth, and motion; are inherently different from one another. They exist together on hardness as a common base. They arise together, stand (momentarily) together, and vanish together. When hardness fails, the three other co-existing elements lose their base and vanish.

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When cohesion fails and the binding force disappears, then the three other elements disintegrate. When heat or cold fails, or the vital warmth goes out and the function of sustaining life stops then the remaining three elements lose their vital force and die out. When the distending function of Wind Element fails, the remaining three lose support and collapse together. Fire Element can quiver with its inherent heat or cold only when assisted by Wind Element. When the motive force of Wind fails, Fire Element also dies down in no time. Likewise, the hardness of Earth Element depends for its stability and support on Wind Element, when this support fails, hardness disappears. Cohesion also cannot do without the supporting function of Wind Element. This is how the Four Great Elements with their own properties are interdependent, how failure of one spells destruction of all. The exact functioning of the Four Great Elements in things animate and inanimate, however, is too complex and subtle to understand; in fact it is simply incomprehensible. Their inherent powers also are similarly incomprehensible. Mastery over their nature through Insight (in pursuing) the Buddha's Teaching (of the Eightfold Noble Path) leads to wisdom (pativedha-nana) which penetrates Nibbana, also called supramundane wisdom (lokuttara-vijja-nana). In the mundane sphere, a mastery of these elements results in one gaining supernatural powers. A middling knowledge of them enables one to be proficient in science, medicine, chemistry, engineering, etc. Of the Four Great Elements tejo is supreme.

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All physical phenomena, animate or inanimate, from the whole universe, the Great Earth and Water below the Earth's entire layer, down to smaller things, depend on tejo for their existence. The full understanding of the power of tejo lies within the province of the All-knowing Buddha. Contemplation on Phenomena Arising at the Six Sense Doors Although contemplation must be made on whatever arises at all the sense doors, it must not be accompanied by thoughts about it. Only bare attention is to be paid to what arises at any of the Six Sense Doors. The Buddha said: Monks, the all is to be fully known. What all is to be fully known? The eye is to be fully known, visual objects are to be fully known, eye consciousness is to be fully known, eye contact is to be fully known, that weal or woe or neutral state experienced, which arises owing to eye contact, that also is to be fully known. Ear is to be fully known, sounds are to be fully known, nose, scent, tongue, flavours, body is to be fully known, things tangible are to be fully known, mind is to be fully known, mind states are to be fully known. In the above passage fully known means the awareness of the material and mental arisings at the Six Sense Doors. The awareness of the arising and falling movements of the abdomen is comprised in things tangible are to be fully known. O Monks; the Eye is to be comprehended, Visual objects are to be comprehended, Body is to be comprehended, Things tangible are to be comprehended, Mind is to be comprehended, Mind states are to be comprehended.

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Things Fall Apart To the new meditator, the material form and the mind that cognises it do not seem separate. They appear to be one and the same thing. Book knowledge tells him that they are separate but his personal observation sees them as one. Shake the index finger. Does he see the mind that intends to shake, and the shaking? The sincere answer will be No; but to the meditator whose mindfulness and concentration are well developed, the object of attention and the awareness of it are as separate as the wall and the stone that is thrown at it. Each time the meditator notes, the object noted and the mind that notes it are two separate things. He comes to know that the material form of the rising and falling of the abdominal wall is one thing and the mental state that notes it is another. When noting rising; rising is one thing, awareness is another; only these two exist. When noting falling; falling is one, awareness is another; only these two exist. The knowledge comes clear to him of its own accord. When he lifts one foot in walking; one is the lifting, the other is the awareness; only these two exist. When he pushes it forward; the pushing and the awareness. When he puts it down; the putting down and the awareness. Matter and Awareness! These Two only! Nothing else! As his concentration improves, he understand how the material and mental objects keep passing away, each in its own time. When he notes rising, the form rising comes up gradually and passes away. When he notes falling, the form falling comes up gradually and passes away. He also finds that the rising as well as the awareness of it passes away, the falling as well as the awareness of it passes away. With every noting he finds only arising and passing away.

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When noting bending, this bending and the next do not get mixed up. Bending noted passes away; bending noted passes away, the intention to bend, the form bending, and the awareness, come and go each in its time and place. When he notes the tiredness, warmth, and pain, these pass away as he is noting them. It becomes clear to him: they appear and then disappear; they are impermanent. This knowledge comes neither from books nor from teachers. He realises this by himself. This is true knowledge. To believe what other people say is faith. To remember out of faith is learning. It is not knowledge. The meditator must know from his own experience. This is the important thing. Insight meditation is contemplation in order to know for oneself. The meditator sees for himself, and know. This is True Insight. Impermanence The Buddha taught that all compounded things are impermanent, thus, the Five Aggregates, or mind and matter are impermanent. Compounded things are unsatisfactory and a source of suffering; all are without a self. When a meditator has realised that mind and matter are impermanent, unsatisfactory and core-less without a self, the next stage of higher Knowledge would be the Knowledge by Comprehension. Mind and matter are impermanent because they come to be and then pass away. If a thing never comes to be, we cannot say it is impermanent. Concepts never come to be, never really exist. Take a persons name. It comes into use from the day a child is named. It never really exists. Concepts, names, are just conventions. They never exist. They have never been and they will never be. They never arise, so we cannot say they pass away. Nor can we say they are impermanent. Every concept is like that no existence, no becoming, no passing away, so no impermanence.

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Nibbana, although a reality, cannot be said to be impermanent because it never comes to be or passes away. It is permanent because it stands for peace without end, the final cessation of suffering. Realities other than Nibbana mind and matter were never in the beginning. They come into being whenever there arise causes. After coming into being they pass away. So we say these realities of mind and matter are impermanent. Take seeing for example. In the beginning there is no seeing. But if the eye is good, an object comes up, there is light, attention is drawn to it. When these four causes concur, there is seeing. Once it has risen, it passes away. No more of it. So we say seeing is impermanent. It is not easy for a non-practitioner to know that seeing is impermanent. Hearing is easier to understand. There is no hearing in the beginning. But if the ear is good, a sound comes up, there is no barrier, attention is drawn to it. When these four factors concur, there is hearing. It arises and then passes away. No more of it. So we say hearing is impermanent. Now the meditator hears me talking. He hears one sound after another. Once he has heard them, they are gone. Listen, sound, sound, sound. When I say s-, he hears it, then it is no more. When I say -ound, he hears it, then it is gone. That is how they come and pass away. The same is true of other psychophysical phenomena. They come and go. Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, thinking, bending, stretching, moving, all appear and disappear. Because they keep passing away, we say they are impermanent. Of these, the passing away of consciousness is very clear. If the meditators mind wanders while he is noting rising, falling, he notes wandering. As he notes it, the wandering mind is no more. It is gone. It has not existed before. It comes about just then. Then it is gone in no time at all, when noted. So it is impermanent. The passing away of unpleasant feelings, too, is obvious.

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As he goes on noting rising, falling; tiredness, heat or pain, appears somewhere in the body. If he then concentrates and notes tiredness, tiredness, etc., sometimes it disappears completely, and sometimes it disappears at the time he is noting. So it is impermanent. The meditator realises its impermanent characteristic as he notes its arising and passing away. Real Insight Knowledge is what the meditator realises himself by contemplation during meditation on physical and mental phenomena as they arise and pass away. As the meditators concentration grows sharper, he will be able to see a greater number of thoughts in one single physical movement, such as bending or lifting. The same process arises when he walks or performs other functions. There arise a great number of thoughts in the twinkling of an eye. The meditator has to note all these fleeting thoughts as they arise. If he cannot name them; note aware, aware. He will see that there are four, five, or ten thoughts arising in succession every time he notes aware. At times, the awareness is so swift, that even the word aware is no longer necessary. He should then follow them with his intellect. Now a thought arises, now the mind is aware of it; now another thought arises, now the observing consciousness is aware of it. For every thought that arises there is the observing consciousness that is aware of it. Thus aware, these arising and passing away are made very clear to him. The wandering mind that arises when noting rising and falling of the abdomen is caught by the observing consciousness just as an animal hit by a well-aimed stone falls directly into the snare. Once awareness arises, it is gone. Realisation of it is as clear as if it were held in the hand. When tiredness arises, and is noted tired, tired, it is gone. It comes up again, it is noted again, and it is gone again.

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This kind of passing away will be made clearer in Higher Insight. Tired-noted-gone; tired-noted-gone; they pass away one by one. There is no connection between one tiredness and the next. The same with pain; pain-noted-gone; pain-noted-gone. Each pain is gone at each noting. One pain does not mix with the other; each pain is distinctly by itself. Tiredness or pain is not a continuous process though it may seem so to one who does not practise Vipassana. In fact, there is no tiredness or pain for a long while. One tiredness and the next, one pain and the next, just very short momentary pieces, very separate ones. The meditator sees this as he notes. When rising comes up; the meditator notes rising, rising; and when it starts to pass away; he again notes falling, falling. Those who are ignorant of this fact think of the rising and falling in terms of the abdominal shape. So from their own conception they think others, too will only be seeing the abdominal shape. When he notes bending, he sees clearly how it moves and passes away, moves and passes away, one move after another. Untrained people believe that the hand that is moving now, is the same before the bending and the one after the bending. They think it is the same hand that moves inwards and outwards. To them it is a never-changing hand. Due to lack of knowledge, they fail to see through the continuity of matter, the way matter rises in succession. Impermanence is hidden by continuity. To the meditator watching every arising, all things mental and material appear to him as separate, individual pieces, not as things whole and unbroken. From afar ants look like a line, but in reality they are individual units . . A meditator sees things in individual units so continuity cannot hide the fact from him. The characteristic of impermanence unfolds itself to him. He is no longer disillusioned.

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Thus, when the rise and fall are grasped at and continuity is broken, the characteristic of impermanence appears in its true peculiar property. When Insight Knowledge has grown really sharp, it will prevail over wrong beliefs and thoughts. The meditator sees things in their true light, as impermanent, suffering and not-self. An uncultured mind or reflection without meditation cannot give him real Insight into the nature of things. Once he realises impermanence, he sees how they stress with their rising and passing away, how he derives no pleasure from them, how they can never be a refuge, how they can perish at any moment, how they are frightening, how they are sufferings, etc. He has misconceived that, This body will not perish so soon. It will last for quite a long time. So he has taken it as great refuge. But now as he meditates, he finds only incessant rising and passing away. If no new ones rise up for the mental and material things that have passed away, one dies. This can happen at any moment. To conceptualise a self out of these mental and material things that can die at any moment and to take refuge in it is as dreadful as taking shelter in an old tumble-down house. He finds that nothing happens as he desires; that they follow their natural inclinations. He had believed that he could go, sit, rise, see, hear, do anything as he had wished to. Now as he reflects, he finds that this is not so. Mind and matter are found to be working in a pair. Only when there is intention to bend is there the form bending. Only when there is intention to stretch is there the form stretching. There is effect only when there is cause. Only when there is something to see does he sees. If there is something to see, he cant help seeing it. He hears when there is something to hear. He feels happy only when there is reason to be happy.

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He worries when there is cause to worry. If there is cause, there is effect. The meditator cannot help it. There is no thing that trains and does what it desires. There is No self, No ego, No I. Only processes of Arising and Passing away. To have clear understanding is the most important thing in Insight Meditation. The meditator will, of course come across joys, tranquillities and bright lights in the course of his practice. These are not important things. What is important is to realise with Insight wisdom the reality of impermanence, suffering and selflessness. These characteristics become clear as the meditator keeps on meditating as instructed. One who meditates on the mental and material objects that appear at the Six Sense Doors, knows their intrinsic nature of impermanence, suffering and nonself. He or she then does not delight in them or cling to them. As he does not cling to them, he makes no effort to enjoy them. As he has not made an effort, there arises no kamma. As no kamma arises, there is no (becoming), new birth. When there is no new birth, there is no occasion for old age, dying, grief, etc., this is how one realises momentary Nibbana through Insight Path whenever one meditates. If one realises impermanence, one realises suffering, too. The meditator who realises how things are rising and passing away, can see how the two events, rising and passing away, have been the cause of unhappiness and suffering. The Commentary to the Sambodhi Sutta says: When the characteristic of impermanence is seen, the characteristic of notself is seen, too, since when one of the three characteristics is seen the other two are seen, too. So, it is very important to understand the one characteristic of impermanence.

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Only when the meditator knows for sure that all are impermanent, suffering, and void of a self, will he neither cling to sense objects, as permanent, happy, beautiful, good, nor will he cling to them as self, soul, or I. All graspings and clingings are done away with. One who has no grasping and clinging does not long after things. One who does not long after things is calmed.
(Majjhima ii 318)

Whenever a meditator who has attained to a degree of Insight practises Vipassana, there is no obsession with the object noted, thus grasping does not arise. There is no grasping to what he sees, hears, smells, eats, touches or be aware of. They appear to arise each in its time and then pass away. They manifest themselves as impermanent. There is nothing worthy to cling to. They stress with their rise and fall. They are all causes of suffering. There is nothing to cling to as happy, good, or beautiful. They rise and fall as is their nature, so there is nothing to cling to as self, soul, or I, that trains and lasts. All these are made very plain to a Vipassana meditator. At that, the graspings are done away with. The stopping of grasping is from the stopping of craving; the stopping of becoming is from the stopping of grasping; the stopping of birth is from the stopping of becoming; from the stopping of birth, old age and dying, grief, suffering, sorrow, despair, and lamentation are stopped. Thus comes to be the stopping of this entire mass of ill.

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Momentary Concentration A Brief Explanation In Vipassana, there is only a need to cultivate mental concentration up to a degree that is sufficient to ensure a steady, undistracted mindfulness (sati). That stage is known as Momentary Concentration, which enables the mind to be alert and receptive. This is then used to develop a continuous and very perceptive mindfulness of everything that comes up before the conscious mind, whether from internal or external sources. This is a continuous and fully conscious exercise involving all mental activities. The Vipassana meditator requires only a degree of concentration less than that needed for the attainment of Jhana and may never develop Jhana at all. This essential concentration is named Momentary Concentration attained through constant and uninterrupted mindfulness of the mind-body processes. Despite its name, Momentary Concentration does not signify a single moment of concentration amidst a current of distracted thoughts. Rather, it denotes a dynamic concentration which flows from object to object in the ever-changing flux of phenomena, retaining a constant degree of intensity and collectedness sufficient to purify the mind of the hindrances. Momentary Concentration arises in the Samatha meditator simultaneously with his post-jhanic attainment of Insight, but for the Vipassana meditator it develops naturally and spontaneously in the course of his Insight practice without his having to fix the mind upon a single exclusive object. The Vipassana meditator does not omit concentration altogether from his training, but develops it in a different manner from the Samatha practitioner. Skipping over the Jhana, he goes directly into contemplation on the Five Aggregates.

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By observing the Five Aggregates constantly from moment to moment he acquires Momentary Concentration which fulfills the same function as the basic Jhana essential to Samatha meditation. In terms of a light beam example as used in describing Samatha concentration, here the light beam is not narrowed down to a single fine point; it is used as a broader Light Field which is powerful and finely focussed and which follows and illuminates whatever is happening at any moment. In the Vipassana meditator, concentration is not developed to produce the jhanic stage, but to produce mindfulness (sati) to the highest possible state so as to be mindfully aware of all the physical and mental phenomena as they arise; as they are happening. One can then directly discerns and experiences, without distortions and delusions, their true nature. At the actual time of Insight, Momentary Unification of the mind arises through the penetration and realisation of the Characteristics of Existence. The phrase Momentary Unification of the mind is concentration lasting only for a moment. When it occurs it fixes itself uninterruptedly on its object in a single mode and it is not overcome by opposition; it momentarily fixes the mind on the object immovably, as if in absorption. A concise description of the way Momentary Concentration arises is presented by the Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw. The Sayadaw explains that a meditator begins the Development of Insight by attending to the diverse Mental and Bodily processes that become manifest to him, making the tactile process of the rising and falling of the abdomen his basic object of mindfulness.

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At first, during the early part of his practice, his mind tends to be distracted by wandering thoughts, but with time his thought process of noting becomes well concentrated. When he can note the objects that appear continuously, undisturbed by hindrances, his practice has arrived at Momentary Concentration. While thus practising the exercise of noting with unhindered mind, the noting mind will get closer to and fixed at whichever object is noted, and the act of noting will proceed without break. At that time there arises in him, in uninterrupted succession, the Concentration of mind staying for a Moment, directed at each object noted. Mahasi Sayadaw advises that this Momentary Concentration claims the place of Purification of Mind in the Vipassana meditators course of development. He states that though it has only Momentary Duration, its power of resistance to being overwhelmed by opposition corresponds to that of Access Concentration. Momentary Concentration is thus, in contrast to jhanic concentration, a fluid type of mental collectedness consisting in the uninterrupted continuity of concentration engaged in noting the passing succession of objects. Its objects are varied and changing but its force of concentration remains constant. This force fixes the mind on the object as though fixing it in absorption, holding the hindrances at bay and building up power of mental purification. For this reason, Momentary Concentration can be understood as implicitly included in Access Concentration in the Standard definition of Purification of Mind as consisting in Access and Absorption.
[A Critical Analysis of the JhanasDr. Henepola Gunaratana.]

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The Superiority of Momentary Concentration There are three kinds of concentration developed in meditation. Two of them are developed on the Path to Absorption (Jhana) and these are Access and Full Absorption Concentration. Each of these is developed by fixing the mind one-pointedly on a single meditation object. Such meditation include visualisation of fixed forms, colours or concentrating the mind on one particular feeling like Loving-kindness. When Access and Absorption Concentration are developed, bliss and tranquillity arise, the meditator is fully absorbed in the object, and no hindrances can disturb him. This provisional eradication of defilements is a state free from desire, aversion and confusion. However, it lasts only so long as the meditator keeps the mind on the meditation object. As soon as the mind leaves its Absorption in the object, bliss disappears and the mind is again beset by the flow of defilements. There is additionally a danger of this fixed concentration. Since it does not generate wisdom it can lead to Clinging to Bliss or even Misuse of the Powers of Concentration, thereby actually increasing defilements. The third kind of concentration is what is referred to in the Eightfold Path as Right Concentration. This is Concentration developed on a Moment-to-Moment Basis in Insight Meditation. Only Moment-to-Moment Concentration following the Path of Mindfulness leads to the destruction of defilements. This concentration is not developed by fixing the mind motionless to one object, but by being mindful of the changing bodily sensations, feelings, consciousness and mind objects. When properly established in the inner body and mind, momentto-moment, or Momentary Concentration leads to the destruction of the rounds of rebirth.

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Through this concentration we develop the ability to see clearly the five aggregates of form, feeling, perception, volition and consciousness; conventionally understood to be men and women. Developing Momentary Concentration There are two important points to make. First: It is through the feelings arising from contact at each of the sense doors that we develop Insight. The aggregate of form is the basis for the development of Momentary Concentration and the resulting wisdom. Therefore we must be mindful of the sensations or feelings arising from contact at the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mental sense bases. The second important point is that continuity is the secret of success in meditation. The meditator must strive to be mindful, night and day, every moment, and thus quickly develop proper concentration and wisdom. Therefore, the essence of Insight Meditation is continuous moment-to-moment mindfulness of sensation arising from contact at all six bases. Dangers to Meditation In todays deteriorating moral values, correct practices in the way of life are confusing and haphazard as regards thoughts, speech and deeds. Correct motivation is almost non-existing. More people than not go about their livelihood aimlessly and without correct knowledge of their goals in life. They do not give any thought to the states of their minds and the future fruits they will reap. Those who do, take up many acts of supposedly insight purification and mental development. In their ignorance they fall prey to unscrupulous people. This is especially so in the practice of meditation. There are those who take up the practice of Vipassana without right motivation.

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There are those who view meditation as a way of gaining Insight power; some meditate with the view to achieve some form of paranormal power. There are also others who view it as a quick way to gain both disciples and riches. Fame may also be an unworthy motive. All these, as motives for meditation, may easily lead the unwary into illness and mental disturbances. These are not the correct motivation for the practice of Vipassana. Right motivation is connected with renunciation (non-greed), goodwill (non-hatred), and non violence. If one approaches meditation with neither right understanding regarding suffering (dukkha) and its cessation, nor right motives, then ones meditation is liable to seriously go astray. Pride is also a danger. It comes in several forms. One such is the pride of the person who has seen manifestations of light during meditation and supposes this to be the sign preceding mental absorption. Then there is the pride of one who touches on some form of concentration, if only for an instant and as a result assumes that he has become a Noble One, and this can be a very powerful factor in convincing himself if not others. Pride is a great obstacle to any progress, and while it is only a Buddha or Arahant who is entirely rid of it, everyone should have the mindfulness to check it. Related to this is the danger for the person who always looks for so-called progress. He is sure that he is making "progress" because in meditation he sees lights, hears sounds or feels strange sensations. He becomes more and more fascinated by these as time goes by. His "meditation" then degenerates into visions and strange happenings, leading him into the realms of occultism and magic. There is no surer way for a meditator to become entangled than this.

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Another danger is trying to meditate while one is still too emotionally insecure, unbalanced or immature. Retaining old cravings, likes and dislikes while practising meditation will not be helpful. Meditation implies renunciation (mental and physical outlook), and the practice will be positively progressive only if one is prepared to make efforts to restrain greed and hatred, check lust, and realise if and when delusion is clouding the mind. How far one carries renunciation and whether this involves outward changes (such as becoming a monk or nun), depends on individual circumstance. Often connected with the above dangers is another, to be seen in cases where a man suddenly has an opportunity to undertake a longer period of meditation practice. He sits down with the firm resolve, "Now I shall meditate", but though his energy is ever so great and though he sits and sits and walks and walks, still his mind is disturbed and without peace. It may well be that his own strong effort has much to do with his distractions. Moreover, he has to learn that it is necessary to meditate knowing the limitations of his character. Just as any other meditator who knows the limits of his strength and is careful not to exhaust himself, so is the wise meditator careful. With mindfulness one should know what are the extremes of laziness and of strain, to be avoided. It is through straining or forcing meditation practice that many emotionally disturbed states arise. Sudden bursts of intense anger over insignificant trifles, fierce cravings and lusts, strange delusions and even more peculiar fantasies can all be produced from unwise arduous practice. Those who are without a teacher should proceed with utmost caution, making sure that their development of mindfulness is rightly based.

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If they are mindful and see that despite their efforts, their meditation practice is making no real difference to their trains in terms of greater internal peace or externally in relation to others, then it should be apparent that something is wrong. Meditation may be laid aside for some time while making efforts to contact a genuine source of information, preferably a living meditation master. In the meantime, give due attention to unsolved moral problems, which until sorted out will not permit the mind to develop while making a great effort to live one's life according to the Buddhas Dhamma. Sakkayaditthi The wrong view or interpretation of the apparent, perceived aggregate of physical and mental elements (as the sense of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and mental activities) as an individual atta or I, is sakkayaditthi. In the practice of Vipassana, it is essential to divest oneself of sakkayaditthi. Just as it is of extreme importance to remove the spear impaling ones breast and treat the injury or to put out the fire that burns ones head, it is imperative that one should divest oneself of this wrong view of the self. Anyone who has not rid himself of this wrong view, even the attainment of existence in the Brahmas realm is no surety against rebirth in the human or deva worlds and the misery of frequent deaths; nor can relegation to the four apaya (states of suffering) be ruled out. Once free from sakkayaditthi, however, one is forever delivered from the perils of being cast to the four apaya regions and will only be reborn in the human or deva worlds no more than seven times. At the latest then, one would achieve arahanthood and attain parinibbana in the seventh existence. Should one reach the Brahma realm also, achievement of arahanthood and attainment of parinibbana would take place there.

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One who has heard the Teachings of the Buddha and benefited there from, such phenomena as sight, hearing, etc., are each understood as a continuum involving alternating moments of the arising and cessation of related rupa and nama. Such a person will not be stressed by a firm bondage to sakkayaditthi. Those who have not had the opportunity to benefit from the Buddhas Teachings, attachment to the delusion of individuality would be very closely and firmly established. They would be fully convinced that a living individual atta or I really exists. Some may even go further and believe that a soul resides in each individual; that it relinquishes its habitat on the death of the host and takes up its new abode in the body of an infant about to be born. All these are sakkayaditthi. As long as sakkayaditthi is not eliminated, the doors to the apaya regions are kept open. That is why it is most important that one should eliminate sakkayaditthi. If it is possible to uproot such wrong view entirely, there shall be no possibility of being cast into the apaya regions anymore. Therefore, it is an over-riding necessity to eliminate sakkayaditthi, as there is no way of ascertaining the length of our current existence. We can neither determine how long we will live nor foresee when, on what day and at what time we shall die. Urgency in the matter is therefore of the utmost essence. Concluding Notes Within one minute, depending on the rate of respiration, anywhere between thirty to sixty mental notings of abdominalwall movements may be made. In each noting, all Eight Constituents of the Eight-fold Noble Path are involved. Thus, such is adhering to the principle relating to Action which brings about its corresponding Result. Acceptance of the rationale of this principle and bearing it in mind is the Right View of the Result of Kamma.

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Whoever is endowed with this Right View or Belief abstains from all immoral actions liable to bring about unwholesome results. Abstinence from falsehood, slander, harsh speech and frivolous talk is scrupulously observed. This abstinence constitutes Right Speech. Abstinence from killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct is also observed, thereby achieving Right Action. At the same time there is abstinence from wrong livelihood, which leads to Right Livelihood. Every conscious effort which leads to Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood fulfils and maintains the three components of the Sublime Path of Morality. Thus, every time Vipassana bhavana is practised, special merits and higher levels of perfection would accrue, for which no financial expenses is required. If practice is continued assiduously, Vipassana nana would be progressively attained as and when circumstances are favourable. If it is not possible to go to a meditation centre to continue the practice of Vipassana bhavana, one can continue the practice in ones own home according to the method demonstrated.

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PART II PROGRESS OF INSIGHT

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. Purification of Conduct [sila-visuddhi] Purification of Mind [citta-visuddhi] Purification of View [ditthi-visuddhi] [i] Analytical Knowledge of Body and Mind [nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana] Purification by Overcoming Doubt [kankha-vitarana-visuddhi] [ii] Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality [paccaya-pariggaha-nana] [iii] Knowledge by Comprehension [sammasana-nana] [iv] Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away [udayabbaya-nana] in its weak stage The Ten Corruptions of Insight Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is and What is Not Path [maggamagga-nanadassana-visuddhi] Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice [patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi] [v] Knowledge of Dissolution [bhanga-nana]

4.

5. 6.

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7.

Awareness of Fearfulness [bhayatupatthana-nana] [vii] Knowledge of Misery [adinava-nana] [viii] Knowledge of Disgust [nibbida-nana] [ix] Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance [muncitu-kamyata-nana] [x] Knowledge of Re-observation [patisankha-nupassana-nana] [xi] Knowledge of Equanimity About Formations [sankhara-upekkha-nana] [xii] Insight Leading to Emergence [vutthana-gamini-vipassana-nana] [xiii] Knowledge of Adaptation [anuloma-nana] [xiv] Maturity of Knowledge [gotrabhu-nana] Purification by Knowledge and Vision [nanadassana-visuddhi] [xv] Path Knowledge [magga-nana] [xvi] Fruition Knowledge [phala-nana] [xvii] Knowledge of Reviewing [paccavekkhana-nana] [xviii] Attainment of Fruition [phalasamapatti] [xix] The Higher Paths and Fruitions

[vi]

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INTRODUCTION The Seven Purifications A strict moral discipline must be kept to make progress in meditation. The meditator should grasp this spirit of moral discipline. In the case of the Seven Purifications, the purity implied is reckoned in terms of the elimination of the unwholesome factors opposed to each purification. 1. Purification of Conduct Purity obtained through abstinence from body and verbal misconduct and wrong livelihood. 2. Purification of Mind Purity resulting from cleansing the mind of attachment, aversion, inertia, restlessness and conflict; securing it against their influx. 3. Purification of View Dispelling the distortions of wrong views. 4. Purification by Overcoming Doubt Purity through the conquest of all doubts concerning the pattern of samsaric existence. 5. Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is Path and Not Path Purity attained by passing beyond the alluring distractions which arise in the course of Insight Meditation. 6. Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice Purity resulting from the temporary removal of defilement which obstructs the path of practice, and lastly, 7. Purification by Knowledge and Vision Purity gained by eradicating defilement together with their underlying tendencies by means of the Supramundane Paths; consisting of the Knowledges of the Four Paths; the Paths of Stream Entry, of Once-returning, of Non-returning and of Arahantship.

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Like any other tree, the great tree of the meditative life requires roots. The roots of the meditative life are Purification of Virtue and Purification of Mind. Unless these two roots are nourished, there will be no progress in meditation. The first and most fundamental of the roots is Purification of Virtue, which requires the understanding and maintaining of four types of restraint for monks/nuns as well as for the laity: observing the precepts one has undertaken and protecting them like ones life; guarding the six sense doors restraining defilement from arising; maintaining a righteous livelihood and making use of ones requisite of life with mindfulness and wise reflection. A meditator who trains according to these four ways of restraint will find nothing to get attached to or resent. The meditator then, is one who has a light livelihood, being light in body and content at heart, free from burdens of ownership as regards anything anywhere. Though these four principles were originally prescribed for monks and nuns, lay meditators should adapt them to their own situation. Everyone must have a standard of virtue dedicated to Nibbana. Monks and nuns are expected to observe the precepts of training given in the two codes of moral discipline making up their respective Patimokkha. Male and female lay-devotees have five precepts as a permanent standard of virtue in their everyday life. If they are more enthusiastic, they can observe the eight or ten precepts as a daily practice, or special observance during Uposatha or other significant days. This virtue of restraint consists in mindfully guarding the Six Sense Doors, that is, the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

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By means of mindfulness, one can prevent the arising of defilement sparked off by sense experiences. All forms of desires, major and minor conflicts, as well as those deceptions which are extremely subtle, rooted in delusion itself and in pure and simple ignorance can be arrested by mindful noting. Deceptions and delusions are difficult to fathom. But if one mindfully makes a mental note of every object calling at the Six Sense Doors, one can free oneself from deception. Not knowing and misconceiving of what should be known amounts to delusion. By failing to make a mental note of a pleasant feeling, one provides an opportunity for lust to arise. Failing to make a mental note of an unpleasant feeling can be an opportunity for the arising of repugnance, while such a failure in regard to a neither unpleasant nor pleasant feeling might give rise to deceptive concepts, delusion or ignorance. Therefore the practice of mentally noting each and every object that calls at the Six Sense Doors will also be helpful in getting rid of the underlying tendency to ignorance. Before one can establish oneself firmly in virtue, one must understand its significance well. Normally one protects ones virtue impelled by conscience and shame (hiri and ottappa). A wise man however observes virtue purely with the aim of attaining Nibbana. [Adapted from The Heart of Buddhist Meditation by the Venerable
Nyanaponika Mahathera.]

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THE PROGRESS OF INSIGHT IN VIPASSANA MEDITATION Adapted from the Writings of the Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw The Method In practice, there are two forms of meditation taught by the Buddha: Samatha (tranquillity) and Vipassana (Insight). (1) Samatha By practising Samatha Meditation, four stages of rupa-jhana and four of arupa-jhana can be attained. Development of these jhana can lead one to further attainment of abhinna, supernatural knowledge or faculty. These are: (a) Having been one, he becomes many this supernormal power include the ability to display multiple forms of ones body, to appear and disappear at will, to pass through walls unhindered, to dive in and out of the earth, to walk on water, to travel through the air, to touch and stroke the sun and the moon and to exercise mastery over the body as far as the Brahma-world. (b) The knowledge of the divine ear enables one to hear subtle and coarse sounds, both far and near. (c) The knowledge of penetration of minds is the ability to read the thoughts of others and to know directly their states of mind. (d) The knowledge of recollection of past lives is the ability to know ones past births and to discover various details about those births. (e) The knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings; the divine eye is the capacity for clairvoyance, which enables one to see heavenly or earthly events, both far or near. Included in the divine eye is the knowledge of the passing away and rebirths of beings, that is, direct perception of how beings pass away and re-arise in accordance with their kamma.

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Nevertheless, despite possessing such powers, these beings will not be free from sufferings and miseries of old age, death and rebirth. At death, even with their jhanic states remaining intact, they will be reborn into one of the Brahma Loka or Heavens, determined by the degree of jhana attained. Then they will remain in those relative planes or Brahma World for one world cycle, two, four, eight world cycles and so on, according to the life span of the Brahma World to which they have found rebirth. When that life span comes to an end, they will die and may find rebirth in the world of human beings or devas, where they will have their new existence. In such an event, they will again face the miseries of old age, death, sorrow and rebirth, just as humans beings and devas do. While in the Brahma Worlds, if such beings do not perform meritorious deeds and if circumstances are not favourable and by the force of their kamma, they can be reborn into one of the four nether worlds; hells, animal world, peta world or world of the asuras. Thus, it must be realised that by merely practising samatha meditation based on the kammatthana subjects is not sufficient to be liberated from the miseries and sufferings of death, sorrows and rebirths. It is only through the practice of Vipassana Meditation that one will be able to realise Nibbana and be completely liberated from all manner of suffering. However, a person who has first applied Samatha tranquillity as a means of developing sufficient concentration, and after having established himself in either Access Concentration or Full Concentration subsequently contemplates the Five Aggregates of Grasping; by this way he further develops his practice through Vipassana.

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(2) Vipassana However, a Vipassana practitioner is one who has neither produced access concentration nor full concentration, but from the very start applies Insight to the Five Aggregates of Grasping. The Buddha taught that it is also correct to practise Pure Insight as a vehicle towards Purity of Conduct. That is to say a meditator applies Insight to the Five Aggregates of Grasping, seeing them as impermanent (anicca), unsatisfactory (dukkha) and without a soul or a self (anatta); and also by Contemplating the Characteristics of the Four Elements. 1. Purification of Conduct (Sila-Visuddhi) Purification of Conduct in the case of lay devotees, is the proper observance of the prescribed Five, Eight, or the Ten Precepts. In the case of monks, Purification of Conduct is the conscientious observance of restraint according to the prescribed 227 Rules of Conduct. When Purification of Conduct has been established, the Vipassana practitioner should endeavour to contemplate bodyand-mind (nama-rupa), according to their characteristics, true nature and function, the body and mental processes that become evident to him at his own Six Sense Doors. The meditator first note the perfectly distinct process of touch, evident at the body sensitivity; as in Vipassana one notes what is distinct. When sitting, there occurs the body process of touch by way of the sitting posture and through touch sensitivity in the body. These processes of body sensitivity should be noted as "sitting, touching", as the case may be. While seated the meditator observes the rise and fall of the abdomen. This process of body motion (that is, the wind, or vibratory element) has breathing as its condition. This rise (expansion) and fall (contraction) of the abdomen can be seen as a continuous process.

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That should be noted as "rising, as they are arising, falling as they are falling. While the meditator is thus engaged in noting the element of motion in the abdomen, it becomes evident to him in its aspects of stiffening, of vibrating, and of pushing and pulling; the aspect of stiffening shows the motion (air) element's characteristic nature of supporting; the aspect of vibrating shows its essential function of movement; and the aspect of pushing and pulling shows its manifestation of impelling. Hence the meditator, noting the process of the rise and fall of the abdomen, accomplishes the observation of the body process (rupa), by getting to know the characteristic nature, etc., of the element of air (motion). Later when his observation of mind (nama) and the observation of both mind and body (nama-rupa) is accompanied with Insight Knowledge, gained experientially, he will come to know the general characteristics of the processes concerned; their impermanence, liability to cause discontent (suffering), and their being void of a permanent self. But while he is engaged in just noting the rising and falling of the abdomen and other body processes, there will appear thoughts of desire, etc., feelings of pleasure, etc., or acts such as adjusting various parts of the body. At that time, these activities (of mind and body) must be noted, too. After noting them, he should turn again to the continuous noting of the rising and falling of the abdomen, which is the basic object of mindfulness in this practice. 2. Purification of Mind (Citta-Visuddhi) In the early part of the practice, wandering thoughts will appear intermittently while mindfully noting the primary object of meditation. Sometimes the beginner will perceive occurrence of these interruptions sometimes not and sometimes after a short while has elapsed.

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As the recently developed Momentary Concentration of his mind is still very tender and weak, these wandering thoughts continue to hinder his mind while it is occupied in developing the practice of mindful noting. These are "hindering thoughts". When the power of his Momentary Concentration has fully matured, the thought process of noting becomes pointedly directed. Hence, when attending to the objects to be noted; the abdominal movement, sitting, bending, stretching, seeing, hearing, etc., his noting now appear as if falling upon these objects, striking at them and confronting them again and again. Then, as a rule, his mind will no longer go elsewhere. Only occasionally, and in a slight degree, will this happen, and even in these cases he will be able to note any such stray thought at its very arising, as expressed in common speech; or, to be exact, he will note the stray thought immediately after its actual arising. Then that stray thought will subside as soon as it is noted and will not arise again. Immediately afterwards he will also be able to resume continuous noting of any object as it becomes evident to him. At this stage, his mind is "unhindered". While the meditator is practising noting with unhindered mind, the noting mind will close in upon and fix on whatever object is being noted, and the act of noting will proceed without break, and there will arise in him an uninterrupted succession "the concentration of mind lasting for a moment", directed to each object noted; the Purification of Mind is thus established.

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3. Purification of View (Ditthi-Visuddhi) i. Analytical Knowledge of Mind and Matter (nama-rupapariccheda-nana) Endowed with Purification of Mind and continuing noting, the meditator now comes to know mind-and-matter analytically as: The rising (upward movement) of the abdomen is one process; the falling (downward movement) is another; sitting is another; touching is another, etc. In this way, he comes to know how to distinguish each body process that he notes. He realises: The knowing of the rising movement is one process; the knowing of the falling movement is another. In this way, he comes to know each mental act of noting. He realises: The rising movement is one process; the knowing of it is another. The falling movement is one process; the knowing of it is another. In that way, he comes to know how to distinguish each body and mental process. All that knowledge comes from simply noting, not from reasoning; that is to say, it is knowledge by direct experience arrived at by the mere act of noting, and not knowledge derived from logical deductions. Such knowing is; knowing matter (or body) by its manifestation of non-determining. Non-determining should be understood as having no faculty of cognising an object. Such knowledge as this, which directly experiences each act of noting both the body process and the mental process engaged in noting, according to their true essential nature, is the Analytical Knowledge of Mind and Matter. When that knowledge has come to maturity, the meditator understands thus: At the moment of breathing in: There is just the rising movement of the abdomen and the knowing of the movement, there is neither a permanent self, ego, nor soul involved.

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At the moment of breathing out: There is just the falling movement of the abdomen and the knowing of the movement, there is (as above), No Self Involved. Understanding it thus in these and other instances, he knows and sees for himself by noting: "There is here only this pair: A MATERIAL process as object, and a MENTAL process of knowing. It is to this pair alone that the terms of conventional usage; 'being', 'person' or 'soul', 'I' or 'another' 'man' or 'woman' refers. Apart from that dual process there is no separate person or being, I or another, man or woman". This is establishing Purification of View. 4. Purification By Overcoming Doubt (Kankhavitarana Visuddhi) ii. Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality (paccaya-pariggahanana). When Purification of View has come to maturity, the conditions necessary for the body and mental processes observed will also become evident. Firstly, the consciousness that conditions the (respective) body process will be evident. As in bending the arms or legs, the consciousness of the intention to bend these limbs is evident. Next he notes the act of bending, and so on. Thus, he understands by direct experience: "When there is a conscious intention to bend a limb, the body process of bending arises. When there is a conscious intention to stretch a limb the body process of stretching arises". In the same way, he understands other instances too by direct experience. He also understands by direct experience the condition for the mental process, in the following manner: In the case of a conscious desire to stray, there arises first a corresponding consciousness giving initial attention (to the distracting object). If that consciousness is not mindfully noted, then there arises a consciousness that strays.

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But if the consciousness of initial attention to the distracting object is noted and known, no stray thoughts will arise. It is similar in other types of consciousness, as; when taking delight or being angry, greedy, etc. When the Eye and a Visual Object are present, there arises Eye Consciousness. Otherwise EYE Consciousness will not arise. So it is in the case of the other Sense Doors. If there is a notable or recognisable object, then there arises consciousness engaged in noting or thinking, reasoning, understanding, as the case may be; otherwise no such consciousness arises. Similarly, he understands occurrences concerning other mind-door cognition. During such processes, the meditator will generally experience many different feelings arising in his body. While one of these feelings is being noted (but without concern), another feeling will arise elsewhere, and while that is being noted, again another will appear elsewhere. Thus, the meditator follows each feeling as it arises and notes it. But though he is engaged in noting these feelings as they arise, he will only perceive their initial phase of "arising" and not their final phase of "dissolution". At this stage, mental images such as, a monk, a man, a house, a tree, a park, a heavenly mansion, clouds and others may appear. While he is still engaged in noting one of these mental images, another will show itself; while still noting that, yet another will appear. As they arise, he goes on noting them. But though he is engaged in noting them, he will perceive only their initial phase, not the final phase. He now understands: Consciousness arises in accordance with each object that becomes evident. If there is an object, there arises consciousness, if there is no object, consciousness does not arise. Between sequences of noting he also, by considering inferentially, comes to know thus:

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It is due to the presence of such causes and conditions as ignorance, craving, kamma, etc., that body-and-mind continue. Such discernment through direct experience and through inference as described, when noting body-and-mind with their conditions, is establishing Knowledge of Discerning Conditionality. When that knowledge has come to maturity, the meditator perceives only body-and-mind processes occurring in strict accordance with their particular and appropriate conditions and he comes to the conclusion: Here is only a conditioning bodyand-mind process and a conditioned body-and-mind process. Apart from these, there is no person who performs the bending of the limbs, or who experiences feelings of pain. This is establishing Purification of Insight by Overcoming Doubt. iii. Knowledge by Comprehension (sammasana-nana) When Purification of Insight by Overcoming Doubt has matured, the meditator will discern distinctly; the Initial, Middle and Final phases of any object noted by him. Then, in the case of various objects noted, he will discern distinctly that; only after each earlier process has ceased, does there arise a subsequent process. For instance, only when the rising movement of the abdomen has come to an end, does there arise the falling movement; only when that has ended, is there again a rising movement. So also in the case of walking, only when the lifting of the foot has come to an end, does there arise the carrying forward of the foot; only when that has been completed, does there follow the placing of the foot on the ground. In the case of painful feelings, only after each single feeling occurring at its particular place has ceased, will another new feeling arise at another place.

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On noting the respective painful feeling repeatedly, twice, thrice or more, the meditator will see that it may or may not gradually grow less, and that it may or may not cease entirely. In the case of the various shaped images that enter the mind's field, it is only after each single image noted has vanished, that another new object will come into the mind's focus. On noting them attentively twice, thrice or more, he will see that these mental objects which are being noted move from one place to another, or they become gradually smaller and less distinct, until at last they disappear entirely. The meditator does not perceive anything that is permanent and lasting, or free from destruction and disappearance. Seeing how objects, even while being noted, are subject to destruction and disappearance, he comprehends impermanence. He further comprehends suffering (pain) in the objects breaking up after each arising. Having seen how various painful feelings arise in continuous succession, how if one painful feeling ceases, another arises, and when that has ceased, again another arises, having seen that, he comprehends the respective objects as just a heap of suffering. Further, he comprehends the object as consisting of mere impersonal phenomenon without a master, in the sense of not arising of (or by) themselves, but arising subject to conditions and then breaking up. This comprehension of an object noted, as being impermanent, painful, and without a self (impersonal), through knowing its nature of impermanence, etc., by means of simply noting, without reflecting and reasoning, is establishing Knowledge by Comprehension through Direct Experience. Having thus seen the Three Characteristics once or several times by direct experience, the meditator, by inference from the direct experience of those objects noted, comprehends all body and mental processes of the past, present and future, and the whole world, by coming to the conclusion:

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They, too, are in the same way impermanent, painful, and without a self. This is establishing Knowledge of Comprehension by Inference. Therefore, whatever there is of materiality, past, present or future, internal or external, coarse or fine, inferior or superior, far or near, they are of the nature of impermanence. That is one kind of comprehension. Even if the impermanence of only a single formation (conditioned phenomenon) is known, there may be consideration of the rest by inference thus: All formations are impermanent. iv. Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away (Udayabbaya-nana) Arising of the Ten Corruptions When noting, the meditator is able to keep exclusively to the present body-and-mind process, without looking back to past processes or ahead to future ones, then, as a result of Insight, the mental vision of a brilliant light will appear to him. To one it will appear like the light of a lamp, to others like a flash of lightning, or like the radiance of the moon or the sun, and so on. With one it may last for just one moment, with others it may last longer. There will also arise in him strong mindfulness pertaining to Insight. As a result, all the successive arisings of body and mental processes will present themselves to the consciousness engaged in noting, as if coming to it of themselves; and mindfulness too seems as if alighting on the processes of itself. The meditator then believes; "There is no body and mind process in which mindfulness fails to engage". His knowledge consisting in Insight, here called "noting", will be likewise keen, strong and lucid. Consequently, he will discern clearly and in separate forms all the body and mental processes noted, as if cutting to pieces a bamboo sprout with a wellsharpened knife.

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The meditator realises that: "There is no body and mind process that cannot be noted". When examining the characteristics of impermanence, etc., or other aspects of reality, he understands everything quite clearly and at once, and he believes it to be the Knowledge Derived from Direct Experience. Further, strong faith pertaining to Insight arises in him. Under its influence, the meditator's mind, when engaged in noting or thinking, is serene and without any disturbance, and when he is engaged in recollecting the virtues of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, his mind quite easily gives itself over to them. There arises in him the wish to proclaim the Buddha's Teaching, joyous confidence in the virtues of those engaged in meditation, the desire to advise friends and relatives to practise meditation. These and many other similar mental processes will occur. There arises also rapture (piti) in its five grades, beginning with minor rapture; then following with; momentarily recurring, flooding, elevating, and suffusing. When Purification of Mind is well established, that rapture begins to appear by causing tingling sensations and tremors in the limbs, etc.; and now it produces a sublime feeling of happiness and exhilaration, filling the whole body with an exceedingly sweet and subtle thrill. Under its influence, he feels as if the whole body had risen up and remained in the air without touching the ground, or as if it were seated on an air cushion, or as if it were floating up and down. There arises tranquillity of mind with the characteristic of quietening the disturbances of consciousness and its mental concomitants, and along with it mental agility appear. When walking, standing, sitting or reclining there is, under the influence of these mental qualities, no disturbance of consciousness and its mental concomitants, nor heaviness, rigidity, unwieldiness, sickness, or crookedness.

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Rather, his consciousness and its mental concomitants are tranquil through having reached the supreme relief in nonaction*.
[*Non-action, non-activity or non-busy-ness, refers to the receptive, but keenly watchful, attitude of noting (or bare attention)].

They are agile in always functioning swiftly; they are pliant in being able to attend to any object desired; they are wieldy, in being able to attend to an object for any length of time desired; they are quite lucid through their proficiency, that is, through the ease with which Insight penetrates the object; they are also single-minded through being directed, inclined and turned only towards wholesome activities. There also arises a very sublime feeling of happiness suffusing all his body. Under its influence he becomes exceedingly joyous and he believes; "Now I am happy all the time" or "now, indeed, I have found happiness never felt before", and he wants to tell others of his extraordinary experience. There arises in him energy that is neither too lax nor too tense, is vigorous and acts evenly. Previously his energy had sometimes been lax, and thus had been overpowered by sloth and torpor; hence he was not able to note keenly and continuously the objects as they became evident. His understanding, too, had not been clear. At other times his energy had been too tense, and thus was overpowered by agitation, with the same result of not being able to note keenly, etc. Now his energy is neither too lax nor too tense, is vigorous and acts evenly; and so, overcoming sloth, torpor and agitation, he is now able to note objects keenly and continuously, and his understanding is bright and clear, too. There also arises in him strong equanimity associated with Insight, which is neutral towards all formations.

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Under its influence he regards with neutrality even his examination of the nature of these formations with respect to their being impermanent, etc.; and he is able to note keenly and continuously the body and mental processes arising at the time. Then his activity of noting is carried on without effort, and proceeds, as it were, of itself. In adverting to the objects, there arises in him strong equanimity, by virtue of which his mind enters quickly into the objects of advertence. There arises further a subtle attachment of a calm nature that enjoys the Insight graced with the "brilliant light" and the other qualities here described. The meditator, however, is not able to discern these arising subtleties as corruptions but believes it to be just the very blissful results of successful meditation. So the meditator speaks in praise of it thus: "Only now do I find full delight in meditation!" Having felt such rapture and happiness accompanied by the "brilliant light" and enjoying the very act of perfect noting, which is ably functioning with ease and rapidity, he now believes: "Surely I must have attained the supramundane Path and Fruition! Now I have finished the task of meditation." This is Mistaking What is Not The Path for The Path. It is a corruption of Insight which usually takes place in the manner just described. But even if the meditator does not take the "brilliant light" and the other corruptions as an indication of the Path and Fruition, still he feels delight in them. This is likewise a corruption of Insight. Therefore, the knowledge consisting in noting, even if quick in its functioning, is - the early stage of (or 'weak') Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away - if it is beset and corrupted by those corruptions. For the same reason the meditator is at that time not in a position to discern quite distinctly the arising and passing away of body and mental processes.

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An inexperienced meditator may be confused by any of the following experiences, mistakenly believing that he or she has reached Nibbana. Though not in themselves obstacles, he may be tempted to cling to these experiences, believing them to be important, rather than continuing to note the presently arising and passing away of mental and physical phenomena. Thus, the guidance of a teacher is invaluable. The Ten Corruptions (Defilement) in Detail 1. Obhasa (illumination). This is the first defilement of Insight. He may see a light similar to a firefly, a torch or car lights. The room may be lit up, enabling the meditator to see his own body. He may be aware of light that seems to pass through the wall. There may be a light enabling one to see various places before one's eyes. There may be a bright light as though a door had opened. Some meditators lift up their hands as if to shut it; others open their eyes to see what caused the light. A vision of brightly coloured flowers surrounded by light. Miles and miles of sea may be seen. Rays of light seem to emit from the meditator's heart and body. Hallucinations such as seeing an elephant may occur. 2. Piti (joy or rapture). This is the second defilement of Insight. There are five kinds of piti. The Five in detail are:
(a) Khuddaka piti (minor rapture); characterised by the following: The meditator may be aware of a white color. There may be a feeling of coolness or dizziness and the hairs of the body may stand on end. The meditator may cry or feel terrified.

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(b) Khanika piti (momentary rapture). Characteristics of this piti are: Seeing flashes of light. Seeing sparks. Nervous twitching. A feeling of stiffness all over the body. A feeling as if ants were crawling on the body. A feeling of heat all over the body. Shivering. Seeing red colours. The hair on the body rising slightly. Itchiness as if ants were crawling on one's face and body. (c) Okkantika piti (flood of joy). In this piti: The body may shake and tremble. The face, hands and feet may twitch. There may be violent shaking as if the bed is going to turn upside down. Nausea and at times actual vomiting may occur. There may be a rhythmic feeling like waves breaking on the shore. Ripples of energy may seem to flow over the body. The body may vibrate like a stick which is fixed in a flowing stream. A light yellow colour may be observed. The body may bend to and fro. (d) Ubbenka piti (uplifting joy). In this piti: The body feels as if it is extending or moving upwards. There may be a feeling like lice climbing on the face and body. Diarrhea may occur. The body may bend forward or backward. One may feel that one's head has been moved backward and forward by somebody. There may be a chewing movement with the mouth either open or closed. The body sways like a tree being blown by the wind. The body bends forward and may fall down. There may be fidgeting movements of the body. There may be jumping movements of the body. Arms and legs may be raised or may twitch. The body may bend forward or may recline. A silver grey colour may be observed. (e) Pharana piti (pervading rapture). In this piti: A feeling of coldness spreads through the body. Peace of mind sets in occasionally. There may be itchy feelings all over the body. There may be drowsy feelings and the meditator may not wish to open his or her eyes. The meditator has no wish to move. There may be a flushing sensation from feet to head or vice versa. The body may feel cool as if taking a bath or touching ice. The meditator may see blue or emerald green colours. An itchy feeling as though lice are crawling on the face may occur.

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3. Passadhi. The third defilement of Vipassana is passadhi which means "tranquility of mental factors and consciousness". It is characterised as follows: There may be a quiet, peaceful state resembling the attainment of Insight. There will be no restlessness or mental rambling. Mindful acknowledgement is easy. The meditator feels comfortably cool and does not fidget. The meditator feels satisfied with his powers of acknowledgement. There may be a feeling similar to falling asleep. There may be a feeling of lightness. Concentration is good and there is no forgetfulness. Thoughts are quite clear. A cruel, harsh or merciless person will realise that the dhamma is profound. A criminal or drunkard will be able to give up bad habits and will change into quite a different person. 4. Sukha. The fourth defilement of Vipassana is sukha which means "bliss" and has the following characteristics: There may be a feeling of comfort. Due to pleasant feelings the meditator may wish to continue practising for a long time. The meditator may wish to tell other people of the results which he has already gained. The meditator may feel immeasurably proud and happy. Some say that they have never known such happiness. Some feel deeply grateful to their teachers. Some meditators feel that their teacher is at hand to give help.

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5. Saddha. The next defilement of Vipassana is saddha which is defined as fervour, resolution or determination, characterised by the following: The practitioner may have too much faith. He may wish to persuade those he comes in contact with to practise Vipassana. He feels indebted to the meditation centre. He wishes to accelerate and deepen his practice. He may wish to perform meritorious deeds. He may feel grateful to the person who persuaded him to practise. He may wish to give offerings to his teacher. A meditator may wish to be ordained as a monk or nun. He may not wish to stop practising. He might wish to go and stay in a quiet, peaceful place. The meditator may decide to practise wholeheartedly. 6. Paggaha. The next defilement of Vipassana is paggaha, meaning exertion or strenuousness and is defined as follows: Sometimes the meditator may practise too strenuously. He intends to practise rigorously, even unto death. He overexerts so that attentiveness and clear comprehension are weak, causing distraction and lack of concentration. 7. Upatthana, "mindfulness", is the next defilement of Vipassana, and it is characterised by the following: Sometimes excessive concentration upon thought causes the meditator to leave acknowledgement of the present and inclines him to think of the past or future. He may be unduly concerned with happenings in the past and may have vague recollections. 8. Nana. The next vipassanupakilesa "knowledge" is defined as: Theoretical knowledge is confused with practice. The meditator misunderstands but thinks that he is right.

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He becomes fond of ostentatiousness and contends with his teacher. A meditator may make comments about various objects. For example when the abdomen rises he may say "arising" and when it falls he may say "ceasing." The meditator may consider various principles which he knows or has studied. The present cannot be grasped. Usually it is "thinking" which fills up the mind. This may be referred to as "thought-based knowledge. 9. Upekkha. The ninth defilement of Vipassana is upekkha which has the meaning of not caring or indifference. It is described as: The mind of the meditator is indifferent, neither pleased nor displeased, nor forgetful. The rising and falling of the abdomen is indistinct and at times imperceptible. The meditator is unmindful, at times thinking of nothing in particular. The rising and falling of the abdomen may be intermittently perceptible. The mind is undisturbed and peaceful. The meditator is indifferent to bodily needs. The meditator is unaffected when in contact with either good or bad objects. Mindful acknowledgement is disregarded and attention is allowed to follow exterior objects to a great extent. 10. Nikanti. The tenth vipassanupakilesa is nikanti which means "gratification" and it has the following characteristics: The meditator finds satisfaction in various objects. He is satisfied with light, joy, happiness, faith, exertion, knowledge and even-mindedness. He is satisfied with various nimittas (visions).

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5. Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is Path and What is Not-Path (Maggamagga-nanadassana-visuddhi) While noting, the meditator either by himself or through instructions from someone else, comes to this decision: "The brilliant light, and the other things experienced by me, are not the path. Delight in them is merely a corruption of Insight. The practice of continuously noting the object as it becomes evident - that alone is the way of Insight. I must go on with just the work of noting". This decision is arriving at Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is Path and What is Not-Path. 6. Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice (Patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi) After noting these manifestations of brilliant light and such others, and leaving them unheeded, he continues on as before with the act of noting the body and mental processes as they become evident at the Six Sense Doors. While thus engaged in noting, he gets over the corruption relating to brilliant light, rapture, tranquillity, happiness, attachment, etc., and his knowledge remains concerned exclusively with the arising and passing away of the processes noted. For then, at each act of noting, he sees: The noted object, having arisen, disappears instantly. It also becomes clear to him that each object disappears just where it arises; it does not move on to another place. In this way, he understands by direct experience how: Body and Mental Processes arise and break up from moment to moment. It is such knowledge and understanding resulting from the continuous noting of body and mental processes as they arise and dissolve moment after moment, and the discernment, in separate sections, of the arising and passing away of each of them, while being free from the corruptions, that is arriving at the Final Knowledge of Contemplation of Arising and Passing Away.

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This is the beginning of Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice which starts from this Insight and extends to Adaptation Knowledge (the Thirteenth Knowledge). v. Knowledge of Dissolution (Bhanga-nana) Noting the body and mental processes as they arise, he sees them part by part, link by link, piece by piece, fraction by fraction: "Just now it arises, now it breaks up". When Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away becomes mature, keen and strong, it will arise easily and proceed uninterrupted as if borne onward of itself; also the body and mental processes will be easily discernible. When keen knowledge thus carries on and formations are easily discernible, then neither the arising of each body and mental process, nor its middle phase, nor the continuity of body and mental processes is apparent to him; nor are the shape of the hand, the foot, the face, the body, and so on, apparent to him. But what is apparent to him is only the ceasing of body and mental processes; "disappearing, "passing away", or "dissolution". For instance, while noting the rising movement of the abdomen, neither its initial nor middle phase is apparent, but only the ceasing or disappearing, which is the final phase, is apparent; and so it is also with the falling movement of the abdomen. Again, in the case of bending an arm or leg, while noting the act of bending, neither the initial nor the middle phase of bending is apparent, nor is the form of the limb apparent, but only the final phase of ceasing and disappearing is apparent. It is similar in the other cases of stretching a limb, and so on. Each object that is being noted seems to him to be entirely absent or to have become non-existent.

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Consequently, at this stage of knowledge, it seems to him as if he were engaged in noting something which is absent or nonexistent; and the consciousness engaged in noting appears to have lost contact with the object that is being noted. It is for that reason that a meditator may at this time thinks: "I have lost Insight"; however, this is not the case; in reality it is a progress of Insight. Prior to this stage, his consciousness delights in conceptual objects of shapes, etc.; and even up to the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away, the idea of formations with their specific features have always been apparent to him. Hence, his mind took delight in a plainly distinguishable object consisting of formations, with its particular structure [the distinctive (vi) graspable (gaha) form of an object.] and its particular featureidea. But now that his knowledge has developed in the way described, no such idea of the formations' features or structures appears to him, still less any other, cruder concept. At such a stage, the arising of formations, that is, the first phase of the process, is not apparent (as it is in the case of Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away), but there is apparent only the dissolution, that is, the final phase, having the nature of disappearing. Therefore the meditator's mind does not take delight in it at first, but he may be sure that soon, after becoming familiar (with that stage of the practice), his mind will delight in the cessation (of the phenomena) too, which is called their dissolution. With this assurance he should again turn to the practice of continuous noting. When thus engaged, he perceives that in each act of noting there are always present two factors, an objective factor and a subjective one, the object noted and the mental state of knowing it, which breaks up and disappears by pairs, one pair after the other.

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In each single instance of a rising movement of the abdomen, there are, in fact, numerous physical processes constituting the rising movement, which are seen to break-up serially. It is like seeing the continuous successive disappearing of a summer mirage moment by moment; or the quick and continuous bursting of bubbles produced in a heavy shower by rain drops falling on a water surface; or like the quick, successive extinction of oil-lamps or candles, blown out by the wind. Similar to that appears the breaking-up and disappearing, moment by moment, of the body processes noted. The dissolution of consciousness noting those body processes is apparent to him along with the dissolution of the body processes. Also while he is noting other body and mental processes, their dissolution, too, will be apparent to him in the same manner. Consequently, the knowledge will come to him that whatever part of the whole body is noted, that object ceases first, and after it the consciousness engaged in noting that object follows in its wake. From that the meditator will understand very clearly in the case of each successive pair the dissolution of any object whatsoever and the dissolution of the consciousness noting that very object. [It should be borne in mind that this refers only to understanding arrived at through direct experience by one engaged in noting only.] It is the perfectly clear understanding of the dissolution of the two things, pair by pair; the visual or other object appearing at any of the six sense doors, and the consciousness noting that very object, that is the Knowledge of Dissolution.

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vi. Awareness of Fearfulness (Bhayatupatthana-nana) When Knowledge of Dissolution is mature, there will gradually arise, (through observing the dissolution of all object-andsubject-formations), the awareness of Fearfulness and other (higher) Knowledges, together with their respective aspects of fear. Having seen how the dissolution of two things, that is, any object noted and the Insight-thought engaged in noting it, takes place moment by moment, the meditator also understands by inference that in the past, too, every conditioned thing (formation) had broken up in the same way, as just so it will break up in the future, just as at the present it breaks up, too. Just at the time of noting any formation that is evident, this formation will appear to him in its aspect of fearfulness. Therefore, during the very act of noting, the meditator will also come to understand: "These formations are not within any power or persons or entity to control, they can arise at any time; they are indeed fearful". Such understanding of their fearfulness is arriving at the Knowledge of the Awareness of Fearfulness. [It has also the name: Knowledge of Fear.] At which stage, his mind will be gripped by fear and appear helpless. vii. Knowledge of Misery (Adinava-nana) When he has realised the fearfulness (of the formations) through attaining to the Knowledge of Fear, and keeps on noting continuously, then before long, a further Knowledge; the Knowledge of Misery will arise in him. When it has arisen, all formations everywhere; whether among the objects noted, or among the states of consciousness engaged in noting, or in any kind of life or existence that is brought to mind; will appear bland, without a vitalising factor [without nutritive essence] and unsatisfying.

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So he sees, at that time, only suffering, only unsatisfactoriness, only misery. The meditator has now attain to the Knowledge of Misery. viii. Knowledge of Disgust (Nibbida-nana) Seeing thus the misery in conditioned things (formations), his mind finds no delight in those miserable things but is entirely disgusted with them. At times, his mind becomes discontented and listless. Even so he does not give up the practice of Insight, but spends his time continuously engaging in it. He therefore should know that this state of mind is not dissatisfaction with meditation, but is precisely; the Knowledge of Disgust, that has the aspect of being disgusted with the formations. Even if he directs his thought to the happiest sort of life and existence, or to the most pleasant and desirable objects, his mind will not take delight in them, will find no satisfaction in them. On the contrary, his mind will incline, lean and tend only towards Nibbana. Therefore the following thought will arise in him between moments of noting: "The ceasing of all formations that are falling away from moment to moment; that alone is happiness". ix. Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance (Muncitu-kamyatanana) When through this Knowledge (now acquired) he feels disgust with regard to every formation noted, there will arise in him a desire to forsake these formations or to become delivered from them. The knowledge relating to that desire is the Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance. At that time, usually various painful feelings arise in his body, and also an unwillingness to remain long in one particular body posture.

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Even if these states do not arise, the comfortless nature of the formations will become more evident than ever. Due to that, between moments of noting, he feels a longing thus: "Oh, may I soon be free from this! Oh, may I reach the state where these formations cease! Oh, may I be able to give up these formations completely!" At this juncture, his consciousness engaged in noting seems to shrink from the object noted at each moment of noting, and wishes to escape from it. x. Knowledge of Re-observation (Patisankhanupassananana) Being thus desirous of escaping from the formations, the meditator makes a stronger effort and continues the practice of noting these very formations with the single minded purpose of forsaking them and escaping from them. For that reason, the knowledge arising at that time is the Knowledge of Reobservation. The term "re-observation" has the same meaning as "re-noting" or "re-contemplation". Then the nature (or characteristic) of the formations; their being impermanent, suffering and without a self will be clearly evident to him; and among these three, the aspect of suffering will be particularly distinct. At this stage, too, there will usually arise in his body various kinds of pains which are severe, sharp, and of growing intensity. Hence his whole body and mental system will seem to him like an unbearable mass of sickness or a conglomeration of suffering. A state of restlessness will usually manifest itself, making him incapable of keeping to one particular posture for any length of time, then he will soon want to change it. This state, however, simply manifests the unbearable nature of the formations. Though he wants to change his body posture, still he should not give in easily to that wish, but should endeavour to remain motionless for a longer period in the same posture and continue to carry on the practice of noting. By doing so, he will be able to overcome his restlessness.

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Now his Insight Knowledge is quite strong and lucid, and by virtue of this, even his painful feelings will at once cease as soon as they are firmly noted. Even if a painful feeling does not cease completely, he will perceive that it is disappearing, part by part, from moment to moment. That is to say, the passing away, the ceasing and disappearing of each single moment of feeling will become apparent separately in each corresponding act of noting. In other words, it is a progressive development from the stage of Knowledge of Comprehension, when the constant flow or continuity of feelings of the same kind was apparent as a single unit. But if, without abandoning the practice, that feeling of pain is firmly and continuously noted, it will cease entirely before long. When it ceases in this way, it does so for good and will not arise again. Though in that way the Insight Knowledge may have become strong and perfectly lucid, still he is not satisfied. He will even think: "My Insight Knowledge is not clear". He should, however, dismiss such thoughts by applying the act of noting to them, and he should go on with his task of continuously noting the body and mental formations as they occur. If he perseveres thus, his noting will become clearer as time passes in minutes, hours and days. Then he will overcome the painful feelings and the restlessness in being unable to remain long in one particular posture, and also the idea that his Insight Knowledge is not yet clear enough. His noting will then function rapidly, and at every moment of noting he will understand clearly the Characteristics of Existence. This understanding of the Three Characteristics: Impermanence, Unsatisfactoriness and Selflessness through the act of noting which functions with promptness in quick succession, is realising a Strong Knowledge of Re-observation.

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xi. Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations (Sankhara-upekkha-nana) When this Knowledge of Re-observation is mature, there will arise knowledge perceiving evident body and mental processes in continuous succession quite naturally, as if borne onward of itself. This is realising the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. In this act of noting, effort is no longer required to keep formations before the mind or to understand them. After the completion of each single act of noting, the object to be noted will appear by itself, and Insight Knowledge, too, will of itself note and understand it. It is as if no further effort need be made by the meditator. Earlier, due to seeing the Dissolution of Formations, there arose, in successive order: The Aspect of Fearfulness, the Perception of Misery, the Aspect of Disgust, the Desire for Deliverance, and Dissatisfaction with the Knowledge so far acquired. But now these mental states no longer arise even though, in the present state too, the breaking up of formations which are disappearing more rapidly is closely perceived. Even if a painful feeling arises in the body, no mental disturbance, such as grief arises, and there is no lack of fortitude in bearing with it. Generally, however, at this stage, pains will be entirely absent, they do not arise at all. Even if the meditator thinks about something fearful or sad, no mental disturbance will arise, be it in the form of fear or of sorrow. This, firstly, is arriving at the Abandoning of Fear at the stage of Equanimity about Formations. At the earlier stage, on attaining Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away, great joy had arisen on account of the clarity of Insight.

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But now this kind of joy does not arise, even though there is present the exceedingly peaceful and sublime clarity of mind belonging to Equanimity about Formations. Though he sees desirable objects conducive to joy, or thinks about various enjoyable things, no strong feeling of joy will arise. This is the Abandoning of Delight at the stage of Equanimity about Formations. He cherishes no desire nor hate with regard to any object, desirable or undesirable, that comes into his sense doors, but taking them as just the same in his act of noting, he understands them [in a pure act of understanding]. This is "Equable Vision" at the stage "Equanimity about Formations". With the Abandoning of Fear and Delight and imbued with Equable vision (as described above), he will have discarded fear and delight; he is impartial and neutral towards all formations. If he resumes the practice of noting with great vigor, then, before long, the noting will function efficiently as if by itself. From now onwards there is no need for the meditator to make further, deliberate effort. His noting will now proceed in a continuous and steady process; it will go on even for two or three hours without interruption. This is attaining to the State of Long-lasting Practice of Equanimity about Formations, which is the knowledge present in the mental states of Equanimity about Formations. With reference to knowledge functioning in a continuous flow, the mind now functions smoothly of itself, whereas previously, even if sent out towards a variety of objects, generally it refuses to go; and even if it does go, it will not stay away for long but will soon return to the usual object to be noted, and will resume continuous noting.

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Sankharupekkha Nana and its Three Characteristics Sankharupekkha nana is peaceful and pleasurable. According to one's perfection, one will gain Magga nana and Phala nana successively. There is no more desire and fright related to mundane or supra-mundane world. The meditator at this stage is no longer disturbed by unpleasantness or fear as in Bhanga nana; or by strong delight as in Udayabbaya nana. He is capable of withstanding the vicissitude of life. Hence, all should strive for the attainment of Sankharupekkha nana. If he is patient, he will be happy and consequently noting becomes easy and effortless. He will also feel that he is just observing the conscious mind. There is prolonged contemplation without changing of position; the mind does not wander; more and more subtle is the Dhamma. The object of noting becomes subtle and the noting mind is stable and in control. Contemplation is likened to the soft touch of cotton. In other words the noting mind settles on the object of noting just like a cotton swab absorbs water as soon as it touches the water. Mind is not prone to wandering when the Sankharupekkha nana is strong. Since the noting mind is fixed on the sense object, noting is effortless. As the sense object and the noting mind are so subtle, the meditator is unaware of "rising" and "falling" but only aware of the conscious mind. He also experiences soothing feeling as if sprinkled with a spray of cool water. On noting a sound, he hears it as a mere sound and note "knowing, knowing". He tries to note the frightful experience as in the Bhaya nana, however it does not manifest. He also lets loose his noting conscious mind but it does not wander off. This is the special characteristics of Sankharupekkha nana. Those who contemplate Sankharupekkha nana can be classified into three types.

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(1) Puthujjana: 'one of the many folk', 'worldling', ordinary man. It is any layman or monk who is still possessed of all the ten fetters (samyojana) binding to the round of rebirths, and therefore has not yet reached any of the four stages of holiness (ariya-puggala). (2) Sekkha: those who are striving for the realisation of Nibbana. (3) Arahant: Those who have eradicated all defilements and have achieved Enlightenment. Among these three types, there are similarity and also differences or significance in contemplating Sankharupekkha nana. However, all three contemplate this nana in the same way. Differences or Significance (a) Effectiveness Puthujjana and the seven sekkha. (each of those who has attained Sotapatti magga, Sotapatti phala, Sakadagami magga, Sakadagami phala, Anagami magga, Anagami phala and Arahatta magga) gain merits by contemplating Sankharupekkha nana. Whereas there is no merits or demerits for the Arahant as it is the last existence for him. This is a significant feature of Sankharupekkha nana; it is ineffective for Arahant. (b) Distinction To the puthujjana and sekkha; Sankharupekkha nana is distinct and sharp at times but not always and the meditator, therefore thinks there is laxation in his contemplation of Dhamma. When it is not sharp, a meditator who believes himself to be a striver for Nibbana, is depressed. thinking that he is not such a one. If he has the knowledge of the fact that Sankharupekkha nana is not always distinct, he would be much relieved. It will be distinct when concentration is strong, in other words, when the controlling powers (indriya) are balanced.

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For the Arahant; Sankharupekkha nana is constantly distinctive. This is the difference in Sankharupekkha nana between an Arahant, puthujjana and sekkha. (c) Contentment Both puthujjana and sekkha practise Vipassana meditation, however there is no contentment for them. A puthujjana contemplates in order to dispel kilesa and to achieve the progress of Insight; whereas a sotapan strives for higher Magga nana and Phala nana. Since they have not completely eliminated kilesa and realised Nibbana, they are not yet content. An Arahant is content and satisfied as he has utterly eradicated all kilesa and thus, there is no need to strive for higher Magga nana and Phala nana. (d) Elimination Puthujjana has to endeavour to expel three attachments namely: (1) erroneous views of self and that of the aggregates; (2) clinging to mere rites and rituals, strong self-tormenting practices and taking refuge in incorrect faith; (3) perplexity or doubt about the past and future existences, also in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. A sotapan has already discarded the three attachments, he therefore, has to practise for the attainment of higher Magga nana and Phala nana. An Arahant who has completely dispelled kilesa, contemplates so as to have bodily happiness (kaya sukha) in the present life which is the last existence for him. (e) Passing time A Puthujjana contemplates with enjoyment at Sankharupekkha nana. A Sotapan also contemplates and enjoys at Sankharupekkha nana and at the same time he develops ecstatic state of fruition (Phala-samapatti).

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An Arahant contemplates and develops ecstatic state of fruition. His contemplation is well balanced, he passes time by noting anicca, dukkha and anatta. No matter what progress of Insight a meditator may have reached, it is necessary to contemplate at Sankharupekkha Nana. He may be at this stage for quite a while, however he is not to be disheartened, because one day he will achieve the remaining two Vipassana wisdom. These two are Anuloma Nana (adaptive knowledge which rises in connection with the Four Noble Truths) and Gotrabhu nana (knowledge which destroys the lineage of common worldlings). After these Thirteen stages of progress of Insight, Ariya Magga nana, Ariya Phala nana and Paccavekkhana nana (retrospective knowledge) follow in succession. Thus, there are Sixteen stages in the progress of Insight. xii. Insight Leading to Emergence (Vutthanagamini-Vipassananana) So, through Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations, which is endowed with many virtues, blessings and power, he notes the formations as they occur. This Knowledge when culminating in maturity, and becoming keen, strong and lucid, will understand the formations as being impermanent, painful or without self, by noting their dissolution. Now that act of noting any one characteristic out of the three, which is still more lucid in its perfect understanding, manifests itself two or three times or more in rapid succession. This is Insight Leading to Emergence*. [*"Insight Leading to Emergence" is the culmination of Insight, and is identical
with the following three knowledges: Equanimity about Formations, Desire for Deliverance, and Knowledge of Re-observation. It is called "Leading to Emergence" because it emerges from the contemplation of formations (conditioned phenomena) to the supramundane path that has Nibbana as its object.]

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Thereupon, immediately after the last consciousness in the series of acts of noting Insight Leading to Emergence, the meditator's consciousness leaps forth into Nibbana, the Cessation of all Formations, taking it as its object. Then there appears to him the stilling (subsidence) of all Formations called Cessation. This mode of realisation of Nibbana has been mentioned in many discourses of the Buddha, for example: the Vision of Truth arose; whatsoever that has the nature of arising is also bound to cease. Herein the words "bound to cease" indicate the aspect of realising the stilling and ceasing of all formations which have the nature of arising. One who, having practised in the correct manner, has alighted upon non-occurrence is said to have realised Nibbana. Hence, the meditator who wishes to realise Nibbana should repeatedly bring to mind, through the practice of noting, every body and mental process that appear at any of the Six Sense Doors. When he brings them to mind thus, his consciousness engaged in noting; here called "bringing to mind" will, until Adaptation Knowledge is reached, fall at every moment upon the (conditioned) body and mental formations called here "continuous occurrence" because they go on occurring over and over again in an unbroken flow, like a river's current. But in the last phase, instead of falling upon that continuous occurrence, consciousness passes beyond it and alights upon "nonoccurrence" which is the very opposite of the body and mental formations called here "occurrence". In other words, it arrives at non-occurrence; that is to say; it reaches, as if it "alights upon" Cessation, which is the Stilling of the Formations (or conditioned phenomena).

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When the meditator, having already before practised correctly and without deviation by way of the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away and the other Knowledges (or by way of the Purification of Conduct, of Mind, of View, etc.), has in this manner arrived at non-occurrence (by the consciousness alighting upon it), he is said to have "realised Nibbana". He has made Nibbana a direct experience and has actually seen it. xiii. Knowledge of Adaptation (Anuloma-nana) Here the knowledge by way of noting what occurs last in the series constituting Insight leading to Emergence, is: "Knowledge of Adaptation. The mind thus independent of and unmoved by all phenomenal existence is ready to perfect the Path and know the Four Noble Truths (Saccanulomika-nana). At this stage one is all set to overcome the defilements, to break the fetters binding one to the world, and become an Ariya of one degree or another. When this stepwise developing of knowledge, from Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away up to the state of readiness to perceive the Four Noble Truths, has been carried through to completion, one is said to have achieved the fourth state in Vipassana, or the Sixth Purification. The pure and perfect knowledge it yields is an instrument that reveals to the meditator the path by which he has come, and can lead on to the perfect intuitive insight that will destroy the defilements. While such realisation is going on automatically, extremely fast and active knowledge reappears and his knowledge which advances with a big rush towards a noble path known as "Vutthana-magga is called "Vutthana-gamini Vipassana-nana" (Insight Leading to Elevation). That special knowledge appears with the realisation that physical and mental phenomena which occur at the Six Sense Doors momentarily are impermanent, suffering and not self (anatta).

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The knowledge that arises at the last moment is "Anuloma-nana" (Knowledge of Adaptation) which consists of three 'javanas', impulse moments, called 'Parikamma' (preparation), 'Upacara' (approach) and 'Anuloma' (adaptation). Anuloma-nana transforms the mind to become qualified to enter the threshold of Nibbana. This is the "Nana" that is gained in consonance or in harmony with the preceding eight "Vipassana-nana" and subsequent Magga-nana" (Knowledge of the Path). After Anuloma-nana there arises "Gotrabhu-nana" (Knowledge overmastering kinship) which grasps the sensation towards Nibbana where the miseries and sufferings connected with rupa and nama entirely cease. Gotrabhu-nana pushes the mind across the threshold. As soon as the mind crosses the threshold, it becomes aware of Nibbana. This is the knowledge which severs the lineage of Putthujjana (worldlings) and enters the lineage of the Ariya (Noble Ones). Then, there arise "Sotapatti Magga and Phala Nana" (Insight Wisdom Arising from the Noble Path of Streamwinning and its Fruition) which realises Nibbana. The 'Magga nana' is called "Nana-dassana-visuddhi" (Purity of Insight). The moment of arising of the 'Magga and Phala Nana' does not last even for a second. Then retrospective reflection of the peculiar experiences of the "Magga, Phala and Nibbana" takes place. This is Paccavakkhana-nana" (Insight of Retrospection). One who has acquired knowledge up to the stage of pacavakkhana-nana according to the procedure outlined above, is a "Sotapanna" (Stream-winner). End of the Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice.

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xiv. Maturity Knowledge (Gotrabhu-nana) Immediately afterwards, Maturity Knowledge* manifests itself, as it were, falls for the first time into Nibbana, which is void of formations (conditioned phenomena) since it is the Cessation of all Formations. Maturity Knowledge occurs only as a single moment of consciousness; it does not recur, since it is immediately followed by the path consciousness* of Streamentry or Once-returning, etc. [*Gotrabhu-nana (Maturity Knowledge) is, literally, the knowledge of one who
has become one of the lineage (gotra). By attaining to that knowledge, one has left behind the designation and stage of an unliberated worldling and is entering the lineage and rank of the noble ones, i.e. the stream-enterer, etc. Insight has now come to full maturity, maturing into the Knowledge of the Supramundane Paths and Fruitions].

7. Purification by Knowledge and Vision (Nanadassana-Visuddhi) xv. Path Knowledge (Magga-nana) It is followed immediately by knowledge that abides in that same Nibbana, which is void of formations since it is the cessation of them. This is Path Knowledge*. [*Path Knowledge is the knowledge connected with the four supramundane
paths of stream-entry, etc. Here, in this passage, only the path of stream-entry is meant. Path Knowledge, like maturity knowledge, lasts only for one moment of consciousness, being followed by the fruition knowledge* resulting from it, which may repeat itself many times and may also be deliberately entered into by way of the "attainment of fruition" (see No. 17).] It is also known as: Purification by Knowledge and Vision]. *Path consciousness has the function of eradicating defilements; Fruition consciousness has the function of experiencing the degree of liberation made possible by the corresponding Path. Path consciousness is a wholesome mental state (kusalacitta); the Fruition consciousness is a resultant (vipakacitta). Each Path consciousness arises only once, and endures for one mind-moment; it is never repeated in the mental continuum of the person who attains it. The corresponding Fruition consciousness initially rises immediately after the Path moment, and endures for two or three mind-moments. Subsequently it can be repeated, and with practice can be made to endure for many mind-moments, in the supramundane absorption called Fruition attainment (phalasamapatti).

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This entry to the irreversible path to Enlightenment is Stream Entry. The Stream is the Noble Eightfold Path. As the Ganges flows uninterrupted from the Himalayas to the ocean, so the supramundane Noble Eightfold Path flows uninterrupted from the arising of right view to the attainment of Nibbana. Though the factors of the Eightfold Path may arise in the mundane wholesome minds of virtuous worldlings, these factors are not fixed in their destination, since a worldling may change character and turn away from the Dhamma. But in a noble disciple who has attained to the experience of Stream Entry, the path factors become fixed in destiny, and flow like a stream inexorably leading to Nibbana. He is assured of reaching final deliverance in a maximum of seven rebirths, and of never being reborn in any of the woeful planes of existence. The Path consciousness of Stream Entry has the function of cutting off the first three fetters: personality view or wrong view of self, doubt about the Triple Gem, and clinging to rites and rituals, in the belief they can lead to Enlightenment. It also weakens greed, hatred and delusion. xvi. Fruition Knowledge (Phala-nana) That is immediately followed by knowledge that belongs to the final stage and continues in the course of its predecessor. It abides in that same Nibbana, which is void of formations since it is the cessation of them. This is realising Fruition Knowledge. xvii. Knowledge of Reviewing (Paccavekkhana-nana) The duration of the threefold Knowledge of Maturity, Path and Fruition is, however, not long. It is very short, and lasts for just an instant, like the duration of a single thought of noting. Subsequently there arises Knowledge of Reviewing.

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Through this Knowledge of Reviewing the meditator discerns that the Insight Leading to Emergence came along with the very rapid function of noting, and immediately after the last phase of noting, the path consciousness entered into the cessation (of formations). This is Knowledge Reviewing the Path. He also discerns that the consciousness abided in this same state of cessation during the intervening period between the path and reviewing. This is Knowledge Reviewing Fruition. He further discerns that the object just experienced is void of all formations. This is Knowledge Reviewing Nibbana. Some meditators, have Reviewing of Defilement. After having reviewed in this way, the meditator still continues the practice of noting body and mental processes as they become evident. [The knowledge of reviewing defilement still remaining, is not obtained at the
stage of Arahantship where all defilement have been eliminated. It may occur, but not necessarily so, at the lower three stages of stream-entry, etc.]

But while he is thus engaged in noting, the body and mental processes appear to him quite coarse, not subtle as before at the time of the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. This is because the knowledge present now, has the nature of the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away. For when the noble disciples; stream-winners, etc. resume the practice of Insight (by noting), the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away usually arises at the beginning. This is the usual order in this respect. However, when some meditators emerge from the attainment of Path and Fruition, great faith, happiness, rapture and tranquillity, produced by virtue of the attainment, arise flooding the whole body. Owing to that, they are unable to carry out the practice of noting anything apparent at that time. Even if they double their effort and attempt to proceed with the practice of Insight, they will fail to discern the phenomena clearly and separately, at the moment of their occurrence. They continue to experience only rapture, tranquillity and happiness, which occur with great force.

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This state of mind, which is extraordinarily serene through strong faith prevailing, lasts for one hour, two hours, or more, without break. Because of this, meditators feel as if they were in some wide open space suffused with radiance and most delightful. The rapture and happiness, of a serene character, which then arise are praised by meditators thus: "Surely, I have never before felt and experienced such happiness"! After two or three hours have passed, that faith, happiness, rapture and tranquillity will fade; the meditator can once again proceed with noting the body and mental processes as they occur, distinguishing them separately, and he will be able to discern them clearly. But at that time, too, first the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away will appear. xviii. Attainment of Fruition (Phalasampatti) While he is engaged in noting, his Insight Knowledge will gradually grow and soon will reach the stage of Equanimity about Formations. If his power of concentration is still short of perfection, only the Equanimity about Formations will go on repeating itself. But if his concentration has reached perfection, then, in the case of one who does the Insight practice of noting with a view of attaining only to the First Path and Fruition, the Fruition Consciousness of the First Path alone reaches Cessation of Formations by way of the attainment of fruition. This occurs in precisely the same way as the Path and Fruition Consciousness that occurred earlier in the consciousness-sequence belonging to the initial attainment of the First Path. The only difference here is the capacity of the fruition attainment to last long. One should also set one's mind resolutely upon the further tasks: to be able to repeat the achievement of Fruition attainment, to achieve it rapidly, and, at the time of achievement, to abide in it a long time, say for six, ten, fifteen or thirty minutes, or for an hour or more.

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As one who applies himself to achieving the attainment of Fruition, Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away will arise at the beginning. Advancing from there in due sequence, soon Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations will be reached. But when skill in the practice has been acquired, the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations will arise quickly even after four or five acts of noting. If the power of concentration has reached perfection, the Fruition Consciousness will repeatedly become absorbed in Cessation by way of Fruition attainment. The mind can thus reach absorption even while one is walking up and down, or while taking a meal, and the Fruition attainment can remain for any length of time resolved upon. During the Fruition attainment, the mind will abide only in the Cessation of Formations and will not be aware of anything else. xix. The Higher Paths and Fruitions When the meditator has thus become skilled in achieving the Fruition attainment, he should resolutely set his mind upon the task of attaining to the Higher Paths and Fruitions. What should now be done by one who has set himself that task? Just as before: He should carry out the practice of noting (anything occurring) at the Six Sense Doors. Hence, the meditator should note any body and mental process that becomes evident to him at the Six Sense Doors. While he is thus engaged, he will see, at the stage of Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away, that the first objects consisting of formations appear to him rather coarse, and that his mind is not well concentrated. The development of Insight belonging to the Higher Paths is, in fact, not as easy as that of Insight belonging to the Fruition attainment already achieved by the meditator.

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It is in fact somewhat difficult, due to the fact that Insight has to be developed anew. It is, however, not so very difficult as it had been in the first time, when beginning the practice. In a single day, or even in a single hour, he can gain the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. This statement is made here, based on the experiences usually gained by persons of the present day who had to be given guidance from the start and who did not possess particularly strong intelligence. Here it is applied, by inference, to similar types of persons in general. But although Equanimity about Formations has been attained, if the Insight faculties have not yet reached full maturity, it just goes on repeating itself. Though he who has won (one of the lower) Fruitions and may be able to enter into it several times within one hour, if his Insight faculties are immature, he cannot attain the next Higher Path within one, two, three, or more days. He abides merely in Equanimity about Formations. If, however, he then directs his mind to reach the Fruition already attained, he will reach it perhaps in two or three minutes. However, when the Insight faculties are mature, one who practises Insight for attaining to a Higher Path will find that immediately after Equanimity about Formations has reached its culmination, the Higher Path and Fruition arise in the same way as before (i.e. as at the time of the First Path and Fruition), that is to say, it is preceded by the stages of Adaptation and Maturity. After Fruition, the stages of Reviewing, etc., that follow are also the same as before. Anything else concerning the method of Practice for Insight and the Progress of Knowledge right up to Arahantship can be understood in precisely the same way as described.

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Essential to the Progress: In the foregoing paragraphs, the words to the effect that the Progress of Insight will end up in the realisation of the Knowledge of the Paths and Fruition (maggaphala-nana) refer only to those who have gained maturity in the fulfilment of paramita (perfections). Those who have not yet developed paramita fully will come to a standstill at the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. An important point to be noted here is that, although the person who has attained the First Path is likely to attain the Second Path soon with comparative ease, he will find it will take some time before he attains to the Third Path. The reason is that both attainers of the First Path and the Second Path are well practised in the observance of virtue (sila). In the case of the attainer of the Third Path, he must have the added quality of a fully developed concentration (samadhi), without which, he is not able to attain the Third Path easily. Without utmost effort to develop ones powers, one cannot possibly know whether one is able to attain any Path at all. In some cases, the attainment of a Path comes only after practising for a considerable time, and because one has to strive that lengthy a period, it must not be assumed that one has not yet fully developed ones paramita, as this present effort may be leading to the maturing of paramita, thus one should not be deterred regarding this matter. The meditator should bear in mind the following undeniable point. The development of paramita is not possible without great effort. Even though granted the possibility that one has fully developed ones paramita, one cannot possibly attain any Path without further effort. If one has developed paramita to an appreciable extent, ones effort will lead to its maturity and consequently one can attain the Path aspired to. If it is not possible at this life time, at the very least, one has sown potent seeds for the harvest of a Path in the next existence.

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The Blessed Ones Assurance The Blessed One has assured that, whosoever practises these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in the manner thus expounded for seven years, then one of these two fruits may be expected; highest knowledge (arahantship) here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning. He added that not only for seven years, but that should any person practise these Four Foundations of Mindfulness as prescribed for only six years... five years... four years... three years... two years... one year, then one of these two fruits may be expected; highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning. Let alone a year, but that should any person practise these Four Foundations of Mindfulness for seven months... six months... five months... four months... three months... two months... a month... half a month, then one of these two fruits may be expected, highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning. The Results The Stream-enterer A meditator, having developed the path of stream-entry, by abandoning wrong views and doubt, becomes a stream-enterer, one who has escaped from rebirth in woeful states and will be reborn at most seven more times. A stream-enterer is one who has entered the stream that leads irreversibly to Nibbana, that is, the Noble Eightfold Path. A stream-enterer has cut off the coarsest fetter personality view, doubt and adherence to rules and rituals; he has unshakeable confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha; and he is free from the prospect of rebirth in any of the woeful realms.

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Of the four taints (asava), he has eliminated the taint of wrong views, doubt, envy and avarice. He has freed himself as well from all degrees of defilements strong enough to lead to rebirth in the woeful planes. His conduct is marked by scrupulous observance of the Five Precepts: Abstinence from taking life, stealing, sexual misconduct, false speech and use of intoxicants. There are three types of Stream-enterer One who will be reborn seven times at most in the human and celestial worlds (sattakkhattuparama). One who takes birth in good families two or three times before attaining Arahantship (kolankola). One who will be reborn only once more before attaining the goal (ekabiji). The Once-returner Having developed the path of Once-returning, with the attenuation of lust, hatred and delusion, one becomes a Oncereturner, one who returns to this world only one more time. The Once-returner has eliminated the grosser forms of lust, hate and delusion. Thus, although attenuated forms of these defilements can still arise in him, they do not occur often and their obsessive force is weak. There are five kinds of Once-returner One attains the fruit of once-returning in the human world, takes rebirth in the human world, and attains final Nibbana here. One attains the fruit of once-returning in the human world, takes rebirth in a heavenly world, and attains final Nibbana there. One attains the fruit in a heavenly world, takes rebirth in a heavenly world, and attains final Nibbana there. One attains the fruit in a heavenly world, takes rebirth in the human world, and attains Nibbana here.

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One attains the fruit in the human world, takes rebirth in a heavenly world and passes the full life-span there, and then takes rebirth again in the human world, where one attains final Nibbana. It should be noted that whereas the ekabiji stream-enterer has only one more rebirth, the fifth type of once-returner has two. Nevertheless, he is still called once returner because he returns only once more to the human world. The Non-returner Having developed the path of Non-returning, by totally abandoning sensual lust and ill will, one becomes a Non-returner, one who does not return to this (sensuous) state. A Non-returner has fully eradicated sensual lust and ill will, the fetters that bind to the sensuous world. He has also eradicated the taint of sensual desire, hatred and worry, as well as all greed taking a sensuous object. Thus, he will be spontaneously reborn in a fine-material realm and there, attain final Nibbana. It should be noted that while only Non-returners are reborn in the Pure Abodes, there is no fixed determination that all Nonreturners are reborn there. The texts mentioned five types of Non-returner: One who, having been reborn spontaneously in a higher world, generates the final path before he has reached the midpoint of the life-span (antara-parinibbayi). One who generates the final path after passing the midpoint of the life-span, even when on the verge of death (upahaccaparinibbayi). One who attains the final path without exertion (asankharaparinibbayi).

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One who attains the final path with exertion (sasankharaparinibbayi). One who passes from one higher realm to another until he reaches the Akanittha realm, the Highest Pure Abode, and there attains the final path (uddhamsoto akanitthagami). The Arahant Having developed the path of Arahantship, with the total abandonment of defilements one becomes an Arahant, a destroyer of taints, a supreme recipient of offerings in the world. The five fetters abandoned by the first three paths are called the lower fetters (orambhagiya-samyojana) because they bind beings to the lower world, the sensuous plane of existence. One who has eradicated them, the Non-returner, no longer returns to the sensuous plane, but he is still bound to the round of existence by the five higher fetters (uddhambhagiyasamyojana). With the attainment of the path of Arahantship, these five higher fetters are also eradicated: desire for finematerial existence, desire for immaterial existence, conceit, restlessness and ignorance. The fourth path also destroys the remaining two taints the taint of attachment to existence and the taint of ignorance for which reason the Arahant is called a destroyer of taints (khinasava). The path of Arahantship eradicates, too, the remaining unwholesome cetasika left unabandoned by the earlier paths: delusion, shamelessness, fearlessness of wrongdoing, restlessness, conceit, sloth and torpor.

Mahasi Sayadaw

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Mahsatipahnsutta

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Mahsatipahnsutta
Eva me suta eka samaya bhagav kur|su viharati kammsadamma nma kur|na nigamo. Tatra kho bhagav bhikkh| mantesi 'bhikkhavo'ti. 'Bhadante'ti te bhikkh| bhagavato paccassosu. Bhagav etadavoca: Uddeso Ekyano aya, bhikkhave, maggo sattna visuddhiy sokapariddavna samatikkamya dukkhadomanassna attha~gamya yassa adhigamya nibbnassa sacchikiriyya, yadida cattro satipahn. Katame cattro: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa. Vedansu vedannupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa. Citte cittnupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa. Dhammesu dhammnupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa. Uddeso nihito Kynupassan npnapabba Kathaca pana bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati? Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu araagato v rukkham|legato v sugragato v nisdati palla~ka bhujitv uju kya paidhya parimukha sati upahapetv. So sato'va assasati, sato'va passasati. Dgha v assasanto dgha assasmti pajnti, dgha v passasanto dgha passasmti pajnti.

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Rassa v assasanto rassa assasmti pajnti, rassam v passasanto rassa passasmti pajanati. Sabbakyapaisaved assasissmti sikkhati, sabbakyapaisaved passasissmti sikkhati. Passambhaya kyasa~khra assasissmti sikkhati, passambhaya kyasa~khra passasissmti sikkhati. Seyyathpi bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakro v bhamakrantevs v dgha v achanto dgha achmti pajnti, rassa v achanto rassa achmti pajnti, evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dgha v assasanto dgha assasmti pajnti, dgha v passasanto dgha passasmti pajnti. Rassa v assasanto rassa assasmti pajnti, rassam v passasanto rassa passasmti pajanati. Sabbakyapaisaved assasissmti sikkhati, sabbakyapaisaved passasissmti sikkhati. Passambhaya kyasa~khra assasissmti sikkhati, passambhaya kyasa~khra passasissmti sikkhati. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. 'Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. npnapabba nihita

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Kynupassan Iriypathapabba Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto v gacchmti pajnti, hito v hitomhti pajnti, nisinno v nisinnomhti pajnti, sayno v sayanomhti pajnti. Yath yath v panasasa kyo paihito hoti, tath tath na pajnti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Iriypathapabba nihita Kynupassan Sampajnapabba Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paikkante sampajnakr hoti, lokite vilokite sampajnakr hoti. Samijite pasrite sampajnakr hoti. Sa~ghipattacvaradhrae sampajnakr hoti. Asite pte khyite syite sampajnakr hoti. Uccrapassvakamme sampajnakr hoti. Gate hite nisinne sutte jgarite bhsite tunhbhve sampajnakr hoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati.

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Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Sampajnnapabba nihita Kynupassan Paik|lamanasikrapabba Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kya uddha pdatal adho kesamatthak tacapariyanta p|ra nnappakrassa asucino paccavekkhati. "Atthi imasmi kye kes lom nakh dant taco masa nhru ahi ahimija vakka hadaha yakana kilomaka pihaka papphsa anta antagua udariya karsa pitta semha pubbo lohita sedo medo assu vas kheo si~ghnik lasik muttanti". Seyyathpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukh putoi p|r nnvihitassa dhaassa, seyyathida slna vhna muggna msna tilna taulna. Tamena cakkhum puriso mucitv paccavekkheyya: "ime sl, ime vh, ime mugg, ime ms, ime til, ime taul'ti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kya uddha pdatal adho kesamatthat tacapariyanta p|ra nnappakrassa asucino paccavekkhati: Atthi imasmi kye kes lom nakh dant taco masa nhru ahi ahimija vakka hadaya yakana kilomaka pihaka papphsa anta antagua udariya karsa matthalu~ga, pitta semha pubbo lohita sedo medo assu vas kheo si~ghik lasik muttanti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati,

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vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Paik|lamanasikrapabba nihita Kynupassan Dhtumanasikrapabba Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kya yathhita yathpaihita dhtuso paccavekkhati: atthi imasmi kye pathavdhtu podhtu tejodhtu vyodhtuti. Seyyathpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghtako v goghtakantevs v gvi vadhitv catumahpathe bilaso vibhajitv nisinno assa, evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kya yathhita yathpaihita dhtuso paccavekkhati: atthi imasmi kye pathavdhtu podhtu tejodhtu vyodht|ti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Dhtumanasikrapabba nihita

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Kynupassan Navasivathikapabba Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ekhamata v dvhamata v thamata v uddhumtaka vinlaka vipubbakajta. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anatto'ti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita kkemi v khajjamna kulalehi v khajjamna gijjhehi v khajjamna ka~kehi v khajjamna sunakhehi v khajjamna byagghehi v khajjamna dphi v khajjamna si~glehi v khajjamna vividhehi v pakajtehi khajjamna. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati.

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Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ahika~khalika samasalohita nhrusambaddha. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ahika~khalika nimmasalohitamakkhita nhrusambaddha. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati.

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Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ahika~khalika apagatamasalohita nhrusambaddha. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ahika~i apagatasambandhni dis vidis vikkhittni, aena hatthahika aena padahika aena gopaphahika aena janghahika aena |rahika aena kaihika aena phsukahika aena pihihika aena khandhahika aena givahika aena hanukahika aena dantahika aena ssakatha. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati.

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Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ahika~i setni sa~khavaapaibhgni. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ahika~i pujikatni terovassikni. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti. Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathpi passeyya sarra sivathikya chaita ahika~i p|tni cuakajtni. So imameva kya upasaharati: ayampi kho kyo evadhammo evabhv eta anattoti.

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Iti ajjhatta v kye kynupass viharati, bahiddh v kye kynupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v kye kynupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati, vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammnupass v kyasmim viharati. Atthi kyo'ti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati. Navasivathikapabba nihita Cuddasa kynupassan nihita Vedannupassan Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedansu vedannupass viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukha v vedana vediyamno sukha vedana vediymti pajnti. Dukkham v vedana vediyamno dukkha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Adukkhamasukha v vedana vedayamno adukkhamasukha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Smisa v sukha vedana vedayamno smisa sukha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Nirmisa v sukha vedana vedayamno nirmisa sukha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Smisa v dukkha vedana vedayamno smisa dukkha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Nirmisa v dukkha vedana vedayamno nirmisa dukkha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Smisa v adukkhamasukha vedana vedayamno smisa adukkhamasukha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Nirmisa v adukkhamasukha vedana vedayamno nirmisa adukkhamasukha vedana vedaymti pajnti. Iti ajjhatta v vedansu vedannupass viharati, bahiddh v vedansu vedannupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v vedansu

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vedannupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v vedansu viharati, vayadhammnupass v vedansu viharati, samudayavayadhammnupass v vedansu viharati. Atthi vedanti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedansu vedannupass viharati. Vedannupassan nihit Cittnupassan Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittnupass viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sarga v citta sarga cittanti pajnti, vtarga v citta vtargam cittanti pajnti. Sadosa v citta sadosa cittanti pajnti, vtadosa v citta vtadosa cittanti pajnti. Samoha v citta samoha cittanti pajnti, vtamoha v citta vtamoha cittanti pajnti. Sa~khitta v citta sa~khitta cittanti pajnti, vikkhitta v citta vikkhitta cittanti pajnti. Mahaggata v citta mahaggata cittanti pajnti, amahaggata v citta amahaggata cittanti pajnti. Sa-uttara v citta sa-uttara cittanti pajnti, anuttara v citta anuttara cittanti pajnti. Samhita v citta samhita cittanti pajnti, asamhita v citta asamhita cittanti pajnti. Vimutta v citta vimutta cittanti pajnti, avimutta v citta avimutta cittanti pajnti. Iti ajjhatta v citte cittnupass viharati, bahiddh v citte cittnupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v citte cittnupass viharati. Samudayadhammnupass v cittasmi viharati, vayadhammnupass v cittasmi viharati samudayavayadhammnupass v cittasmi viharati.

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Atthi cittanti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittnupass viharati. Cittnupassan nihit Dhammnupassan Nvaraapabba Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati pacasu nvaraesu. Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati pacasu nvaraesu? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santa v ajjhatta kmacchanda 'atthi me ajjhatta kmacchando'ti pajnti, asanta v ajjhatta kmacchanda 'natthi me ajjhatta kmacchando'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa kmacchandassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa kmacchandassa pahna hoti taca pajnti. Yath ca pahnassa kmacchandassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta bypda 'atthi me ajjhatta bypdo'ti pajnti, asanta v ajjhatta bypda 'natthi me ajjhatta bypdo'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa bypdassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa bypdassa pahna hoti taca pajnti. Yath ca pahnassa bypdassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta thinamiddha atthi me ajjhatta thinamiddhanti pajnti, asanta v ajjhatta thinamiddha 'natthi me ajjhatta thinamiddhanti pajnti.

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Yath ca anuppannassa thinamiddhassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa thinamiddhassa pahna hoti taca pajnti. Yath ca pahnassa thinamiddhassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta uddhaccakukkucca 'atthi me ajjhatta uddhaccakukkuccanti pajnti, asanta v ajjhatta uddhaccakukkucca 'natthi me ajjhatta uddhaccakukkuccanti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa pahna hoti taca pajnti. Yath ca pahnassa uddhaccakukkuccassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta vicikiccha 'atthi me ajjhatta vicikicch'ti pajnti, asanta v ajjhatta vicikiccha 'natthi me ajjhatta vicikicch'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannya vicikicchya uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannya vicikicchya pahna hoti taca pajnti. Yath ca pahnya vicikicchya yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Iti ajjhatta v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, bahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, samudayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, vayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, atthi dhammti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati pacasu nvaraesu. Nvaraapabba nihit

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Dhammnupassan Khandhapabba Puna caparam, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati pacasu updnakkhandhesu. Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati pacasu updnakkhandhesu? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu 'iti r|pa, iti r|passa samudayo, iti r|passa attha~gamo; iti vedan, iti vedanya samudayo, iti vedanya attha~gamo; iti sa, iti saya samudayo, iti saya attha~gamo; iti sa~khr, iti sa~khrna samudayo, iti sa~khrna attha~gamo; iti vinam, iti vinassa samudayo, iti vinassa attha~gamoti. Iti ajjhatta v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, bahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, samudayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, vayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, atthi dhammti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati pacasu nvaraesu. Khandhapabba nihit Dhammnupassan yatanapabba Puna caparam, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati chasu ajjhattikabhiresu yatanesu. Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati chasu ajjhattikabhiresu yatanesu.

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Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhuca pajnti, r|pe ca pajnti, yaca tadubhayam paicca uppajjati sayojana taca pajnti, yath ca anuppannassa sayojanassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa sayojanassa pahna hoti taca pajnti, yath ca pahnassa sayojanassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Sotaca pajnti, sadde ca pajnti, yaca tadubhayam paicca uppajjati sayojana taca pajnti, yath ca anuppannassa sayojanassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa sayojanassa pahna hoti taca pajnti, yath ca pahnassa sayojanassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Ghnaca pajnti, gandhe ca pajnti, yaca tadubhayam paicca uppajjati sayojana taca pajnti, yath ca anuppannassa sayojanassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa sayojanassa pahna hoti taca pajnti, yath ca pahnassa sayojanassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Jivhaca pajnti, rase ca pajnti, yaca tadubhayam paicca uppajjati sayojana taca pajnti, yath ca anuppannassa sayojanassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa sayojanassa pahna hoti taca pajnti, yath ca pahnassa sayojanassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Kyaca pajnti, phohabbo ca pajnti, yaca tadubhayam paicca uppajjati sayojana taca pajnti, yath ca anuppannassa sayojanassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa sayojanassa pahna hoti taca pajnti, yath ca pahnassa sayojanassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti.

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Manaca pajnti, dhamme ca pajnti, yaca tadubhayam paicca uppajjati sayojana taca pajnti, yath ca anuppannassa sayojanassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa sayojanassa pahna hoti taca pajnti, yath ca pahnassa sayojanassa yati anuppdo hoti taca pajnti. Iti ajjhatta v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, bahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, samudayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, vayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, atthi dhammti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati chasu ajjhattikabhiresu yatanesu. yatanapabba nihitm Dhammnupassan Bojjha~gapabba Puna caparam, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati sattasu bojjha~gesu. Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati sattasu bojjha~gesu? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santa v ajjhatta satisambojjha~ga atthi me ajjhatta satisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Asanta v ajjhatta satisambojjha~ga natthi me ajjhatta satisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa satisambojjha~gassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa satisambojjha~gassa bhvanya prip|r hoti taca pajnti.

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Santa v ajjhatta dhammavicayasambojjha~ga atthi me ajjhatta dhammavicayasambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Asanta v ajjhatta dhammavicayasambojjha~ga natthi me ajjhatta dhammavicayasambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa dhammavicayasambojjha~gassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa dhammavicayasambojjha~gassa bhvanya prip|r hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta viriyasambojjha~ga atthi me ajjhatta viriyasambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Asanta v ajjhatta viriyasambojjha~ga natthi me ajjhatta viriyasambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa viriyasambojjha~gassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa viriyasambojjha~gassa bhvanya prip|r hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta pitisambojjha~ga atthi me ajjhatta pitisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Asanta v ajjhatta pitisambojjha~ga 'natthi me ajjhatta pitisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa pitisambojjha~gassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa pitisambojjha~gassa bhvanya prip|r hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta passaddhisambojjha~ga atthi me ajjhatta passaddhisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Asanta v ajjhatta passaddhisambojjha~ga 'natthi me ajjhatta passaddhisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa passaddhisambojjha~gassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa passaddhisambojjha~gassa bhvanya prip|r hoti taca pajnti.

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Santa v ajjhatta samadhisambojjha~ga atthi me ajjhatta samadhisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Asanta v ajjhatta samadhisambojjha~ga 'natthi me ajjhatta samadhisambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa samadhisambojjha~gassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa samadhisambojjha~gassa bhvanya prip|r hoti taca pajnti. Santa v ajjhatta upekkhasambojjha~ga atthi me ajjhatta upekkhasambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Asanta v ajjhatta upekkhasambojjha~ga 'natthi me ajjhatta upekkhasambojjha~go'ti pajnti. Yath ca anuppannassa upekkhasambojjha~gassa uppdo hoti taca pajnti, yath ca uppannassa upekkhasambojjha~gassa bhvanya prip|r hoti taca pajnti. Iti ajjhatta v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, bahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, samudayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, vayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, atthi dhammti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati sattasu bojjha~gesu. Bojjha~gapabba nihitm Dhammnupassan Saccapabba Puna capara, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammanupassi viharati cat|su ariyasaccesu. Kathaca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati cat|su ariyasaccesu?

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Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu idam dukkhanti yathbh|ta pajnti, aya dukkhasamudayoti yathbh|ta pajnti, aya dukkhanirodhoti yathbh|ta pajnti, aya dukkhanirodhagmin paipadti yathbh|ta pajnti. Katamaca, bhikkhave, dukkha ariyasacca? Jtipi dukkh, jarpi dukkh, maraampi dukkha, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassu pyspi dukkh, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho, piyehi vippayogo dukkho, yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha, sa~khittena pacupdnakkhandh dukkh. Katam ca, bhikkhave, jti? Y tesa tesa sattna tamhi tamhi sattanikye jti sajti okkanti abhinibbanti khandhna ptubhvo yatanna pailbho, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, jti. Katam ca, bhikkhave, jar? Y tesa tesa sattna tamhi tamhi sattanikye jar jiraat khaicca plicca valittacat yuno sahni indriyna paripko, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, jar. Katamaca, bhikkhave, maraa: ya tesa tesa sattna tamh tamh sattaniky cuti cavanat bhedo antaradhna maccu maraa klakiriy khandhna bhedo kaebarassa nikkhepo jvitindriyassupacchedo, ida vuccati, bhikkhave, maraa. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, soko? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aataraatarena byasanena samanngatassa aataraatarena dukkhadhammena phuhassa soko socan socitatta antosoko antoparisoko, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, soko.

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Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paridevo? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aataraatarena byasanena samanngatassa aataraatarena dukkhadhammena phuhassa devo paridevo devan paridevan devitatta paridevitattam, aya vuccati, bhikkhave paridevo. Katamaca, bhikkhave, dukkha? Ya kho, bhikkhave, kyika dukkha kyika asta kyasamphassaja dukkha asta vedayita, ida vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkha. Katamaca, bhikkhave, domanassa? Ya kho, bhikkhave, cetasika dukkha cetasika astam manosamphassaja dukkha astam vedayita, ida vuccati, bhikkhave, domanassa. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, upyso? yo kho, bhikkhave, aataraatarena byasanena samanngatassa aataraatarena dukkhadhammena phuhassa yso upyso ysitatta upysitatta, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, upyso. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti anih akant amanp r|p sadd gandh ras phohabb dhamm, ye v panassa te honti anatthakm ahitakm aphasukakm ayogakkhemakm, y tehi saddhi sa~gati samgamo samodhna missbhvo, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti ih kant manp r|p sadd gandh ras phohabb dhamm, ye v panassa te honti atthakm hitakam phsukakm yogakkhemakm mt v pit v bht v bhagin v mitt v amacc v tislohit v, y tehi saddhi asa~gati

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asamgamo asamodhna amissbhvo, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho. Katamaca, bhikkhave, yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha? Jtidhammna, bhikkhave, sattna eva icch uppajjati: aho vata maya na jtidhamm assma, na ca vata no jti gaccheyyti, na kho paneta icchya pattabba. Idampi yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha. Jardhammna, bhikkhave, sattna eva icch uppajjati: aho vata maya na jardhamm assma, na ca vata no jar gaccheyyti, na kho paneta icchya pattabba. Idampi yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha. Bydhidhammna, bhikkhave, sattna eva icch uppajjati: aho vata maya na bydhidhamm assma, na ca vata no bydhi gaccheyyti, na kho paneta icchya pattabba. Idampi yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha. Maraadhammna, bhikkhave, sattna eva icch uppajjati: aho vata maya na maraadhmma assma, na ca vata no maraa gaccheyyti, na kho paneta icchya pattabba. Idampi yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha. Sokaparideva-dukkhadomanassu-pysa-dhammna, bhikkhave, sattna eva icch uppajjati: aho vata maya na sokaparideva-dukkhadomanassu-pysa-dhamm assma, na ca vata no sokaparideva-dukkhadomanassu-pysa-dhamm gaccheyyti, na kho paneta icchya pattabba. Idampi yampiccha na labhati tampi dukkha.

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Katame ca, bhikkhave, sa~khittena pacupdnakkhandh dukkh? Seyyathida r|pupdnakkhandho vedanupdnakkhandho saupdnakkhandho sa~khrupdnakkhandho viupdnakkhandho. Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, sa~khittena pacupdnakkhandh dukkh, ida vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkha ariyasacca. Samudayasaccaniddeso Katamaca, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudaya ariyasacca? Yya tah ponobhavik nandrgasahagat tatratatrbhinandin, seyyathida: kmatah bhavatah vibhavatah. S kho panes, bhikkhave, tah kattha uppajjamn uppajjati, kattha nivisamn nivisati? Ya loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Kica loke piyar|pa star|pa? Cakkhu loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Sota loke piyar|pa star|pa etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Ghna loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Jivh loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Kyo loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Mano loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. R|p loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Sadd loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn

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nivisati. Gandh loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Ras loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Phohabb loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Dhamm loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Cakkhuvia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Sotavia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Ghanavia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Jivhavia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Kayavia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Manovia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Cakkhusamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Sotasamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Ghnasamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Jivhsamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Kyasamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Manosamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati.

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Cakkhusamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Sotasamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Ghnasamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Jivhsamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Kyasamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Manosamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. R|pasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Saddasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Gandhasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Rasasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Phohabbasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Dhammasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. R|pasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Saddasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Gandhasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Rasasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Phohabbasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah

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uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Dhammasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. R|patah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Saddatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Gandhatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Rasatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Phohabbatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Dhammatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. R|pavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Saddavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Gandhavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Rasavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Phohabbavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Dhammavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati.

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R|pavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Saddavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Gandhavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Rasavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Phohabbavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati. Dhammavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah uppajjamn uppajjati, ettha nivisamn nivisati.Ida vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudaya ariyasacca. Nirodhasaccaniddeso Katamaca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodha ariyasacca? Yo tassyeva tahya asesavirganirodho cgo painissaggo mutti anlayo. S kho panes, bhikkhave, tah kattha pahyamn pahyati, kattha nirujjhamn nirujjhati? Ya loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Kinca loke piyar|pa star|pa? Cakkhu loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Sota loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Ghna loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Jivh loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Kyo loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Mano loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati.

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R|p loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Sadd loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Gandh loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Ras loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Phohabb loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Dhamm loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Cakkhuvia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Sotavia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Ghnavia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Jivhvia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Kyavia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Manovia loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Cakkhusamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Sotasamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Ghnasamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Jivhsamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati.

254

Kyasamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Manosamphasso loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Cakkhusamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Sotasamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Ghnasamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Jivhsamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Kyasamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Manosamphassaj vedan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Rupasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Saddasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Gandhasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Rasasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Phohabbasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Dhammasa loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati.

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R|pasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Saddasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Gandhasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Rasasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Phohabbasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Dhammasacetan loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. R|patah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Saddatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Gandhatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Rasatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Phohabbatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Dhammatah loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. R|pavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Saddavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Gandhavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Rasavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati.

256

Phohabbavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Dhammavitakko loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. R|pavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Saddavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Gandhavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Rasavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Phohabbavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Dhammavicro loke piyar|pa star|pa, etthes tah pahyamn pahyati, ettha nirujjhamn nirujjhati. Ida vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodha ariyasacca. Maggasaccaniddeso Katamaca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagmin paipad ariyasacca? Ayameva ariyo aha~giko maggo, seyyathida sammdihi sammsa~kappo sammvc sammkammanto samm-jvo sammvymo sammsati sammsamdhi. Katam ca, bhikkhave, sammdihi? Ya kho, bhikkhave, dukkhe a, dukkhasamudaye a dukkhanirodhe a dukkhanirodhagminy paipadya a, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, sammdihi.

257

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammsa~kappo? Nekkhammasa~kappo bypdasa~kappo avihissa~kappo, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, sammsa~kappo. Katam ca, bhikkhave, sammvc? Musvd veraman, pisuya vcya veraman, pharusya vcya veraman samphappalp veraman, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, sammvc. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammkammanto? Pntipt veraman, adinndn veraman, kmesumicchcr veraman, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, sammkammanto. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, samm-jvo? Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasvako micch-jvam pahya samm-jvena jvika kappeti, aya vuccati, bhikkhave, samm-jvo. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammvymo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anuppannna ppakna akusalna dhammna anuppdya chanda janeti vyamati vriya rabhati citta paggahti padahati. Uppannna ppakna akusalna dhammna pahnya chanda janeti vyamati vriya rabhati, citta paggahti, padahati. Anuppannna kusalna dhammna uppdya chanda janeti vyamati vriya rabhati citta paggahti padahati. Uppannna kusalna dhammna hitiy asammosya bhiyyobhvya vepullya bhvanya prip|riy chanda janeti, vyamati vriya rabhati citta paggahti padahati. Aya vuccati, bhikkhave, sammvymo.

258

Katam ca, bhikkhave sammsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kye kynupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa, vedansu vedannupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa, citte cittnupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa, dhammesu dhammnupass viharati tp sampajno satim vineyya loke abhijjhdomanassa. Aya vuccati, bhikkhave, sammsati. Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammsamdhi? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakka savicra vivekaja ptisukha pahama jhna upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicrna v|pasam ajjhatta sampasdana cetaso ekodibhva avitakka avicra samdhija ptisukha dutiya jhna upasampajja viharati. Ptiy ca virg upekkhako ca viharati, sato ca sampajno sukhaca kyena paisavedeti, ya ta ariy cikkhanti upekkhako satim sukhavihrti, tatiya jhna upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahn dukkhassa ca pahn pubbeva somanassadomanassna attha~gam adukkha-masukha upekkhsatiprisuddhi catuttha jhna upasampajja viharati. Aya vuccati, bhikkhave, sammsamdhi. Idam vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagmin paipad ariyasacca.

259

Iti ajjhatta v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, bahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, ajjhattabahiddh v dhammesu dhammnupass viharati, samudayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, vayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammnupass v dhammesu viharati, atthi dhammti v panassa sati paccupahit hoti, yvadeva namattya paissatimattya anissito ca viharati, na ca kici loke updiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammnupass viharati cat|su ariyasaccesu. Saccapabba nihitm Dhammnupassan nihit Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya sattavassni, tassa dvinna phalna aatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu, bhikkhave, sattavassni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya chavassni, tassa dvinna phalna aatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu, bhikkhave, chavassni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya pacavassni, tassa dvinna phalna aatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu, bhikkhave, pacavassni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya cattrivassni, tassa dvinna phalna aatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit.

260

Tihantu, bhikkhave, cattrivassni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya ti vassni, tassa dvinna phalna aatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu, bhikkhave, ti vassni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya dve vassni, tassa dvinna phalna aatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu, bhikkhave, dve vassni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya eka vassa, tassa dvinna phalna aatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, eka vassa. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya sattamsni, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, sattamsni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya cha msni, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, cha msni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya paca msni, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit.

261

Tihantu bhikkhave, paca msni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya cttari msni, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, cttari msni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya tni msni, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, tni msni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya dve msni, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, dve msni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya eka msa, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, eka msa. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya ahamso, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit. Tihantu bhikkhave, ahamso. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattro satipahne eva bhveyya sattha, tassa dvinna phalna anatara phala pika~kha diheva dhamme a, sati v updisese angmit 'ti.

262

Ekyano aya, bhikkhave, maggo sattna visuddhiy sokapariddavna samatikkamya dukkhadomanassna attha~gamya yassa adhigamya nibbnassa sacchikiriyya, yadida cattro satipahn'ti. Iti ya ta vutta idameta paicca vuttanti. Idamavoca bhagva. Attaman te bhikkh| bhagavato bhsita abhinandunti. Mahsatipahnasutta nihita

Thus, bhikkhus, have I taught the unconditioned. Whatever should be done by a compassionate teacher, out of compassion for his disciples, desiring their welfare, I have done. done. These are the roots of trees, bhikkhus, these are the empty huts. Meditate bhikkhus, do not be negligent, lest you regret it later. This is our instruction to you. you.