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VIPASSANA Awareness in the Moment
CONTENTS PART 1 Dedication Acknowledgement Forward Fundamentals of Vipassana Meditation Maha Satipatthana Sutta (English) CHAPTER I A General Outline of Vipassana Meditation Some Guidelines to Begin Training CHAPTER II Meditation Exercises and Miscellaneous CHAPTER III Progressive Practice Insight into the Three Characteristics Reference Notes Vipassana Jhanas More Reference Notes PART 2 Progress of Insight Introduction The Progress of Insight in Vipassana Meditation Maha Satipatthana Sutta (Pali) 3 5 6 11 20

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Published by Leong Yok Kee/ Law Mi-Lan Carol Blk 226, Ang Mo Kio Ave 1, #08-603 Singapore 560226 Email: yokkee122@gmail.com Copyright @2013 by Leong Yok Kee/ Law Mi-Lan Carol (Ma Hninsi)

This Publication is a Gift of Dhamma. Any part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording without prior written permission from the publisher. Front and back cover by Leong Yok Kee and Law Mi-Lan Carol (Ma Hninsi). April 2013 Bukit Tinggi Bentong Pahang

Title: Vipassana Awareness in the Moment Author: Leong Yok Kee/Law Mi-Lan Carol (Ma Hninsi) Buddhism - customs and practices Buddhism - doctrines

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DEDICATION
To the memory of
THE LATE VENERABLE ACARA SUVANNO MAHATHERA
(1920 - 2007)

A Teacher of Great Compassion
Wise and virtuous, gentle and keenkeen-witted, humble and amenable;

guide, instructor, leader; such a one to honour may attain. Generosity, sweet speech, helpfulness to others, impartiality mpartiality to all; as the case demands. These four winning ways the the wise appraise in every every way; to eminence they attain and praise they rightly gain.
Sigalovada Sutta (Digha Nikaya 3I)

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PUBLISHED FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Sabbadãnam Dhammadãnam Jinãti The Gift Of Truth Excels All Other Gifts To all who sincerely wish to share The Practice of the Dhamma And to the Family who Inspired the Completion of this Manual Tapo ca brahmacariyañca, Ariyasaccãna Ariyasacc na dassanam, Nibbãna Nibb na sacchikiriyã sacchikiriy ca, ca, Etam mangalamuttamam. mangalamuttamam.

Ardent effort, the divine life Leading Insight into the Noble Truths and Realisation of Nibbana This is the Highest Blessing

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FORWARD The Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw (1904 - 1982) A Short Biography
The Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw was born in the year 1904 at Seikhun, a large, pleasant and prosperous village lying about seven miles to the west of historic Shwebo Town in Upper Burma. His parents, peasant proprietors by occupation, were U Kan Taw and Daw Oke. At the age of six, the Sayadaw was sent to receive his early monastic education under U Adicca, presiding monk of Pyinmana Monastery at Seikhun. His interest in the Satipatthana Vipassana Meditation took him then to neighbouring Thaton where under the well-known Mingun Jetawan Sayadaw's instructions, he took up intensive practice of Vipassana Meditation for four months with such good results that he was in turn able to teach it correctly to his first three disciples at Seikhun while he was on a visit there in 1938. It was not long before Mahasi Sayadaw's reputation as an able teacher of Vipassana Meditation spread far and wide. The name Mahasi became an icon of Vipassana Meditation known throughout Burma and acclaimed internationally. The man who has not penetrated the Truth of Suffering has an unrealistic optimism of life and in his ignorance will not see that it is tainted with pain and suffering. It is not possible to seek the truth of suffering in books, it is to be realised only in one's own body. Seeing, hearing, in short, all nama-rupa arising from the Six Senses are suffering. Our (as well as all others) existence is impermanent, undesirable and unpleasant. It may end at any time and while in existence, all experience pain and suffering.

soothing sounds. dukkha and anatta. such as beautiful sights. He will be upset when he finds out that this was not so. It has to do with the mindful observing and ceaseless contemplation of all psychophysical phenomena that comprises the sense-objects and the corresponding consciousness. Those who do not practise Vipassana Meditation. Their effort to possess what they believe to be the good things of life is due to their delusion regarding their existence. fail to see realities and leave this life without realising the phenomena of nama-rupa. As contemplative concentration intensifies in the practice. in the language of the Buddha. . thereby gaining an Insight into their characteristics of impermanence. anicca. They harbour illusions about the nature of sense-objects and the realities of nama-rupa. unsatisfactoriness and ‘self’-lessness. A blind man is easily deceived into accepting a worthless stone as treasure. The practice of Vipassana Meditation leads to full awareness of their nature. They seek pleasant sense-objects. They are mired in sensual pleasures because they see everything through rose-tinted glasses. an ignorant (avijja) person enjoys life. delicious food and multitudes of sensual cravings.7 This suffering and pain (dukkha) is not perceived as such by ordinary living beings as they look upon their existence as blissful and good. Realisation of the realities of nama-rupa (mind and matter) cannot be achieved through book knowledge. Likewise. the meditator realises the true nature of the arising and instant disappearing of these psycho-physical phenomena. dukkha and anatta. He will be disenchanted once he realises the unwholesome nature of his existence. blind to its characteristics of anicca.

known as Momentary Concentration. bodily sensations and thoughts. meaning to think. the word Meditation or Bhavana is meant a trained mental state where the mind is in constant concentration. Man seeks and clings to pleasant sense-objects because of his ignorance and misconception of the reality of his existence. eye. the foundation of supramundane wisdom. arousing profound mental insights. leading to true Insight Knowledge. Such a state of Momentary Concentration is brought about by a process of meditation as taught by the Buddha known as Satipatthana or Mindfulness Meditation. Illusion or “conceptualised” consciousness precedes meditative practice and so the beginner does not gain a clear Insight into the nature of living beings. self or soul. from a verb meditari. never stable and of an impermanent nature. Ignorance is a source of suffering and gives rise to craving (tanha) and attachment (upadana). It hides dukkha with sukha (pleasurable sensations).8 The true nature of mentality (the mind) and physicality (the material body) can only be realised through the practice of Vipassana *Meditation. craving and attachment stem from the desire for pleasure. ponder. Note: (Meditation* – Bhavana is a Pali word derived from the Latin word meditatio. Illusion dominates the un-mindful person and blinds him to the unsatisfactory nature (dukkha). It is only through steadfast practice that concentration and mindfulness mature. of all senseobjects. By such realisation the mind realises the unsatisfactory nature of the arising phenomena and arriving at the conclusion that all such phenomena are without a core. where it is capable of delving profoundly into the mental and physical phenomena conditioned by the senses of the ear. nose. Through such deep insights the mind is able to contemplate the nature of the arising mental and physical phenomena and to come to the realisation that such arising phenomena are inconsistent. tongue. In terms of Vipassana. Such wisdom does not arise when mindfulness and concentration are not systematically trained and heightened. devise. contemplate. commonly named Vipassana Bhavana or Insight Meditation)* . His ignorance leads to unwholesome efforts and activities.

Ignorance of the Way to the Cessation of Suffering is widespread and the Supreme Goal is described in different ways in different beliefs. only through the practice of Vipassana Meditation can their veil of illusion be penetrated. So they ceaselessly seek companionship. Nibbana is the total extinction of the nama-rupa process which occurs ceaselessly on the basis of Causal Relationship. life without craving and attachment would be devoid of pleasure. pleasurable sense objects. that without craving and attachment. Some believe that suffering will come to an end in due course of time. but the subtleties of these delusions are difficult to penetrate by the ordinary spiritually untrained person. many do not realise this truth. . these ignorant putthujjana believe that it is craving that makes them happy. food and so forth. Thus. On the contrary. To them the Cessation of nama-rupa process would mean nothing more than eternal death. In reality. fine apparel. life would be dreary. Nevertheless. This total eradication of dukkha is Nibbana.9 Ignorance of the Origin of Suffering (Dukkha) Craving is the source of suffering. Some regard sensual pleasure as the highest good and reject the idea of a future life. In the absence of these desirable objects they feel ill at ease and find life monotonous. Nibbana. They are camouflaged and cannot be realised through intellectual reflections. Nibbana does not appeal to those who have strong cravings for life. for them. people seek to gratify their cravings and these sensuous desires inspired efforts are the fount of suffering. intellectual acceptance of Nibbana is necessary because the meditator’s whole-hearted and persistent effort to attain the Supreme Goal depends on it. Such variety of beliefs are due to the ignorance of the Supreme Goal. desires and their causes are evident in daily life.

Basic. The Only Way. Preliminary and Ariyan. Right Livelihood. Mahasi Sayadaw . This Path is three-pronged. Some resort to self-mortification such as fasting. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. Right Effort. patience. Some advocate ordinary morality such as love. they only lead to relative welfare in the worlds of deva-brahmas. All these practices are commendable. they do not ensure freedom from suffering in samsara. It requires much time and effort to produce fire by friction but ignition is a matter of a moment's duration. living in a state of nature and so forth. Some worship devas or animals. Of these. there are various speculations and teachings about the Way. they do not form the correct Way to Nibbana. while others stress the practice of mundane Jhana. For as the meditation practice develops. Insight Wisdom occurs. Due to ignorance. almsgiving and so forth. Right Intention. Right Speech. the Buddha taught. in short the Noble Eight-fold Path. the most vital is the Ariyan Path but this Path should not be the primary objective of the yogi nor does it require him to spend much time and energy on it. Similarly. the Insight into the Ariyan Path is instantaneous but it presupposes much practice of meditation on the Preliminary Path. altruism.10 Truth of the Way leading to the end of Suffering (the Fourth Noble Truth) is of vital importance. is to practise a moralistic way of living founded on the principles of: Right View. however. Right Action.

(Samyutta ii 105) . men and women lay followers. an ancient road. and from His own experience did He teach it to beings. traversed it. the Way of Establishing the Four Foundations of Mindfulness that serves as the corner stone of the whole system of Insight Meditation (known also as Vipassana). It examines the ills of this sentient life. The Blessed One very pointedly tells us that there is but One Way. except that they must make the effort to walk the Way themselves. monks. which is the practical aspect of the Buddha’s Teaching. indicates their causes. and can only be realised by oneself through self practice. I have taught the monks. seen an ancient way. nuns. but a practical way of life. followed by the wholly Awakened Ones of olden times. and points the Way to the release from all suffering. Those desirous of liberation can walk along this Way. The Blessed One Himself found the Way. Along that way have I travelled. prescribes the removal of these causes. and the matters that I have come to know fully as I was going along this ancient way. The Buddha: Even so have I.11 FUNDAMENTALS OF VIPASSANA MEDITATION By Mahasi Sayadaw The Blessed One’s Teaching is not just another system of metaphysical philosophy.

disregards Feeling. ‘her’. Perception. that is to say. mindfulness and wisdom. what is impermanent. he has reached the Noble Path. which no living being can call ‘mine’. In the same way. “Material shape. he is passionless. that is the source of unsatisfactoriness and suffering”. suffering and non ‘self’ nature of the Five Aggregates is wearied of material form as he is of Feelings. is impermanent. sources of suffering and is not possessed of a self entity. Perception. the Blessed One taught: “Seeing all these things. Through passionless-ness. are impermanent. monks. and not an entity or a ‘self’. one should also contemplate on Feelings.” (Samyutta iii 68) . soul-less and coreless. insubstantial. develop concentration. ‘I’. Upon realising that these aggregates too. By disregarding. that such phenomena are sources of suffering and do not possess a self or an ego. or ‘myself’…one should discern right wisdom in this way. when we want to live the holy life we use the ‘thread’ or sutta to guide us in our actions. The Blessed One has given us instructions on how to train in morality. The Buddha taught that. He who realises the impermanent. that which is not a ‘self’ is not-self. he is emancipated. When a carpenter is about to plane or saw off a timber. the instructed disciple of the Noble Ones disregards Material Shape. Concomitantly with Material Shape (rupa). Suffering is thus a causal condition. One notes arising phenomena in the course of Vipassana Meditation so that one will realise (by oneself) the impermanent nature of phenomena. he draws a straight line using a thread. Mental Activities and Consciousness. does not belong to ‘him’.12 Knowledge and Freedom Insight Knowledge will arise in the course of meditation and contemplating on the Five Aggregates of Clinging. or anyone. Mental Activities and Consciousness.

becomes clear to the meditator. pushing and pulling. bringing out. this is its intrinsic nature. beginning with the air element. These are the characteristics. function. . As he meditates on the rising-falling abdomen. Moving is the function of the air-element. moving. all the firmness. walking’. In freedom the knowledge comes to be ‘I am free from all defilement’. one knows for oneself that one is so. and when this Knowledge matures. The practice of observing and meditating on arising mental and physical phenomena is to realise the importance of the elements that constitutes a living being. one has arrived at the Four Fruitions of Freedom from defilements. mode of appearance and proximate cause. The Blessed One taught: ‘Gacchanto va gacchami ti pajanati. when he walks. it appears to his intellect as a sensation of bringing out. In other words. when one has become an Arahant in whom the defilements are extinguished. When this Knowledge is clearly known by the meditator. Manifestation is that which appears to the meditator’s intellect. When one is freed. As he meditates on the air-element.13 Once one has attained the Noble Path of passionless-ness. one knows by oneself. Purity of Views is developed.’ (When he walks. function and manifestation of the airelement. it manifests as bringing out. Air-element has the characteristic of support. he gains the Analytical Knowledge of Mind and Matter (nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana). This is the manifestation of the air-element. Mind and Matter are Impermanent Insight Knowledge begins with the defining and understanding of mind and matter with respect to their characteristics. he is aware ‘I am walking’) and that the meditator should be mindful of the form walking by noting ‘walking.

The air produces the intimation. The bringing forward of the whole body as the air-element spreads is said to be walking. Thus. However. walking’. The function of the air-element is moving. Thus. one has to understand the air-element by way of its characteristics. the emphasis is on the realisation of the moving of the airelement. go or come. . This situation will be the case in the initial phase of practice as both concepts and realities will appear to the beginner. It is the air-element that makes the body bend. This intention gives rise to tense movement all over the body. to ignore concepts is not practicable at the beginning of the training. It moves from place to place when it is strong. the function and manifestation. It may be construed that when one notes ‘bending. sit. or ‘He walks’. the intention ‘I will walk’ arises. In reality there is no ‘I’ or ‘He’ that walks. right’ as one walks. Concepts and realities will intertwine at the early stages. falling’. stretching’. notes thus. as the student advances in his Insight realisation. rise. ‘walking. only concepts like legs will appear in the mind. only concepts like arms will appear in the mind. Further when one notes ‘left. only concepts like the abdomen will appear in the mind. it is said: ‘I walk’. move by move. when he walks. which in turn causes the material body to move forward.14 How knowledge is developed from meditating thus is explained. as the case may be. The meditator realises. concepts and realities will be strictly defined and concepts will not arise. This initiates air movement in the body. stretch. Firstly. The meditator who is practising walking meditation. there is only the intention to walk and the form walking. Here. The thought ‘I am walking’ arises. and if one notes ‘rising.

bend or stretch. groups: the Buddha analyses a living being into these five groups which constitute all beings. as pain. The Venerable Sariputta gave a brief and clear reply: “The Five *Aggregates of Clinging. friend Kotthika. vedana (feeling).” Note: (Five *Aggregates or Khandha. should be attended to thoroughly by a monk of moral habit?” Note the attribute ‘of moral habit’ in this question. friend. These groups are not entities in themselves.) .. as not ‘self’.” “What is the good of meditating like that?” he enquired further. Sariputta replied: “Indeed. He did not teach applying realities only in His Teachings. it is possible for a monk of good moral habit to thoroughly attend to the Five Aggregates of Clinging to realise the Fruits of Stream-winning. the least qualification the meditator needs is to be of good moral habit. friend Sariputta. they are merely categories into which all aspects of beings can be analysed. as void. are the things which should be thoroughly attended to by a monk of moral habit. If the meditator does not even have good moral habit. as alien. as a dart. or “my self”. as decay. “of self”. as being impermanent.15 The Blessed One Himself applied concepts and taught ‘I am walking. sankhara (mental formation) and vinnana (consciousness). as a disease. “in self”. Thus.’ when we walk. If the meditator wants to practise Insight Meditation with a view to attaining the Path and Fruition and Nibbana. When they attach or are attached to the five. they are known as the “upadanakhandha”. he cannot hope for the higher conditions and wisdom. The Ariyan Connection Once. as illness. as a boil. suffering. These five khandha or aggregates are: rupa (material quality). they have nothing to do with “selfhood” and there is no “self” apart from them. etc. as He realises that there will be those who cannot see realities as such and not seeing it as such will be confused. the Venerable Maha Kotthika questioned the Venerable Sariputta: “What things. aggregates of clinging. None of them are “self”. sanna (perception).

as a ‘self’. smell.16 Thus. people see themselves and others as being endowed with permanent existence that has been carried over from the past and exist again in the future. One delights with craving and clings to it. One is not pleased. With constant and habitual thinking and imagining. . One is ignorant of reality and clings to erroneous views. taste. to be a Stream-winner and never to be reborn in the four lower states. human beings have been conditioned to incorrectly view the ‘self’ or ‘I’ as permanent. He continued to explain that the same Five Aggregates should be attended to by the one who has attained to a Once returner. one do not accept this truth. suffering and not ‘self’. From this it is clear that the Five Aggregates are the things one has to meditate on even when one has become an Arahant. In this way. touch or think. as being ‘happy’. Thus. With this view. one has to contemplate the Five Aggregates to realise their impermanence. one clings to whatever comes through the Six-Sense Doors. They also conceive that ‘thinking’ or ‘imagining’ as being enjoyable. as being ‘permanent’. when one believes that ‘thinking’ is happiness and when told that the ‘thinking’ will disappear. should be attended to thoroughly by a monk who is a Stream-winner?” Sariputta answered that it is the same Five Aggregates of Clinging that should be thoroughly attended to by a Stream-winner. Without realising the Knowledge and Insight of Vipassana. this is because one clings to the wrong view that ‘thinking’ is happiness and goodness. as an ‘ego’. Kotthika goes on to ask: “What things. as impermanent. a Non-returner and an Arahant. friend Sariputta. as being pleasant. hear. suffering and not ‘self’ nature. they believe that there is a ‘self’ within them that oversees and dictates what they see.

17 To overcome these views. Initially. paving the way for the erosion and final termination of all defilement. . that being the nature of all things. he reflects and realises that there is only incessant rising and passing-away of phenomena. Attachment and clinging are deeply entrenched defilement. they are without self. how no pleasure can be derived from them. the meditator will realise that all things are impermanent. how impermanence stresses with their rising and passing away. how they can never be a refuge. A mind without Vipassana Insights will not see into the real nature of things. So. the thought arises: “This body will not perish so soon. a ‘self’. happy. one has to meditate and contemplate on the Five Aggregates to realise their true nature of clinging and attachment. Vipassana Insight enables the realisation of the truth that one had viewed things in the wrong way. The meditator will then be able to see things in their true light. he will realise too. they are very difficult to eradicate. that they are the source of suffering. they are sources of suffering and they do not possess a central core. etc. a meditator takes the body as a dependable refuge. that all things are impermanent. an ‘I’. soul. Later. how they can perish at any moment. that they do not possess any self or substantial inner core. only then will he not cling to sense objects as permanent. an independent entity. When Insight Knowledge is well developed. They arise due to ignorance. Once a meditator realises the reality of impermanence. It will last for quite a long time”. beautiful and wholesome. Nor will he cling to them as possessing a ‘self’. how they can be frightening and how they cause suffering. Peace at Last Through contemplation and reflection with Insight Knowledge. it will prevail over wrong views and thoughts.

He realises that they are impermanent in nature. . They are causes of all sufferings. there is no occasion for old age. he makes no effort to enjoy them. good or beautiful. suffering and are not-self in nature. There is nothing in them to cling to as happy. there arises no kamma called ‘becoming’. dying and grief. sources of suffering and not an independent self. As he does not cling to them.” Majjhima. When there is no new birth. the meditator realises Nibbana through the Noble Path. smells. does not delight in them or cling to them. tastes. the attachment and clinging are done away with. At that.18 Attachment.ii 318 As the meditator progresses in the attainment of Insight Knowledge. There is no clinging to what he sees. touches or is aware of. As he does not make any effort. and as he continues to note the arising mental and physical phenomena. clinging and all defilement are done away with by attaining the Noble Path and Nibbana is realised. or an ‘I’. he realises that all things are impermanent. so there is nothing to cling to as a self. he will have no obsession with the objects noted. They trouble with their rise and fall. They rise and fall as is their nature. As such no clinging arises. One who does not long after things is calmed in himself. “One who has no attachment does not long after things. hears. there is no new birth. When that is so. a soul. The objects appear to arise each in its own time and then pass away. As no kamma arises. One who contemplates on the mental and material objects that appear at the Six Sense Doors and knows their intrinsic nature of impermanence. All these are made very plain to the meditator in his notings. There is nothing to cling to. therein the process of causal relationship becomes affective.

We meditate on the aggregates whenever they arise in order that we do not cling to them. Once clinging ceases. Right Thought. that they are sources of suffering. then. there is an effort being made. Right Action and Right Livelihood. are the elements of Insight Meditation. These. It is plainly seen that all conditioned things are impermanent. clinging arises. To sum up: Insight Wisdom or Knowledge is developed by meditating and contemplating on the Five Aggregates of Clinging. This is the Right Effort of the Noble Eightfold Path together with Right Mindfulness.19 Noble Path Every time the meditator notes arising and ceasing of mental and physical phenomena. We cling to them as permanent. good and as an independent ‘self’. mere processes. the Path arises. the meditator will arrive at the Noble Path in due course. Mahasi Sayadaw . Right Speech. If we fail to meditate on mental and physical phenomena. leading to Nibbana. When this knowledge matures. they constitute the Eight Factors of the Noble Path. This is Right Concentration. Together with Right View. Then there is consciousness which penetrates the object noted as well and remains fixed on it.

disappeared from the brahma world and reappeared before the Blessed One. In the Samyutta Nikaya: On one occasion (and this was immediately after His Enlightenment) the Blessed One was dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara. for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation. at the foot of the Goatherd’s Banyan Tree (so named because goat herds tending their goats used to sit under the tree). There He addressed the monks: "O! Bhikkhus" and the bhikkhus respectfully responded. a market town of the Kurus. namely: The Four Foundations of Mindfulness”. What are these Four Four Foundations? Foundations? Note: [*The Only Way: a path going in one direction. for the passing away of pain and displeasure. “So it is. He arranged his upper robe over one shoulder and raised his joined hands in reverential salutation and said to Him. for the Overcoming of sorrow and lamentation. bhikkhus. for the Realisation of Nibbana. bhikkhus. having known with his own mind the reflection in the Blessed One’s mind. for the achievement of the method. Venerable Sir. that is the Four Foundations of Mindfulness….” Then Brahma Sahampati.20 Maha Satipatthana Sutta (abridged) The Great Discourse on the Four Foundations of Mindfulness (The Words of the Buddha) Thus Have I Heard: Once. Nibbana. for the Purification of beings. for Reaching the Noble Path. a reflection arose in His mind: “This is the one-way path for the purification of beings. for the realisation of Nibbana. the Blessed One was living in Kammasadamma. for the Disappearance of pain and grief. that is the Four Foundations of Mindfulness…” . this is the One Way Path for the purification of beings…. O Blessed One! So it is. leading to the purification of beings. The Blessed One spoke as follows: “This is the *Only Way. just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm. Then while the Blessed One was alone in seclusion. "Venerable Sir".

Ananda. It is also the Only Way because no other roads lead to Nibbana]. he contemplates the feeling in the feelings. making no “inner” and “outer” (meaning no esoteric teachings). mindful… likewise with regards to feelings. a bhikkhu contemplates the body in the body. In this teaching. the Buddha. Ananda. one and only way because it is a single and straight path. not one that branches off. The Tathagatha has no “teacher’s fist” in respect of doctrine… Ananda. ardently. It is the only way because it is the way of the Exalted One. removing covetousness and grief in the world. worn out… you should live as islands unto yourself. being your own refuge… and how does a bhikkhu live as an island unto himself… with no other refuge? Here. Countless such statements have been made by the Buddha regarding the “Only Way”. what does the order of bhikkhus expect of me? I have taught the Dhamma. The above demonstrate the Buddha’s endorsement of that statement. who is the best of all beings. removing covetousness and grief in the world. removing covetousness and grief in the world. The more important and poignantly remarkable it becomes when one realises that these two statements were made one at the beginning of His Enlightenment and the other at His Parinibbana! In the Papanca-Sudani. mind objects…”. . went outside and sat on a prepared seat in front of the dwelling. clearly comprehending and mindful. clearly comprehending (sampajano) and mindful (satima). “But. a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as body. the Commentary to the Majjhima-Nikaya. 2. Though others. clearly aware. he contemplates the consciousness in the consciousness. The Four Foundations of Mindfulness: 1. clearly comprehending and mindful. as soon as he felt better. earnestly. Then the Venerable Ananda came to him saluted and sat down on one side and said: “… the Lord will not attain final Nibbana until He has made some statement about the order of bhikkhus”.21 Again in the Buddha’s last days as stated in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta: Then the Lord. it is the Buddha’s Way because He had discovered it and it exists only in His Teaching and Discipline. It is a way that has to be taken by oneself. mind. too walk on that Way. Ananda. having recovered from His sickness. ardently. Satipatthana is the sole. I am now old. ardently (atapi). 3.

Also to comprehend one's state of mind to ensure that the appropriate amount of energy is being applied. the mental quality of energy or effort. refer to Digha Nikaya Sutta No. 10. clearly comprehending and mindful.22 4. he contemplates the Dhamma in the dhammas. Clear comprehension (sampajano). Mindfulness (satima). the Sixth Factor of the Noble Eightfold Path. one must examine them with mindfulness. Clearly comprehending what practices are helpful and what are not. This mindfulness must build up momentum through continuous practice. Ardent effort (atapi). it is capable of uncovering Insight Knowledge. Effort must be made to arouse and maintain mindfulness. . un-satisfactoriness and selflessness). removing covetousness and grief in the world. This refers to Right Effort. is being aware of what is happening within oneself or to oneself at any given moment of experience. is the Wisdom-faculty. The combination of ardentness. 2. Majjhima Nikaya Sutta No. sampajano and satima: 1. that there is no under-exertion or over-exertion and also to distinguish the inherent characteristics of the object of attention (impermanence. 22. 3. Note: [The essence of atapi. This quality of awareness is an essential foundation or quality of mind that is needed for both concentration and wisdom. Reference Note: For detailed study of the Mahasatipatthana Sutta. clear comprehension and mindfulness leads to concentration]. When appropriate strength of mindfulness is developed. To see things as they really are. ardently. which guards against and abandons what is unwholesome and creating and maintaining what is wholesome. Mindfulness is that essential mental quality by which we apply awareness to illuminate and to understand our bodily and mental experiences.

As mindfulness matures in progressive stages they will realise that the workings of the mind is in reality an impersonal process. Keen awareness of the moment to moment arising and falling away of mind and body processes should be noted without a break. gradually develop a sense of distance and detachment from them. as their personal properties. “I” am angry. “my” wealth and so forth. the rise and fall. that such phenomena are associated with an entity. they learn to observe. This will assuredly enable them to develop inner calmness. alternating between one hour of sitting meditation and one hour of walking meditation continuously without any break in between. the appearance and disappearance of various thoughts and feelings. emotions or sensations that they experience as belonging to them. Through further practice. the cause and origin of these thoughts and feelings and thus understanding their nature. Ideally. Each mental phenomenon takes them on a mental trip. Mindfulness Meditation is a non-religious. Apropos to this. a prospective learner should spend 16 hours a day in the practice of Vipassana meditation. they will develop Insight and Wisdom that will enable them to comprehend the intrinsic realities that had been clouded by illusion and ignorance. The Practice By practising mindfulness. . feelings.23 CHAPTER I A GENERAL OUTLINE OF VIPASSANA MEDITATION The final goal of Satipatthana. this is “mine”. ethical discipline that can be practised by all. a person. “I” am happy. impulses. as its sole purpose is to teach a way of life that totally eradicates defilement from the mind. also known as Vipassana or Mindfulness Meditation. people generally identify thoughts. is Nibbana.

but are themselves the final terms of analysis. not actual. One is to be fully mindful of each mental or physical activity incessantly going on. meaning reality. (2) Ultimate Realities (paramattha) in contrast. persons. highest. They are products of mental construction. Detached Awareness and see realities as they truly are. They include such entities as living beings. the true constituents of the complex manifold of experience. These are the dhammas: the final. Mindfulness is the essential factor in observing things with Clear. involving mindfulness training to investigate the mind and the body. noting impartially each aspect of mind and body phenomenon as it arises to consciousness. Their mode of being is conceptual. . for the objects which they signify do not exist in their own right as irreducible realities.24 The practice is strenuous mentally and physically. men. women. irreducible components of existence. final. animals and the apparently stable persisting objects that constitute our unanalysed picture of the world. meaning ultimate. advises observing the rising and falling of the abdomen as the primary object of mindfulness training. The Pali word paramattha is applied to them. a successful exponent of Vipassana. not realities existing by reason of their own nature. and attha. These concepts or notions do not possess ultimate validity. without involving the concept of “I” or “Self”. Such existents admit of no further reduction. Mahasi Sayadaw. and directly experiencing these mind and body phenomena as they arise and fall away. which is derived from parama. are things that exist by reason of their own intrinsic nature. the ultimate realities which result from a correctly performed analysis of experience. thing. There are two kinds of Realities: (1) Conventional Realities (pannatti) are the references of ordinary conceptual thoughts and conventional modes of expression.

it is not advisable that the meditator has preconceived expectations in the progress of his meditation. If one sincerely desires to attain Insight Knowledge here and now. stages of Insight Knowledge will be progressively experienced. which are continuously arising in the mind. ‘self’ or ego within the physical frame of the human body and that what constitutes within that frame are: The Five Aggregates of human existence known as khandha. From the very beginning the meditator should know that no two individuals will have exactly the same experience in the practice. etc. a natural unfolding of Insight Knowledge and Wisdom will arise. When the practice has matured. The Insight into this and full realisation of it. The result of this realisation is detachment from the sensations: feelings. is known as panna or wisdom. and all the mental faculties are balanced. one comes to realise that there is no permanent abiding entity. The meditator should be clearly mindful of what is actually experienced moment to moment. Through mindful observation. Thus. impulses. thoughts.25 With the deepening of awareness.. one must renounce worldly thoughts and actions during Vipassana meditation and concentrate on: the Purification of Conduct (Sila). ideas. . the essential preliminary step towards gaining Insight Knowledge.

Reading alone cannot lead to true understanding. It is the main and primary duty of the meditator to note whatever feelings and sensations arising in his body and mind. changing of clothes. In the course of his practice. In reporting these to the teacher. etc. The meditator must be honest and straight forward in reporting to the teacher. There are bound to be difficulties initially. he has to do so factually. frankly and factually. Only after some practice can results be forthcoming. Even minor physical movements such as moving of the hands. In every training there is theory and practice. who has practical meditation experiences and a broad knowledge of the Dhamma. as there are in anything new. Hence. The meditator must stick to the instructions of the teacher very carefully and listen to the structured Dhamma talks attentively. he will progress well and develop faith in the practice. it is very important that the meditator reports his experiences to the teacher very plainly. Meditators in some cases report what they consider the good side and fail to report plainly and frankly on other experiences. Though the meditator may think that his practice is not good.26 SOME GUIDELINES TO BEGIN TRAINING Wherever possible. it may not be so in the view of the teacher and only by knowing the true situation. The meditator must be industrious and diligent. . He must always be alert and ready to note. but theory and practice together will give a profound understanding of the Dhamma. the meditator will encounter various experiences. the meditator should begin his practice with an experienced and competent teacher. If the meditator pays careful attention to the teacher. can the teacher be able to give correct and beneficial guidance. have to be noted with keen awareness.

. four hours of sleep will not cause a problem to meditators. the Buddha has advised that meditators must never eat to a full stomach. "I will persevere in my practice and even if my blood should dry up and my flesh. the attachment to the body must be disregarded. the meditator must note the intention to talk and limit the duration of such talks. There is nothing which should not be noted. Should there be a necessity to talk. the progress of Insight Knowledge will be very slow. This kind of steadfast resolution has to be made to practise Vipassana Mindfulness Meditation successfully. He must note all movements with awareness without missing anything whatsoever. Avoid talking while practising intensive meditation. the meditator must try very hard and have unshakeable resolution that says. skin. and they should not have any anxiety about having four hours of sleep in their daily schedule. in a hurry. The meditator should not over-eat. In eating. and fill the stomach with water. Every physical and mental occurrence has to be noted mindfully. soup or fluid of any kind. In eating. try to do two things at a time. but should leave at least about four or five morsels less.27 A meditator may. In intensive practice. I will carry on". This is to be discouraged as details in these actions and movements will be missed. the meditator must do so with full awareness. Talking is a major obstacle in the practice of meditation. The meditator must refrain from talking. Sleep should be reduced to a minimum. too. in using toilet facilities. bones and sinews alone remain in my body. During intensive practice. eating and sleeping excessively. If the meditator has too much affection of or attachment to his body.

He must note from the moment of waking up in the morning until going to sleep at night. not only in sitting and walking sessions. he can note all the mental and physical sensations and will soon develop the habit of mindfulness. When the moment to moment concentration is sustained. The meditator must act as if he is a sick person and not move quickly in whatever he does. without any accompanying attachment or aversion.28 The meditator should practise mindfulness at all times. eat very slowly and even talk very slowly. He should walk very slowly. he may develop either attachment or aversion to the sound. of the sound he hears. but also in the daily activities. . Therefore he should always note sound as such. so that the sound will pass away as merely sound. He should make persistent and continuous effort to note without let up. If a meditator is not mindful. In so doing. the meditator will be able to develop progressive Insight Knowledge successfully within a reasonable time. for example.

Settle down in the most comfortable posture that will enable the meditator to meditate for some time.29 CHAPTER II MEDITATION EXERCISES AND MISCELLANEOUS Meditation in the Sitting Posture Begin the training in a quiet and peaceful place. He must keep to the natural breathing. without pressing one against the other. Sit with the legs crossed to maintain a good balance. Neither should he slow down his breathing by the retention of his breath. the meditator should keep his attention on the movement of the abdomen. falling” for downward movements. By changing the normal flow of his breathing he will soon tire himself. with the noting of “rising” and “falling”. with no back support though. and the downward movement (contraction) when breathing out. On identifying the upward movement note. If sitting on the floor is not comfortable. rising” and on the downward movement. nor quicken it by deep breathing. falling”. sit on a chair. rising” for upward movements and “falling. He will be able to identify the upward movement (expansion) of the abdomen when breathing in. It might be more comfortable if the legs are not inter-locked but evenly placed on the ground. If this still does not work. If these movements are not clearly noticed. He should not alter the normal tempo of his breathing. looking straight ahead. Maintain a straight back. sit on a cushion or obtain a more comfortable way of sitting. Whatever position he selects. “falling. it is acceptable to feel the movements with the hands. When meditating with observing the rising and falling of the abdomen. it must enable him to sit comfortably for a considerable period. “rising. Note: “rising. and proceed. .

For instance. falling”. They must impact at the same point. As soon as rising occurs. etc. as if these movements were seen by the eyes. . from the beginning till the end of the in-breath and also of the falling of the abdomen. similar to a pebble striking a wall. The movement of rising as it arises and the mind knowing it must impact on every occasion. the movement of falling as it falls and the mind knowing it must converge on every occasion. the Knowing Mind firmly locked onto the Movements. It is therefore essential that the meditator makes every effort to be mindful of the movement of the rising of the abdomen. at the moment of thinking. knowing.30 The labelling of these movements need not be done verbally. attending. feeling happy. as the abdomen is only a label. rejoicing. from the start to the finish of the out-breath. the out flowing of the air on the out breath and the abdomen contracting as the air gradually falls away. try to feel and know or realise this pushing up of the air from the inside and not so much on the abdomen. feeling lazy. “falling. disgust. “reflecting. In the process of developing concentration. Similarly.”. The meditator should carry on the exercise of continuously noting these two movements of: “rising. note every mental activity as it occurs. it is more important to know the actual state of the object than to know it by the term or name. only interrupting to note mental and other physical activities as they arise. This pushing outward of air from inside is the real thing that is happening when meditator is breathing in. it should be noted: “thinking. Thus. the meditator should reflect on the process of breathing. thinking”. planning. rising”. the air when inhaled sets up pressure that pushes from the inside. there should be. as the case may be on the occurrence of each mental activity.

rising. touching. falling. at the point of contact that he experiences when he is sitting. With noting four mental phenomena. sitting. touching”. touching”. touching”. falling”. rising”. however reverting to any notings of two. the meditator should not note the shape of the limbs or objects that are touching each other. touching”. three or four phenomena is quite in order. hands or legs. touching. the meditator’s mind will become calm. . falling. note. When his mind is calm and peaceful. falling”. add another point and note. “rising. “rising. he may concentrate on them. rising. falling. rising” and “falling. “rising. “touching. When the meditator is sitting. body. If concentration is still difficult with three notings. falling. the already extended abdomen gradually falls back into place. he will concentrate more on the gradual force of air extending the abdomen. is effective in gaining concentration. If these two points of mindfulness. falling. touching. falling. and the gradual contraction of the abdomen when breathing out. he will realise the fact that the upper part of the body is erect and taut. but concentrate on the hardness at the point of contact and note. falling” are not effective in gaining concentration. he may note the sitting position as well. He must not bring up the shape of the head. “rising. rising. “rising. With this he should be able to develop concentration. sitting. note. falling.31 Thus. “rising. At the same time that he is mindful of these two movements. “falling. In noting touching. the meditator must be mindful of these two movements that take place: When inhaling. When exhaling. sitting. the abdomen extends gradually. but he must be aware that the body is taut with the force of air that has pushed him up into the sitting position and the hard feeling. rising. sitting. If his noting of. his concentration will become keener and “Insights” will arise.

bear in mind that this is a learning process. What he actually needs to observe is the sensation of pressure on the body caused by the rhythmic movement of the abdomen as he breathes. meditator may find it difficult to keep the mind on each successive rising and falling movement as it occurs. hence. The rising and falling movements of the abdomen are always present and therefore there is no need to look for them and it is quite sufficient for a beginner to keep his or her mind on these two simple movements. DO NOT dwell on the form of the abdomen. Continue with this exercise in full awareness of the abdomen's rising and falling movements. In view of this difficulty. As practice progresses. He should NOT be concerned with the form of the abdomen.32 From this exercise. . concentration of mind and Insight in meditation. Initially. the meditator learns the actual manner of noting the upward and downward movements of the abdomen. it is a very effective method of developing the faculties of attention. For the beginner. The ability to know each successive occurrence of the mental and physical processes at each of the Six Sense Doors is acquired only when Insight Meditation is fully developed. the manner of the movements will be clearer. when attentiveness and power of concentration are still weak.

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Meditation Using Breath as the Main Object Sayadaw U Silananda For those meditators whose choice of the primary meditation object is the breath: Focus attention on the breath, keeping the mind at the tip of the nose, or at the entrance of the nostrils. The in-breath and the out-breath each last about four or five seconds. Be mindful of the breaths. The meditator may feel a sensation of air at the tip of his nose or in his nose (depending on the shape and position of the nose). Be mindful of it. Observe and pay attention to the nature of the breath; be mindful of the moving nature or the supporting nature of the breath, rather than the shape or form of the breath. When breathing in, be mindful of the in-breath for the whole duration of the in-breath, or from the beginning to the end. When breathing out, be mindful of the out-breath for the whole duration, or from the beginning to the end. Do not allow the mind to follow the breath into the body or outside the body. Be mindful of the in-breath and out-breath as two separate phenomena, not just one and the same breath going in and coming out. The mind is like a gatekeeper standing at the gate, taking note of people going in and coming out. Do not force or strain the breathing; just calmly be mindful and watch the breaths. The meditator may make a mental note when he breathes in and when he breathes out, as ‘in’, ‘out’; ‘in’, ‘out’. Making mental notes, or labelling, is to help concentrate the mind on the object; keeping mindfulness on the object at all times. What is important is mindfulness of the object at the moment. If his mind can be on the breaths only, that is very good. However, the mind has a tendency to wander quite often.

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While noting the breaths, the meditator’s mind wanders or goes out and he is aware of it; be mindful of its going out and note, ‘going out, going out, going out,’ two or three times and then revert to noting the breaths. If the meditator sees something or someone in his thoughts; he should mindfuly note, ‘seeing, seeing, seeing,’ momentarily; then revert to noting the breaths. If he hears somebody talking in his thoughts, be mindful of hearing and note, ‘hearing, hearing, hearing,’ and then go back to noting the breath. If the meditator talks to someone in his thoughts, or if he talks to himself, be mindful of talking and note, ‘talking, talking, talking,’ and then continue noting the breaths. If he speculates about something, be mindful of speculating; if he analyses something, be mindful of analysing; if he makes judgments, be mindful of making judgments. Note each phenomenon as it arises and as it passes away. In Vipassana Meditation, the meditator applies *bare attention onto the object, without any additions of his own, such as ‘beautiful’, ‘ugly’, ‘good’, ‘bad’ or such descriptive terms. In other words, he should take the object as it is, without subjective additions of his own. If he remembers something, be mindful of remembering and note, ‘remembering, remembering’ and then continue noting the breaths.
*Bare attention is the clear and single-minded awareness of what actually happens to us and in us, at the successive moments of perception. It is called ‘bare’, because it attends just to the bare facts of a perception as presented either through the five physical senses or through the mind which constitutes the sixth sense. When attending to that six-fold sense impression, attention or mindfulness is kept to a bare registering of the facts observed, without reacting to them by deed, speech or by mental comment which may be one of selfreference (like, dislike, etc.), judgement or reflection. If during the time, short or long, given to the practice of Bare Attention, any such comments arise in one’s mind, they themselves are made objects of Bare Attention and are neither repudiated nor pursued, but are dismissed, after a brief mental note has been made of them (Nyanatiloka).

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If he thinks of the future and makes plans, be mindful of it and note, ‘thinking, thinking’ or ‘planning, planning’ and then continue noting the breath. If he feels lazy, he must be mindful of it and note, ‘lazy, lazy’, and then continue noting the breaths. If the meditator feels bored, be mindful of boredom and note, ‘bored, bored’, then continue noting the breaths. If he experiences resistance, be mindful of it and note, ‘resisting, resisting’ and continue noting the breaths. Any thoughts of attachment, greed or lust, must be noted, and then revert to noting the breaths. If he is upset or angry for any reason, he must be mindful of that anger, or, make that anger the object of his meditation. Concentrate momentarily on the anger and note, ‘anger, anger’, then revert to noting the breaths. If the meditator has painful or unpleasant feelings in the body (numbness, stiffness or heat), he should focus his mind on these feelings and mindfully note each of these feelings consecutively. He will have to be very patient with painful feelings. Pain may not go away. He has to be patient and be mindful of it. It may go away or it may become more acute. Stay with it as long as possible. In reality pain is a good object for meditation. It is a strong object. The meditator’s mind is pulled towards the pain. So be mindful of it and try to see it just as a sensation. It is important that he does not identify pain as himself, so do not note, ‘it is my pain’ or ‘I feel pain’. There is just the pain, just the sensation. If the pain becomes so intense that he feels he cannot bear it, he may ignore the pain altogether and revert to noting the breaths, or he may make movements or change posture to ease the pain. When he makes movements or changes posture, first mindfully note the intention to change; and then mindfully move slowly; one at a time, following each movement with mindfulness. When the changes are made, he should return to noting the breaths.

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The breath is the primary object of meditation. Whenever there are no other objects to be mindful of, just be mindful of the breaths. If there are more prominent objects, then the meditator should take note of them, be aware of them, or be mindful of them, and then revert to the breaths. Do not force or strain, just calmly watch the objects, take note of them and be mindful of them. Do not try to forcefully push distractions or emotions or feelings in the body away, just watch them and let them go by themselves. The rest is the same as for taking the rising and falling of the abdomen as main object. The only difference is to substitute ‘movements of the abdomen’ with ‘breaths’. Common to Both Methods In the course of contemplation in either mode of meditation, noting the breath or the rising and falling of the abdomen, the meditator’s mindfulness must be precise, that is, aligning concurrently with the objects. Take only one prominent object at a time and be mindful of it. If he cannot decide which is most prominent, select one and be mindful of it. What is important is to be mindful of the object at the present moment; so whether he is mindful of the main object or the secondary object, so long as he is mindful, he is doing correctly. Do not have any expectation; do not expect strange experiences, such as seeing visions or specific results or even to attain to certain degree of concentration. Expectations may motivate practice, but when the meditator is at the point of meditation, they become obstacles to concentration. That is because expectations are a mild form of greed or attachment which is a hindrance to concentration. If expectations come up in spite of himself, he must not be irritated by them; he must be mindful of these expectations and note; ‘expecting, expecting, expecting’.

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Then revert to noting the breaths or the movements of the abdomen. When practising mindfulness, the meditator is making ardent mental effort; the effort he makes thus, must be neither too much nor too little. If he makes too much effort, he will become agitated and he will not be able to concentrate; and if effort is slack, he will become sleepy and again unable to concentrate. The effort he makes must, therefore, be well balanced. If he misses to be mindful and then remembers his lapse, he must then be mindful of that lapse of missing and note; ‘missing, missing, missing’, or ‘forgetting, forgetting, forgetting’. Above all, he must not feel guilt, be tight or tense in his mind; he must be relaxed, mindfully and calmly making mental notes. Changing Positions During Sitting It may be that after sitting for a considerable amount of time (either watching the breath or the rise and fall of the abdomen) there will arise in the body, unpleasant feelings of stiffness, warmth, pain and so forth. These sensations should be noted as they are observed. Mind should be fixed on the spot and a note made, thus; “stiffness, stiffness” on feeling stiff; “warm, warm” on feeling warm; “painful, painful” on feeling pain; “prickly, prickly” on feeling a prickly sensation and “tired, tired” on feeling tiredness. In contemplating these arising of unpleasant, painful feelings, the meditator is developing Insight into feeling. When there is lack of wisdom and knowledge of Insight into feeling, there will prevail a wrong view of one's personality or ‘self’, that these feelings belong to an entity, a body or a ‘self’ as: “I” am feeling stiff; “I” am feeling hot; “I” am feeling painful; “I” was feeling well formerly but now “I” feel uncomfortable. In reality, feelings arise owing to impressions on the body.

Only in the event that pain or unpleasant feelings do not subside in spite of patient and prolonged noting. the attainment of Path. the meditator may feel that such disagreeable feelings appear to grow stronger. When noting “stiff. but must proceed with noting them as “stiff. falling” be continued. hot. hot” and so on. the usual noting. painful. “rising. It is essential to understand these feelings clearly. stiff. this is especially true in meditation than anything else. hot. hot. This mind “desiring to change” should be noted “desiring. falling. so is the case of feelings. desiring”. Without concentration. which arise anew on every occasion of coming into contact with impressions. Without this. and when concentration is strong and well developed. Patience Leads To Nibbana. Such painful sensations will ordinarily subside. . If noting is continued with great patience in this manner. painful”.38 Like the light of an electric bulb which continues to burn on the continuous supply of energy. such unpleasant feelings will pass away. he cannot gain concentration. hot” and so forth. Fruition and Nibbana is also not possible. he may notice the arising of a desire to change his posture. Due to such uncomfortable feelings. A meditator should not change his posture immediately when unpleasant sensations arise. Then a return should be made to the feeling and noting “stiff. it will be found that even great pain will fade away when they are being noted with patience. Cultivation of patience is imperative in Vipassana and bearing up with unpleasant feelings is essential. If a meditator cannot bear unpleasant feelings with patience and frequently changes posture in the course of his meditation. stiff” or “hot. that the meditator initiates change in his position. On the fading away of suffering or pain. rising. stiff. Insight Knowledge (Vipassana-nana) will not be possible.

“moving. a note should be made as “swaying. touching. These actions of changing position should be carried out slowly and mindfully. Only then will fire be produced. the preceding concentration and the one following should be continuous. a meditator should exert continuous and incessant effort without any break in between notings. falling. lifting. “rising. moving”. wanting” after which continue to note. revert to noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. increasing vigorous effort will be needed. Similarly. If at any time there is no further movement to note. moving” on moving it forward. putting”. moving. There should be no break in between notings. Concentration and Insight Knowledge takes place. As the sticks become hotter. raising”. falling”. and on their full development the final stage of Insight Knowledge of the Path (magga-nana) will be attained. In this way. . and this mind should be noted. on raising the leg as “raising. and these movements should be noted: “lifting. The essential ingredient is a sustained vigorous action without break. due to the increasing friction. thus ensuring continuity of concentration and gaining success in his meditation. on moving as “moving. “lifting. The preceding noting and the one following should be continuous. “wanting. In these circumstances there will often arise a mind wanting to change the position. moving. The practice of Vipassana meditation is similar to building a fire by rubbing two dry sticks together. the gradual development by stages of Mindfulness. the preceding knowledge (nana) and the one following should be continuous. lifting” on lifting the hand. If the body sways. on putting down as “putting.39 When concentration is not strong enough pain will remain. Similarly. rising. swaying”. touching” in the consecutive order of their movements.

be made. itching”. and thereafter revert to the usual exercise of noting. “withdrawing. after which rubbing or scratching should not be attempted as yet. “touching. it is most appropriate if a meditator acts like a weak. the contemplation of the process of rubbing or scratching should be carried out by noting. occupied with his usual exercise. the meditator should continue to note “rising. Simulated Behaviour: As a Sick. but a note of “itching.40 Thus. raising” on raising the hand. touching” when the hand touches the body. “rising. The patient must be cautious and move slowly to avoid pain. similar to a person suffering from an injured leg. “itching. in which case. To do this. “scratching. rising. “wanting. . wanting”. a meditator should slow down his actions. This should be noted. a meditator now endeavours to develop mindfulness and concentration. enfeebled person. withdrawing” on withdrawing the hand. “raising. Continue noting. As soon as it is felt there arises a mind wanting to rub or scratch. a Blind and a Deaf Person During the course of practice. In every case of changing positions during meditation. “wanting. slow in all his activities. falling”. If on the other hand it is found that the itch does not disappear and it is necessary to rub or scratch. falling”. itching”. it is necessary that meditative exercises be carried out in a deliberately slowed down manner. rubbing”. Itching may disappear. “rubbing. falling. falling. rising. the meditator may feel an itch or such other sensations affecting certain parts of his body. “moving. He should fix his mind on the spot and note. moving” on moving the hand. In like manner. wanting”. Having lived a hurried and materialistic lifestyle prior to his mental training. Itchiness is an unpleasant sensation. “touching. touching” when the hand touches the spot. such actions should be carried out slowly and mindfully. noting each action as it arises. scratching” when rubbing or scratching.

A meditator while meditating. He should not take heed of them. He should not look around aimlessly and his mind must be concentrated solely on the object of meditation. other things seen or heard are not his concern. calm and composed and though spoken to. a person on hearing a sound turns around and looks toward the direction of the sound. He should proceed with his meditation intently just as if deaf.41 This will be conducive to the development of concentration and mindfulness. and continue noting. should act in the same manner. If he happens to hear any sound or talk he should at once make a note. a meditator should imitate a blind person throughout the entire course of training. In the case of body actions he must act slowly and feebly as if sickly and weak. Thus. hearing”. Similarly a meditator’s conduct should be of like manner. While on the other hand. or “knowing. It should be remembered that practising meditation intently is the sole concern of a meditator. and then return to the usual exercise of noting “rising. who is mindful. Or he turns around towards the person who speaks to him and makes a reply. unlike a blind person. falling”. falling”. . seldom turns around unmindfully. mindfully noting: “rising. Ordinarily. “hearing. “rising. He may not behave in a mindful manner. It is also necessary for a meditator to behave like a deaf person. knowing”. seeing”. falling”. This composed manner is worthy of imitation. a deaf person behaves in a composed manner and seldom takes heed of any sound or talk because he does not hear them. He does not possess a steady and calm manner. but instead should note them as “seeing. He should not react to external occurrences. A mentally unrestrained person will not be dignified as he is usually inattentive. leading to Insight Knowledge. neither taking heed nor listening to any talk.

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Walking Meditation The act of pulling up the body to the standing position, in preparation for walking meditation, should be carried out slowly with mindfulness. On coming to an erect position this should be noted “standing, standing”; if the meditator happens to look around, this should be noted “looking, seeing”; and on walking, each step should be noted “right step, left step” or “walking, walking”. In each step, attention should be fixed on the movement from the point of lifting the leg to the point of putting it down. While walking in quick steps or taking a long stride, it should be sufficient that each section of each step should be noted; “right step, left step” or “walking, walking”. However, in the case of taking a slow walk, each step may be divided into three sections of: lifting, pushing forward, putting down. In the beginning of the exercise, a note should be made on two sections in each step “lifting, lifting”, by fixing the attention on the upward movement of the leg from the beginning to the end, and “putting, putting”, on the downward movement from the beginning to the end. Here it may be mentioned that, at the time of noting “putting, putting”, when the leg is put down in the first step, the other leg usually lift up to begin the next step. This should not be allowed to happen. The next step should begin only after the complete ending of the first step. After two or three days this exercise would be easy and a meditator should carry out noting each step in three sections; “lifting, lifting, pushing, pushing, putting, putting”. For the present, a meditator should start the exercise by noting; “right step, left step, right step, left step”; “walking, walking” while walking quickly; and by noting “lifting, lifting, putting, putting” while walking slowly.

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In the course of his walking meditation the feeling may arise of wanting to sit down. He should note the intention; “intention, intention”. If he then happens to look up, “looking, seeing, looking, seeing”; on walking to the place to sit, “lifting, lifting, putting, putting”; on stopping, “stopping, stopping”; when turning, “turning, turning”; when he feels wanting to sit, “wanting, wanting”. In the act of sitting there occurs a heaviness in the body and also a downward pull. Attention should be fixed on these physical movements and a note made, “sitting, sitting”. After having sat down there would be movements of bringing the hands and legs into position. These actions as they arise should be appropriately noted; “moving, bending, stretching”, and so forth. If there is a lull in noting, and when sitting quietly he should revert to the usual exercise of noting “rising, rising; falling, falling” of the abdominal movements. During meditation, feelings of pain, tiredness or warmth should be noted, and then revert to the usual exercise of noting; “rising, rising; falling, falling”. If the meditator feels sleepy he should note “sleepy, sleepy”, and proceed with the noting of all acts of preparing for lying down and bringing into position the hands and legs, “raising, raising”; “pressing, pressing”; “moving, moving”; “supporting, supporting”; “swaying, swaying” when the body sways; “stretching, stretching” when the legs stretch; “lying, lying” when the body drops and lies flat. These trifling acts in lying down are also important and they should not be neglected. There is every possibility of attaining Enlightenment during this limited time. On the full development of concentration and Insight Knowledge, Enlightenment is attainable during a moment of bending or stretching.

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The Steps in Walking Meditation During practice, the exercise in walking meditation is to observe the steps closely and carefully as one, two, three or six sequences of movement. This is to develop concentration to see through and break up the continuity of the movements of the steps into their moment to moment arising and falling away. When concentration improves, steps in walking can be seen to coincide with the speed in noting. More movements will be observed as concentration strengthens. The First Stage: Note the step as one sequence of movement; “left foot forward, right foot forward; left foot forward, right foot forward”. The Second Stage: Note each step as two sequences of movement; “lifting, lifting; dropping, dropping”. The Third Stage: Note each step as three sequences of movement; “lifting, lifting; pushing, pushing; dropping, dropping” of one foot, and “lifting, lifting; pushing, pushing; dropping, dropping” of the other foot. The meditator should direct the mind to be aware and note the forward movement of the steps and not the image of the foot. Be aware of the element of motion that is going up gradually when lifting the foot. Knowing that it goes up and being aware of it is the real thing that is happening at the moment, that is, mental and body process; the mind knowing the physical lifting and dropping. When lifting the foot, the meditator must attentively note the gradual upward movement of the foot. When the foot is being pushed forward, he must be aware of the foot moving forward slowly and then when dropping the foot, he must be aware of the foot falling or dropping down slowly lower and lower.

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All these sequences of movement must be clearly noted so that when the foot is being lifted slowly moment by moment, the meditator will realise that it gets lighter and lighter as it is being lifted. When the foot is being pushed forward he will notice and observe the gradual forward movement. When dropping or putting down the foot, he will experience the heaviness of the foot descending lower and lower to the floor. When he has this awareness in mind it is the beginning of Insight Knowledge. Lightness is brought upon by tejo, element of warmth and vayo element of motion or movement. Heaviness is caused by pathavi, element of toughness or hardness and apo, element of liquidity. The knowledge or awareness of such mental and physical phenomena is the beginning of gaining penetrative knowledge of the intrinsic nature of mental and body processes as it really is. The Fourth Stage: Observe each step as three pairs of movement; beginning to lift, lifting; beginning to push, pushing; beginning to drop, dropping. When the foot is being lifted, the heel is lifted first. Only after that are the toes raised and lifted when the leg is lifted. When the foot is being pushed forward, the meditator must know that the movement of the foot is going forward and not backward. When dropping the foot, the forward movement is checked a bit, and when he begins to put the foot down it drops downwards slowly and finally the foot touches the ground and the foot is dropped. While meditating, the meditator must constantly be mindful of each mental and physical phenomenon at the instant of its arising. He can advance to noting each step as six sequences of movement; lifting, raising, pushing, dropping, touching and pressing. When lifting the foot, be mindful of the lifting movement, note; “lifting, lifting”; as the toes raise upwards, note; “raising, raising”; next, push the foot forward, note; “pushing, pushing”.

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After pushing the foot forward, gradually drop it and carefully observe the foot coming down slowly to the floor, note; “dropping, dropping”. As it gradually comes down, know and feel the touching of the foot on the ground, note; “touching, touching”. Finally in order to lift the other foot, pressure will be exerted on this foot, note; “pressing, pressing”. The Benefits of Walking Meditation By Sayadaw U Silananda The practice of Vipassana mindfulness meditation can be compared to the process of boiling water, where one fills the kettle with water, puts the kettle on a stove, and then turns the heat on. If the heat is turned on and off repeatedly the water will not boil. In the same way, if there are gaps between the moments of mindfulness, one will not achieve a steady and continuous momentum to attain concentration. That is why meditators are instructed to practise mindfulness all the time that they are awake, from the moment they wake up in the morning until they fall asleep at night. Consequently, walking meditation is integral to the continuous development of mindfulness. The Buddha said: "A monk applies clear comprehension in going forward and in going back". Clear comprehension in contemplating the phenomenon arising will enable Insight Knowledge to arise. To correctly contemplate the arising object, a meditator must have concentration, and in order to have concentration, he must apply mindfulness. Therefore, when the Buddha said, "Monks, apply clear comprehension", we must understand that not only clear comprehension must be applied, but also mindfulness and concentration. Thus, the Buddha was instructing meditators to apply mindfulness, concentration and clear comprehension while walking, while "going forward and back”.

one may be driving at sixty or seventy or even eighty miles per hour. driving at that speed. In the same way. . putting down. he may not see all of the movements and stages clearly. as concentration develops. Initially. The stages may not yet be well-defined in his mind. one will not be able to read some of the signs on the road. and these movements may seem to constitute only one continuous movement. he will observe these different stages in each step clearer and easier. he will subconsciously slow down. pressing the ground". putting down. although he pays close attention and slows down. and he will know that the moving forward movement is not continuous with either the lifting movement or the putting down movement. if a meditator wants to pay closer attention to the movements of lifting. but as he pays closer attention. "slow down" but the driver will naturally slow down in order to see the signs. he may find it difficult to slow down. He does not have to slow down deliberately. moving forward. However. He will observe all movements clearly and distinctly and realise that these movements are distinctly separate. moving forward. When driving on the highway. If one wants to read those signs. The four stages at least will be easier to distinguish. and pressing the ground. Nobody has to say. He will know distinctly that the lifting movement is not an action continuous with the moving forward movement. slowing down comes to him naturally. but as he has been instructed to pay close attention to all of the movements involved.47 The meditator is instructed to be completely mindful and to make mental notes of the stages of the foot's movement: "lifting. Only when he slows down can he be truly mindful and fully aware of these movements. and as he actually pays closer and closer attention. At first. it is necessary to slow down. he will naturally slow down.

because the foot becomes heavier and heavier as it descends. the four elements in their true essence are perceived. the water element and Pathavi. he will also perceive. he will notice the movement from one place to another. fire or temperature. When he perceives these processes. As his practice develops. the earth element. he will observe much more. but as actual processes. the element of air. When he pushes the foot forward. Vayo. When he puts the foot down. along with observing lifting. which is the hardness or softness of the foot on the ground. as ultimate realities. When he puts the foot on the ground. Apo. not merely as concepts. and pressing the ground. he will experience the lightness of the foot. the heaviness of the descending foot. . By paying close attention to the various stages of walking meditation.48 Whatever he is mindful and aware of will become very clear in his mind. he is perceiving (an interdependent grouping of) the four essential elements: Tejo. he will feel the heaviness of the foot. When he lifts his foot. he will feel the touch of the heel on the ground. the lightness of the rising foot. putting down. Therefore. moving forward. the motion of the foot. and then the touching of the foot.

49 Steps in Walking Meditation 1st Right Step Left Step 2nd Lifting Placing 3rd Lifting Pushing Placing 4th Lifting Raising Pushing Placing 5th Lifting Raising Pushing Dropping Placing 6th Lifting Raising Pushing Dropping Touching Pressing .

the meditator virtually notes the nature of the earth element. a characteristic of the fire element. When liquid is heavy. He is able to realise the characteristics and the nature of the four elements. As things become lighter.50 Contemplating the Characteristics of the Elements in Walking Meditation Initially. In pressing the foot on the ground. as is trickling and oozing. and the air element is secondary. he virtually realises the water element. By paying close attention to the pressing of the foot against the ground. is dominant. So. they rise. The next stage is moving the foot forward. the main factor is the air element. he will note the hardness or softness of the foot on the ground. So when the meditator experiences the heaviness of the foot. we see that in just one step. and when he senses lightness. the meditator can virtually experience numerous processes. When the meditator puts down his foot. In the lifting of the foot. when the meditator pays close attention to the moving forward of the foot in walking meditation. the fire element is primary. Thus. . But lightness. when lifting the foot. Heaviness is a characteristic of the water element. besides lightness there is also movement. so we can say that in the stage of lifting. because motion is one of the primary characteristics of the air element. Movement is another aspect of the air element. there is a kind of heaviness in the foot. he is virtually experiencing the essence of the air element. the meditator senses lightness. he virtually cognises characteristics of the fire element. The next stage is the movement of putting the foot down. One aspect of the fire element is that of making things lighter. These two elements are realised by the meditator when he pays mindful attention to the lifting of the foot. it oozes. This pertains to the nature of the earth element. In moving the foot forward. Only those who practise can realise these Insight Knowledges.

Moreover. presses the foot against the ground because he intends to. he will realise that both the movement and the awareness arise and disappear in that moment. The meditator advances to the realisation of the pair-wise occurrence of mind and matter at every moment of observation. the meditator will observe mind and matter rising and disappearing at every moment. moves the foot forward because he intends to. and both arise and disappear in that moment of putting the foot down on the ground. there is the putting down movement and also the awareness of the movement.51 As the meditator continues to practise walking meditation. and at the next moment there is the movement forward and the awareness of that movement. He will realise that he lifts his foot because he intends to. the meditator realises that along with the movement of the foot. These can be seen as a pair. . In the next moment. and so on. There is the lifting movement and also the mind that is aware of that lifting. The moments of awareness are nama (mind). he will come to realise that: With every movement there is the noting mind and the awareness of the movement. The same process occurs with the pressing of the foot: there is the pressing and the awareness of pressing. there are also the moments of awareness. and the movement of the foot is rupa (matter). there is the moving forward movement and also the mind that is aware of the movement. In the next moment. Another thing that he will discover is the role of intention in effecting each movement. Thus. puts it down because he intends to. In this way. At one moment there is the lifting of the foot and the awareness of the lifting. which arise and disappear at every moment. mind and matter.

a person who has reached the first stage of enlightenment. of cause and effect. in one of the hells or animal realms. This state of lesser sotapatti can be reached just by practising walking meditation. and with the transcendence of doubt about nama and rupa. action occurs. a lesser sotapatti cannot be reborn in one of the four woeful states. He realises the conditionality of all of these occurrences. eradicating all doubts regarding their arising and disappearing. he is assured that he will be reborn in a happy state. . such as in the realms of human beings and devas. just by paying close attention to the movements involved in a step. A "lesser sotapatti" is not a true stream-enterer but is said to be assured of rebirth in a happy realm of existence. When the meditator realises the conditionality of all movements. they are not created by any deity or any authority. these movements never happen without a cause. There is a cause or condition for every movement. but once the meditator reaches it. A sotapatti is a "stream-enterer". and that condition is the intention preceding each movement. This stage is not easy to reach. and that these movements are not created by any authority or any god. the relationship of conditioning and conditioned. the meditator realises that intention precedes every movement. That is. the meditator realises that. On the basis of this understanding. This is another discovery the meditator realises when he pays mindful attention to his noting. This is the great benefit of practising walking meditation. With the clear understanding of the conditionality of things. is understood. then he will understand that these movements are initiated by intention and that intention is the condition for the movement to occur. Thus. After the intention.52 That is. a meditator is said to have reached the stage of a "lesser sotapatti". nama and rupa do not arise without conditions. these movements occur due to conditions. from where he will attain to higher levels if he continues the practice ardently.

that is. Through the power of meditation. When the meditator comprehends that mind and matter arise and disappear. he will come to comprehend the impermanence of the processes of lifting the foot. When he sees that mind and matter are impermanent.53 When he comprehends mind and matter arising and disappearing at every moment. In this way. The occurrence of disappearing after arising is a mark or characteristic by which we understand that something is impermanent (anicca). and this process he realises by himself. giving way to the pushing forward movement and the awareness of pushing forward. a state of impermanence. the meditator will be able to determine the state of impermanency or permanency. he observes that there is no mastery over these things. as he is able to see with clear comprehension. . he will observe clearly that there is the lifting movement and awareness of that movement. and then that sequence disappears. he realises that there is no ‘self’ or soul within that can order mind and matter to be otherwise than rising and disappearing. and he will also comprehend the impermanence of the awareness of that lifting. he understands that mind and matter are impermanent. While comprehending the two characteristics of the impermanent and unsatisfactory nature of phenomena. nor does he has to believe in the report of another person. These movements arise and disappear. the process of coming into being and then disappearing of phenomena. he then realises that mind and matter are unsatisfactory (dukkha) because he is stressed by their constant arising and disappearing. Things just arise and disappear according to conditions. arise and disappear. he does not have to accept this on trust from any external authority.

though the difference will usually be so slight that we can barely notice it. After taking the picture. Let us examine in more detail the movements of walking meditation. he sees mental and physical phenomena arising and disappearing. the characteristic that things have no ‘self’. But what if the camera could take one thousand frames per second? Thus. there would be one thousand movements in just one lifting movement. The image in each frame is slightly different from the images in the other frames. He can comprehend these three characteristics by observing closely the mere lifting of the foot and the awareness of the lifting of the foot. One of the features of anatta is that of non-mastery or control. Suppose one were to take a moving picture of the lifting of the foot. dukkha and anatta) of all conditioned phenomena. the meditator will have comprehended the three characteristics of all conditioned phenomena. he realises the third characteristic of conditioned phenomena. although the movements would be almost impossible to differentiate. there are actually thirty-six movements. we would realise that within what we thought was one lifting movement. At this stage of his practice. unsatisfactory and non-‘self’ nature (anicca. it has no Power to master or control over the nature of things. it is Soul-less. In the words of the Buddha. and consequently he experiences for himself the impermanent. if we were to look at the separate frames. and let us say that the camera can take thirtysix frames per second. . the characteristic of anatta. full of suffering and that it does not have a ‘self’. soul or core identity.54 By comprehending this. they are anicca. meaning that it has Nothing. that they are of an impermanent nature. dukkha and anatta. Suppose further that the lifting of the foot takes one second. it has no Identity. By paying close attention to the movements.

he realises that even one of these four movements consists of millions of tiny movements. the meditator may have thought that a step is just one movement. Ordinarily. “discern” or "observe" to refer to our own situation. we may not be able to see directly all of the millions of movements as did the Buddha. He sees the arising and disappearing of nama and rupa (mind and matter). but if we look close enough (through Vipassana). Our effort in walking meditation is to discern the walking movements as closely as the camera sees them. segment by segment. by which he actually saw all of the movements. he sees that there are at least four distinct movements within that one movement. After observing. Upon further contemplation. that is because Impermanence is hidden by the illusion of continuity. We can also appreciate the power of the Buddha's wisdom and Insight. as he sees their nature of arising and disappearing he realises their state of impermanence. we mean that we see directly and also by inference. When we use the word "see". as they originate and disintegrate. The value of Vipassana meditation lies in its ability to remove the cloak of continuity in order to expose the real nature of impermanence. frame by frame. This illusion of continuity can be broken by the direct observation of physical phenomena bit by bit. We also want to observe the awareness and intention preceding each movement. We think that we see only continuous movement. Before begin practising walking meditation. . we will be able to see through the illusion of continuity.55 If the camera could take one million frames per second then there would be one million movements in what we thought to be only one movement. The meditator is able to discover the nature of impermanence directly through his own efforts. we are unable to see the impermanence of things.

We must comprehend that all things are just mind and matter arising and disappearing. nothing to hold on to in the entire world of phenomena. there will always be suffering. we will be able to remove attachment to things. If we see that something which we once thought was beautiful. we will lose interest in it. we may see a beautiful painting on a canvas. For example. But if we were to put the painting under a powerful microscope. Physicists too have observed. we must remove craving and attachment. By the realisation of this endless impermanence. We want to remove craving because we do not want the suffering that is companion to it. that we remove craving. . the meditator understands that there is really nothing to crave for. that they occur in bits.there is nothing substantial to it at all. It is by comprehending the three characteristics of existence. nothing to crave for. As long as there is craving and attachment. we will not be able to get rid of attachment. that things are insubstantial. As long as we do not realise this. We think of the paint and canvas conceptually as a whole. After seeing the picture as composed largely of spaces.56 After realising that things are composed of segments. We can now understand that the practice of meditation is for the removal of attachment to and craving for objects. impermanence. Once we realise this. we would lose interest in it and we would cease being attached to it. that matter is just a vibration of particles and energy constantly changing . and that it is now decaying and disintegrating. solid thing. and after observing these segments one by one. If we do not want that suffering.it has many holes and spaces. suffering and the non-‘self’ nature of things. we would see that the picture is not solid . with powerful instruments. but now has holes. he will realise that there is really nothing in this world to be attached to. however much we read books or attend talks or talk about removing attachment.

making beds. It is an efficient tool to help us remove mental defilements. arranging or preparing meals. The earnest and diligent meditator who is new in the practice will not find it easy to be aware of all movements at the beginning. touching”. putting the food in “putting. touching the food “touching. stretching to take the food “stretching. preparing food “preparing. It is as powerful as mindfulness of breathing or mindfulness of the rising and falling of the abdomen. Walking meditation is conducive to Insight development. Walking meditation can help us gain Insight into the nature of things. drinking and other regular daily activities should be performed with ardent mindfulness. bending”. just as we do when we are sitting or lying down.57 It is necessary to have the direct experience that all conditioned things are marked by these three characteristics. Know that walking meditation is as valid a practice as sitting meditation or any other postures of Vipassana Meditation. stretching”. continuous mindfulness should be applied in daily activities as such application of mindfulness will go a long way in the uninterrupted practice of Vipassana. opening”. opening the mouth “opening. Hence. Note all other activities. changing clothes and washing them. putting”. such as preparing to eat: seeing food on the table “seeing. Daily Application of Mindfulness In intensive meditation. we must pay close attention when we are walking. Daily activities such as. preparing”. seeing”. bending the head “bending. folding the sheets. . and so on. eating. and it should be practised as diligently as we practise sitting meditation or any other postures in Vipassana meditation. opening and closing doors.

“chewing. the meditator should note. “sitting. “bending. he should note. . note. “intending to stand. if chewing is more prominent. Later. at the same time paying attention to the HEAVINESS of the body. If the mind which is focussed on that one distinctive movement becomes really concentrated. When the intention to stand comes to mind. when Knowledge or Mindfulness becomes stronger and advanced. note. For example. bending”. When the intention to sit appears foremost in the mind. until contemplation becomes deep and advanced leading to Insight. chewing”. and when seated. then other movements should be noted as they arise. but meditators should not be discouraged if this happens. if stretching of the hand is the most distinctive. if bending the head is more prominent. It is only the lower jaw that is working when we note “chewing”. A meditator. “stretching. in the act of sitting must gradually and slowly lower the body onto the chair. “intending to sit. stretching”.58 Some movements may be missed. intending to stand”. If the meditator is aware of this lower jaw movement he will be able to contemplate on the chewing movement easily and well. intending to sit”. Meditators must remember to be mindful of only one prominent movement at any one moment. He should reflect on the mental and body processes. When applying mindfulness on daily activities. Mahasi Sayadaw has said that chewing is the most outstanding and distinct movement. note. meditators should be keenly aware of the activities that are the most prominent. note. sitting”. the penetrative Insight Knowledge will enable mindfulness of every phenomenon arising.

Rising makes the body light and that is a combination of heat or temperature. note. note. the knowledge of mindfulness (nama) is impermanent. Whatever arises is subject to passing away. this is the troublesome or suffering nature of existence. . The ancient theras are emphatic on the necessity of developing the qualities of energetic vigour in the practice of meditation. thus physical (rupa) and mental (nama) phenomena are impermanent. this is the impermanent nature of existence. Mindfulness of Sleep A diligent and dedicated meditator must be prepared to face the risk of spending many nights without sleep. He must note and reflect on the slow and gradual upward movement. which pushes the body up. when standing. as this is ultimate reality. This is the non-’self’ nature of existence. the meditator will gradually move upward with the hands supporting the body and eventually stands. supporting”. “supporting. When energy is sufficient. the body becomes light and when sitting. vayo. and motion or air. “filling up energy. standing”. Physical actions or movements (rupa) are impermanent.59 The mind which desires to get up is caused by the element of motion. closely and well. Sitting makes the body heavy and that is the characteristic of a combination of the earth and water elements within us. A meditator knows that. Nothing within us can protect us or stop this suffering nature from arising or disappearing. Watch it precisely. He must know and observe closely and enthusiastically the slow gradual motion involved in standing up. “standing. filling up energy”. The arising and passing away or birth and decay of mental and physical phenomena is quick and troublesome. the body becomes heavy.

. It may be possible to keep awake if concentration is strong enough to beat off the sleep but one will fall asleep if sleep gets an upper hand. If the meditator is unable to overcome the drowsy feeling. “rising. energy and endeavour. falling. as in a lying posture it is easier to fall asleep. falling”. in spite of such determination one may still be unable to keep awake. feeling fresh”. However. one may be able to shake off the sleepiness and feel fresh again. It is similar to the first state of rebirth consciousness and the last state of consciousness at the moment of death. These instructions should be adhered to with great determination. sleepy”. “drooping. when the eyelids are drooping. After meditating in the manner indicated. unable to be aware of an object. sleepy”. Flesh and blood wither and dry up. Three or four hours of sleep is sufficient for a meditator. When sleepy. “sleepy. he must continue noting drowsiness until he falls asleep. In this position he may perhaps fall into relaxing sleep at which time it is not possible to carry on with meditation. bone and sinew (as was the case with the Bodhisatta Gotama). "sleepy. but one should not give up trying so long as one has not attained whatever is attainable by perseverance. drooping” and so on. When one feels sleepy one should make a note. At night at the instance of going to bed a meditator should lie down mindfully and proceed with the contemplation of “rising” and “falling”. A beginner should therefore try to keep himself mostly in the postures of sitting and walking. after which revert to the usual noting. “feeling fresh. The state of sleep is the continuity of sub-consciousness.60 In the hard struggle one may be reduced to a mere skeleton of skin. This feeling should be noted. before falling asleep. make a note. This state of consciousness is feeble and therefore. rising.

When slowly rising. legs and body must be performed in complete awareness. Each movement of the hands. revert to noting the abdominal movements. note. Meditation should begin the moment the meditator is awake. As soon as one awakes and prepares to leave the bed. “intending. smelling. there may be body movements in turning this side or that side. Continuity of sub-consciousness remains during sleep. Then proceed with the noting of rising and falling on getting up from the bed.61 When the meditator is awake. one should begin to note the arising physical or mental phenomena. the continuity of subconsciousness arises between moments of seeing. for it is in the state of wakefulness that thoughts and sense objects become clear. Or if one becomes aware of the various body movements. falling”. note. If intending to get out of bed. A beginner may not be able to meditate at the very first moment of wakefulness but a start should be made once he is ready. if on awakening he is reflecting. Because these phenomena are of brief duration they are usually not clear and therefore not noticeable. reflecting”. attend to the exercise of noting. and in moving the hands and legs and so forth. touching and thinking. mindfulness should be directed to every detail of the body's activity. rising”. These actions should be noted in their order of occurrence. When preparing to move the body into position for rising. “rising. For example. “rising. he should be aware of this and begin his meditation by noting. If thinking of the time of day when awakening. thinking”. . rising. falling. falling. hearing. falling”. rising. “preparing. Or if one becomes aware firstly of the painful sensations one should start by noting the painful sensations and then proceed with body movements. tasting. “thinking. “reflecting. preparing”. Should the meditator remain sitting for any length of time. intending”. “rising. a fact which becomes obvious when the meditator wakes up. If one stays quietly without moving. note. note.

62 When intending to get up one should note “intending. When one feels sleepy and wants to lie down. Stand erect and observe the standing position. when the body is erect and in a sitting position. intending”. window railings and such). raising”. raising”. “stretching. on raising the hand. Mindfully place the hands onto a support (back of a chair. and if there are any other actions of bringing legs and hands into position these actions should also be noted. In this position sloth and torpor will not be able to be present. Contemplate as usual as in sitting position. observing all the while the various movement of the legs. Standing Meditation Standing posture in meditation serves a very basic antidote to overcome sloth and torpor. body as he executes the position of standing. “rising. note: “sleepy. the meditator may experience periods of severe sloth and torpor. “raising. and then proceed with the noting of all actions successively in bringing the legs and hands into position in readiness to getting up. Mindfully note the intention to stand and slowly rise to the standing posture. on raising the body. stretching”. As usual note the movements of the rising and falling of the abdomen. In the event that he has applied all the measures to counteract this hindrance as outline above. wanting”. If there are no phenomena arising revert to the usual exercise of noting. he may apply the technique of standing meditation. rising. Note. Note all rising phenomena as usual. “raising. wanting. on touching. “sitting. sleepy. falling. falling”. . Lying Down Meditation In the act of lying down. sitting”. The Buddha said: “Know that you are standing when you are standing”. In the course of sitting meditation. on stretching. noting should be carried out with due care.

raising”. “bending. touching”. “arriving. stretching”. note. . other mental activities may arise between the noting of each rising and falling. and on lying down. Note each as it arises. These movements should be noted carefully. falling. Miscellaneous Exercises on Mindful Noting While occupied with the exercise of observing each of the abdominal movements. imaginings. “raising. when arriving. “wandering. note. falling”. If he intends to do something. going”. There are many places of touch all over the body but each spot only needs to be noted at one time. pressing”. “intending. wandering”. “lying. On turning the body. turning”. “stretching. “rising. imagining”. arriving”. Thoughts or other mental functions. thinking”. be reverted to. “touching. such as intentions. note.63 “touching. “imagining. touching”. “pressing. ideas. intending”. The action of lying down (as in all actions) should be carried out very slowly. rising. are likely to arise between each mental note of rising and falling. When the mind wanders from the object of meditation. moving”. “reflecting. When lying on the side or on the back and there is nothing particular to be noted. If he is thinking of something. he must know that he has done so. note. Thinking of meeting a person. the usual exercise of noting. then revert to the usual exercise. on pressing. note. bending”. If he reflects. In the lying position there are many body movements for bringing the legs and hands into position also. “thinking. If the meditator imagines something. and at the moment when there is no other phenomenon arising. “going. reflecting”. note “turning. note. lying”. which in this case is the rising and falling of the abdomen. and so on. On touching the pillow. They cannot be disregarded. Should the meditator imagines he is going to a certain place. “moving.

In all the above situations. the meditator may experience feelings of fatigue. Proceed carefully. After noting each of these actions. without slackening. each movement must be noted in its respective order and in detail. “straightening. speaking”. intending”. “intending. “intending. If he intends to swallow while thus engaged. noting tiredness or stiffness. the meditator should mentally note their arising. meeting”. arms or legs. stiffness in the body. The neck movements of bending and straightening must be done slowly. “swallowing. While in the act of swallowing. If the meditator imagines he is arguing with somebody. “bending. intending”. “speaking. keep the knowing mind on that part of the body and carry on meditating. before he proceeds to change position. he may then change position. note. seeing”. arguing”. “intention to change”. note. . neither too fast nor too slowly. “arguing. If he envisions or imagines a light or colour. any mental vision must be noted as it occurs. Pay no further attention to any of them (these are hindrances that will distract his concentration) and continue with being fully aware of and noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. “seeing. When the meditator intends to straighten the neck.64 “meeting. When making position changes. While continuing meditating in one position. “intending. bending”. note. Should these feelings become intense or unbearable. Do this naturally. In the act of straightening the neck. intending”. These feelings will gradually become faint and finally cease. No time should be spent in being distracted by such visions. if so. after noting the arising of each and every phenomenon. proceed in full awareness and note the rising and falling of the abdomen. In the act of bending. noting. swallowing”. straightening”. that is. Should he intend to bend the neck. Should the meditator speaks to him.

mindfully note “intending. be sure to note. keep the knowing mind on that part of the body where the sensation arises. rub slowly in complete awareness and note. When the hand rests in its usual place touching the leg. “withdrawing. piercing”. he should ignore the pain and continue with the noting of rising and falling. Should an itching sensation be felt. continue with the exercise of noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. “touching. neither too fast nor too slowly. the pain has increased and becomes unbearable. tired”. Slowly lift the hand. “rubbing. when the hand touches the part that itches. he may find that the pain will almost always cease. continue with the meditation in this position. painful”. Then again he should devote time to noting the abdominal movements. “painful. . It must be stressed that the mental note must neither be forced nor delayed but made in a calm and natural manner at the moment of its arising. “tired. Should the itch continues and becomes too distracting.65 Perform these actions in a slow and deliberate manner. “itching. if so. simultaneously noting the actions of “lifting. lifting” and “touching. withdrawing”. “pressing. intending”. pressing”. “intending. Slowly withdraw the hand. touching”. intending”. Do this in a regulated manner. When the itching sensation disappears in the course of full awareness. When the itching sensation has disappeared and the meditator intend to discontinue rubbing. Do not be alarmed if it increases. touching”. aching”. after a time. keeping to the procedure outlined in the following paragraph. keep the mind on that part and note. he may intend to rub the itchy part. But if. “piercing. concurrently noting. The pain may eventually cease or increase. rubbing”. If there is pain or discomfort. When he continues meditating. such as. itching”. As soon as he is settled in the new position. “aching. Note the specific sensation as it occurs.

“swaying. note.66 As he progresses in his practice. With the continued development of meditation the time will come when he overcomes them and they will cease altogether. unpleasant sensations of being pricked by sharp needles. then lean against a wall or post or lie down for a while. the meditator will be more aware of these sensations. then mindfully note. or of small insects crawling over the body. He may occasionally notice the body swaying back and forth. Do not be alarmed. If he continues with determination he will most likely overcome these painful sensations and may never again experience them in the course of his practice. he may encounter these unpleasant sensations again repeatedly as his meditation proceeds. “intending. While in the act of swaying. As soon as he discontinues the meditation he may also feel that these sensations cease. pain as from the slash of a knife. If the meditator continues. As the mental faculties sharpen. They are not manifestations of disease but are common factors always present in the body and are usually obscured as the mind is normally preoccupied with more conspicuous objects. become irresolute in meditation and discontinue for some time. biting. . He may lose courage. swaying”. he may experience sensations of intense pain. stifling or choking sensations. the thrust of a sharp-pointed instrument. he will not come to any harm. When meditation is resumed he will have them again as soon as he gain mindfulness. intense cold. firm in purpose. intending”. These sensations are not to be considered as something wrong. He might experience sensations of itching. neither be pleased nor wish to continue to sway. Should he intend to sway the body. The swaying will cease if he keeps the knowing mind on the action of swaying and continue to note. when he resumes. However. If swaying increases in spite of his noting it.

When he stretches the hand. note. note. Keep the mind intently on the act of standing up. “thirsty. “intending. note each step as “walking. “looking. When he swallows. “touching. This is because he feels the effect of sensory impression more intensely while in a state of concentration. “dipping. When returning the cup. enthusiasm or rapture. touching”. When the hand brings the cup to the lips. strolls or when taking walking exercise. When the meditator’s mind is in contemplation he may be startled at the slightest sound. Be aware of every moment in each step from the beginning to the end when he walks. cold”. swallowing”. “swallowing. intending”. Withdrawing the hand. “returning. This is the feeling of intense interest. or “left. looking at the water faucet “looking. looking. When he begins to step forward. Touches the side of the body. note. seeing”. “bringing. “standing. If he intends to turn back. intending”. returning”. Follow the same procedure if shaking or trembling is felt. If he is thirsty while contemplating. bringing”. dipping”. a natural occurrence in the course of a good practice. touching”. “stretching. . When meditation has progressed he may sometimes feel a thrill or chill pass through his back or the entire body. seeing”.67 Thereafter continue with meditation. thirsty”. walking”. standing”. withdrawing”. stretching”. When the hand dips the cup into the water. “withdrawing. seeing. “touching. “intending. “intending. When he intends to stand. When intending to have a drink. intending”. When the cup touches the lips. Should he feel cold at the touch. When he looks forward after standing up straight. Should he intend to walk forward. “cold. right”.

“seeing. He should not waver in his effort. Perform the acts of washing the face or taking a bath in due order and in complete awareness of every detailed movement as in. Note all feelings. Then proceed with the mindful noting of every movement in the course of lying down: “lifting. note “intending. “feeling cold. When he reaches an advanced stage of the practice. seeing”. feeling cold”. itch. If there is nothing in particular to note. stretching”. lying”. Then take as the object of meditation every movement in bringing the hands. Mindfully. Sit down slowly. “touching. Then resume noting the abdominal movements.68 If he remains standing for some time continue the noting of rising and falling. legs. all movements of hands. intending”. fatigue. stretching”. be sure to note each of these sensations. As long as he is able to keep his mind on the abdominal movements of rising and falling it is assumed that the purpose of noting the acts and objects of seeing is also served. “stretching. . touching”. reflections. revert to the rising and falling process. thoughts. looking”. “lying. he will also be able to notice more details than the examples given here. continue with noting rising and falling. “putting. and keep the mind on the downward movement of the body. intending”. “rubbing. He will make fewer omissions if he persists in his practice. “touching. holding”. or any other sensations be felt. “stretching. “looking. Should pain. Perform these actions slowly. Progress in the Practice While engaged in noting the body movements the meditator need not be concerned with objects of seeing and hearing. rubbing”. “intending. ideas. considerations. legs and body into position. “holding. But if he intends to sit. arms and body. Thereafter. touching”. note every movement in bringing the hands and legs into position. putting”. lifting”. Should he intend to lie down.

he should immediately note. seeing”. such as the barking of dogs. the meditator’s mind should not be kept on the same part of the body but on different parts successively. or the hands together. to “lying. Should he fail to note and dismisses such distinctive sounds as they arise. two or three times. “touching. touching”. reflecting”. hearing”. Should he forget to note body. then again take up the noting of rising and falling. Should someone come into view. . “seeing. “hearing. then simultaneously note. While noting touching. Then return to the awareness of the abdominal movements. note “reflecting. then note.69 However. noting should be on “sitting. If breathing slows down and rising and falling movements are not clearly perceived. he should note: “hearing. leg or arm movements. “forgetting. touching”. forgetting”. “touching. Should loud noises be heard. should he intentionally look at an object. If such reflections do arise. lying”. hearing”. make a mental note of “seeing. such as thigh and knee. It is by such weakened attention that mind-defiling passions breed and multiply. sitting”. and should he realise it later. which may then become less distinct and clear. two or three times. seeing”. he may fall into reflections about them instead of proceeding with intense attention to rising and falling. There are several places of touch and at least six or seven should be noted. after which he should return to the basic exercise. or when lying down. and revert to noting “rising and falling”. loud talking or shouting. two or three times and then resume attention to the rising and falling movements of the abdomen. When he hears a sound. and resume the usual noting of the abdominal movements.

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By now the meditator have devoted much time to the practice. He may feel discouraged thinking that he has not made progress, if so, then note; “discouraged, discouraged”. Before he gains sufficient strength in attention, concentration and Insight, he may doubt the correctness or usefulness of this method of training. If so, note; “doubt, doubt”. Should he anticipate good results, he should make such thoughts the subject of reflections; “anticipating, anticipating” or “wishing, wishing”. Recalling the manner in which training was conducted up to this point, note; “recollecting, recollecting”. Examining the arising phenomena note “examining, examining”. Regretting that there is no improvement in his progress; note; “regret, regret”. Conversely, should he feel happy that his noting is improving, then note the feeling of being “happy, happy”. This is the way in which the meditator notes each and every item of mental phenomenon as it arises, and if there is no intervening thought or perception to note, revert to the noting of “rising” and “falling”. Earnest practice is from waking moment till the last moment before sleep. The meditator must be occupied constantly either with the basic exercises or with mindful attention throughout the day and at night when he is not asleep. There should be no relaxation. Upon reaching a certain stage of progress he will not feel sleepy in spite of prolonged hours of practice. On the contrary, he will be able to continue day and night. Some Salient Recap It has been emphasised during this brief outline of the training exercises that the meditator must note each mental occurrence good or bad, on each body movement large or small, on every sensation (body or mental feeling) pleasant or unpleasant and so on.

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If, during the course of the training, occasions arise when there are nothing special to contemplate upon, then return to paying full attention to the rising and falling of the abdomen. When the meditator has to attend to any kind of activity that necessitates walking, then, in complete awareness; note each step “walking, walking” or “left, right; left, right”. But when performing a walking exercise, he should contemplate each step in three sections; “up, forward, down”. The student who thus dedicates himself to the training night and day, will be able to, in not too long a time develop concentration to attain to the initial stages and then to the higher stages of Insight Meditation. As rising occurs, the mind makes a note of it, and thus the object and the mind coincide. As falling occurs the mind makes a note of it and thus the object and the mind coincide. It is always the mind which cognises the object at every stage of noting. These two elements of material object and knowing mind arise in pairs, and apart from these two there does not exist any other thing either in the form of a person or ‘self’. This truth will be realised personally in due course. The reality that matter and mind are separate will be clearly perceived during the time of noting, "rising, falling". The elements of matter and mind are linked up in a pair and their arising coincides, that is: The material process of rising coincides with the mind knowing it, the material process of falling coincides with the mind knowing it, and the respective processes of lifting, pushing and putting coincide with the respective minds knowing them. This knowledge in respect of matter and mind rising separately is the Insight Knowledge of mind and matter (nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana). It is the preliminary stage in the whole course of Insight Knowledge. It is important to have this preliminary stage developed in a proper manner.

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On practising for some time, there will be a considerable progress in Mindfulness and Concentration. At this level it will be realised that, on every occasion of noting, each process arises and passes away at the very moment. But it is, on the other hand, considered generally by uninstructed people that body and mind remain in a permanent state throughout the life or existence, that the child that is now the adult, is the same; that the same meditating mind has matured and that both body and mind are one and the same person. The reality is that it is not so. Nothing is permanent. Everything comes into existence for a moment, then passes away. Changes are taking place very swiftly and these will be perceived in due course.

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CHAPTER III PROGRESSIVE PRACTICE
Understanding Body and Mind (rupa and nama) The elements of mentality (nama) and materiality (rupa) are classified as “states with object” and “states without object”, respectively. The element of mentality has an object, holds an object, knows an object, while that of materiality does not have an object, does not hold an object, and does not know an object. It will therefore be seen that materiality has no faculty of knowing an object. A meditator also perceives in like manner that “materiality has no faculty of knowing”. The meditator practising Vipassana Meditation observes matter and mind (the two Aggregates we call “a being”), with a view to realising their true nature. By continuous and constant mindfulness, the necessary concentration is gained and when it is sufficiently sharp, the ceaseless course of arising and passing away of matter and mind will be clearly noted. Matter (rupa) The body consists solely of two distinct Aggregates: matter and mind. There are altogether twenty-eight kinds of elements that make up the matter group, chief among which are earth, water, fire and air. Body matter, or rupa, is like a doll made of clay or wheat and has no faculty of knowing, though most people tend to have the mistaken concept that material elements of a living body cognises. In reality rupa changes form under physical conditions of heat and cold and does not possess any faculty of knowing an object. Like logs, pillars, bricks, stones and lumps of earth; they are a mass of inert matter and do not possess any faculty of knowing. It is the same with material elements in a living or dead body. They do not have the faculty of knowing.

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Mind (nama) – Tendencies of the Mind “Mind” as we know it, is not a single, universal entity that exists on its own volition within us, but arises one after another in succession depending on conditions. New units of mind are incessantly arising at every moment, and though appearing to arise simultaneously, are in reality appearing successively. One arises, ceases and another arises, continuously following one another. In Reality a Single New Unit of Mind Arises at Every Moment. This reality of the mind can be realised after a period of ardent and mindful practice in Vipassana. Mind, “imagining” or “planning”, is clearly perceived and disappears as soon as a note is made, “imagining, imagining”, or “planning, planning”. Minds arising, noting and disappearing appear like a string of beads. oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo. The preceding mind is not the following mind. Each is distinctly a single unit by itelf. These realities are realised only through Vipassana Meditation. Mind has no substance or form. It is not easy to recognise as it is with matter, which having form of body, head, hands or legs is easily discernible. Matter can be handled and shown, whilst mind has no substance or form. It is essential to contemplate the mind at each and every moment of its arising to realise and gain Insight into its true nature. When meditation practice and contemplation is fairly advanced, the mind's approach to an object is clearly comprehended. It appears as if the mind is making a leap towards the object. In order to know the true manner of mind, Vipassana Insight Meditation is thus prescribed. With a mind restrained, the meditator will be freed from the bondage of the fear of Death. For this reason, it is important to note every phenomenon arising from the mind. As soon as it is noted, that unit of mind disappears. For instance, by noting once or twice; "intending, intending" it is found that intention disappears at once.

This feeling should be clearly and mindfully noted. Body (object) Body-Consciousness (touch) arises. wanting” or “intention. In fact the reality. clearly and mindfully knowing and noting the act of swallowing prevents the wrong view that the action of swallowing. “swallowing” is also “I”. during the practice. “wanting. ear. and is wrongly viewed to be "thought" or "consciousness". occupy a very small and limited space in the body. Ear (body object) Ear-Consciousness (hearing) arises. Thus. “wanting to swallow” is a mind state. one may feel the need to swallow. inside and outside. The eye. hearing. “preparing. one will understand clearly this process of reality of swallowing. By means of Vipassana. While sense of touch has a wide field of sensitivity throughout the entire body. thus forming the deluded view that there is an “entity” that decides and empowers swallowing. and when swallowing. Tongue (body object) Tongue-Consciousness (taste) arises. The rationale is that. and the process of swallowing is accomplished by matter. There exists only mind and matter at the time of swallowing. “wanting to swallow” is a personal “I” decision. intention”. Mind inclines towards an object. Nose (body object) Nose-Consciousness (smelling) arises. nose and tongue. Mind (nama) comes into being depending on the arising of Matter (rupa). and on preparing to swallow. . preparing”.75 To cite an example. “swallowing. swallowing”. Mind arises depending on Matter as will be described herewith. depending on: Eye (body object) Eye-Consciousness (seeing) arises. the sense of sight. smell. a mental process and NOT a personal “I”. a physical process and NOT “I”. or taste can only come into being respectively in its own particular sphere.

However. At times the visual object is noticeable outside the body. while seeing being a mental element can know the visual object and what it looks like. Mind knows an object. as in the case of seeing. Most people hold the view that: Seeing is ‘I’ or ‘I’ am seeing or ‘I’ know.76 These five senses are elements of mind. In reality. while Matter does not! The practice of Vipassana gets rid of the view that seeing belongs to or is a ‘self’. Eye and visual object being material element do not possess any ability of knowing an object. there are TWO separate things of eye and seeing: Neither is eye seeing. . and Mind (realisation of seeing at every moment of seeing). yet there cannot be an act of seeing without the eye. These six senses are elements of mind. or ‘a person’. Thus. If the third one is added there will be three elements. two of which (eye and visual object) are material and the third of which (seeing) is mental. In fact seeing comes into being depending on eye. or ‘a living entity’. It is now evident that in the body there are only two distinctive elements of matter (eye) and mind at every moment of seeing. imaginations and so forth depending on the mind-base. in addition there is also a third element of matter (visual object). this is known as sakkaya-ditthi (the delusion that there is a ‘self’). nor is seeing the eye. or an ‘ego’. There is also the sixth mind-consciousness of thoughts. Now it is clear that there exists only two separate elements of matter and mind at the moment and the arising of this pair of two separate elements is known as “seeing”. Eye (internal object). in “seeing” three distinctive Aggregates of elements are involved: The Visual Object (the external matter). ideas.

only “seeing” a mental element. For this reason the Buddha pointed out that it is essential to work for the total removal of the deluded concept of a ‘self’. Though all living beings wish to be rid of old age. When one is not free from the view that there is a “Personal Self”. . knows the visual object and what it looks like. and the “seeing” consciousness.77 Hence. the external visual object. It depends upon conditions for its existence. Life does not exist by itself. which in any state of existence does not depend on one's wish. one reaps the fruits thereof. which belongs to the mental group. one is liable to fall back into the state of miserable existence at a time when conditions cause one’s demerits to arise. both of which belong to the material group. three elements come together: The Visual Object (which is external to the body). Though living in the human or deva world by virtue of one’s accumulated merits. or peta by the mere act of wishing. at the moment of seeing. Now it is clear that what we know as “seeing” is only the arising of this pair of separate elements. or peta. disease and death. Whatever one sows. animal. It is not possible to avoid rebirth in the realms of hell. may or may not be in this life-time. the Eye (an internal object) and the act of ‘Seeing’. one cannot expect to escape from the existence of hell. Rebirth follows death. but surely in some existence when conditions ripen. yet they must succumb to the inevitable. To summarise. animal. eye and visual objects are material elements and do not possess any ability of knowing. Thus. but in a complex of compounded phenomena. in seeing. the things that are in actual existence are the eyes.

animal. by the practice of constantly noting or observing every phenomenon arising from the Six Sense Doors. and work towards wholesome kamma. For these reasons. when an object is visually seen or consciousness of seeing is apparent. “seeing. or any consciousness of knowing through any of the Six Sense Doors. Every effort should therefore be made to acquaint oneself with the miserable conditions of samsara and then to strive for an escape from this incessant cycle through the attainment of Nibbana. seeing”. there will arise the deluded view of an “entity”. “seeing” or “hearing”. a view which is the root-cause of rebirth in those miserable states. basing on this act of seeing. one has no choice as to one’s future existence. This deluded view can only be eradicated completely by achieving ariya magga and phala. For example. asura or peta. . the virtues of concentration and wisdom. If not. therefore. Arising of Physical and Mental Phenomena The training in Vipassana is to note mental and physical phenomena at the moment of their arising at the Six Sense Doors. a note must be made of seeing it. It is. an attempt should be made for an escape at least from rebirth in the suffering realms of hell.78 Rebirth takes place in any state of existence as the circumstances of one's own past and present deeds provide and so far as one does not understand the law of kamma. in this case it is necessary to strive energetically for the total removal of the deluded view that there is a ‘self’ (sakkaya-ditthi). which in effect is the practice of Vipassana Meditation. If such an escape is not possible for the present. imperative to develop these virtues. The deluded concept of a ‘self’ will then be totally removed and security against the danger of rebirth in the realms of suffering will be gained. the Holy Path and its Fruition. samsara (the rounds of rebirth) is very dreadful.

Similarly. . in the sensation of touch on any part of the body.79 Thus. sukha (happiness) and atta (‘self’). which receive the impressions of touch. “hearing” consciousness is an element of mind. Hearing consciousness arises depending on the ear. to realise these things in its reality. Thus. it is necessary to note each and every phenomenon arising from the Six Sense Doors. which will arouse attachment and craving. the wrong view that the phenomenon. comes in contact with these nerve tissues causing to arise a touch consciousness which feels or knows the touch on each occasion. either agreeable or disagreeable. To fully realise the reality of this pair of Matter and Mind. This merely refers to the common form of sensation of touch. further conditioning a conceptual sense of nicca (permanence). “touching. To abort this process. and the deeds will cause rebirth to a new existence. in the case of hearing. This defiling state of mind will in turn prompt deeds. and one element of mind: Knowing of Touch. at every time of touching. there are the material nerve tissues. the process of Dependent Origination operates and the whole vicious cycle of samsara revolves incessantly. It will be seen that at every instant of touching there are two elements of matter: Sense-organ and Impression of touch. Every kind of touch. touching” has to be noted. Similarly. there are only the two distinct Aggregates of Matter and Mind. a note should be made on every occasion of any phenomenon arising from any of the Six Sense Doors. “seeing” or “hearing” was by a person or belonging to a person or that there is a permanent entity that sees or hears. In this way. a defiling state of mind. While ear and sound are two elements of matter.

Due to mind wanting to move. there arises touch consciousness. on improvement of practice. there arises foremost in the mind.) In every kind of activity. All activities in movements and in changing. such as nerve tissues. They can only be noticed after some time. to feel pain. and other tactile sensations on each occasion of bending. They disappear or are lost soon after they arise and at the very moment of arising. stretching or bending. there arises a series of outward movements or movements to and from respectively. moving to and fro. such as bending or stretching. it should be noted as. (One will notice these incidents later on. on account of which there will occur in the hands and legs. stretching or moving. hardening. to feel numb. When the mind originates an intention to bend. to feel hot. a Series of Material Activities. bending. and so on. a Series of Intending Minds. are done by the mind. There are constantly arising various sensations of touch in the hands and legs. there arises a series of inward movements of hand or leg. stretching. to feel ache. when the mind intends to stretch or move. and on every occasion of contact between material activities and sensitive qualities. It may not be possible to notice each and every one of these incidents for the present. to feel stiff or tired. stretch or bend. arises consecutively. Because feeling predominates in these cases. such as stiffening. “feeling hot ”. which feels or knows the sensation of touch. “feeling tired ”. .80 There are other forms which accompany painful or disagreeable sensations. These activities conjoin with other material elements. such as. “painful ” or others as they arise. and other body feelings. especially so in the case of a new meditator. clear that material activities are the predominating factors in these cases. It is. the material activity of moving. therefore.

while thinking and imagining. “My” legs. At the same time the power of noting has considerably developed. While contemplating during meditation. is for the purpose of removing such wrong views. the exercise of noting: “bending”. who originates such activities. the meditator will realise that his mind tends to wander far and wide and visit places that he has been before. “moving”. there should be improvement in concentration. mind comes into existence. A set of object and mind. One will notice that the mind no longer wanders about but remains fixed on the object to which it is directed. If not. In reality each arising activity or phenomenon is a composition of matter and mind. In order to be able to notice matter and mind clearly. the mind noting the object. are mind. there will arise the wrong view that there is this “I”. “I” am stretching. imaginations and so forth depending on mind-base. a note must be made of each and every mental and physical phenomenon as they arise. This fact is apparent only upon reflection. Therefore. depending on the body. there arise a series of mental activities or phenomena. As regards thoughts. or that “I” am bending. “stretching”. or “My” hands. . dependent solely on conditions. the meditator will realise that there are only the twin processes of: Matter and Mind (Rupa and Nama).81 It is necessary to be aware of and to note these predominating factors as arising on its own. On every occasion of noting. After having carried out the exercises for a period and depending on individuals. mind-base or body matter.

one realises that nothing remains permanent and that everything is in a state of flux. as one usually experiences many painful sensations in the body. On having fully acquired this knowledge: Anicca. the maturity of magga nana and phala nana. one feels that this body is a mass of suffering. New things constantly arise. They arise and pass away at every instance of noting. By this first stage. Dukkha and Anatta. takes place. endeavour to attain the first stage as a minimum measure. The process of arising and passing away goes on. therefore. the first stage of realisation of Nibbana is won. one is freed from the rounds of rebirth in the unhappy lower existence. not according to one's wish! One is therefore convinced that they are not governable and they are not persons or living entities. it is realised that matter and mind arise according to their respective nature and conditioning. . One is also convinced that arising and passing away are not desirable. When noting these sensations. This is Insight into suffering (Dukkhanupassana-nana). each noting passes away immediately after arising. This is Insight into the absence of a ‘self’ (Anattanupassana-nana). which is again noted and which then passes away. Insight Knowledge of the Path and its Fruition. aches and pains. This is Insight into impermanency (Aniccanupassana-nana). Then at every time of noting. One is therefore convinced that: "things are not permanent". Everyone should. immediately another arises. such as tiredness. heat.82 INSIGHT INTO THE THREE CHARACTERISTICS On contemplation.

Experience of taste arises only at the time of eating. until practice improves. it appears that both seeing and hearing arise simultaneously. THEY ARISE individually and successively. A meditator who is new to the practice and who has not sufficiently developed Mindfulness. meditators note them as they arise. Seeing or hearing arises only when due attention is given. imagining arise simultaneously. It appears that three or four phenomena of seeing. If one does not pay heed to any sight or sound. smelling and tasting. These phenomena arise very swiftly! Seeing appears to arise at the time of hearing. There is no immediate necessity to observe each and every phenomenon that arises. hearing appears to arise at the time of seeing. one may meditate without noting seeing or hearing. In cases of seeing. “sitting. observe and contemplate the successive arising of phenomena at the Six Sense Doors. Sitting is an erect posture of the body consisting of a series of physical activities which are induced by the consciousness consisting of a series of mental activities. hearing. Neither seeing arises at the time of hearing Nor hearing arises at the time of seeing. Attention should therefore be fixed on the sitting posture and a note made. one following the other. Concentration and Insight Knowledge will not be able to observe all these arising phenomena. A few prominent phenomena should be noted as far as is possible for the present. hearing. However. It is not possible to determine the sequence of their arising due to their rapidity. Smelling arises rarely. In Reality. sitting”. the body impressions of stiffness or the sensation of hardness in this position are distinctly felt. thinking.83 Vipassana Meditation is to note. During the time that one is sitting. . body impressions are always present. They are usually evident quite distinctly all the time.

This element of stiffening is vayo-dhatu. the air element. The body is kept in the erect position by the presence of the air element in the form of stiffening. flesh and bones are also material elements. the lower portion in a bending circular form and the upper portion in an erect posture. At the time of heavy drowsiness one may drop flat. and for this reason the body lies flat during sleep or heavy drowsiness. It will be found that the exercise of observing a single object of sitting posture is simple and does not require much effort. The state of mind in heavy drowsiness or sleep is unconsciousness (bhavanga). The element of stiffening which maintains the body in an erect posture belongs to the material group and arises in the sinews. During waking hours strong and active mental activities are continuously arising. mental activities are absent. in which the body is kept in an erect posture. . so is the posture of sitting. sitting”. This does not necessarily mean that the body impressions of stiffening should be particularly searched and noted. stiffening the form. throughout the body similar to the air in a rubber ball. blood. that is. Attention need only be fixed on the whole form of sitting posture. flesh. A good deal of energy will be required to pull up and maintain in erect position such a heavy load as the body. it is essential to note mindfully “sitting. etc. This assumption is correct only in the sense that sinews. People generally assume that the body is lifted and kept in position by means of sinews. which is continually coming into existence.84 It is just like the case of an inflated rubber ball which maintains its round shape through the resistance of the air inside it. blood. During the course of unconsciousness or sleep. because the supply of new material (air) to maintain stiffening is reduced. and because of these there arises a series of air elements. In order to realise these phenomena.

Putting down and awareness of it.85 In the circumstances. the mental group is subtle and less prominent while the material group is coarse and more prominent. Bending and awareness of it. that there is nothing else besides. he would reflect from direct experience that there is the rising and the knowing it. Sitting and awareness of it. Lifting and awareness of it. When the meditator comes to know the difference between a material and a mental process. The practice of Vipassana is the contemplation of physical and mental phenomena arising and disappearing. the knowing of it is another. Such a realisation refers to the characteristic function of the mind as inclining towards an object. and for this purpose the number of notings should be increased. Laziness (sloth) generally occurs when there is excess of concentration and less of vigour. the meditator will note the simultaneous awareness of an object and the knowing of it. Falling and awareness of it. He realises that each act of knowing has the nature of ‘going towards an object’. More vigour should be exerted. Stretching and awareness of it. Distinctive Matter and Mental Processes When mindfulness and concentration have improved. such as: Rising and awareness of it. repeatedly for a considerable time. vigour (viriya) is less and concentration is in excess. the falling and knowing it. the rising movement is one process. of the two. . Through concentrated attention (mindfulness) he distinguishes each material and mental process. This gives rise to a state of torpor. and one generally feels lazy to carry on the noting of “sitting. the clearer becomes the mental process of knowing it. sitting”. He realises that the clearer a material object is noted. or cognising an object.

When such reflections arise. cold". the actual bending.86 The words ‘man’ or ‘woman’ refer to the same process. or "cold. because of the omission to note an intention. there is no ‘person’ or ‘soul’. He experiences directly that a body process takes place after a preceding intention. at this early stage. the consciousness of a mental state of an intention is evident before a body movement occurs. that there is only body and mind. The meditator readily notes. In contemplating regular and spontaneous body movements such as the rising and falling of the abdomen. to bend an arm). reflecting". stretching and other body movements. he realises that mind is the forerunner. then he notes the particular body movement. He would then have direct knowledge of the difference between a material process as object and a mental process of knowing it. hot”. the meditator must note "reflecting. Now. he may not be able to define this consciousness as a mental state distinctly. Though at the beginning of the exercises. stretching. he distinctly perceives the consciousness consisting of the intention to bend. the intention of bending. he notes them one after another continuously. standing. Now. With further progress. besides these. Again he knows from direct experience that the intensity of heat or cold increases while he is noting "hot. . sitting. In the beginning. He notes the mental state of an intention to make a body movement. there is no such entity as man or woman. He realises that the mind knowing a body process is quicker than the material process itself. going and so on. This describes the Analytical Knowledge of Body and Mind (nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana). he thinks that a body movement precedes the mind knowing it. intending" (for instance. and then return to observing the rising and falling of the abdomen. at this advanced stage. he notes "intending.

and all that happens is due to causal factors. the body exists on food and nourishment. He further reflects that One’s body becomes hot or cold because of the element of heat or cold. an arahant. One sensation has hardly disappeared. . these reflections are so quick that they appear to be arising together. stretching and so on. ache. Thus material and mental processes take place ever since birth as a result of kamma inherited and arising from previous existences. and he notes them all accordingly. it occurs to him that there can be no knowing without an object! Reflecting that material processes of bending. He does not stop noting while reflecting. He must then note. The meditator further reflects: Intentions and notings are results of volitional actions from experiences and feelings of all kinds in previous life cycles.87 He also notes the arising of various other mental images such as the Buddha. heat). hearing through sounds. While noting objects as they arise. reflecting”. with attention directed onto the particular spot of the body. Sometimes. recognising”. No being or entity creates this body and mind. “recognising. Thus. the rising and falling of the abdomen is so faint that he finds there is nothing to note. and continues noting objects as usual. seeing arises through visual objects. then another arises. stretch and so forth. Such reflections come while he is noting each object as it arises. follow mental processes of intending to bend. as well as different kinds of sensations that arise (such as itch. While noting every object as it arises he is aware that the mental process of knowing the arising is due to an object first appearing. and also because there are the Six Sense Doors. as conditioning factors. consciousness arises because there are objects to note. where the sensation arises. "reflecting.

Apart from this dual process. Energetic noting must be made of all these reflections. there is no separate ‘being’ or ‘person’. aches. . sharpened by intense concentration. only cause and effect taking place. the meditator may experience unbearable sensations. Images and Reflections The meditator may see unusual and extraordinary images. When concentration is practised in an intensive manner. Noting them will result in their reduction to a minimum. This is Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality (paccaya-pariggaha-nana). They are similar to dreams and are neither to be welcomed nor enjoyed. that in the following existences body and mind will result from the causes initiated in this and previous existences. such as itching. These are but imagination created by his own mind. dullness and stiffness. Such sensations arise in consequence of the body’s natural sensitivity and are not due to symptoms of a disease. Such reflections will be many in the case of people with a strong intellectual bent and less in the case of those without. allowing Insight to progress unimpeded by an excess of such reflections.88 After having reflected that material and mental processes being noted are conditioned by kamma from previous existences. and to those mental processes which arise in connection with sense perceptions. nor need one be afraid of them. the meditator reflects further that body and mind in the former existences were conditioned by causes preceding that existence. Such reflections must also be noted and then the exercises should go on as usual. Such reflections should be reduced. they are mere images or imagination. heat. If they are noted with energetic concentration they fade away gradually. These objects seen in the course of meditation are not real. Principal attention should be given to sense objects which can be noted easily.

in the sense of non-existence after having been. they pass away. Now. all are truly impermanent. fade away or disintegrate. only after cognising the passing away of an object. at these developing stages. whether or not the meditator comes across extraordinary objects or feelings he knows clearly the initial. Thus. say about five to ten. In the early stages of the practice. At any moment we may die and everything is sure to come to an end. all things come to an end. does he note the new object that arises. At this later stage. There is only a continuous arising and passing away by which we are harassed. the object will disappear after a couple of notings. At the outset. They are impermanent. . while noting one object. So whatever object appears. seeing". he has a clearer knowledge of the initial. the meditator should note. the object appears suddenly and passes away instantly. It will either move away. This universal impermanence is truly unsatisfactory and brings no joy. His observation is so clear that he reflects. "seeing. this will take several notings. the intermediate and the final phase of the object noted. the meditator may switch noting to other objects as they arise. he observes that in every act of noting. But when Insight develops. without noting clearly the passing away of the previous objects. As the meditator progresses. unconnected with the fivefold sense impressions. (Characteristics of Impermanence). the intermediate and the final phase of each noting. Noting them is difficult as they are without clear details.89 To the mind. they appear real! These are purely mental processes.

In respect of objects not personally experienced. also note these reflections if they occur. Thus. The meditator must note all these reflections and go on meditating as usual. While giving more attention to the bare noting of objects. Such excessive reflecting. the meditator must. by inference of having realised these three characteristics experientially. he concludes that they too are constituted in the same way. the meditator no longer reflects but goes on with noting those body and mental objects which present themselves continuously. however. It is beyond anyone’s power to change or stop the process.90 He also reflects that what is impermanent is painful. (Characteristic of Suffering). Hence. he comprehends all other objects as impermanent. but he should not dwell on them. After comprehending the three characteristics. suffering that is beyond any one’s control. impermanent. and is ‘self’-less. comprehension will nevertheless become increasingly clear at the higher stages. painful in the sense of fearfulness. (Characteristic of Non-self). a dart. This is an inference from his direct experience. All is pain. all is suffering. He further realises that the pain is not an individual ‘self’. a boil. painful and without a ‘self’. no attention should be given to reflections. subject to suffering. It takes its natural course. He looks on pain as a barb. This is “Knowledge of Comprehension”. however. . He also realises that the material body is a source of suffering. painful because of the uncertainty and stress of rise and fall. ceaselessly arising and passing away. can be a hindrance to the progress of Insight! Even if no such reflections occur at this stage. that the pain has no core and there is no exercising of power over it.

He then tests such knowledge through ardent practice. Mindfulness is to be applied in full measure regardless. in the Enlightenment of the Buddha. That Confidence or Faith is to be harmonised with Insight means that Faith must not outweigh Insight to the extent that it becomes blind faith. Here balancing the Five Mental Faculties refers to their heightened maturity and being well refined so as to empower the practice. At the moment when these Five Mental Faculties are correctly developed and balanced. If not accompanied by confidence. The essence of co-ordinating the Faculties consists in harmonising Confidence with Insight and Energy with Concentration. Effort (viriya). and the body and mental processes to be noted also arise much quicker. He then investigates. Mindfulness (sati). Concentration (samadhi) and Insight (panna). as a support for his knowledge gained by listening and studying (sutamaya-panna). What is required in the practice is faith that is based on truth and stands the test of reason. . The same applies to Insight.91 Balancing the Five Mental Faculties The Mental Faculties are altogether five: Confidence (saddha). Once they are correctly harmonised. These faculties are personal virtues which a person must develop as part of his mental make-up. the mental process of noting accelerates as if it becomes uplifted. mere superstition. The meditator must have confidence. These are prime virtues of great importance on which the success or failure of mental training depends. the Five Faculties become dynamic powers. which is harmful. well balanced and co-ordinated. for example. conducive to meditative contemplation enhancing the acquisition of Insight. examines and contemplates until he confirms and further enhances this acquired knowledge (cintamaya panna). it will be mere theorising.

At the first (1) level. Energy (viriya) is like speed and Concentration (samadhi) like the governor that regulates it. he would then be able to realise the truth of the Dhamma through his own effort. Concentration is like the weight of a bullet. So. The meditator must be aware of all this and see it in himself. one hears and simply believes in what someone says and does. If Energy exceeds Concentration. Energy like the force of the gun powder that propels it. that is. Finally. This is what is meant by balancing Faith and Insight (saddha and panna). having found the statement to be reasonable and in agreement with previous ideas.92 When such practices are correctly taken up. Thus. If Concentration exceeds Energy. keeping them suitably balanced and in harmony. progress in meditation will not be achieved. there are three different levels of Insight. Balancing Energy with Concentration can easily be explained in terms of an analogy. Then after having considered and understood (2). . belief in a truth that has become evident to one’s own mind. one has confidence at the highest level. Energy and Concentration must be properly balanced. activating the mind and restraining it must go together. his practice will go amiss. If the two are not co-ordinated. If he allows either one to predominate. that excess energy is undirected and is dissipated. one has a higher degree of confidence. He then gains spiritual knowledge through such experiential realisation and mental development (bhavanamaya-panna). based on neither authority nor reasoning. each of which must be accompanied by confidence or saddha based on or supported by it. when one has actually practised (3) and realised the fruits of the practice. He will then be able to co-ordinate belief and Insight correctly. then the meditator becomes lax and sluggish and may make no progress at all.

if the meditator is habitually restrained in his mental activity. first concentrating on it and only then considering it. this may take place by itself. most particularly the other four faculties. prickly sensations and itching appear in quick succession momentarily. This is “investigating with a steady mind” or “steadiness in investigation”. Mindfulness enables Confidence to judge how much to believe. . This is what is meant by Balancing the Faculties: the coordinating of all the qualities necessary for successful practice. The meditator needs Mindfulness as a means of controlling various other things. the mind is steady. [Condensed Excerpt from Anapanasati by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu] In a moment of in-breathing. Mindfulness occupies a central position. With the faculties working suitably together. he can co-ordinate them steadily and harmoniously. Slight movements are felt spreading all over the body. he will gain full insight of that object according to reality. it compels Confidence and Insight to go together. naturally. By and large. Mindfulness is needed in all cases. it introduces Confidence to the companionship of Insight. With care.93 Concentration too must be balanced with Insight. as if it were arranging the other Faculties into pairs and “advising” them how to perform their respective duties properly and harmoniously from beginning to end. In several cases. it has agility and adaptability and so can do progressively finer work. these are feelings hard to bear. For example. Quick succession is also evident in the process of bending and stretching. If he always make his mind steady before thinking over any object. the rising of the abdomen presents itself in quick succession and the falling also becomes correspondingly quicker.

but with mindfulness. seems as if alighting on mindfulness and is noted clearly. one need not try to note details of the objects arising in quick succession. reflections focussed on a few selected objects should be set aside and mindful noting be directed towards every object that arises at the Six Sense Doors. If the meditator goes on noting these processes he will fully comprehend them as they happen. Then mindfulness will become very strong. Body and mental processes are many times swifter than a wink of an eye or a flash of lightning. they can be noted and comprehended. and yet. If one attempts to follow them in a detailed manner. one will get tired soon. Brilliant Lights At this stage.94 The meditator cannot possibly keep pace with the quick succession of varied experiences if he attempts to note them by name. The meditator then realises that body and mental processes are very fast indeed and can be as fast as a machine. If one wishes to name them. there arises tranquillity of mind and along with it appears mental agility. These sightings produce in him a subtle thrill and exhilaration. causing falling of tears. but one should note them generally. mindfulness seems as if plunging into an object that arises. As a result of Insight. tremor in the limbs. and as usual when there is no further notings. . He feels elated. At this stage. As a result. The important thing is to note clearly and to comprehend whatever that arises. brilliant lights may appear to the meditator. There arises in him rapture. The object too. Then. Noting has to be done in a general manner. a collective designation will suffice. one should revert to the noting of the rising and falling of the abdomen.

mindfulness and rapture. The meditator should not reflect on these happenings. As each arises. Insight penetrates objects with ease. His happiness exceeds those of his former experiences. While noting objects he comprehends the three characteristics. These “corruptions” occur at the stage of Weak Knowledge of Rise and Fall.95 When sitting. There arises in him thoughts that the Buddha is truly omniscient and things are as He says. the mind remains tranquil. “brilliant light”. When there is no object to be noted. He wishes to advise others to practise meditation and communicates his feelings and experiences to others. For example. heat or pain. walking or standing. painful and without self. Through firm faith. his energy is neither lax nor tense. There arises in him equanimity associated with Insight. “faith”. he feels quite at ease. or lead to conceit. These are the “ten corruptions of Insight”. lying. “tranquillity”. if. the body-and-mind process is impermanent. in misjudging these phenomena and overrating his achievements. They have the character of “corruptions” only when they cause attachment in the meditator. “rapture”. He comes to believe it to be just the bliss of meditation. He is free from stiffness. mind is very bright. he should note them accordingly. he may believe he has attained to the Holy Paths. they are pliant and wieldy in being able to attend to any object for any length of time desired. There also arises a subtle attachment of a calm nature that enjoys the Insight associated with the brilliant lights. Sloth and torpor free. . “happiness” and so on. and the meditator wishes to avoid all evil. Mind becomes sound and straight. Both body and mind are agile in functioning swiftly.

such objects will pass away. however. with such phenomena. such phenomena will disappear. to revert to noting rising and falling of the abdomen as usual. the meditator must note each phenomenon as it arises. the meditator should note "bright. . While concentration is intense. In such instances. bright”. Initially when a brilliant light appears. momentarily and return to mindful noting of rising and falling. he should disperse it by vigorously directing his attention to that very thought. he is likely to see it. the meditator should cease to pay attention to them and turn energetically to the noting of other phenomena arising. and revert to other phenomena as they arise or if nothing immediately arises. the light becomes so brilliant that he finds it difficult to make it pass away by the act of noting mindfully.96 When there is brightness. seeing". the objects may become more distinct. not only a brilliant light but also several other phenomena may continue to arise if the meditator inclines to one or the other of them. the meditator tends to forget noting and enjoys watching the bright light. and it is likely to linger on. faint objects appear one after another like a train of railway carriages. The meditator should respond to such visual images by noting "seeing. as each of them arises it must be noted until the whole train of objects passes away. thinking”. “thinking. In some cases. Similar acts of noting should be made in the other cases. If the meditator's Insight is not well developed. it will be mixed with feelings of rapture and happiness. never to arise again. Even if the meditator applies mindful noting of the lights. However. In any case. even if there is no such inclination towards any object in particular. If such a thought arises. Sometimes. when his concentration has developed sufficiently well. If he does so. The meditator should not ponder as to whether the light is still there.

bearing in mind the following advice of the Buddha. will be well advised to practise by the aforesaid way of contemplation of body. one who is really keen to meditate until he attains his goal. consciousness and mental objects. Therefore. The correct response. in conformity with the Path of Insight is to momentarily note these objects mindfully. For it is said: No slacker nor the man of puny strength may win Nibbana. There are bound to be differences as capabilities and paramita are not the same in each individual. must find a teacher who is fully qualified by personal attainments to guide him all along the way from the lowest stage of Insight to the highest Knowledge of Path. In the course of meditation. desire and diligence. Faith. feeling. depending entirely on book instructions. is a wrong attitude. Fruition and Nibbana. called Satipatthana Meditation. and being attached to it. This being so. in fact a must for them. Concluding Note Those who are keen to work for their own deliverance from the ills of the world and attainment of magga-phala-Nibbana. Fruition and Reviewing. It is. What has been described in these pages may not be experienced in to-to by every meditator. End of Instructions on the Practice. it is obviously not very easy for such a person to attain the Path. too differ in different individuals. freedom from all ills. This is Purification by Knowledge and Wisdom of What is Path and Not-Path. the highest goal of Vipassana Meditation. A meditator.97 The meditator must recognise the fact that cherishing an inclination towards a brilliant light. . Then he should cease to pay attention to it and turn energetically to the noting of other phenomena arising. need to be as cautious and hesitant as a traveller who has never been on a particular journey. one should go all out to win the goal.

as the case may be. “reflecting. "transient indeed are all component things”. . Mind generally passes away on being noted once or twice.) On imagining meeting a person. reflecting”. They are Objects of Suffering and are Uncontrollable. It is obvious that they are all subject to ''birth and decay". . This coming into being and then perishing or disappearing is indeed suffering… this is dukkha. wandering”. There and then. All component things arise but perish within a twinkling of an eye. This wandering mind should be noted: “wandering. when it reaches a place. with mindfulness. when it wanders away. note as “speaking. meeting”. hot sensations. “arriving.. that is anatta. They should be noted as they arise. feeling of painful sensations. speaking”. Uncontrollable by any force or means. (When sufficient strength in concentration is gained it will be possible even to carry on with the noting of each act of opening and closing of the eyelids and winking. mindfulness of those wandering thoughts will disappear too. At first it may take some time to observe wandering thoughts but later. arriving”. “planning. itching sensations or of body actions in changing the position and moving the limbs. after which revert to noting “rising and falling”. planning”. they will disappear quickly. noting other phenomena as they arise. nothing is everlasting or permanent. Not only will wandering thoughts disappear. it should be noted as “meeting. the meditator will come to realise the truth that: All Conditioned Things are Transient. this is anicca. This suffering cannot be warded off in anyway or by anyone and nothing can be done about it. When speaking with the imaginary person.98 REFERENCE NOTES Wandering Mind There are times when the mind wanders. There may also be instances of swallowing..

He should not be too taut and tense*. Whenever pain occurs. a meditator will usually become tense and anxious. as determination can be accompanied by anger. be painful or become numb. he should note this painful suffering. The second is to make this pain go away in an aggressive manner. contemplate and realise the truth about the pain. Patience is an essential quality in mindfulness meditation. but keep the mind on the pain. thinking. this is greed. that is. he is actually desiring to attain pleasure. as it is with patience that Nibbana is attained. his limbs will start to ache. "Will I have to stay like this for the whole hour?" or "Will I have to go on suffering like this all the time?" This reaction is undesirable. There are three ways of mindfulness meditation as regards pain. instead he should let the body and mind relax. this is not desirable either. Pain or suffering will come as it will and a meditator should be mindful of that pain. he should not meditate in this way. He must be patient and keep a calm mind. and the meditator must remain calm in mind and body. The third is to meditate. . Firstly. taking the Buddha’s advice not to be over-strung or over-lax in his practice was able to quickly attain Arahantship). how it has come about and what are its qualities. The first is to concentrate on the pain so as to end it. The third way is to contemplate on the pain itself. feel the pain. when the meditator concentrates his mind on the pain to be relieved of it. greed for pleasure. noting in a relaxed manner. Thus. and pinpoint its source. The second way is where he is determined to be rid of this suffering. Patience is the only solution. but mindfulness meditation is not for pleasure but to eradicate greed. When this occurs. and mindfulness meditation is not about allowing anger to creep in. *(In the Sona Sutta – a monk.99 Pain and Patience As the meditator goes on meditating for some time.

As concentration becomes stronger or advanced. Insight Knowledge will arise. so also will that pain lessen and subside naturally. numbness and aches. and note. hearing”. It will be noted that the pain does not last. The meditator should earnestly and enthusiastically continue being mindful of the pain. . aching. Just as the pain arises and becomes unbearable. nor does the knowledge of the pain. these sounds will become indistinct and appear to be from far away or they may become loud and near or hoarse and not clear. “hearing. the pains and aches will disappear as soon as they are noted. hammering and beating sounds. Cockerels crowing. but he should not lessen his concentration. All things are neither lasting nor are they permanent. When such sounds are heard. people speaking and cars running. aching”. he will note that those pains and aches will become more severe and may become unbearable. and know exactly where it arises from and how painful it is. pain”. birds singing. Birth and decay are quick and painful. but the mind must not follow those sounds. they are all impermanent and transient. paining. If he is mindful of such pain. The meditator may hear sounds. When he becomes very energetic and enthusiastic in mindfulness meditation. neither does the meditator’s mindfulness. the nature of Pain is anicca. If concentration is powerful and strong. So we come to know that. until they disappear one by one or until the painful areas change places. dukkha. “paining. “pain. and protection from such transience and pain is not possible. see and smell things around him. Superficial mindfulness in meditation is ineffective. anatta.100 The meditator must concentrate very deeply on the particular part of the body where the pain arises and note. the meditator should note.

meditating on the past do not serve the purpose. impermanence. not everlasting. hearing”. as one may already have clingings to the past. The sounds will disappear one by one or the syllables of a word heard will not be connected. ‘I’ thought. as such meditation will not enable one to understand reality or eradicate defilement. it is of no benefit to meditate on things past as one will not be able to realise things as they really were. the “I” notion may persist. which may be hard to overcome. the sounds will disappear slowly. that is anicca. this is anatta. Thus will the meditator realise: sounds are not lasting. one remembers very little of one’s childhood. But. Thus. Even in this very existence. “hearing. there is the ‘I’ notion. . ‘I’ heard. Thus. the meditator will come to realise that by mindfully noting. While living in the present few can recall past existences. one thinks: ‘I’ saw. it is uncontrollable. It was ‘I’ who saw at that time and it is ‘I’ who am seeing now. That is the realisation that will be experienced from mindfulness meditation of sound. Thus. and mindfulness meditation of hearing. as one recalls them. the knowledge of mindfulness meditation is also impermanent and nothing can be done to stop them from arising and disappearing. One may have clingings to things in the past. There can even be notions of permanence and happiness. Things of the more recent past may be recalled. Even with this knowledge. The occurrence of sounds and their disappearance is so quick and obvious that it is dukkha or suffering. even though one may view them as mind and matter. as will the knowledge or awareness of hearing. Nothing can be done to ward off the arising and disappearing of sounds. so will the awareness of hearing and the mindfulness meditation disappears naturally. Meditation is Now Meditation cannot be based on phenomena in the past or those that may happen in the future. Just as the sounds disappear.101 In time.

nor is it the way to eradicate defilement. nothing to cling to. there can be no clinging or attachment. “Impermanence”. Defilements are latent in contacts with the Six Senses. he finds that what he sees passes away. what he hears passes away. it is called “object-latent”. but one may subconsciously cognise things as “permanent”. To meditate on the future will not let one see things as they really are. but the ‘self’ remains strong and firm. one may be disappointed when it turns up. Purchases can be put on credit. .102 One may intellectually understand. If there is nothing to cling to. They pass away in no time at all. What do people cling to and why do they cling? They cling to things or persons they have seen because they have attachment to the things seen. This is a case of latent defilement because they arise from objects. moment to moment. If one fails to meditate on phenomena as they arise. only then will clinging be extinguished. suffering and non-’self’. If they fail to meditate and contemplate on them as they arise. One notes suffering. there is nothing to love. When one meditates on it in advance. Defilement clouds one’s mind. attachment and clinging arise. one will not know their real nature of impermanence. Cravings. Meditation is now. but thoughts of “happiness” keep turning up. The future is unsure. One meditates on non-’self’. It cannot be put off. but meditation is for now. Moment to moment is the reality one is in. wrong views and defilement will arise anew. nothing to hate. When the meditator contemplates. Once he sees them as they really are.

It can only be acquired through purity of mind. ideas may come up. As the meditator’s mindfulness and concentration grows and intensifies. touches or thinks without missing anything! For the beginner. There is no guarantee that a meditator will gain such knowledge at one sitting. Acquisition of such knowledge does not happen immediately. A specially gifted person may achieve this knowledge in two or three days. sitting. “rising. tastes. thorough and dedicated effort. The listeners on their part were people of perfection. hindrances. Make a quick note whenever the meditator sees. It is comparatively easy to note the rising and falling of the abdomen. developed and matured through aeons in time. They are not able to know the disposition of their listeners. knowing”.103 Incessant Work in Noting To arrive at Insight Knowledge one needs determined. too. These are in fact. smells. hears. suffering and selflessness begins with investigative effort leading to knowledge. This was because the Buddha knew the disposition of the listeners. Most will take five. to note everything is quite difficult. In the time of the Buddha. Note without a let-up. falling”. How long do we have to work? Understanding impermanence. Resolve to note as much as he can. falling. “thinking. touching”. Today’s teachers may be teaching from what little they have learnt. touching and sitting should also be noted. there were those who attained Path and Fruition after listening to a single stanza from the Buddha. purity of views and purity of transcending thoughts. rising. It is also difficult to say that listeners are men and women of perfection. “rising. six or seven days working assiduously and those who are slack may not gain it even after fifteen or twenty days. planning. So one must work earnestly from the very beginning. . Note them also. falling. As he continues noting.

Noting must be done in earnest without let-up. as the case may be. . He will be noting with ease. “tired. The meditator’s mindfulness and concentration will be improving at which time he will be able to increase his notings appreciably. tired”. itch and others appear during meditation. Should there be any lull in nama and rupa activities. he will not have purity of mind and a clear understanding of mind-matter (nama-rupa) phenomena. he should turn his attention to them. desire to bend” as the situation dictates. sits. When he stands. every move must be noted as it arises. walks. “desire to stretch. When unbearable feelings of tiredness. pain. revert to noting the rising and falling of the abdomen. note these thoughts. Thus. warmth. Note them and be rid of them. When he bends or stretches. he will have developed purity of mind. note each move as it arises. moves. label and note. If a thought appears to stretch or bend the limbs. or “hot. hot”.104 Unless he gets rid of them. lies down and so on.

one is freed from pride and conceit. and so the mind has a chance to soften. the mind is able to penetrate into the true nature of things. When we can further see how these phenomena are conditioned.105 VIPASSANA JHANAS Sayadaw U. Observing the fleeting nature of Mental and Physical Phenomena. one gains Insight into their impermanence. No one is there. With continuous noting. certain defilement will never make the mind tense and rigid anymore. As a direct consequence of this process. The defilement which harden the mind. . the defilement (kilesa) are unable to arise. workable and dextrous. pliable. one gains Insight into their dis-ease and suffering nature and thereby is freed from cravings. realising that the process of Mind and Matter is empty and not at all related to one’s wishes. the mind will be free of doubts. Right Concentration: all these are factors of the Noble Eightfold Path. the first experience of Nibbana. Panditabhivamsa How Wisdom Softens The Mind Right Effort. If one sees clearly the tremendous mental and physical stress brought about by phenomena. with no one creating them. and the mind experiences a huge sense of relief. just Mind and Matter. The deeper we penetrate into the true nature of reality. When they are present in the mind. one can be freed from the wrong view that there is some permanent entity called the ‘self’ within the body we call ‘our body’. Right Aim. Right Mindfulness. As we go deeper into the moment. the mind becomes softer and more relaxed as the defilement loosen. This is only the beginning. the more our mind becomes flexible. If one attains the first path consciousness. making it rigid and agitated are dispelled when one is with the moment. If one sees the absence of ‘self’ in all phenomena. There comes the Insight that everything is just Mind and Matter.

the conditionality that relates them.106 Blowing Out Suffering The Buddha: “The mind should not be allowed to wander without. we have the chance to understand the seeing process for what it really is. is also a mind that has run away. there will occur a second. The wandering mind is the mind that has been polluted by kilesa as it reflects on what has happened or what is happening. If the mind does this. if mindfulness does not intervene. Practically speaking. the Buddha’s instruction not to allow greed. it becomes a wandering mind. The mind veiled in delusion.” If the mind comes into contact with a pleasant. hatred and delusion. He who is able to be mindful in that way will be able to extinguish all sufferings. it fills with aversion. tempting object. desirable. perhaps a third or fourth series of consciousness accompanied by greed. we know the mind has wandered off. Immediately after this series. hatred and delusion. aversion and delusion to arise. it is not wandering. unable to see what is happening. and the characteristics of impermanence. When it touches a disgusting. The Sensing Process With and Without Mindfulness Sensing processes occur through a series of consciousness which are neither wholesome nor unwholesome. If we activate precise and penetrative mindfulness and diligent effort at the moment of seeing that coloured object. painful object. This is the moment it has wandered off. . it naturally fills with greed. This is the chance to develop wisdom and observe the relationship of Mind to Matter. neither should it be allowed to stop within. suffering and absence of ‘self’ they share. if we begin to reflect upon the characteristics of the object. The efficacy of Vipassana practice is its ability to sharpen mindfulness until it can recognise the bare sensing process at the end of the amoral series of consciousnesses and forestall the arising of further series accompanied by greed. Thus.

There is no greed. Direct attention to the rise and fall of the abdomen. actually to feel them from beginning to end. CRASH! Sound suddenly becomes predominant. and note it as: “hearing. It is another matter if the mind is drawn away by a familiar tune and we begin to remember the last time we heard it and what the singer’s name was. Jhana There are yet deeper aspects of not wandering. Jhana is usually translated as ‘absorption’. nor aversion to unpleasant objects. If the mind makes an effort to be precisely aware of these movements. he can then look at it closely. we leave behind the rising and falling movements. hearing”. Even during a sitting some meditators wriggle and tap their fingers when they remember songs from the past.107 The meditator might like to try an experiment right now. If he takes a sharp instrument and stick it into that thing. it will penetrate the object so that he can lift it out of the mud. Imagine the meditator finds something in the mud and wants to pick it up. It refers to a jhanic factor that must arise in the mind. Samatha and Vipassana Jhana. There are two types of Jhana. hatred and delusion. At this moment. The word ‘penetrative’ is not used casually. The way his fork pierces a morsel of food illustrates this jhanic factor. The mind that is not wandering is the mind that is penetratively mindful of what is happening. nor deluded confusion about what is going on. Even so. Actually it refers to the quality of mind that is able to stick to an object and observe it. There are neither thoughts of pleasurable objects. The same goes for the food on his plate. . They certainly suffer from wandering minds. we do not consider that the mind has wandered if we are able to recognise immediately that this is a sound. it will be freed of greed. no hatred or delusion in the mind. without getting carried away by reflections about what caused the sound.

staying focussed on the characteristics of impermanence. but it is not conditioned. The whole purpose of concentrating one’s attention on the abdomen is to penetrate the actual quality and nature of what is happening there. sankhara paramattha dhamma. When the meditator is aware of movement. allows the mind to move freely from object to object. tranquil. The mind is fixed on this object without wavering or moving elsewhere. Vipassana Jhana. heat or cold. or conditioned ultimate realities: mental and physical phenomena which are changing all the time. suffering and absence of ‘self’ that are common to all objects. the most important results of Vipassana Jhana are Insight knowledge and wisdom.108 Samatha Jhana is pure concentration. Eventually the mind develops a very peaceful. Vipassana Jhana is the focussing of the mind on paramattha dhammas. Different levels of absorption are described in the texts. Nibbana is also a paramattha dhamma. each having specific qualities. . Most of them are sankhara paramattha dhamma. Vipassana Jhana also includes the mind which can stay focussed and fixed upon the bliss of Nibbana. The sensations a meditator feels at the abdomen are conditioned ultimate realities. caused by his intention to breathe. Mindfulness at the respective sense doors follow the same principle. tautness. Rather than the tranquillity and absorption which are the goal of Samatha Jhana practitioners. a mental image. such as a coloured disk or a light. Usually these are spoken of as ‘ultimate realities’. fixed awareness of a single object. on the other hand. he has begun to develop Vipassana Jhana. Breathing is a good example of conditioned process. tension. concentrated state and becomes absorbed in the object. for example. but actually they are just the things we can experience directly through the Six Sense Doors without conceptualisation.

It also has the aspect of establishing the mind on the object. The second factor is vicara. After vitakka has brought the mind to the object and placed it firmly there. As he is mindful in an intuitive and accurate manner from moment to moment. The Five Jhanic Factors The first of them is called vitakka. which admits of four levels of Jhana. the first Jhana possesses five factors which we will describe below. which means seclusion. According to the fourfold way of reckoning. It is merely a descriptive term for this secluded state of consciousness. restlessness and doubt weaken and disappear. the mind will understand the true nature of what is happening. generally translated as ‘investigation’ or ‘reflection’. focussing on what is happening in any particular sense process. directing the mind towards an object. The consciousness is secluded. This viveka is not a jhanic factor. These sensing processes will be understood in individual characteristics as well as common ones. rubs against it. . sloth. aversion. The meditator can experience this himself when observing rising and falling. vicara continues to rub the mind onto the object. Then his mind reaches the object and it does not slip off. The hindrances of desire. so that the mind stays there. First. This state of clarity results from the presence of the two jhanic factors we just discussed. All of them are important in Vipassana practice. It is called viveka. the meditator makes the effort to be precise in aiming the mind at the rising process. the mind becomes increasingly pure. It impinges on the object. far away from the hindrances. The mind then becomes crystal clear and calm. It is the factor of aiming accurately.109 If there is diligent effort and penetrative awareness.

or as feelings of rising off the ground. joy and happiness born out of seclusion. they are distinguished in that piti is a conative factor belonging to the aggregate of mental formations (sankharakkhandha) while sukha is a feeling belonging to the aggregate of feeling (vedanakkhandha). This factor may manifest physically as a tingling sensation. (*sukha – bliss: This jhanic factor is pleasant mental feeling. after some time the mind will become secluded. If the mind is accurately aimed at the object. one becomes happy. Piti is compared to the delight a weary traveller would experience when coming across an oasis. and is a state of rapture. rapture.) Both the third and fourth jhanic factors come about as a result of seclusion from the hindrances.110 The third jhanic factor is *piti. . Because this mind is secluded from the hindrances. able to concentrate on what is happening without getting scattered or dispersed. the mind automatically becomes calm and peaceful. joy. It is spiritual happiness. sukha to his pleasure after bathing and drinking from it. It counters the hindrance of restlessness and worry.zest.) The fourth jhanic factor. Seclusion of mind comes about because of the presence of the first two jhanic factors. pleasurable interest of mind. buoyancy of mind. comes on the heels of the third. (*piti . This kind of joy is associated with renunciation rather than with sensual desire. Think of this sequence as a causal chain. a delighted interest in what is occurring. joyous and comfortable. happiness or comfort. This one-pointedness of mind is the fifth jhanic factor. samadhi or concentration. can be defined as rapture resulting from success in overcoming sensual desire. as feelings of being dropped suddenly as if in an elevator. *sukha. rapture: Joy dissociated with sensual desire.) (Though piti and sukha are closely connected. It is born of detachment from sensual pleasure. if it hits and rubs it. When these first four jhanic factors are present. One feels very satisfied with the practice.

Stop Within Anyone can get caught up in rapture. enough to see the inter-relationship of mind and matter. Rather. This could be the occasion for him or her to gloat over the wondrousness of the meditation practice. or thinks about further delights that might ensue from one’s practice. Intense rapture. One avoids these two things precisely by practising the threefold seclusion of: . one wallows in the pleasant phenomena unmindfully. A meditator whose mind is composed of these five jhanic factors will experience a new accuracy of mindfulness. Threefold Seclusion The sutta implies that one should avoid certain things when one practises meditation. “Oh. At this time we say that access to the first Vipassana Jhana has occurred. a craving not connected with ordinary. worldly sensual pleasures. Rather than directly noting. such a craving comes directly out of one’s meditation practice. When one is unable to be aware of this craving when it arises. I’m getting really precise and accurate. I even feel like I’m floating in the air!” A meditator might recognise this reflection as a moment of attachment. happiness and comfort. One avoids contact with kama or sensual pleasures and with unwholesome dhammas. a new level of success in sticking with the object. happiness and comfort in the body may also arise. The mind must also come to penetrate into the Dhamma a little bit.111 Access to The First Vipassana Jhana Requires Insight Into Mind and Matter It is not sufficient to have all five factors present for one to say one has attained the first Vipassana Jhana. This attachment to what is happening within us is a manifestation of a special kind of craving. it will interfere with one’s practice.

For Seclusion of the body. (2) Seclusion of the mind (citta viveka) and as a result of the first two. This is vicara. we become mindful of all objects that arise at the Six Sense Doors. This means simply the objects of the senses considered as a group: sounds. vitakka. In a practical way. This aim. movements. smells. clearly noticing sensations of hardness. Seclusion of the mind simply means activating mindfulness moment to moment. we must have aiming. The meditator tries to observe the rising and falling of the abdomen. A meditator who can maintain continuity of mindfulness moment to moment has activated Seclusion of the mind. To be mindful. tastes and tactile objects. The effort to be mindful is instrumental in bringing a sense of accuracy in the mind. So. (3) a state where defilements and hindrances are very far away and weak (vikkhambhana viveka). but from the ‘body’ of objects related to sensual pleasures. In a Nut-Shell To acquire Seclusion of the mind. tension. It begins to impinge and rub against the object. Seclusion of the body actually refers to seclusion not from a physical body. Eventually the mind hits the bull’s eye. of course. .112 (1) Seclusion of the body (kaya viveka). visual objects. These two types of Seclusions do not come without an effort. this effort towards accuracy in placing the mind squarely on the meditation object is the first jhanic factor. one must direct the mind towards an object. taking the opportunity to practise in a place conducive to peace of mind. This removal is not in itself sufficient. Seclusion from unwholesome dhammas comes under the category of Seclusion of the mind from the various hindrances which obstruct the growth of concentration and Insight. we must remove ourselves from an environment of sensual pleasures.

sensual pleasures have been given up and the defilement put away. sense objects. the meditator has the third type of Seclusion. This is the true renunciation of sense pleasures. the mind is free from objects of sense pleasure and also from defilement (kilesa) which are caused by these objects. As a result of other jhanic factors of vitakka (aim) and vicara (rubbing). A special kind of happiness. A Special Kind of Happiness In a state where defilements and hindrances are far away and weak (vikkhambhana viveka). the happiness and comfort that come from being free from sensual objects as well as from unwholesome defilement which react to those objects. Now the word Jhana. the state of being absorbed. light and buoyant. the defilement will fade into extreme remoteness.113 After the mind has been rubbing against its object for some time. in place of ordinary apparent happiness. but it also removes defilement like fire burning them away. . Clearly. this liberating comfort appears. dextrous and flexible. At last. nekkhamma sukha arises. one gains a very comfortable state of being liberated from the very senses we have relinquished. a state where defilements and hindrances are very far away and weak. effort and continuity. the mind becomes soft and subtle. vikkhambhana viveka. When the meditator stays with the rise and fall of the abdomen. it will become engrossed and absorbed into it. Seclusion of the body (kaya viveka) and Seclusion of the mind (citta viveka) are therefore present. So. With continued practice. takes on a whole new meaning. have been given up. Seclusion of the mind from unwholesome dhammas actually means seclusion of the mind from all defilement. There is no opportunity for defilement to arise because the immediate cause of defilement. He may even go for some time without having a single thought. fewer thoughts arise. Not only does Jhana allow absorption. In relinquishing the comfort of the senses.

114 The Relationship of Vitakka and Vicara (Accurate Aim and Impingement) In the development of jhanic states. If he only held on to the mug and did not polish it. these two factors are absolutely important. Working diligently. and then he must rotate the mind. The meditator must firmly place his mind on the object of meditation. and the rotation to vicara. until it can see the object as a whole and very clearly. Of course. Holding the cup in one hand. rubbing it until the stains and pollution of the kilesa disappear. In the same way. Below are two examples. A compass has two arms. The placing of the pointed end is comparable to vitakka. applying vitakka and vicara toward the new phenomena. The two have a close relationship which is much discussed in the texts. he uses the other hand to rub the rag against its surface. A perfect circle will result. the meditator must hold his mind in the particular place where the primary object is occurring. Holding the mug with one hand is comparable to vitakka. a pointed one and another which holds the pencil. If he tried to polish it without holding it steadily. it would remain as dirty as before. he will soon have a shiny cup. He keeps applying mindfulness at that place. it would again be impossible to do a good job. The second example is that of a compass used in geometry. He applies polish on a rag. if other objects become more prominent than the primary object. Then he will be able to penetrate into the true nature of what is happening at that spot. as if his mind were the pointed end of the compass. Imagine that the meditator has a brass cup that is covered with stains. so to speak. he must note them. . This illustrates the interdependency of the two factors. the abdomen. while the polishing action is comparable to vicara. He will comprehend the process of rising and falling.

One must actually experience them. People in the West have been educated since young to use their intellect. without thinking about them. This is very misleading. The other means of knowledge and learning is direct and intuitive. One may have read a great deal. Vipassana Jhana lead to wisdom. In Vipassana Meditation. Unfortunately. but do not lead directly to wisdom is that they have concepts as their objects. he will not know for sure till he has tasted the fruit itself. The reason why Samatha Jhana can grant tranquillity. Even though the meditator have heard that apples are delicious. but without experiencing reality directly. Intellectual learning and knowledge is only one of two kinds. directly. One may understand a lot intellectually about ultimate reality. So too. Then he will have his own Insight. because they consist of direct. always to seek the whys and wherefores. This is the only way to attain Insight wisdom relating to things as they really are. with meditation.115 Direct. rather than objects which can be directly experienced without thinking. the meditator may vividly imagine what a certain experience is like. there can be no Insight. one examines the ultimate realities or paramattha dhammas. this kind of investigation is inappropriate for meditation. but he has not experienced the real thing until he has actually made the effort to practise in the right way. Intuitive Knowledge Vicara is translated as ‘investigation’ or ‘sustained thought’. sustained contact with ultimate realities. the natural state of affairs. .

Of the endless variety of defilement (kilesa). This involves two aspects of concentration. The practice of Vipassana is a full and continuous attention to the object. vitakka and vicara. They are so enmeshed that it is difficult for them to appreciate the possibility of another sort of happiness beyond those sensual pleasures which are so familiar. As long as the mind is seduced by temptations of the senses. thoughts. tastes and sensations. Bombarded by sense objects and defilement. In each moment of ignorance the mind is continually seeking and grasping after desirable sights. They are ‘hindrances’ because each of them has a particular power to obstruct and impede our practice. no chance for the remaining three jhanic factors to assemble with the first two to create the environment of peace. The Five Hindrances The five specific ways in which the mind strays from its object are known as the Five Hindrances. the mind will be engulfed by delusion and ignorance. they represent the five major types. Meditation.116 Hindrances and Antidotes Just as darkness engulfs a room at night. Drawn away time and again. so the darkness of delusion and ignorance arises in the human mind when it is not properly attuned to the object of meditation. the practical way of achieving a higher happiness. the mind will stray. it cannot remain steadily observing a meditation object. clarity and joy where Insight blossoms. sounds. Beings in this condition spend their time seeking. . There will be no light. If they are absent. smells. especially the defilement of longing for sensual objects. grasping and clinging. it will never travel that path of practice which leads beyond ordinary happiness. will be meaningless to them. These two jhanic factors keep the mind absorbed in the object of noting.

it cannot stay with the object. This is Sloth and Torpor (thinamiddha). right aim and continuity of attention are lacking. Each jhanic factor is the antidote for a specific hindrance and each hindrance is the enemy of a jhanic factor. full of memories of past deeds. Sometimes the mind becomes very frivolous and dissipated. For an object to be distracting in an unpleasant way is another frequent occurrence. He may compare this practice to what other meditators have done or heard about. The fifth and last major hindrance is Sceptical Doubt and Criticism (vicikiccha). leads the mind away from the object and also away from the direction of true happiness. the method of practice or his teachers. The presence of hindrances means that rapture. The mind cannot stay onepointed on its object but is scattered and dissipated. Upon contact with an unpleasant object. Surely a meditator has experienced times when he has doubted himself. and he becomes completely paralysed. unworkable and sluggish. worry and agitation. like a traveller at a crossroad who. This too. is the first and greatest hindrance to our practice. . onepointedness of mind. The mind becomes drowsy. remorse and regret. cannot decide which path to take. third on the list of hindrances. the mind is filled with Aversion or Anger (vyapada). unsure of the right way. they are integral parts of successful Vipassana practice. Once again. These five wholesome factors are the factors of the first Jhana. comfort. At other times alertness and vigilance vanish. flirting with one object and then another. This is Restlessness and Agitation (uddhaccakukkucca).117 Sensual Desire (kamacchanda).

the scriptures say that joy and rapture are the antidotes to anger. a great sense of comfort can begin to arise. It makes the mind alive and open. Comfort is the antidote for restlessness and anxiety. Pleasurable objects lose their power over the mind. with meditation well developed. Dispersion and dissipation cannot occur. for anger cannot co-exist with joy. without aversion. This development frees the mind from the second hindrance. the mind is content to remain with the object. The mind watches unpleasant sensations peacefully.118 Concentration: The Antidote for Sense Desire The hindrance of sense desire is responsible for keeping us in darkness. Happiness or Comfort: The Antidote for Restlessness Now. sloth and torpor do not arise. Thus. deep interest arises. Rapture and joy fill one’s being. When the meditator’s mind is concentrated on meditation. Vitakka is the antidote to thina and middha. leaving behind a sense of physical release. A mind attacked by drowsiness is a mind that has been constricted and withered. it does not attach itself to other thoughts. . sights and sounds. Aim: The Antidote for Sloth and Torpor The jhanic factor of vitakka or aim has the specific power to open and refresh the mind. It does not fly about. Sometimes pain even disappears under the influence of mindfulness. even if the objects are difficult. There is ease in the mind. Rapture: The Antidote for Aversion As concentration takes the mind to more levels. With this physical and mental comfort. when the mind is continually and diligently trying to be accurate in aiming at the object. Hence. Concentration is its antidote.

for doubt is indecision. Without a certain depth and maturity of practice. Comprehending the Nature of This World Maintaining attention on the rising and falling from the very beginning of its occurrence to the very end. the mind will hit its target of observation. the direct observation of mind and body. Continuous attention is the opposite of doubt. As he observes carefully. keeping the mind stuck to its object of observation. distinct from the consciousness that perceives them. continuous attention is the antidote. First he makes the subtle distinction between the mental and physical elements constituting the rising and falling processes. to the end. it is obvious that very profound Dhamma will be obscure. He begins to move through the progression of Insights that is only available through Vipassana. They may be confused. it does not generate critical thoughts. . Obviously. The experience is utterly clear. From its beginning. instead it runs here and there considering possibilities. causally linked. he begins to see how mind and matter are mutually connected. A mind stuck to its object uses all its power to observe. This impinging or rubbing against the object is the jhanic factor of vicara. when vicara is present the mind cannot slip from the object and behave in this manner. the meditator may come to notice that he can see clearly with his mind’s eye the entire rising process. which has the function of continuity. Immature wisdom also contributes to the spreading of doubt. through to the middle. For this vicious cycle. The doubting mind cannot fix itself on any particular object. accurate mindfulness from moment to moment in an unbroken and continuous manner. Frustration will eventually lead to criticism. developing that penetrative.119 Continuous Attention or Rubbing: The Antidote For Doubt If aim is good. Beginning meditators may wonder about things they have heard about but never experienced. Sensations are material objects. there is not a single gap.

they are impermanent things. we see that all phenomena which occur at the Six Sense Doors are impermanent. there begins to be a strong presence of all five factors of the first Jhana. The first Vipassana Jhana is said to be complete. He feels a deep interest in his meditation. Concentration. Impermanence (anicca) As the meditator observes objects come and go. their impermanence.120 An intention in the mind causes the appearance of a series of physical objects constituting a movement. This knowledge of impermanence is direct. Impermanence or anicca refers to the whole body. It becomes obvious that all objects in his field of consciousness have the nature to come and go. discussed above. Simple and general observation tells us that the whole body is impermanent. The fact of arising and disappearing comes into crystal clear focus. Unsatisfactoriness or Suffering (dukkha) and Absence of an Abiding Self (anatta). he sees clearly how the object dissolves. Nothing lasts. Aiming and impinging. Vipassana Insight knowledge is concerned specifically with the three general characteristics of conditioned phenomena: Impermanence (anicca). At this point in the practice. have strengthened. and rejoice at having discovered this fact and truth about the universe. . During the moment the meditator’s mind is in contact with the object. The meditator’s mind starts to appreciate how mind and matter come into being and disappear. Looking closer. and Vipassananana or Vipassana Insight knowledge can begin to arise. rapture and comfort join them. Sounds begin and then end. first hand. vitakka and vicara. A great sense of satisfaction arises. he feels its truth anywhere he places his attention. Sensations in the body arise and then dissolve. he will begin to appreciate their momentary nature.

True Insight only occurs in the presence of a non-thinking. mental and physical phenomena. Vipassana Knowledge of impermanence is the intuitive comprehension which realises the fact of impermanence. . tenseness. constitute characteristic of impermanence (anicca lakkhana). All sensations that can be felt at the abdomen or anywhere else are impermanent (anicca). he may be aware of tautness. If he follows the rising process from beginning to end. There is no object we can find in this conditioned world that is not impermanent (anicca). Bare Awareness of the passing away of phenomena in the present moment. Their characteristics of having appeared at the beginning of the rising process and having disappeared at the end. it is possible for Vipassana knowledge of impermanence (anicca Vipassana nana) to occur. the ending of these sensations is clear to him. it is impossible to understand impermanence. In the absence of such immediate seeing. It is important to make this point. Impermanence is not confined to one’s abdomen.121 We can also understand impermanence to mean all the impermanent things comprising mind and matter. expansion and movement. it occurs in the very moment of noting a particular object and watching it disappear. The realisation that they are impermanent can only occur in a moment when one is observing their disappearance. It is precisely in the arising and passing away that impermanence can be recognised. The fact of rising and falling away is the characteristic or sign of impermanence (anicca lakkhana). in the moment of rising. When the meditator is observing the rising and falling of the abdomen. that Vipassana Knowledge of impermanence (anicca Vipassana nana) can only occur in the precise moment when one sees the passing away of a phenomenon.

. tasting. One sees that they are not solid at all. during times when he is mindfully aware of impermanence. they do not actually last more than the briefest instant. Suffering or Unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) The second characteristic of conditioned reality is suffering or unsatisfactoriness (dukkha). The illusion of continuity begins to crumble. all these things are impermanent. As phenomena arise and pass away. Suffering itself is actually a kind of synonym for impermanence. bending. referring to all impermanent things.122 Everything that occurs in seeing. touching. In fact. very naturally the factor of unsatisfactoriness and/or suffering will also become apparent. he will be involved in Vipassana knowledge of impermanence (anicca Vipassana nana). heat and cold. hardness and pain and all of one’s miscellaneous activities. painful sensations can become very interesting. hearing. During the meditator’s observation of impermanence. At this point of development in meditation practice. his general level of conceit will progressively diminish. thinking. He will lose the illusion of permanence. One can observe them for some time without reacting. he will realise that nothing is dependable and there is nothing fixed to cling to. turning. Everything is in a flux and this is unsatisfactory. It can be discussed under the same categories: Unsatisfactoriness or suffering (dukkha). reaching out. Whatever is impermanent also is suffering. smelling. When the meditator sees the vanishing of any of these objects. walking. Characteristic or sign of suffering (dukkha lakkhana) and Vipassana knowledge of suffering (dukkha Vipassana nana). Phenomena provide no refuge. all the sensations of the body. Conceit (mana) will also be absent.

The body feels cool. Observing the pain disappearing. craving cannot arise. watching the arising and passing away of phenomena and understanding that their impermanence is fearful. Again. fearsome. but it has a different flavour from Vipassana knowledge of impermanence. One begins to see this body as a mass of painful and unsatisfactory phenomena. It eliminates the deluded view that these things are pleasurable. undesirable and bad. The mind is able to see the break-up and disintegration of that pain. one is filled with joy and exhilaration. The characteristic of suffering is stressed by impermanence. Vipassana knowledge of suffering. The satisfying nature of sensations becomes clearer. and then into throbbing. comfortable. Pain vanishes from the field of consciousness. . they are fearsome things. The throbbing changes its texture. Vipassana knowledge of suffering (dukkha Vipassana nana) only occurs when the mind is present with bare awareness. calm. it is important to understand that the appreciation of suffering we gain through reading books.123 A pain in the back: one sees fiery heat transform itself into pressure. its shape and intensity moment by moment. yet one is not deluded into thinking that suffering has been abolished. There is no refuge in them. also occurs at the moment when one is contemplating the passing away of phenomena. Precisely because all objects arise and pass away from moment to moment. the Insight that comprehends suffering. there is no way to prevent passing away. we live in a highly stressful situation. Finally. a climax occurs. Once arising has occurred. One is suddenly seized by a great realisation that none of these objects is dependable. The true realisation that suffering is inherent in all phenomena can be very powerful. does not constitute the real thing. When such an illusion vanishes. or through our own reasoning and reflection.

We can see by observing the weather. All mental and physical phenomena that occur in us come and go of their own accord. the third characteristic of existence. suffer and eventually die. While diligently observing all the mental and physical phenomena arising and passing away within. Selflessness (anatta) refers to all impermanent phenomena which possess no ‘self’-essence. When we fall ill. . It is not affected or manipulated in any way. responding to their own natural laws. Some climates are fickle. Nor does it come from reflection. At times it is wet. is seeing that an object does not arise or pass away according to one’s wishes. such that one does not know what will happen next. selflessness. The only difference from impermanence (anicca) and suffering (dukkha) is that a different aspect. at other times dry. This is Vipassana knowledge of selflessness or anatta Vipassana nana. Weather is subject to its own natural laws. The characteristic of selflessness (anatta). in other words. every single element of mind and matter. observing the passing away of phenomena. is also based on two preceding aspects. this is a natural process with which ‘self’ is not identified. Vipassana knowledge of selflessness (anatta Vipassana nana). This wisdom relating to the absence of ‘self’ in things. these processes are contrary to our wishes. just like the elements that constitute our minds and bodies. Moment to moment phenomena occur. It simply occurs when one is present. sign of selflessness (anatta lakkhana). one may be struck by the fact that no one is in control of the process. is being highlighted.124 The Absence of Self (anatta) One realises and appreciates that no one (anatta) is behind these processes. At times it is extremely hot. Such an Insight comes quite naturally. at other times freezing cold. which is beyond our control. selflessness (anatta) and characteristic of selflessness (anatta lakkhana).

Thus. These various modes. it is called a direct experiential Insight. especially when the passing away of things is noticeable.125 When one is unable to see the momentary arising and passing away of phenomena. the word ‘Insight’ may not be an appropriate translation of the Pali word Vipassana. Because true Vipassana nana only arises when one is mindful. Verified Knowledge by Comprehension: Fulfillment of the First Vipassana Jhana When awareness is clear. suffering and absence of ‘self’. Pacceka here refers to direct experiential perception. this false view is momentarily eliminated. Another synonym for Vipassana nana is pacceka-nana. One comprehends or verifies the three characteristics through personal experience of seeing the disappearance of phenomena. . ‘vi’ and ‘passana’. one is easily misled to think that there is a ‘self’. one meaning of Vipassana is ‘seeing through various modes’. meaning the Insight that arises out of verification. suffering and absence of ‘self’. an individual unchanging entity behind the process of body and mind. of suffering or of absence of ‘self’ that are inherent in all phenomena. ‘Vi’ refers to various modes and ‘passana’ is seeing. ‘Verified Knowledge By Comprehension’ (sammasana-nana). The word has two parts. A more complete translation now becomes ‘seeing through the modes of impermanence. of course are those of impermanence. With clear awareness. pacceka-nana. The intuitive understanding of all three of these characteristics is included in a particular stage of Insight. because it occurs intuitively rather than from reasoning. one can appreciate intuitively the characteristics of impermanence. Though it is very commonly used.

who has a vivid imagination or is philosophically bent. One has a deep and clear appreciation of the three general characteristics of conditioned phenomena: anicca. One has reached the deductive conclusion that in this world there never has been. unsatisfactory and empty of ‘self’. Deduction and reflection tend to be present in the first Vipassana Jhana. If one has this tendency and finds one’s practice undermined. suffering and non-selfness are not only manifest in the present situation. all impermanent. simply experiencing phenomena. reflection is connected with the Dhamma rather than with greed or aversion. one should make the effort to return to bare observation. dukkha and anatta. In this instance. At this stage the first Vipassana Jhana is considered to be fully developed and the stage of practice called ‘Verified Knowledge By Comprehension’ (sammasana-nana) is fulfilled. or will there ever be. one can console oneself with the knowledge that this is not wrong thinking. . Other beings and objects are constituted of the same elements as oneself. of course. one realises by deduction that these three qualities have also manifested throughout the past and will continue to prevail in the future. They are harmless unless they begin to take over one’s mind. and it is a further aspect of the jhanic factors of vitakka and vicara. This reflection is called deductive knowledge. manifesting in this case on the thinking level. Despite this fact. a situation that is not pervaded by these three aspects. especially in a person who is highly intellectual.126 As Vipassana nana recurs in one’s practice. It can actually put a stop to Insight. the mind is led into a natural and spontaneous reflection that impermanence. too much reflection can get in the way of personal and direct experience.

but it probably will not be concerned with the pleasures of this world. they are connected with non-greed or renunciation. dukkha and anatta arises as explained above. wealth and possessions. it has a destructive quality behind it. Vitakka connected with non-aversion and with non-violence is wholesome. some desires may be present. fame. Its wholesome counterpart is vitakka connected with renunciation. for it wishes the well-being of others. It has two branches: cruel thought and non-cruel thought. sex. Nonaversion or non-hatred refers to the lovely quality of metta. Vitakka connected with aversion and aggression is unwholesome. More likely one will feel a very wholesome desire to renounce the world or to be generous to spread the Dhamma. Though these thoughts constitute vitakka or reflection. Rooted in anger. Vitakka connected with anger is an aggressive state of mind. the vitakka connected with sensual pleasures is absent. includes this reflection on a thinking level. loving kindness. Directing one’s attention toward sense pleasure is said to be unwholesome vitakka. metta wishes the welfare and happiness of others. This kind of thought is connected with metta. directing one’s attention toward a thought. The last path of vitakka is connected with causing harm. In contrast to the aggressive. When one has tasted the flavour of the Dhamma through personal experiences as mentioned above. There are wholesome and unwholesome kinds of vitakka. A meditator would want others to have the same experience. in which one desires that another suffer harm and misfortune. In the series of thoughts that come out of direct personal Insight.127 Wholesome and Unwholesome Vitakka The word vitakka. destructive quality of hatred. . When deductive knowledge of anicca. it is not unusual to want to share it with loved ones. used for the jhanic factor of accurate aim.

metta and compassion. on the other hand. and afterwards. deductive knowledge arises concerning the Insight.128 A cruel thought contains the desire to harm. is the quality of compassion or karuna. Deductive knowledge is spicy and enjoyable. These may be very noble thoughts. one experiences a direct intuitive Insight. wanting to help others and to relieve them of any suffering or distress they may feel. Vicara as Reflective Knowledge If such reflective thoughts recur again and again. hurt. Here it means repeated reflection on the thinking level. Attaining the Higher Vipassana Jhana The first Vipassana Jhana operates up to the point where a meditator attains the Insight into rapid arising and passing away of phenomena. Non-cruelty. he grows up. One who has strong compassion will not only feel it emotionally. as it were. He is able to follow the very fast rate at which phenomena appear and disappear from moment to moment. It is another very destructive quality of the mind rooted in hatred. This is the same word used for the more sustained. but in excess it develops into long trains of thoughts which interrupt the process of direct observation. At this time Insight cannot occur. The Second Vipassana Jhana The meditator leaves behind the childhood of reflective thinking and enters the maturity of simple bare attention. . but will also seek ways and means to relieve the sufferings of others. of renunciation. this process takes the name of vicara. First. Now his mind becomes lucid and sharp. torture or torment or kill other beings. rubbing aspect of focussed attention. but nonetheless one is caught by them and carried away. Experiencing this Insight and going beyond it.

there is little discursive thinking. momentary nature of mind and matter. He experiences the deepest happiness of his life. Rapture.129 Because of the continuity and sharpness of mindfulness. faith that if one continues the practice one will gain the benefits promised by the Blessed One and by one’s teacher. Be clearly aware that rapture. Rapture and Happiness The mind is able to become more precise and concentration deepens. the prospect of further progress grows dim. tranquillity and so forth are no more than mental states. bare attention is the second Vipassana Jhana. If the meditator has extraordinary experiences. This non-thinking. Initially. mental and physical comfort also become strong at this stage. faith and great comfort begin to predominate. he realises that he is attached to them. At this time. Only then will progress continue and bring even sweeter fruits. It is only when the Second Vipassana Jhana arises at the beginning of Insight into the arising and passing away of phenomena that clarity. rapture. in the First Vipassana Jhana the mind is congested with effort and discursive thinking. It also brings believing faith. He will have done what the Buddha called ‘stopping within’. In the absence of effortful application and reflective thought. he should turn his attention to the primary object at the abdomen. faith. he should make it a point to note and label them. The Danger of Faith. When the meditator attains the Second Vipassana Jhana there is a strong likelihood that he will become attached to these extraordinarily pleasant states of the mind. . Calm. He may even believe he has become enlightened. In such a case. This deepened concentration leads to the clear. If while noting them. Nor is there doubt about the impermanent. there is space for joy and rapture. the practice seems effortless. verified faith that arises from personal experiences.

The Climax of Happiness The transition from the Second to the Third Jhana is a critical turning point in the practice. the enlightenment factors of upekkha (equanimity) becomes predominant. whose two jhanic factors are comfort and onepointedness of mind. It dawns on him that this simple noting actually is the correct path of practice. the meditator returns to sitting and carefully notes the lights. happiness. rapture. light and robust. The Arising of the Third Vipassana Jhana Rapture will gradually fade. . Then Insight into the true nature of what is happening will become very strong. As long as a meditator remains attached to rapture. The students are so excited by their experiences that they tend to be discouraged if the teacher is too deflating. when the meditator experiences it. It is rather adolescent. faith. The Third Vipassana Jhana arises at a more mature stage of the Insight into arising and passing away.130 Meditation teachers have to be tactful in dealing with students who are at this stage of practice. So. he will not move forward into the more mature. This is the Third Vipassana Jhana. he can proceed with great confidence. Meditators can sit for long hours without pain and their bodies become pure. though. but mindfulness and concentration will continue to deepen. Human beings have a natural attachment to thrills and excitement which agitate the mind. At this point. Paying heed to instructions. be certain to increase vigilance and note as meticulously as he can. subtle happiness that comes with peace and comfort. tranquillity and comfort. it creates ripples in the mind. The mind remains unshaken by pleasant objects as well as unpleasant ones and a deep sense of comfort arises in the body and mind. Rapture is one of these agitating pleasures. Thus reoriented.

attachment is less likely to arise. At the dissolution stage of Insight. If he feels that his Insight is good. leg. since a comprehensive. concepts fall away. only bare phenomena dissolving away continuously. it is gone.131 The happiness or comfort that can be tasted in the Third Vipassana Jhana is said in the Pali text to be the peak or climax of happiness that can be experienced in Vipassana practice. panoramic mindfulness is present which notes each object easily and without slipping. Before he can note an object. However. he was able to see both the ultimate. give rise to a subtle attachment. The meditator tends to get distraught and upset. . head. It is the sweetest. he may have seen phenomena clearly. the meditator can dwell in it with equanimity and without attachment. the sharpness and clarity of Insight. To continue noting precisely remains crucial. or recognition was still mixed in. Up to now. abdomen. sharp and clear. non-conceptual reality of objects and also the concept of form: body. At this point. which disappear as soon as they are noted. he should note this. he will gradually pass beyond the stage of Insight into arising and passing away into the stage of dissolution of phenomena. not only because he feels a lack of comfort. As the meditator notes phenomena. lest the comforts of mind and body. arm. but also because the rapid disappearance of phenomena can be quite disconcerting. Concepts become indistinct. Dissolution of Phenomena: The Comfort Disappears The Third Jhana is called the climax of happiness because there is no more happiness in the next Jhana. the beginnings and the middles of objects are no longer clear. and so forth. Hence. Instead the mind perceives continuous dissolution of phenomena. The next phenomenon behaves in the same way. Often it seems as if there is no body at all. Nevertheless. but the mental factor of perception.

nor are there outright discomforts or pains in the body at this time. “What happened?” he may wonder. Obviously there is discomfort. Eventually it is possible to gain ease in this new stage. Yet in the First. fill his mind. upekkha or equanimity arises. There is no more physical or mental happiness or ease. . tatra majjhattatta is present in each of the Jhana from the beginning. The Appearance of the Fourth Vipassana Jhana During the maturation of Insight into arising and passing away of phenomena. comfort nor uncomfortable. “I was doing so well. It is out of control. I can’t note a single thing”.132 The meditator may be unable to tell where the phenomena are located. As comfort disappears in the dissolution stage of Insight. like the moon in daylight which cannot compete with the sun. In this particular aspect. it is known as tatra majjhattatta. In fact. With a mind that is neither pleased nor displeased. The feeling in the mind is rather neutral. Self judgement. and now my practice is falling apart. It has an interesting quality. whose characteristic Jhana factors are equanimity and one-pointedness of mind. Second and Third Jhana. mindfulness can become perfectly pure. Upekkha has a tremendous power to balance the mind. This stage of Insight is called ‘Insight Into Dissolution of Phenomena’. keen and sharp. it is hidden by more assertive qualities. In this environment of balance. dissatisfaction. Now the Third Jhana gives way to the Fourth Jhana. The meditator can just coolly settle back and watch the continual flow of phenomena. Subtle aspects of phenomena can be seen with incredible and uninterrupted clarity as particles and tiny vibrations. it still does not incur mental displeasure. there is only disappearance. The bountiful pleasure of rapture was replaced by milder and subtler feelings of comfort and peace. the rapture of the second Jhana gave way to the third Jhana factor of comfort. too.

After the Insight into dissolution come successive Insights into fear. too may disappear. When comfort evaporates.133 Summary of the Four Vipassana Jhana In the First Jhana. balance is quite undeveloped. (reflective and repeated thinking). If this happens. It breaks into particles and may eventually disappear. disgust and wanting to be liberated. The rising and falling process becomes a vibration. the thrills and chills of rapture overshadow equanimity. Vitakka and vicara of the First Jhana often include large amounts of discursive thinking. then balance has a chance to shine. Predominantly instead are vitakka and vicara. There is no chance for attachment or aversion to arise. Objects which normally are very unpleasant lose their influence completely as do thrilling and exciting objects. Come the Third Jhana. when dusk sets in and darkness begins to thicken. the moon reigns splendidly over all the sky. Equanimity is not strongly shown until the stage of Insight known as ‘Equanimity regarding all Formations’. however. Because this is true at all Six Sense Doors. the kind of equanimity now present is known as ‘six-limbed equanimity’. bringing about that feeling which is neither pleasant nor unpleasant. In the Second Jhana. leaving behind no perception of the body whatsoever. . In just this way. A great subtlety of awareness is another feature of this time in practice. there is the sweetest happiness and comfort. the meditator should try to look at the sitting posture as a whole and perhaps some touch points such as buttocks and knees. so that balance has no chance to show itself. This is a deep level of practice where things begin to move very smoothly. Mindfulness is so agile now that it picks up the objects before the mind can begin to be perturbed by pleasantness or unpleasantness. These.

there will be clarity of mind and extreme sharpness. What remains is only the consciousness which knows the absence of physical phenomena. it still occurs in the realm of conditioned phenomena. ‘knowing.134 Sickness and pains disappear. Each of the Four Vipassana Jhana is characterised by a distinct type of happiness. even if the meditator has attained this stage of practice. He is only experiencing a mind similar to an arahant’s during this particular moment of mindfulness. Yet. As the meditator notes. In the Second Jhana. Finally in the Fourth Jhana. no itches left to scratch. In the First Vipassana Jhana. At such a time. knowing’. one experiences the happiness of concentration. one can experience the happiness of seclusion. however. the meditator experiences the happiness of wisdom. Only if the meditator transcends this realm can he experience the ultimate happiness. This state of extreme mental balance is said to be like the mind of an arahant. . As rapture is abandoned. The fourth type is the best happiness of course. he is still not an arahant. even that consciousness can begin to flicker and reappear. this consciousness itself should be taken as the object of knowing. the happiness of the Third Jhana is simply known as the happiness of comfort. at the same time. Like the first three. The hindrances are kept away and so the mind is remote and secluded from them. which remains unshakable in the face of any object capable of arising in the field of consciousness. However. the happiness of real peace. for no physical phenomena remain to be perceived. Good concentration brings happiness in the form of rapture and comfort. It occurs when the objects of meditation and all other mental and physical phenomena as well as the noting mind itself come to a complete stop. This is called santisukha.

he can control the Jhana level of the path by his personal wish or inclination (ajjhasaya). When they reach the path and fruit. for bare Insight meditator and Jhana meditator alike. The ancient teachers advance different views on the question of what factor determines the Jhana level of path and fruit. called the comprehended or investigated Jhana (sammasitajjhana). Those who develop Insight on the basis of Jhana attain a path and fruit which corresponds to the level of Jhana they had attained before reaching the path. Nevertheless. no matter what explanation is adopted. One school of thought holds that it is the basic Jhana (padakajjhana). . A second theory holds that the Jhana level of the path is determined by the Jhana used as an object for investigation by Insight. suffering and non-’self’. all path and fruition citta are considered types of Jhana consciousness. that is. However. Those who develop Insight without a basis of Jhana are called practitioners of bare Insight (sukkhavipassaka). the Jhana used as a basis for concentrating the mind before developing the Insight that culminates in attainment of the supramundane path. a third school of thought holds that when a meditator has mastered a range of Jhana. Still. their path and fruition citta occur at a level corresponding to the first Jhana. they differ among themselves in the degree of their development of concentration (samadhi).135 Samatha Jhana and Vipassana Jhana in the Context of the Abhidhamma Texts All meditators reach the supramundane paths and fruits through the development of wisdom (panna) – Insight into the three characteristics of impermanence.

with concentration fixing the mind on the unconditioned element and wisdom fathoming the deep significance of the Four Noble Truths. whereas the mundane Jhana take as their object some concept. . whereas the role of wisdom in the mundane Jhana is subordinate to that of concentration. like the sign of the kasina.136 They are so considered because they occur in the mode of closely contemplating their object with full absorption. the supramundane Jhana of the path eradicate defilements so that they can never arise again. whereas the mundane Jhana merely suppress the defilements while leaving the underlying seeds intact. while the mundane Jhana lead to rebirth in the finematerial world and thus sustain existence in the round of rebirths. the unconditioned reality. The supramundane Jhana of the paths and fruits differ from the mundane Jhana in several important aspects. Finally. in the supramundane Jhana wisdom and concentration are well balanced. and because they possess the Jhana factors with an intensity corresponding to their counterparts in the mundane Jhana. First. like the mundane Jhana. the supramundane Jhana take as their object Nibbana. Second. Third. the Jhana of the path cut off the fetters binding one to the cycle and are free from the round of birth and death.

this view is the right view. dhatu. comprising: the tactile object of the Twelve Sense Bases (ayatana).137 MORE REFERENCE NOTES Rising and Falling of the Abdomen It is quite in agreement with the Buddha’s Teachings to meditate on the rising and falling movements of the abdomen. a body impression and truth of suffering are objects for Insight meditation. and perceiving that rightly as such is in accord with what the Buddha taught as briefly shown below: “Apply your minds thoroughly. such is its passing away. as impermanent. O monks. Corporeality group. a brother reflects: Such is material form. Herein. the pressure and movement experienced thereby is a manifestation of the wind element which is tactile. maha-bhuta. The rising and falling movements of the abdomen is a proper object for meditation. Such rising and falling is a physical process (rupa) caused by the pressure of the wind element. being aware that it is but a movement of the wind element. the wind element of the Four Material Elements (maha-bhuta). a tactile object. the wind element of the Corporeality Group (five khandha). the body impression of the Eighteen Elements (dhatu). the Truth of Suffering of the Four Noble Truths (sacca). this view is the right view. When a brother sees tactile objects which are impermanent. such is its genesis. When a brother sees the body which is impermanent. sacca and khandha. as impermanent. While the abdomen is rising and falling. suffering and insubstantiality. to the body and regard it in its true nature as impermanent. is quite in agreement with the Buddha’s discourses on: ayatana. subject to the laws of impermanence. and while so meditating. Apply your minds thoroughly to the tactile objects and regard their true nature as impermanent. .

by comprehending. Herein. just these are elements of motion. In him that knows and sees tactile objects as impermanent.138 But by fully knowing. Whatever is an internal element of motion. one is capable of extinguishing it. of a rock. O monks. element of Extension Its character is that of hardness. Now picture an animal and see the mass and solidity of the corresponding parts of that being. The Earth Element – Pathavi-dhatu. by detaching himself from. Now identify the solid element within a plant: the harder woody parts and those parts of softer solidity. . a brother is aware of the organs of touch and tangibles. Contemplating the Four Great Elements The meanings of these Four Elements should be well understood and constantly contemplated on. Reflect on the solidity of a house. by abandoning the tactile objects. Sit holding the aspect of solidity in mind. the hardness and mass of bones and teeth. and the softer solidity of some of the other parts. this is not myself”. Both hardness and softness is experienced by the sense of touch. this I am not. After the meditator has calmed the body and the mind through contemplating on the “rising and falling” of the abdomen. thus: This is not mine. and whatever is an external element of motion. See the solidity of the parts. Sense the sameness of solidity wherever it is located. Reflect on that. Alternate between reflecting on the solidity outside the body and the solidity within the body. By means of perfect intuitive wisdom it should be seen of these as they really are. It functions as a foundation for the other three elements. ignorance is eradicated and knowledge arises. of some soil and of the floor or the ground the meditator is sitting on. 1. call to mind some of the body parts mentioned in the texts on meditation on the earth element.

Now this function of supporting is not the property of apo whose characteristic is cohesion. . in smells. Proof By Empirical Data In any mass of water or of wind. form.139 When reflecting on the earth element. adopt the earth touching position. The rationale for this peculiar property lies in the state of inseparability of the Four Great Elements. depending on two of them. The Buddha said: "Depending on one of the Great Elements. sound. with the right hand draped over the right knee or shin and the fingertips lightly touching the ground. in sound. core or solidity. depending on three of them. It lacks shape." It is the function of the Earth Element (pathavi) to receive the three other (co-nascent) elements of Water. colour. Wind and Fire. from the softest breeze to gales. not even a hundred thousandth part of an atom. that spread near and far. for tejo is characterised by its thermal quality only. In all forms of water. Wind and Fire Elements are such that they cannot exist without Earth Element as their basis. good or bad. ‘Now both the internal earth element and the external earth element are simply earth element’. the remaining one arises. the remaining two arise. Analysis of the Element of Extension By pathavi is not meant any substance. the remaining three arise. This Element exists in very clear spring water or river water. It is not the property of tejo either. it is fairly evident that the lower layers are supporting the successively upper ones. wind and smell. mass. all vibrant sounds including the sounds of gongs or pagoda bells. there exists the Earth Element. The nature of Water. in all forms of light including sunlight and moonlight or even the lustre of gems. in moving air.

What is hard or soft is spoken of by comparison: thus we have varying degrees of hardness at the bottom of which we call it softness. we should discern the same property of hardness in varying degrees in all materiality. Thus. The fact of the presence of pathavi in the clearest water.140 Support is the joint function of pathavi and vayo. light. and from that we can safely conclude that the element of extension or hardness. although the element of hardness or extension is definitely there. In the case of light and smell. One should try to understand the distinction between hardness and resistance that co-exist in the function of supporting. . With the cutting diamond at one extreme and the corporeality of a moonbeam at the other. to drive home the point that the property of hardness does not mean any particle that has any form or solidity. this element is too subtle to notice. is stated here to impress the truth that it is the mere property of hardness that we mean by the ultimate Earth Element. the ultimate Earth Element. Wind Element acquires its property of resistance on the strength of hardness. the characteristic of Earth Element. No empirical data can be drawn from them. wind. however. The former is the characteristic of Earth Element. we can discern the pressure of the element of hardness in water or in wind. any minutest substance of even a hundred thousandth part of an atom. exists in water and wind. The mere property of hardness must not be confused with the manifestation of hardness in things. By 'hardness' we should understand the term as a relative concept. Support implies hardness or the capacity to bear. the latter that of Wind Element. It cannot function alone. and it also implies lifting or the capacity to resist. sound and smell.

a form appears. . It is the Earth Element with its property of hardness that serves as the basis of all forms of materiality. As one concentrates only on its function (giving support to all forms of materiality) it will be seen as a reflection in a mirror on a clear surface of water. When thousands of crores of such atoms come together certain forms (of life) come into being. arisings and vanishings of materiality. It is not free from the concept of form conventionally accepted throughout. which is given the name 'atom'. When hundreds of thousands of crores of Earth Element. one’s view is not on the ultimate truth of Earth. This character of hardness can only be discerned as an ultimate truth. not even an atom. If there remains the faintest idea of substance or form or solid mass. by themselves the mere property of hardness. This conventional truth stands in the way of understanding the true characteristics.141 That is the character of Earth Element. even as much as an atom. from atoms and insects to the whole universe. If one wants to contemplate Earth as an ultimate reality one should concentrate only on the property of hardness which lacks substance. animate or inanimate. Wind and Fire depend on Earth for their existence. no 'hardness' can ever be found in subtle materiality such as moonlight. No other element has the property of assuming form or shape. For if conventional perception stands in the way. beginning with tiny insects. etc. The three other elements of Water. without the obstruction of the tiniest substance. Thus. Apo. happen to be held together by the Element of Cohesion or Water Element. one should realise the importance of Earth as the basic Element in all materiality.

Having thus covered the whole body piecemeal. the head. because there is in the ultimate truth no substance. because there is actually no trace of any substance in them. over a hundred times as fast as the blink of an eye or a flash of lightning. . one comprehends the same phenomenon in all other things. animate or inanimate. he should concentrate on a specific part at a time. one should find it much easier to comprehend this ultimate truth in lesser objects. and yet be able to comprehend the whole body. So when he is contemplating Earth Element in the head he should exercise his thought throughout the head both inside and out. Images reflected in the mirror are liable to vanish. in an equally fast manner.142 If one is to understand the property of hardness only. Exactly so. when opportune. he will now be in a position to contemplate on a part. all other universes. when opportune. not even as much as an atom. This fact will dawn on the meditator. When he contemplates the Earth Element in his own body with a view to gaining Insight into physical phenomena. unencumbered by any conventional concept of substance or form. While doing so the concept of colour might come in which is not the ultimate property of Earth Element. As he proceeds to the lower parts of his body. the Earth Element in all materiality is liable to vanish. Also the concept of form or shape might stand in the way. in it. animate or inanimate. All these obstructionist concepts must be discarded with great mental alertness. one finds no difficulty in comprehending the three remaining Elements. in all the universe. say. down to the soles. Once such comprehension has arisen within oneself. Once the Earth Element is thus comprehended. he should specify his field only to the extent of his practical capability in concentration. indeed.

‘Now both the internal water element and the external water element are simply water element’. See the one factor of fluidity and cohesion as common to all. not even for the blink of an eye. lymph. with the exception of Nibbana. Fire and Wind so that the four exist interdependently. When the property of cohesion is strong it tends to ooze and become fluid . a building. Once the Water Element disappears the three other elements become disintegrated and vanish at once. due to the Water Element. It functions to intensify the co-existing material states. without outside help or support. etc. so they cannot exist for a moment. Apart from this Water Element there is no other element that holds materiality together. Analysis of the Element of Cohesion Apo has the property of cohesion. as well as all physical phenomena exist in the world. Its function is to bind together the three other coexisting elements of Earth. a rock and some soil. This property alone is Water Element in the ultimate sense. All material shapes and forms in the living world. then on the body of an animal. This (basic) property of cohesion in the ultimate sense bears no substance whatever. .143 2. The Water Element – Apo-dhatu. picturing the shape and cohesiveness of the solid parts and substances and the fluid quality of blood. its character is trickling or oozing. Repeat the above exercise for the water element in one’s own body. All the elements in the ultimate sense.hence apo is expressed as Water Element. are in the nature of being formed or conditioned (interdependently). not even a hundred-thousandth part of an atom: it is just a property or a function. the Element of Cohesion Representing fluidity and cohesion. or a flash of lightning. a plant. Press a handful of moist sand and reflect on the fragile cohesiveness that lets it hold its shape or break into smaller shapes rather than collapse like dry powder. Concentrate on one’s own body. This is the crucial function of the Water Element in any given group or unit of materiality.

the mind gets murky. one should first master the skill in comprehending this element in oneself from head to foot before contemplating it in others. In fact one must necessarily comprehend it in respect of living things. trees etc. such as those of clouds. the moon. may it be man. shape and colour) even in the greatest masses of material phenomena so that it will be more readily seen in respect of lesser materiality such as living beings. one's concept about shape or form or colour are just unsubstantial and as illusive as reflected images of shapes and colours.144 If one means to understand Water Element in the Great Earth. However. in the mirror or on the clear surface of water. . When such clear comprehension of cohesion is gained in respect of the Great Earth there can be no difficulty in realising this fact in living things as well. As has been explained in connection with Earth Element. one will realise that no substance. In such cases. deva or Brahma. without being distracted by the hardness therein (which is the property of Earth Element). solidity. and that apart from the cohesion that characterises all materiality. We begin our reference to the Great Earth to impress the fact of falsity (concept of form. Concepts of colour and form are likely to obscure the meditator's comprehension. Knowledge lacks definition with the result that as one proceeds to contemplate the arisings and vanishings of phenomena. mass or form truly exists. the sun. the Great Earth. one should concentrate only on the property of cohesion. here too when one clearly comprehends cohesion as the ultimate truth about Water Element. suffering (dukkha) and nonself (anatta) will not be understood.. Unless the ultimate truth of a given phenomenon (here Water Element) is comprehended well. the reality of impermanence (anicca).

Only in combination with it can quivering (Wind Element) occur. . The Fire (Temperature) Element – Tejo-dhatu. Without the mother's warmth going into them. tejo is like the mother hen and the remaining three elements are like the yolk of an egg. ‘Now both the internal and the external heat element are simply fire element’. Reflect on these phenomena in any animal. Eggs in a nest need the mother hen's body heat by constant brooding so that they hatch successfully. which extracts the energy from the food. Reflect on the heat stored in the soil. Ponder the energy stored in the food eaten.145 3. Through maintaining an appropriate thermal degree in things. both heat and cold are modes in which it is experienced and functions to mature or ripen other material phenomena. tejo provides the necessary function of maturing and invigorating the three other elements in a given physical phenomenon. or in the walls of a house. Even so. See all these as the heat element. Notice the temperature of the body surface during sitting and walking meditation. Heat or cold is responsible for the growth and sustenance of the three other coexistent elements. Only in combination with the Fire Element can hardness (Earth Element) come into existence. This property alone is the Fire Element in the ultimate sense. the Element of Heat It has the character of heat. Only in combination with it can cohesion (Water Element) take place. Reflect on the higher body temperature of a dog or bird. the inborn heat acquired while in the mother's womb could not sustain them and they would simply rot. Reflect on the heat in one’s own body. the digestive processes. the absorption of the sugars and other substances from the digestive tract and the burning of the sugars in the body cells. in rocks. Notice this also as the meditator goes about his daily tasks. Analysis of the Element of Heat The Fire Element has the property of heat or cold.

clouds. ingesting and propelling the matter through. are mere concepts. the automatic movements of digestive organs in digesting. Reflect on the movements in the meditator’s own body: the beating of the heart and the response in the flow of blood and in the walls of the blood vessels. that they have no more real substance than reflections in a mirror or in clear water. The Air Element – Vayo-dhatu. one concentrates only on coldness in cold objects. and heat in hot objects without letting in concepts of colour. shapes and colours such as sun. the Element of Motion The characteristic of the Air Element is support. The fact that either in heat or cold there exists not the slightest substance. Manifestation is what appears to the meditator’s intellect. In contemplating Fire Element in one's body. the three co-existing elements cannot function. When one has fully understood the ultimate truth of this element in one's body it will become clear that all the living world also comes under the same truth. the meditator understands that what he has all along considered as big or grand forms. It is this element that sustains them. one takes up such portion of the body as one's concentration can manage. form or size.146 Without the pressure of the Fire Element. the seas and the great layer of water that supports this Great Earth. is quite evident. moon. .. This fact having been clearly comprehended. The cold (Fire) element is responsible for the existence of all forms of water. the voluntary movements made in chewing food and swallowing. therefore. Its manifestation is bringing out. beginning with that of the Great Oceans. When one singles out tejo as one's object of contemplation. even so much as an atom. The function of the air element is moving. This is its intrinsic nature. etc.

Reflect on the movements in nature: the movements of plants as they grow or as they adjust to the position of the sun or as they bend. See these as all the common elements of movement. air is strongest when the foot is swung forward. resist and spring back under the influence of the wind. in the flight of birds. Reflect on these same changes: in the walking or running of animals. Reflect on the rise and fall of these elements in the body as the meditator changes position: how the earth element is strongest when we stand or sit and somewhat less strong when the muscles relax when we are lying down. how the air element is strongest when walking or running. the movements of the body in response to forces from outside. in the movements of plants and in inanimate matter and objects. the movement of the wind and water in its various forms. when we walk. how the heat changes with exercise or rest. . the movements. how the strength of the elements relative to each other changes during action. the water and the soil through the course of the day and the cycle of the seasons. Reflect on these same actions in the body of an animal. the slow movement of tectonic plates.147 the slower movements of the lymph. the movements of messages from the brain and the response of muscle aggregates in voluntary actions. sometimes catastrophic. observe the changes in the air. the creep of soil. the sudden release of pressures in earthquakes and volcanoes. propelled by incidental use of muscles. such as a strong wind. of the earth. solidity predominates as the foot is planted. for example.

functions and manifestations of the air element. In colloquial speech we say that the ball is full and firm. This air element is important. otherwise. This produces air. his body remains supported by a cushion of air. . Reflecting on the rising and falling of the abdomen. In a ball. The bringing forward of the body as the air-element spreads is said to be walking”. they will tumble down. it is the air that fills out and supports the ball so that it expands and remains firm. In the same way. This the meditator realises. those above are supported by those below. just as when bricks are piled on top of each other. This is the air-element in support. become clear. he is aware: “I am walking”. In philosophical terms it is the air-element that is in support. Mahasi Sayadaw explains how knowledge is developed from meditating thus: “The thought I am walking arises. The Buddha’s instruction is to be mindful of the form of walking when noting “walking.148 As the meditator reflects on the air element. The airelement has the characteristic of support. which in turn causes the material body to move forward in a gradual process. pushing and pulling. bringing out. it appears as bringing out. Emphasis is on the movement of the air-element. the firmness. In reality there is no “I” or “He” that walks. These are the characteristics. This intention gives rise to tense movements all over the body. Thus we say: “I walk” or “He walks”. moving. he feels stiffness there. realises the Arising of the Intention: “I will walk”. This is the manifestation of the air element. walking”: When he walks. The air produces the intimation. Only the intention to walk and the form walking. One should be mindful primarily of the air element in preference to the other three. when resting on an air-pillow or mattress. When the meditator stretches his arm. The meditator who is contemplating on walking.

when he reflects on the air-element. all are the functioning of vayo. ‘Now both the internal air element and the external air element are simply air element’. . so also is the accompanying smoke. It is easily discernible when walking. walking.149 In the same way too. Exactly the same function of Wind Element is there in all materiality. so also Wind Element assists in keeping the combustion in the form of a flame or living fire. right step. is the manifestation of the airelement. putting down. The little fire catches on to the fuel assisted by Wind Element. This bringing out and drawing in. the Element of Motion or Wind Element. The growth of the fire. this moving forward as if being driven from behind becomes quite plain. of its heat and light. which in fact is the motive force of Fire Element. putting forward. When meditator bends or stretches his arm. the spread of smoke and the further catching of fire around itself. Only then is his Knowledge right and as it should be. Analysis of the Element of Motion A flame is constantly in motion. This motive force carries the heat (of Fire Element) to all inflammable things around the original fire. the quivering of the flame. the human body is filled with the airelement giving it support so that the body retains its firmness. left step. It is due to its pressure that heat and cold is transmitted throughout a given material object. its function of moving. How they move forward without the meditator making any effort is very plain. lifting. To the meditator whose concentration has grown sharp by noting. it appears a force is drawing it in or pushing it out. If we kindle a fire we start it with a tiny piece of fire which we put to the fuel. he observes it by way of its characteristic of supporting. So. and its manifestation of bringing out. As Fire Element is responsible for the combustion. The legs seem to be pushing forward of their own accord.

Water and Fire. Heat has the accompanying motive force and so also has cold. etc.150 When the motive force is weak. note carefully that heat is one ultimate fact and the accompanying motive force. we assist with external motive force by using a fan or blow-pipe. Now. (Then contemplate the same truth in the meditator’s body. When the force gets very strong there is a gale. due to its motive force. the arising of temperature-originated materiality (utujarupa). the germination and growth of all vegetation. Wind Element. The property of heat or cold is a distinct property that belongs to the Fire Element.) The arising of mind-originated materiality (cittajarupa) throughout the body as a result of a certain consciousness (citta). This force is present in air pillows or air mattresses. the dissemination of nutriment throughout the body when food is taken. The same with cold. assisted by its motive force of Wind Element. all these phenomena arise due to the motive force of vayo. another.. arises every moment to sustain the prolonged existence of those physical phenomena until their total disintegration at the destruction of the universe after an aeon of time or kappa.) . (Contemplate this fact with mindfulness. until the mere property of motion becomes vivid. In all physical phenomena and the rock formation of the Great Earth. Those three are borne by Wind Element to wherever it carries them. The motive force is another distinct property belonging to the Wind Element. from the Great Earth. is the vital energy of the three other coexistent elements of Earth. the element of Cold. the gradual growth and development of the embryo right from its ultra-microscopic liquid form (kalala) to a full-size living thing. Visualise this and contemplate the phenomenon of vayo in all things animate or inanimate. where it provides the necessary function of a cushioning effect.

Each element should be seen as it actually is with appropriate wisdom thus: ‘This is not Mine. not real. just like mirror-images. and vayo-dhatu. through concentration on the action of walking. when a bird flies over head and so on. This I am Not. nor a soul or a ‘self’ or a life anywhere. We have around us a variety of structures built of timber or bamboo. Interdependence of the Four Great Elements In the ultimate sense. They must be dispelled by penetrating knowledge (nana). Do these reflections during meditation. non-existent. pathavi-dhatu. will stand in the way. such as a house. or a rest-house.151 Contemplate it from head to foot. Concepts of colour. will become clear to the meditator’s perception. through visualisation during sitting meditation. a temple. when handling the soil in gardening. . form and shape. formerly accepted as truth by convention. What really exist are the Four Elements. See that these processes of change in materiality are the same as in the meditator’s body. These are mere concepts (pannatti). the ultimate absence of form or substance. Let us take one example. He can also do them during his daily activities. in both living and inanimate objects in his surroundings. there is no personal entity in what is generally called a person or a being. apo-dhatu. Here also. In conventional truth we speak of a person or a being or a life but these are mere conceptual terms. Use events this way at the moment they occur. a monastery. as with the other elements. This is not My Self’. tejo-dhatu. When we speak of a certain structure as a 'house' we are not referring to the timber or the bamboo of which it is built. rather we are referring to a certain type of structure generally recognised as a house which is only a secondary name of the timber or bamboo in it.

on the other hand. In the ultimate sense. therefore. Of these two. in the ultimate sense it is incorrect. were in the form of standing trees. Only when they have assumed the shape of a house do they acquire the secondary name of 'house'. conventional truth is used in the mundane sphere and is valid in its own sphere only. Further. 'temple'. timber or bamboo. these materials are re-used in the construction of a rest-house. but only timber or bamboo. and it does not mislead anyone. they were not called a house.152 When these materials. here in conventional usage this is correct. This is how conventional truth differs from the ultimate truth. or 'rest-house' only timber or bamboo exist in truth and reality. "This is a house". That is why it is said that in the ultimate sense. Only when forms appear. for in the conventional sense the statement is true. the name ‘house’ disappears. It is actually foreign to the true material that it is built of. let us say. . "What actually is the thing called 'house'?" and someone points to the building and says. This name is a mere coinage. something that has suddenly appeared from out of the blue. If someone asks. names disappear. it is wrong to say the house exists because what we call a house is merely a certain structural form built by the architect. This difference should be well understood. it is not telling a falsehood. however. and the new name of 'rest-house' is used in respect of the same materials. there is no such thing as 'house'. ‘monastery'. When forms are destroyed. is useful to get one beyond the mundane sphere to the supramundane sphere of Nibbana. In the ultimate sense. names also come into common usage. we see that there is no such thing as 'house'. conventionally accepted as a house. The ultimate truth. however. Yet when we say the house exists.

. big or small. a lump of elements. No such thing as man or deva. When hardness fails. we have become ingrained in misconcepts about things all about us and around us. in reality only the Four Basic Elements exist in the entire world. do not exist: but only the Elements such as pathavi etc. They exist together on hardness as a common base. buffalo or elephant exists in truth. In the ultimate reality. and nothing more. cow. vast extent of Samsara's journey. lungs. The Four Properties: hardness. etc. eye. meditator. only the Four Basic Elements such as pathavi exist. pleura. all are the Four Basic Elements in the final analysis. being. body-hair. bowels (faeces). the three other co-existing elements lose their base and vanish.. large intestines. ear. kidneys. are inherently different from one another.. small intestines. being. etc. man.. bones.153 In respect of person. nose. They arise together. teeth. bone-marrow. in the ultimate analysis. stomach.. ‘self’ (soul) or a life. these terms are valid conventionally only. There is no head. I. The fact lies in the truth that all things. this or that person. liver. a mass of elements. what really exist are the Four Basic Elements only. spleen. cohesion. skin. are a mere heap of elements. a collection of elements. sinews. and motion. leg. Such definitive Insight is the Light of Knowledge called 'being firmly settled in the Dhamma'. Woman. heat or warmth. and vanish together. really exist. ‘self’ (soul) or a life too. there exists no person. etc. All the organs of the body such as hair. flesh. All along the long. believing mere forms as facts of life. Sakka or Brahma. stand (momentarily) together. nails. hand. heart. are conventional terms for that which do not really exist.

the remaining three lose support and collapse together. Mastery over their nature through Insight (in pursuing) the Buddha's Teaching (of the Eightfold Noble Path) leads to wisdom (pativedha-nana) which penetrates Nibbana. chemistry. In the mundane sphere. Of the Four Great Elements tejo is supreme. . however. Likewise. Fire Element can quiver with its inherent heat or cold only when assisted by Wind Element. a mastery of these elements results in one gaining supernatural powers. the hardness of Earth Element depends for its stability and support on Wind Element.154 When cohesion fails and the binding force disappears. then the three other elements disintegrate. also called supramundane wisdom (lokuttara-vijja-nana). etc. or the vital warmth goes out and the function of sustaining life stops then the remaining three elements lose their vital force and die out. hardness disappears. Their inherent powers also are similarly incomprehensible. engineering. in fact it is simply incomprehensible. A middling knowledge of them enables one to be proficient in science. when this support fails. medicine. Cohesion also cannot do without the supporting function of Wind Element. When the motive force of Wind fails. When the distending function of Wind Element fails. When heat or cold fails. The exact functioning of the Four Great Elements in things animate and inanimate. how failure of one spells destruction of all. is too complex and subtle to understand. This is how the Four Great Elements with their own properties are interdependent. Fire Element also dies down in no time.

Only bare attention is to be paid to what arises at any of the Six Sense Doors. the all is to be fully known. the Great Earth and Water below the Earth's entire layer. it must not be accompanied by thoughts about it. What all is to be fully known? The eye is to be fully known. sounds are to be fully known. nose. that weal or woe or neutral state experienced. Body is to be comprehended. The Buddha said: “Monks. scent. Mind states are to be comprehended. tongue. body is to be fully known. that also is to be fully known. Visual objects are to be comprehended. Ear is to be fully known.” . mind is to be fully known. depend on tejo for their existence. Contemplation on Phenomena Arising at the Six Sense Doors Although contemplation must be made on whatever arises at all the sense doors.155 All physical phenomena. down to smaller things. eye consciousness is to be fully known. things tangible are to be fully known. visual objects are to be fully known. the Eye is to be comprehended. mind states are to be fully known”. “O Monks. flavours. The full understanding of the power of tejo lies within the province of the All-knowing Buddha. eye contact is to be fully known. The awareness of the arising and falling movements of the abdomen is comprised in “things tangible are to be fully known”. Mind is to be comprehended. In the above passage “fully known” means the awareness of the material and mental arisings at the Six Sense Doors. which arises owing to eye contact. Things tangible are to be comprehended. from the whole universe. animate or inanimate.

the form rising comes up gradually and passes away. awareness is another. but to the meditator whose mindfulness and concentration are well developed. one is the lifting. . When he notes rising. When noting rising. he understand how the material and mental objects keep passing away. rising is one thing. Each time the meditator notes. each in its own time. the object of attention and the awareness of it are as separate as the wall and the stone that is thrown at it. When he lifts one foot in walking. When noting falling. Matter and Awareness! These Two only! Nothing else! As his concentration improves. the object noted and the mind that notes it are two separate things. He comes to know that the material form of the rising and falling of the abdominal wall is one thing and the mental state that notes it is another. the pushing and the awareness. only these two exist. They appear to be one and the same thing. Does he see the mind that intends to shake. With every noting he finds only arising and passing away. the putting down and the awareness. the material form and the mind that cognises it do not seem separate. falling is one. the form falling comes up gradually and passes away. When he pushes it forward. the falling as well as the awareness of it passes away. only these two exist. only these two exist. The knowledge comes clear to him of its own accord. When he puts it down. Shake the index finger. the other is the awareness. When he notes falling. and the shaking? The sincere answer will be No. He also finds that the rising as well as the awareness of it passes away. awareness is another.156 Things Fall Apart To the new meditator. Book knowledge tells him that they are separate but his personal observation sees them as one.

or mind and matter are impermanent. thus. and the awareness. Bending noted – passes away. and know. They have never been and they will never be. no passing away. This is true knowledge. This knowledge comes neither from books nor from teachers. If a thing never comes to be. and pain. This is the important thing. . It comes into use from the day a child is named. come and go each in its time and place. It never really exists. the “form” bending. names. To remember out of faith is learning. they are impermanent. They never arise. the Five Aggregates. Every concept is like that – no existence. this bending and the next do not get mixed up. They never exist. Impermanence The Buddha taught that all compounded things are impermanent. It is not knowledge. Insight meditation is contemplation in order to know for oneself. Compounded things are unsatisfactory and a source of suffering. these pass away as he is noting them. we cannot say it is impermanent. are just conventions. unsatisfactory and core-less without a ‘self’. Concepts. Nor can we say they are impermanent. The meditator sees for himself. the intention to bend. never really exist. all are without a ‘self’. To believe what other people say is faith. It becomes clear to him: they appear and then disappear. so we cannot say they “pass away”. warmth. Take a person’s name. Concepts never come to be. When he notes the tiredness. the next stage of higher Knowledge would be the Knowledge by Comprehension. so no impermanence. bending noted – passes away. This is True Insight. He realises this by himself. The meditator must know from his own experience.157 When noting bending. When a meditator has realised that mind and matter are impermanent. Mind and matter are impermanent because they come to be and then pass away. no becoming.

When these four causes concur. attention is drawn to it. But if the eye is good. an object comes up. is obvious. When I say “s-. sound. Hearing is easier to understand. there is no barrier. falling. Once he has heard them. sound. They come into being whenever there arise causes. the wandering mind is no more. Then it is gone in no time at all. when noted. it passes away. If the meditator’s mind wanders while he is noting rising. he notes wandering. Seeing. then it is no more. the passing away of consciousness is very clear. It arises and then passes away. the final cessation of suffering. moving. It comes about just then. There is no hearing in the beginning. Realities other than Nibbana – mind and matter – were never in the beginning. a sound comes up. That is how they come and pass away. Of these. When these four factors concur. hearing. It is permanent because it stands for peace without end. there is seeing. thinking. bending. Listen. he hears it. cannot be said to be impermanent because it never comes to be or passes away. too. He hears one sound after another. we say they are impermanent. It is not easy for a non-practitioner to know that seeing is impermanent. The same is true of other psychophysical phenomena. No more of it. They come and go. stretching. touching. although a reality. As he notes it. After coming into being they pass away. When I say “-ound”. there is hearing. smelling. In the beginning there is no seeing. So it is impermanent. The passing away of unpleasant feelings. No more of it. So we say hearing is impermanent. sound. they are gone. there is light. attention is drawn to it. tasting.” he hears it. So we say seeing is impermanent. Now the meditator hears me talking. It has not existed before.158 Nibbana. then it is gone. But if the ear is good. So we say these realities of mind and matter are impermanent. It is gone. Because they keep passing away. Take seeing for example. all appear and disappear. Once it has risen. .

He should then follow them with his intellect. tired”. now another thought arises. five. At times. etc. The meditator realises its impermanent characteristic as he notes its arising and passing away. Once awareness arises. As the meditator’s concentration grows sharper. it is gone.. tiredness. note “aware. Thus aware. he will be able to see a greater number of thoughts in one single physical movement. such as bending or lifting. So it is impermanent. these arising and passing away are made very clear to him. If he then concentrates and notes tiredness. and sometimes it disappears at the time he is noting. Real Insight Knowledge is what the meditator realises himself by contemplation during meditation on physical and mental phenomena as they arise and pass away. He will see that there are four. aware”. sometimes it disappears completely. Now a thought arises. The meditator has to note all these fleeting thoughts as they arise. now the mind is aware of it. The same process arises when he walks or performs other functions. The wandering mind that arises when noting rising and falling of the abdomen is caught by the observing consciousness just as an animal hit by a well-aimed stone falls directly into the snare. it is gone. When tiredness arises. appears somewhere in the body. that even the word aware is no longer necessary. It comes up again. and is noted “tired. For every thought that arises there is the observing consciousness that is aware of it. now the observing consciousness is aware of it. tiredness. falling.159 As he goes on noting rising. it is noted again. the awareness is so swift. and it is gone again. or ten thoughts arising in succession every time he notes “aware”. There arise a great number of thoughts in the twinkling of an eye. Realisation of it is as clear as if it were held in the hand. If he cannot name them. heat or pain. .

. The same with pain. They think it is the same hand that moves inwards and outwards. but in reality they are individual units ……………………………………………………. In fact. The characteristic of impermanence unfolds itself to him. tired-noted-gone. Those who are ignorant of this fact think of the rising and falling in terms of the abdominal shape. falling”. One pain does not mix with the other. One tiredness and the next. pain-noted-gone. Due to lack of knowledge. not as things whole and unbroken. one move after another. From afar ants look like a line. the meditator notes “rising. The meditator sees this as he notes. the way matter rises in succession. There is no connection between one tiredness and the next. all things mental and material appear to him as separate. So from their own conception they think others. Tired-noted-gone. When he notes bending. To them it is a never-changing hand. . they pass away one by one.160 This kind of passing away will be made clearer in Higher Insight. he sees clearly how it moves and passes away. Impermanence is hidden by continuity. just very short momentary pieces. too will only be seeing the abdominal shape. Tiredness or pain is not a continuous process though it may seem so to one who does not practise Vipassana. moves and passes away. Untrained people believe that the hand that is moving now. When rising comes up. individual pieces. he again notes “falling. there is no tiredness or pain for a long while. Each pain is gone at each noting. is the same before the bending and the one after the bending. rising”. each pain is distinctly by itself. pain-noted-gone. very separate ones. He is no longer disillusioned. To the meditator watching every arising. A meditator sees things in individual units so continuity cannot hide the fact from him. and when it starts to pass away. they fail to see through the continuity of matter. one pain and the next.

etc. Only when there is intention to bend is there the form bending. see. do anything as he had wished to. it will prevail over wrong beliefs and thoughts. sit. he sees how they stress with their rising and passing away.161 Thus. He hears when there is something to hear. He had believed that he could go. suffering and not-’self’. how he derives no pleasure from them. as impermanent. he can’t help seeing it. “This body will not perish so soon. Only when there is intention to stretch is there the form stretching. He finds that nothing happens as he desires. how they can never be a refuge. To conceptualise a ‘self’ out of these mental and material things that can die at any moment and to take refuge in it is as dreadful as taking shelter in an old tumble-down house. He feels happy only when there is reason to be happy. when the rise and fall are grasped at and continuity is broken. he finds only incessant rising and passing away. how they are sufferings. There is effect only when there is cause.” So he has taken it as great refuge. If there is something to see. Only when there is something to see does he sees. This can happen at any moment. he finds that this is not so. He has misconceived that. . If no new ones rise up for the mental and material things that have passed away. An uncultured mind or reflection without meditation cannot give him real Insight into the nature of things. hear. But now as he meditates. how they can perish at any moment. Once he realises impermanence. that they follow their natural inclinations. It will last for quite a long time. rise. Mind and matter are found to be working in a pair. the characteristic of impermanence appears in its true peculiar property. Now as he reflects. The meditator sees things in their true light. how they are frightening. one dies. When Insight Knowledge has grown really sharp.

These are not important things. this is how one realises momentary Nibbana through Insight Path whenever one meditates. one realises suffering. grief. The meditator will. too”. If one realises impermanence. dying. it is very important to understand the one characteristic of impermanence.. What is important is to realise with Insight wisdom the reality of impermanence. too. knows their intrinsic nature of impermanence. can see how the two events. of course come across joys. . There is no ‘thing’ that trains and does what it desires. The Commentary to the Sambodhi Sutta says: “When the characteristic of impermanence is seen. As no kamma arises. there is no occasion for old age. suffering and selflessness. The meditator who realises how things are rising and passing away. have been the cause of unhappiness and suffering. there is no (‘becoming’). rising and passing away. Only processes of Arising and Passing away. The meditator cannot help it. there arises no kamma. tranquillities and bright lights in the course of his practice. As he has not made an effort. To have clear understanding is the most important thing in Insight Meditation. No ‘ego’. When there is no new birth. There is No ‘self’. there is effect. too. So. These characteristics become clear as the meditator keeps on meditating as instructed. he makes no effort to enjoy them. suffering and non’self’. As he does not cling to them. etc. since when one of the three characteristics is seen the other two are seen. new birth.162 He worries when there is cause to worry. No ‘I’. One who meditates on the mental and material objects that appear at the Six Sense Doors. He or she then does not delight in them or cling to them. If there is cause. the characteristic of notself is seen.

from the stopping of birth. good. despair. and lamentation are stopped. suffering. and void of a ‘self’. good. They manifest themselves as impermanent. “One who has no grasping and clinging does not long after things. “The stopping of grasping is from the stopping of craving. hears.163 Only when the meditator knows for sure that all are impermanent. as permanent. There is nothing to cling to as happy. suffering. All graspings and clingings are done away with. there is no obsession with the object noted. old age and dying. There is no grasping to what he sees. At that. ‘soul’. beautiful. the graspings are done away with. They rise and fall as is their nature. One who does not long after things is calmed”. grief. or ‘I’. They stress with their rise and fall. happy. touches or be aware of. sorrow. . eats. Thus comes to be the stopping of this entire mass of ill”. nor will he cling to them as ‘self’. or beautiful. the stopping of birth is from the stopping of becoming. the stopping of becoming is from the stopping of grasping. that trains and lasts. There is nothing worthy to cling to. All these are made very plain to a Vipassana meditator. They appear to arise each in its time and then pass away. or ‘I’. so there is nothing to cling to as ‘self’. thus grasping does not arise. smells. They are all causes of suffering. (Majjhima ii 318) Whenever a meditator who has attained to a degree of Insight practises Vipassana. ‘soul’. will he neither cling to sense objects.

. The Vipassana meditator requires only a degree of concentration less than that needed for the attainment of Jhana and may never develop Jhana at all. but for the Vipassana meditator it develops naturally and spontaneously in the course of his Insight practice without his having to fix the mind upon a single exclusive object. Despite its name. That stage is known as Momentary Concentration. Skipping over the Jhana. This essential concentration is named Momentary Concentration attained through constant and uninterrupted mindfulness of the mind-body processes. retaining a constant degree of intensity and collectedness sufficient to purify the mind of the hindrances. The Vipassana meditator does not omit concentration altogether from his training.164 Momentary Concentration A Brief Explanation In Vipassana. Momentary Concentration does not signify a single moment of concentration amidst a current of distracted thoughts. Momentary Concentration arises in the Samatha meditator simultaneously with his post-jhanic attainment of Insight. but develops it in a different manner from the Samatha practitioner. undistracted mindfulness (sati). he goes directly into contemplation on the Five Aggregates. which enables the mind to be alert and receptive. This is a continuous and fully conscious exercise involving all mental activities. there is only a need to cultivate mental concentration up to a degree that is sufficient to ensure a steady. whether from internal or external sources. Rather. it denotes a dynamic concentration which flows from object to object in the ever-changing flux of phenomena. This is then used to develop a continuous and very perceptive mindfulness of everything that comes up before the conscious mind.

. A concise description of the way Momentary Concentration arises is presented by the Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw. One can then directly discerns and experiences. concentration is not developed to produce the jhanic stage.165 By observing the Five Aggregates constantly from moment to moment he acquires Momentary Concentration which fulfills the same function as the basic Jhana essential to Samatha meditation. without distortions and delusions. as they are happening. When it occurs it fixes itself uninterruptedly on its object in a single mode and it is not overcome by opposition. The phrase “Momentary Unification of the mind” is concentration lasting only for a moment. as if in absorption. The Sayadaw explains that a meditator begins the Development of Insight by attending to the diverse Mental and Bodily processes that become manifest to him. it is used as a broader Light Field which is powerful and finely focussed and which follows and illuminates whatever is happening at any moment. here the light beam is not narrowed down to a single fine point. Momentary Unification of the mind arises through the penetration and realisation of the Characteristics of Existence. their true nature. At the actual time of Insight. but to produce mindfulness (sati) to the highest possible state so as to be mindfully aware of all the physical and mental phenomena as they arise. making the tactile process of the rising and falling of the abdomen his basic object of mindfulness. In the Vipassana meditator. In terms of a light beam example as used in describing Samatha concentration. it momentarily fixes the mind on the object immovably.

holding the hindrances at bay and building up power of mental purification. At that time there arises in him. Its objects are varied and changing but its force of concentration remains constant. This force fixes the mind on the object as though fixing it in absorption. its power of resistance to being overwhelmed by opposition corresponds to that of Access Concentration”. ‘the Concentration of mind staying for a Moment’. While thus practising the exercise of noting with ‘unhindered mind’. during the early part of his practice. but with time his thought process of noting becomes well concentrated. Momentary Concentration can be understood as implicitly included in Access Concentration in the Standard definition of Purification of Mind as consisting in Access and Absorption. Mahasi Sayadaw advises that this Momentary Concentration claims the place of Purification of Mind in the Vipassana meditator’s course of development. When he can note the objects that appear continuously.166 At first. He states that though it “has only Momentary Duration. For this reason. in uninterrupted succession. undisturbed by hindrances. directed at each object noted.] . Momentary Concentration is thus. his mind tends to be distracted by wandering thoughts. the noting mind will get closer to and fixed at whichever object is noted. his practice has arrived at Momentary Concentration. [A Critical Analysis of the Jhanas…Dr. in contrast to jhanic concentration. a fluid type of mental collectedness consisting in the uninterrupted continuity of concentration engaged in noting the passing succession of objects. and the act of noting will proceed without break. Henepola Gunaratana.

but by being mindful of the changing bodily sensations. thereby actually increasing defilements. and no hindrances can disturb him. feelings. There is additionally a danger of this fixed concentration. Only Moment-to-Moment Concentration following the Path of Mindfulness leads to the destruction of defilements. it lasts only so long as the meditator keeps the mind on the meditation object. When properly established in the inner body and mind. consciousness and mind objects. As soon as the mind leaves its Absorption in the object.167 The Superiority of Momentary Concentration There are three kinds of concentration developed in meditation. or Momentary Concentration leads to the destruction of the rounds of rebirth. bliss disappears and the mind is again beset by the flow of defilements. bliss and tranquillity arise. . This provisional eradication of defilements is a state free from desire. Two of them are developed on the Path to Absorption (Jhana) and these are Access and Full Absorption Concentration. aversion and confusion. The third kind of concentration is what is referred to in the Eightfold Path as Right Concentration. This is Concentration developed on a Moment-to-Moment Basis in Insight Meditation. the meditator is fully absorbed in the object. momentto-moment. However. Each of these is developed by fixing the mind one-pointedly on a single meditation object. This concentration is not developed by fixing the mind motionless to one object. colours or concentrating the mind on one particular feeling like Loving-kindness. When Access and Absorption Concentration are developed. Since it does not generate wisdom it can lead to Clinging to Bliss or even Misuse of the Powers of Concentration. Such meditation include visualisation of fixed forms.

The meditator must strive to be mindful. . speech and deeds. tongue. perception.168 Through this concentration we develop the ability to see clearly the five aggregates of form. nose. correct practices in the way of life are confusing and haphazard as regards thoughts. Those who do. every moment. Dangers to Meditation In today’s deteriorating moral values. conventionally understood to be men and women. ear. volition and consciousness. They do not give any thought to the states of their minds and the future fruits they will reap. The second important point is that continuity is the secret of success in meditation. Therefore. In their ignorance they fall prey to unscrupulous people. and thus quickly develop proper concentration and wisdom. This is especially so in the practice of meditation. Therefore we must be mindful of the sensations or feelings arising from contact at the eye. take up many acts of supposedly insight purification and mental development. Developing Momentary Concentration There are two important points to make. More people than not go about their livelihood aimlessly and without correct knowledge of their goals in life. body and mental sense bases. night and day. feeling. the essence of Insight Meditation is continuous moment-to-moment mindfulness of sensation arising from contact at all six bases. The aggregate of form is the basis for the development of Momentary Concentration and the resulting wisdom. First: It is through the feelings arising from contact at each of the sense doors that we develop Insight. There are those who take up the practice of Vipassana without right motivation. Correct motivation is almost non-existing.

leading him into the realms of occultism and magic. It comes in several forms. and while it is only a Buddha or Arahant who is entirely rid of it. some meditate with the view to achieve some form of paranormal power. All these. Fame may also be an unworthy motive. His "meditation" then degenerates into visions and strange happenings. Then there is the pride of one who touches on some form of concentration. Right motivation is connected with renunciation (non-greed). Related to this is the danger for the person who always looks for so-called progress. If one approaches meditation with neither right understanding regarding suffering (dukkha) and its cessation. One such is the pride of the person who has seen manifestations of light during meditation and supposes this to be the sign preceding mental absorption.169 There are those who view meditation as a way of gaining Insight power. Pride is a great obstacle to any progress. everyone should have the mindfulness to check it. and this can be a very powerful factor in convincing himself if not others. There is no surer way for a meditator to become entangled than this. He becomes more and more fascinated by these as time goes by. He is sure that he is making "progress" because in meditation he sees lights. and non violence. There are also others who view it as a quick way to gain both disciples and riches. hears sounds or feels strange sensations. as motives for meditation. Pride is also a danger. These are not the correct motivation for the practice of Vipassana. . may easily lead the unwary into illness and mental disturbances. then one’s meditation is liable to seriously go astray. goodwill (non-hatred). if only for an instant and as a result assumes that he has become a Noble One. nor right motives.

unbalanced or immature. but though his energy is ever so great and though he sits and sits and walks and walks. How far one carries renunciation and whether this involves outward changes (such as becoming a monk or nun). likes and dislikes while practising meditation will not be helpful. With mindfulness one should know what are the extremes of laziness and of strain. Often connected with the above dangers is another. "Now I shall meditate". he has to learn that it is necessary to meditate knowing the limitations of his character. fierce cravings and lusts. and realise if and when delusion is clouding the mind. so is the wise meditator careful. Just as any other meditator who knows the limits of his strength and is careful not to exhaust himself. Sudden bursts of intense anger over insignificant trifles. . to be seen in cases where a man suddenly has an opportunity to undertake a longer period of meditation practice. Retaining old cravings. Meditation implies renunciation (mental and physical outlook). He sits down with the firm resolve. It may well be that his own strong effort has much to do with his distractions. check lust.170 Another danger is trying to meditate while one is still too emotionally insecure. It is through straining or forcing meditation practice that many emotionally disturbed states arise. Moreover. and the practice will be positively progressive only if one is prepared to make efforts to restrain greed and hatred. Those who are without a teacher should proceed with utmost caution. making sure that their development of mindfulness is rightly based. depends on individual circumstance. to be avoided. strange delusions and even more peculiar fantasies can all be produced from unwise arduous practice. still his mind is disturbed and without peace.

it is imperative that one should divest oneself of this wrong view of the ‘self’. even the attainment of existence in the Brahma’s realm is no surety against rebirth in the human or deva worlds and the misery of frequent deaths. Sakkayaditthi The wrong view or interpretation of the apparent. their meditation practice is making no real difference to their trains in terms of greater internal peace or externally in relation to others. Should one reach the Brahma realm also. achievement of arahanthood and attainment of parinibbana would take place there. At the latest then. Meditation may be laid aside for some time while making efforts to contact a genuine source of information. hearing. . In the meantime. preferably a living meditation master. In the practice of Vipassana. then it should be apparent that something is wrong.171 If they are mindful and see that despite their efforts. however. give due attention to unsolved moral problems. Once free from sakkayaditthi. nor can relegation to the four apaya (states of suffering) be ruled out. smelling. one is forever delivered from the perils of being cast to the four apaya regions and will only be reborn in the human or deva worlds no more than seven times. is sakkayaditthi. one would achieve arahanthood and attain parinibbana in the seventh existence. Anyone who has not rid himself of this wrong view. perceived aggregate of physical and mental elements (as the sense of seeing. tasting. it is essential to divest oneself of sakkayaditthi. Just as it is of extreme importance to remove the spear impaling one’s breast and treat the injury or to put out the fire that burns one’s head. touching and mental activities) as an individual atta or “I”. which until sorted out will not permit the mind to develop while making a great effort to live one's life according to the Buddha’s Dhamma.

it is an over-riding necessity to eliminate sakkayaditthi. the doors to the apaya regions are kept open. attachment to the delusion of individuality would be very closely and firmly established. as there is no way of ascertaining the length of our current existence. That is why it is most important that one should eliminate sakkayaditthi. depending on the rate of respiration. Urgency in the matter is therefore of the utmost essence. all Eight Constituents of the Eight-fold Noble Path are involved. such phenomena as sight. there shall be no possibility of being cast into the apaya regions anymore.172 One who has heard the Teachings of the Buddha and benefited there from. Acceptance of the rationale of this principle and bearing it in mind is the Right View of the Result of Kamma. They would be fully convinced that a living individual atta or “I” really exists. Concluding Notes Within one minute. Some may even go further and believe that a soul resides in each individual. such is adhering to the principle relating to “Action” which brings about its corresponding “Result”. that it relinquishes its habitat on the death of the host and takes up its new abode in the body of an infant about to be born. hearing. In each noting. etc. All these are sakkayaditthi. are each understood as a continuum involving alternating moments of the arising and cessation of related rupa and nama. on what day and at what time we shall die. Those who have not had the opportunity to benefit from the Buddha’s Teachings. As long as sakkayaditthi is not eliminated. Therefore.. If it is possible to uproot such wrong view entirely. . Such a person will not be stressed by a firm bondage to sakkayaditthi. anywhere between thirty to sixty mental notings of abdominalwall movements may be made. Thus. We can neither determine how long we will live nor foresee when.

. harsh speech and frivolous talk is scrupulously observed. slander. special merits and higher levels of perfection would accrue. If it is not possible to go to a meditation centre to continue the practice of Vipassana bhavana. thereby achieving Right Action. for which no financial expenses is required.173 Whoever is endowed with this Right View or Belief abstains from all immoral actions liable to bring about unwholesome results. Vipassana nana would be progressively attained as and when circumstances are favourable. If practice is continued assiduously. one can continue the practice in one’s own home according to the method demonstrated. Abstinence from killing. Right Action and Right Livelihood fulfils and maintains the three components of the Sublime Path of Morality. Abstinence from falsehood. At the same time there is abstinence from wrong livelihood. This abstinence constitutes Right Speech. stealing. every time Vipassana bhavana is practised. Thus. which leads to Right Livelihood. Every conscious effort which leads to Right Speech. and sexual misconduct is also observed.

5. . Purification of Conduct [sila-visuddhi] Purification of Mind [citta-visuddhi] Purification of View [ditthi-visuddhi] [i] Analytical Knowledge of Body and Mind [nama-rupa-pariccheda-nana] Purification by Overcoming Doubt [kankha-vitarana-visuddhi] [ii] Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality [paccaya-pariggaha-nana] [iii] Knowledge by Comprehension [sammasana-nana] [iv] Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away [udayabbaya-nana] in its weak stage The Ten Corruptions of Insight Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is and What is Not Path [maggamagga-nanadassana-visuddhi] Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice [patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi] [v] Knowledge of Dissolution [bhanga-nana] 4. 3. 6.174 PART II PROGRESS OF INSIGHT CONTENTS 1. 2.

175 7. Awareness of Fearfulness [bhayatupatthana-nana] [vii] Knowledge of Misery [adinava-nana] [viii] Knowledge of Disgust [nibbida-nana] [ix] Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance [muncitu-kamyata-nana] [x] Knowledge of Re-observation [patisankha-nupassana-nana] [xi] Knowledge of Equanimity About Formations [sankhara-upekkha-nana] [xii] Insight Leading to Emergence [vutthana-gamini-vipassana-nana] [xiii] Knowledge of Adaptation [anuloma-nana] [xiv] Maturity of Knowledge [gotrabhu-nana] Purification by Knowledge and Vision [nanadassana-visuddhi] [xv] Path Knowledge [magga-nana] [xvi] Fruition Knowledge [phala-nana] [xvii] Knowledge of Reviewing [paccavekkhana-nana] [xviii] Attainment of Fruition [phalasamapatti] [xix] The Higher Paths and Fruitions [vi] .

Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is Path and Not Path Purity attained by passing beyond the alluring distractions which arise in the course of Insight Meditation. Purification by Knowledge and Vision Purity gained by eradicating defilement together with their underlying tendencies by means of the Supramundane Paths. 4. . securing it against their influx. Purification of View Dispelling the distortions of wrong views. 5. of Non-returning and of Arahantship. 6. 2. restlessness and conflict. inertia. 7.176 INTRODUCTION The Seven Purifications A strict moral discipline must be kept to make progress in meditation. consisting of the Knowledges of the Four Paths. Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice Purity resulting from the temporary removal of defilement which obstructs the path of practice. the Paths of Stream Entry. Purification by Overcoming Doubt Purity through the conquest of all doubts concerning the pattern of samsaric existence. Purification of Mind Purity resulting from cleansing the mind of attachment. aversion. Purification of Conduct Purity obtained through abstinence from body and verbal misconduct and wrong livelihood. of Once-returning. 3. In the case of the Seven Purifications. and lastly. 1. The meditator should grasp this spirit of moral discipline. the purity implied is reckoned in terms of the elimination of the unwholesome factors opposed to each purification.

there will be no progress in meditation. guarding the six sense doors restraining defilement from arising. nose. Everyone must have a standard of virtue dedicated to Nibbana. Unless these two roots are nourished. body and mind. This virtue of restraint consists in mindfully guarding the Six Sense Doors. the great tree of the meditative life requires roots. ear. Though these four principles were originally prescribed for monks and nuns. tongue. lay meditators should adapt them to their own situation. Male and female lay-devotees have five precepts as a permanent standard of virtue in their everyday life. Monks and nuns are expected to observe the precepts of training given in the two codes of moral discipline making up their respective Patimokkha. is one who has a “light” livelihood. or special observance during Uposatha or other significant days. which requires the understanding and maintaining of four types of restraint for monks/nuns as well as for the laity: observing the precepts one has undertaken and protecting them like one’s life. that is. The roots of the meditative life are Purification of Virtue and Purification of Mind. being light in body and content at heart. the eye. they can observe the eight or ten precepts as a daily practice.177 Like any other tree. A meditator who trains according to these four ways of restraint will find nothing to get attached to or resent. The meditator then. . maintaining a righteous livelihood and making use of one’s requisite of life with mindfulness and wise reflection. The first and most fundamental of the roots is Purification of Virtue. free from burdens of ownership as regards anything anywhere. If they are more enthusiastic.

Before one can establish oneself firmly in virtue. delusion or ignorance. one provides an opportunity for lust to arise. one must understand its significance well. Therefore the practice of mentally noting each and every object that calls at the Six Sense Doors will also be helpful in getting rid of the underlying tendency to ignorance.] .178 By means of mindfulness. rooted in delusion itself and in pure and simple ignorance can be arrested by mindful noting. Normally one protects one’s virtue impelled by conscience and shame (hiri and ottappa). All forms of desires. while such a failure in regard to a neither unpleasant nor pleasant feeling might give rise to deceptive concepts. Failing to make a mental note of an unpleasant feeling can be an opportunity for the arising of repugnance. By failing to make a mental note of a pleasant feeling. one can free oneself from deception. But if one mindfully makes a mental note of every object “calling” at the Six Sense Doors. [Adapted from The Heart of Buddhist Meditation by the Venerable Nyanaponika Mahathera. Deceptions and delusions are difficult to fathom. A wise man however observes virtue purely with the aim of attaining Nibbana. major and minor conflicts. “Not knowing” and misconceiving of what should be known amounts to delusion. as well as those deceptions which are extremely subtle. one can prevent the arising of defilement sparked off by sense experiences.

which enables one to see heavenly or earthly events. the divine eye is the capacity for clairvoyance. (c) The knowledge of penetration of minds is the ability to read the thoughts of others and to know directly their states of mind. supernatural knowledge or faculty. both far and near. to travel through the air. that is.179 THE PROGRESS OF INSIGHT IN VIPASSANA MEDITATION Adapted from the Writings of the Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw The Method In practice. These are: (a) “Having been one. to walk on water. (e) The knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. Included in the divine eye is the knowledge of the passing away and rebirths of beings. he becomes many…” this supernormal power include the ability to display multiple forms of one’s body. to appear and disappear at will. to dive in and out of the earth. to touch and stroke the sun and the moon and to exercise mastery over the body as far as the Brahma-world. . (b) The knowledge of the divine ear enables one to hear subtle and coarse sounds. to pass through walls unhindered. both far or near. there are two forms of meditation taught by the Buddha: Samatha (tranquillity) and Vipassana (Insight). Development of these jhana can lead one to further attainment of abhinna. direct perception of how beings pass away and re-arise in accordance with their kamma. (1) Samatha By practising Samatha Meditation. (d) The knowledge of recollection of past lives is the ability to know one’s past births and to discover various details about those births. four stages of rupa-jhana and four of arupa-jhana can be attained.

despite possessing such powers. determined by the degree of jhana attained. eight world cycles and so on. peta world or world of the asuras. . While in the Brahma Worlds. death and rebirth. hells. At death. they will be reborn into one of the Brahma Loka or Heavens. these beings will not be free from sufferings and miseries of old age. death. sorrow and rebirth.180 Nevertheless. they will die and may find rebirth in the world of human beings or devas. sorrows and rebirths. Then they will remain in those relative planes or Brahma World for one world cycle. according to the life span of the Brahma World to which they have found rebirth. In such an event. they can be reborn into one of the four nether worlds. Thus. it must be realised that by merely practising samatha meditation based on the kammatthana subjects is not sufficient to be liberated from the miseries and sufferings of death. However. four. animal world. by this way he further develops his practice through Vipassana. just as humans beings and devas do. even with their jhanic states remaining intact. It is only through the practice of Vipassana Meditation that one will be able to realise Nibbana and be completely liberated from all manner of suffering. if such beings do not perform meritorious deeds and if circumstances are not favourable and by the force of their kamma. When that life span comes to an end. they will again face the miseries of old age. and after having established himself in either Access Concentration or Full Concentration subsequently contemplates the Five Aggregates of Grasping. two. a person who has first applied Samatha tranquillity as a means of developing sufficient concentration. where they will have their new existence.

as the case may be. This process of body motion (that is. as in Vipassana one notes what is distinct. The Buddha taught that it is also correct to practise Pure Insight as a vehicle towards Purity of Conduct. evident at the body sensitivity. This rise (expansion) and fall (contraction) of the abdomen can be seen as a continuous process. When Purification of Conduct has been established. Purification of Conduct is the conscientious observance of restraint according to the prescribed 227 Rules of Conduct. the Vipassana practitioner should endeavour to contemplate bodyand-mind (nama-rupa). or vibratory element) has breathing as its condition. but from the very start applies Insight to the Five Aggregates of Grasping. unsatisfactory (dukkha) and without a soul or a ’self’ (anatta). These processes of body sensitivity should be noted as "sitting. 1. The meditator first note the perfectly distinct process of touch. the body and mental processes that become evident to him at his own Six Sense Doors. the wind. That is to say a meditator applies Insight to the Five Aggregates of Grasping. and also by Contemplating the Characteristics of the Four Elements. While seated the meditator observes the rise and fall of the abdomen. according to their characteristics. true nature and function. touching". Eight. there occurs the body process of touch by way of the sitting posture and through touch sensitivity in the body. . seeing them as impermanent (anicca). a Vipassana practitioner is one who has neither produced access concentration nor full concentration.181 (2) Vipassana However. When sitting. or the Ten Precepts. is the proper observance of the prescribed Five. Purification of Conduct (Sila-Visuddhi) Purification of Conduct in the case of lay devotees. In the case of monks.

noting the process of the rise and fall of the abdomen. of vibrating. he should turn again to the continuous noting of the rising and falling of the abdomen. After noting them. as they are arising. feelings of pleasure. or acts such as adjusting various parts of the body. Later when his observation of mind (nama) and the observation of both mind and body (nama-rupa) is accompanied with Insight Knowledge. Purification of Mind (Citta-Visuddhi) In the early part of the practice. Hence the meditator. . gained experientially. it becomes evident to him in its aspects of stiffening. of the element of air (motion). etc. Sometimes the beginner will perceive occurrence of these interruptions sometimes not and sometimes after a short while has elapsed. these activities (of mind and body) must be noted. At that time. “falling” as they are falling. the aspect of stiffening shows the motion (air) element's characteristic nature of supporting. which is the basic object of mindfulness in this practice. But while he is engaged in just noting the rising and falling of the abdomen and other body processes. While the meditator is thus engaged in noting the element of motion in the abdomen. and the aspect of pushing and pulling shows its manifestation of impelling. etc.182 That should be noted as "rising”. 2. the aspect of vibrating shows its essential function of movement. liability to cause discontent (suffering). etc... too. their impermanence. accomplishes the observation of the body process (rupa). there will appear thoughts of desire. and their being void of a permanent ‘self’. by getting to know the characteristic nature. he will come to know the general characteristics of the processes concerned. wandering thoughts will appear intermittently while mindfully noting the primary object of meditation.. and of pushing and pulling.

to be exact. directed to each object noted. . he will note the stray thought immediately after its actual arising. will this happen. the Purification of Mind is thus established. and even in these cases he will be able to note any such stray thought at its very arising.. Only occasionally. as expressed in common speech. bending. At this stage. and the act of noting will proceed without break. striking at them and confronting them again and again. hearing. etc. Then that stray thought will subside as soon as it is noted and will not arise again. or. these wandering thoughts continue to hinder his mind while it is occupied in developing the practice of mindful noting. Immediately afterwards he will also be able to resume continuous noting of any object as it becomes evident to him. his noting now appear as if falling upon these objects. sitting. Then. the thought process of noting becomes pointedly directed. Hence. and there will arise in him an uninterrupted succession "the concentration of mind lasting for a moment". These are "hindering thoughts". as a rule. stretching. when attending to the objects to be noted. the abdominal movement. seeing. When the power of his Momentary Concentration has fully matured. his mind is "unhindered". the noting mind will close in upon and fix on whatever object is being noted. and in a slight degree. his mind will no longer go elsewhere.183 As the recently developed Momentary Concentration of his mind is still very tender and weak. While the meditator is practising noting with unhindered mind.

it is knowledge by direct experience arrived at by the mere act of noting. which directly experiences each act of noting both the body process and the mental process engaged in noting. He realises: The knowing of the rising movement is one process. Purification of View (Ditthi-Visuddhi) i. and not knowledge derived from logical deductions. according to their true essential nature. is the Analytical Knowledge of Mind and Matter. sitting is another. The falling movement is one process. ego. In this way. He realises: The rising movement is one process. the meditator now comes to know mind-and-matter analytically as: The rising (upward movement) of the abdomen is one process. etc. there is neither a permanent self. knowing matter (or body) by its manifestation of non-determining. All that knowledge comes from simply noting. the knowing of it is another. nor soul involved. Such knowledge as this. that is to say. Non-determining should be understood as having no faculty of cognising an object. Analytical Knowledge of Mind and Matter (nama-rupapariccheda-nana) Endowed with Purification of Mind and continuing noting. he comes to know how to distinguish each body process that he notes. In this way. . he comes to know how to distinguish each body and mental process. the falling (downward movement) is another. the knowing of the falling movement is another.184 3. not from reasoning. the knowing of it is another. the meditator understands thus: At the moment of breathing in: There is just the rising movement of the abdomen and the knowing of the movement. Such knowing is. When that knowledge has come to maturity. he comes to know each mental act of noting. touching is another. In that way.

Apart from that dual process there is no separate person or being. No Self Involved. If that consciousness is not mindfully noted. he understands other instances too by direct experience. He also understands by direct experience the condition for the mental process. he knows and sees for himself by noting: "There is here only this pair: A MATERIAL process as object. 'person' or 'soul'. Purification By Overcoming Doubt (Kankhavitarana Visuddhi) ii. Firstly. Next he notes the act of bending.185 At the moment of breathing out: There is just the falling movement of the abdomen and the knowing of the movement. Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality (paccaya-pariggahanana). there is (as above). Thus. 'being'. As in bending the arms or legs. I or another. When Purification of View has come to maturity. This is establishing Purification of View. and so on. there arises first a corresponding consciousness giving initial attention (to the distracting object). the consciousness of the intention to bend these limbs is evident. and a MENTAL process of knowing. then there arises a consciousness that strays. 'I' or 'another' 'man' or 'woman' refers. Understanding it thus in these and other instances. 4. the body process of bending arises. the conditions necessary for the body and mental processes observed will also become evident. In the same way. man or woman". the consciousness that conditions the (respective) body process will be evident. It is to this pair alone that the terms of conventional usage. he understands by direct experience: "When there is a conscious intention to bend a limb. in the following manner: In the case of a conscious desire to stray. When there is a conscious intention to stretch a limb the body process of stretching arises". .

by considering inferentially. when taking delight or being angry. a park. Thus. clouds and others may appear. he will only perceive their initial phase of "arising" and not their final phase of "dissolution". he goes on noting them. etc. While he is still engaged in noting one of these mental images. no stray thoughts will arise. If there is an object. if there is no object. But though he is engaged in noting these feelings as they arise. a heavenly mansion. understanding. another feeling will arise elsewhere. So it is in the case of the other Sense Doors. Similarly. a man. then there arises consciousness engaged in noting or thinking. not the final phase. But though he is engaged in noting them. the meditator follows each feeling as it arises and notes it. yet another will appear. a monk. If there is a notable or recognisable object. As they arise. During such processes. He now understands: Consciousness arises in accordance with each object that becomes evident. he understands occurrences concerning other mind-door cognition. When the Eye and a Visual Object are present. as. the meditator will generally experience many different feelings arising in his body. there arises consciousness.186 But if the consciousness of initial attention to the distracting object is noted and known. a house. a tree. greedy. another will show itself. he will perceive only their initial phase. It is similar in other types of consciousness. comes to know thus: . At this stage. mental images such as. consciousness does not arise. reasoning. Between sequences of noting he also. While one of these feelings is being noted (but without concern). as the case may be. while still noting that. Otherwise EYE Consciousness will not arise. and while that is being noted. there arises Eye Consciousness. again another will appear elsewhere. otherwise no such consciousness arises.

only after each earlier process has ceased. will another new feeling arise at another place. only when the rising movement of the abdomen has come to an end. When that knowledge has come to maturity. Then. he will discern distinctly that. Apart from these. when noting body-and-mind with their conditions. only when the lifting of the foot has come to an end.. is establishing Knowledge of Discerning Conditionality. iii. This is establishing Purification of Insight by Overcoming Doubt. does there arise a subsequent process. only when that has been completed. kamma. or who experiences feelings of pain. there is no person who performs the bending of the limbs. For instance. in the case of various objects noted. that body-and-mind continue. craving. the meditator perceives only body-and-mind processes occurring in strict accordance with their particular and appropriate conditions and he comes to the conclusion: Here is only a conditioning bodyand-mind process and a conditioned body-and-mind process. Knowledge by Comprehension (sammasana-nana) When Purification of Insight by Overcoming Doubt has matured. In the case of painful feelings. the meditator will discern distinctly. does there arise the carrying forward of the foot. So also in the case of walking. only after each single feeling occurring at its particular place has ceased. does there arise the falling movement. Such discernment through direct experience and through inference as described. does there follow the placing of the foot on the ground. Middle and Final phases of any object noted by him. is there again a rising movement. etc.187 It is due to the presence of such causes and conditions as ignorance. . only when that has ended. the Initial.

This comprehension of an object noted. by coming to the conclusion: . without reflecting and reasoning. it is only after each single image noted has vanished. by means of simply noting. until at last they disappear entirely. Further. The meditator does not perceive anything that is permanent and lasting. Having seen how various painful feelings arise in continuous succession. On noting them attentively twice. or free from destruction and disappearance. by inference from the direct experience of those objects noted. as being impermanent. is establishing Knowledge by Comprehension through Direct Experience. again another arises. how if one painful feeling ceases. thrice or more. but arising subject to conditions and then breaking up. etc. or they become gradually smaller and less distinct. comprehends all body and mental processes of the past. thrice or more. the meditator will see that it may or may not gradually grow less. that another new object will come into the mind's focus. and that it may or may not cease entirely. and without a ‘self’ (impersonal). another arises. In the case of the various shaped images that enter the mind's field. through knowing its nature of impermanence. Having thus seen the Three Characteristics once or several times by direct experience. even while being noted. in the sense of not arising of (or by) themselves. he comprehends impermanence. and the whole world. and when that has ceased. He further comprehends suffering (pain) in the objects breaking up after each arising. he will see that these mental objects which are being noted move from one place to another. twice.188 On noting the respective painful feeling repeatedly. he comprehends the respective objects as just a heap of suffering. the meditator. present and future. Seeing how objects. he comprehends the object as consisting of mere impersonal phenomenon without a master. are subject to destruction and disappearance. painful. having seen that..

coarse or fine. and so on. inferior or superior. there may be consideration of the rest by inference thus: All formations are impermanent. painful. "There is no body and mind process in which mindfulness fails to engage".189 They. all the successive arisings of body and mental processes will present themselves to the consciousness engaged in noting. past. as a result of Insight. or like the radiance of the moon or the sun. with others it may last longer. present or future. as if cutting to pieces a bamboo sprout with a wellsharpened knife. the meditator is able to keep exclusively to the present body-and-mind process. Even if the impermanence of only a single formation (conditioned phenomenon) is known. far or near. are in the same way impermanent. they are of the nature of impermanence. That is one kind of comprehension. Therefore. There will also arise in him strong mindfulness pertaining to Insight. As a result. the mental vision of a brilliant light will appear to him. as if coming to it of themselves. will be likewise keen. to others like a flash of lightning. strong and lucid. and without a ‘self’. Consequently. This is establishing Knowledge of Comprehension by Inference. His knowledge consisting in Insight. With one it may last for just one moment. Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away (Udayabbaya-nana) Arising of the Ten Corruptions When noting. . too. he will discern clearly and in separate forms all the body and mental processes noted. here called "noting". The meditator then believes. without looking back to past processes or ahead to future ones. internal or external. iv. and mindfulness too seems as if alighting on the processes of itself. then. whatever there is of materiality. To one it will appear like the light of a lamp.

beginning with minor rapture. momentarily recurring. There arises also rapture (piti) in its five grades. unwieldiness.. and he believes it to be the Knowledge Derived from Direct Experience. When examining the characteristics of impermanence. When walking. These and many other similar mental processes will occur. sickness.. When Purification of Mind is well established. elevating. the meditator's mind. that rapture begins to appear by causing tingling sensations and tremors in the limbs. rigidity. There arises tranquillity of mind with the characteristic of quietening the disturbances of consciousness and its mental concomitants. or as if it were seated on an air cushion. and now it produces a sublime feeling of happiness and exhilaration. Further. There arises in him the wish to proclaim the Buddha's Teaching.190 The meditator realises that: "There is no body and mind process that cannot be noted". no disturbance of consciousness and its mental concomitants. . strong faith pertaining to Insight arises in him. then following with. sitting or reclining there is. is serene and without any disturbance. Under its influence. when engaged in noting or thinking. standing. and when he is engaged in recollecting the virtues of the Buddha. joyous confidence in the virtues of those engaged in meditation. etc. under the influence of these mental qualities. nor heaviness. or other aspects of reality. Under its influence. or as if it were floating up and down. he understands everything quite clearly and at once. his mind quite easily gives itself over to them. he feels as if the whole body had risen up and remained in the air without touching the ground. flooding. or crookedness. the desire to advise friends and relatives to practise meditation. filling the whole body with an exceedingly sweet and subtle thrill. and suffusing. the Dhamma and the Sangha. and along with it mental agility appear. etc.

they are quite lucid through their proficiency. indeed. and so. hence he was not able to note keenly and continuously the objects as they became evident. "Now I am happy all the time" or "now. is vigorous and acts evenly. . which is neutral towards all formations. too. and thus had been overpowered by sloth and torpor.191 Rather. had not been clear. and thus was overpowered by agitation. and he wants to tell others of his extraordinary experience. There also arises a very sublime feeling of happiness suffusing all his body. too. refers to the receptive. Now his energy is neither too lax nor too tense. and his understanding is bright and clear. attitude of noting (or bare attention)]. they are wieldy. is vigorous and acts evenly. There also arises in him strong equanimity associated with Insight. They are agile in always functioning swiftly. At other times his energy had been too tense. in being able to attend to an object for any length of time desired. Previously his energy had sometimes been lax. they are also single-minded through being directed. they are pliant in being able to attend to any object desired. etc. his consciousness and its mental concomitants are tranquil through having reached the supreme relief in nonaction*. with the same result of not being able to note keenly. [*Non-action. I have found happiness never felt before". through the ease with which Insight penetrates the object. overcoming sloth. non-activity or non-busy-ness. There arises in him energy that is neither too lax nor too tense. that is. he is now able to note objects keenly and continuously. His understanding. Under its influence he becomes exceedingly joyous and he believes. torpor and agitation. inclined and turned only towards wholesome activities. but keenly watchful.

as it were. . even if quick in its functioning. Then his activity of noting is carried on without effort. by virtue of which his mind enters quickly into the objects of advertence. So the meditator speaks in praise of it thus: "Only now do I find full delight in meditation!" Having felt such rapture and happiness accompanied by the "brilliant light" and enjoying the very act of perfect noting. and he is able to note keenly and continuously the body and mental processes arising at the time.if it is beset and corrupted by those corruptions. however. he now believes: "Surely I must have attained the supramundane Path and Fruition! Now I have finished the task of meditation. still he feels delight in them. of itself. the knowledge consisting in noting.. But even if the meditator does not take the "brilliant light" and the other corruptions as an indication of the Path and Fruition. which is ably functioning with ease and rapidity. and proceeds.the early stage of (or 'weak') Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away . The meditator. There arises further a subtle attachment of a calm nature that enjoys the Insight graced with the "brilliant light" and the other qualities here described. In adverting to the objects. etc. is not able to discern these arising subtleties as corruptions but believes it to be just the very blissful results of successful meditation." This is Mistaking What is Not The Path for The Path. is . there arises in him strong equanimity. Therefore. It is a corruption of Insight which usually takes place in the manner just described. For the same reason the meditator is at that time not in a position to discern quite distinctly the arising and passing away of body and mental processes.192 Under its influence he regards with neutrality even his examination of the nature of these formations with respect to their being impermanent. This is likewise a corruption of Insight.

others open their eyes to see what caused the light. He may be aware of light that seems to pass through the wall. The Ten Corruptions (Defilement) in Detail 1. There may be a light enabling one to see various places before one's eyes. There may be a feeling of coolness or dizziness and the hairs of the body may stand on end. he may be tempted to cling to these experiences. Miles and miles of sea may be seen. 2. believing them to be important. enabling the meditator to see his own body. This is the second defilement of Insight. a torch or car lights. rather than continuing to note the presently arising and passing away of mental and physical phenomena. Piti (joy or rapture). A vision of brightly coloured flowers surrounded by light. There may be a bright light as though a door had opened.193 An inexperienced meditator may be confused by any of the following experiences. Thus. Though not in themselves obstacles. There are five kinds of piti. The meditator may cry or feel terrified. the guidance of a teacher is invaluable. This is the first defilement of Insight. Rays of light seem to emit from the meditator's heart and body. Obhasa (illumination). The room may be lit up. He may see a light similar to a firefly. characterised by the following: The meditator may be aware of a white color. Some meditators lift up their hands as if to shut it. mistakenly believing that he or she has reached Nibbana. . Hallucinations such as seeing an elephant may occur. The Five in detail are: (a) Khuddaka piti (minor rapture).

In this piti: The body feels as if it is extending or moving upwards. (c) Okkantika piti (flood of joy). There may be jumping movements of the body. There may be violent shaking as if the bed is going to turn upside down. Itchiness as if ants were crawling on one's face and body. Nausea and at times actual vomiting may occur. The hair on the body rising slightly. There may be drowsy feelings and the meditator may not wish to open his or her eyes. Seeing red colours. In this piti: The body may shake and tremble. The meditator may see blue or emerald green colours. A light yellow colour may be observed.194 (b) Khanika piti (momentary rapture). The body may bend forward or backward. . The face. There may be itchy feelings all over the body. There may be a flushing sensation from feet to head or vice versa. Arms and legs may be raised or may twitch. There may be fidgeting movements of the body. Ripples of energy may seem to flow over the body. The body may bend forward or may recline. There may be a feeling like lice climbing on the face and body. Shivering. The meditator has no wish to move. A feeling as if ants were crawling on the body. The body bends forward and may fall down. One may feel that one's head has been moved backward and forward by somebody. The body sways like a tree being blown by the wind. The body may bend to and fro. Peace of mind sets in occasionally. hands and feet may twitch. The body may vibrate like a stick which is fixed in a flowing stream. (d) Ubbenka piti (uplifting joy). Characteristics of this piti are: Seeing flashes of light. In this piti: A feeling of coldness spreads through the body. Diarrhea may occur. A silver grey colour may be observed. There may be a chewing movement with the mouth either open or closed. There may be a rhythmic feeling like waves breaking on the shore. The body may feel cool as if taking a bath or touching ice. A feeling of heat all over the body. Nervous twitching. Seeing sparks. An itchy feeling as though lice are crawling on the face may occur. (e) Pharana piti (pervading rapture). A feeling of stiffness all over the body.

. Due to pleasant feelings the meditator may wish to continue practising for a long time. There will be no restlessness or mental rambling. Thoughts are quite clear. There may be a feeling similar to falling asleep. peaceful state resembling the attainment of Insight. Sukha. The meditator may wish to tell other people of the results which he has already gained. There may be a feeling of lightness.195 3. It is characterised as follows: There may be a quiet. harsh or merciless person will realise that the dhamma is profound. The third defilement of Vipassana is passadhi which means "tranquility of mental factors and consciousness". Concentration is good and there is no forgetfulness. The meditator feels satisfied with his powers of acknowledgement. Passadhi. Some say that they have never known such happiness. A criminal or drunkard will be able to give up bad habits and will change into quite a different person. Mindful acknowledgement is easy. 4. The fourth defilement of Vipassana is sukha which means "bliss" and has the following characteristics: There may be a feeling of comfort. A cruel. The meditator may feel immeasurably proud and happy. Some meditators feel that their teacher is at hand to give help. Some feel deeply grateful to their teachers. The meditator feels comfortably cool and does not fidget.

Nana. Paggaha. The meditator misunderstands but thinks that he is right. is the next defilement of Vipassana. He may wish to persuade those he comes in contact with to practise Vipassana. He feels indebted to the meditation centre. and it is characterised by the following: Sometimes excessive concentration upon thought causes the meditator to leave acknowledgement of the present and inclines him to think of the past or future. Saddha. A meditator may wish to be ordained as a monk or nun. 6. The meditator may decide to practise wholeheartedly. resolution or determination. He may feel grateful to the person who persuaded him to practise. meaning exertion or strenuousness and is defined as follows: Sometimes the meditator may practise too strenuously. He overexerts so that attentiveness and clear comprehension are weak. peaceful place. He wishes to accelerate and deepen his practice. Upatthana. The next defilement of Vipassana is saddha which is defined as fervour. He might wish to go and stay in a quiet. causing distraction and lack of concentration. He intends to practise rigorously. characterised by the following: The practitioner may have too much faith. He may wish to give offerings to his teacher. 8. even unto death. He may wish to perform meritorious deeds. "mindfulness". 7. The next vipassanupakilesa "knowledge" is defined as: Theoretical knowledge is confused with practice. . He may not wish to stop practising. The next defilement of Vipassana is paggaha. He may be unduly concerned with happenings in the past and may have vague recollections.196 5.

The mind is undisturbed and peaceful. nor forgetful. faith. joy. happiness. It is described as: The mind of the meditator is indifferent. The meditator is unaffected when in contact with either good or bad objects. The meditator is unmindful. 9. For example when the abdomen rises he may say "arising" and when it falls he may say "ceasing. He is satisfied with light. Mindful acknowledgement is disregarded and attention is allowed to follow exterior objects to a great extent. The rising and falling of the abdomen may be intermittently perceptible. Upekkha. The present cannot be grasped. knowledge and even-mindedness. The rising and falling of the abdomen is indistinct and at times imperceptible. The ninth defilement of Vipassana is upekkha which has the meaning of not caring or indifference. Nikanti. exertion. The meditator is indifferent to bodily needs. at times thinking of nothing in particular.197 He becomes fond of ostentatiousness and contends with his teacher. Usually it is "thinking" which fills up the mind. A meditator may make comments about various objects. neither pleased nor displeased. This may be referred to as "thought-based knowledge”. He is satisfied with various nimittas (visions). ." The meditator may consider various principles which he knows or has studied. 10. The tenth vipassanupakilesa is nikanti which means "gratification" and it has the following characteristics: The meditator finds satisfaction in various objects.

The practice of continuously noting the object as it becomes evident . and his knowledge remains concerned exclusively with the arising and passing away of the processes noted. tranquillity. Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice (Patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi) After noting these manifestations of brilliant light and such others. having arisen. rapture. that is arriving at the Final Knowledge of Contemplation of Arising and Passing Away. Delight in them is merely a corruption of Insight. and leaving them unheeded. It also becomes clear to him that each object disappears just where it arises. are not the path. and the discernment. attachment. happiness. I must go on with just the work of noting". For then.. the meditator either by himself or through instructions from someone else. 6. Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is Path and What is Not-Path (Maggamagga-nanadassana-visuddhi) While noting. etc. it does not move on to another place.that alone is the way of Insight. he gets over the corruption relating to brilliant light. In this way. while being free from the corruptions. comes to this decision: "The brilliant light.198 5. he continues on as before with the act of noting the body and mental processes as they become evident at the Six Sense Doors. he understands by direct experience how: Body and Mental Processes arise and break up from moment to moment. This decision is arriving at Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is Path and What is Not-Path. and the other things experienced by me. . of the arising and passing away of each of them. While thus engaged in noting. in separate sections. at each act of noting. disappears instantly. he sees: The noted object. It is such knowledge and understanding resulting from the continuous noting of body and mental processes as they arise and dissolve moment after moment.

it will arise easily and proceed uninterrupted as if borne onward of itself. fraction by fraction: "Just now it arises. also the body and mental processes will be easily discernible. nor is the form of the limb apparent. and so it is also with the falling movement of the abdomen. "passing away". Again. nor are the shape of the hand. "disappearing”. the foot. now it breaks up". apparent to him. v. in the case of bending an arm or leg. nor its middle phase. and so on. piece by piece. the body. is apparent. keen and strong. It is similar in the other cases of stretching a limb. neither the initial nor the middle phase of bending is apparent. or "dissolution". then neither the arising of each body and mental process. But what is apparent to him is only the ceasing of body and mental processes. neither its initial nor middle phase is apparent. Each object that is being noted seems to him to be entirely absent or to have become non-existent. and so on.199 This is the beginning of Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice which starts from this Insight and extends to Adaptation Knowledge (the Thirteenth Knowledge). When Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away becomes mature. while noting the rising movement of the abdomen. When keen knowledge thus carries on and formations are easily discernible. . while noting the act of bending. but only the ceasing or disappearing. link by link. the face. which is the final phase. but only the final phase of ceasing and disappearing is apparent. For instance. Knowledge of Dissolution (Bhanga-nana) Noting the body and mental processes as they arise. nor the continuity of body and mental processes is apparent to him. he sees them part by part.

. cruder concept. It is for that reason that a meditator may at this time thinks: "I have lost Insight". the final phase. this is not the case. that is. no such idea of the formations' features or structures appears to him. with its particular structure [the distinctive (vi) graspable (gaha) form of an object. his consciousness delights in conceptual objects of shapes.] and its particular featureidea. that is. the object noted and the mental state of knowing it. At such a stage. in reality it is a progress of Insight. and the consciousness engaged in noting appears to have lost contact with the object that is being noted. and even up to the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away. which is called their dissolution. the arising of formations. With this assurance he should again turn to the practice of continuous noting.200 Consequently. at this stage of knowledge. the idea of formations with their specific features have always been apparent to him. however. When thus engaged. after becoming familiar (with that stage of the practice). . he perceives that in each act of noting there are always present two factors. is not apparent (as it is in the case of Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away). Therefore the meditator's mind does not take delight in it at first. having the nature of disappearing. still less any other. etc. one pair after the other. his mind took delight in a plainly distinguishable object consisting of formations. it seems to him as if he were engaged in noting something which is absent or nonexistent. his mind will delight in the cessation (of the phenomena) too. but there is apparent only the dissolution. which breaks up and disappears by pairs. an objective factor and a subjective one. Prior to this stage. Hence. the first phase of the process. but he may be sure that soon. But now that his knowledge has developed in the way described.

of the body processes noted. [It should be borne in mind that this refers only to understanding arrived at through direct experience by one engaged in noting only. successive extinction of oil-lamps or candles. and after it the consciousness engaged in noting that object follows in its wake. . the visual or other object appearing at any of the six sense doors. It is like seeing the continuous successive disappearing of a summer mirage moment by moment. From that the meditator will understand very clearly in the case of each successive pair the dissolution of any object whatsoever and the dissolution of the consciousness noting that very object. numerous physical processes constituting the rising movement. that is the Knowledge of Dissolution. or like the quick. in fact. will be apparent to him in the same manner. Also while he is noting other body and mental processes. which are seen to break-up serially.201 In each single instance of a rising movement of the abdomen. The dissolution of consciousness noting those body processes is apparent to him along with the dissolution of the body processes. and the consciousness noting that very object. Similar to that appears the breaking-up and disappearing. or the quick and continuous bursting of bubbles produced in a heavy shower by rain drops falling on a water surface. blown out by the wind. their dissolution.] It is the perfectly clear understanding of the dissolution of the two things. there are. pair by pair. Consequently. the knowledge will come to him that whatever part of the whole body is noted. moment by moment. that object ceases first. too.

they are indeed fearful". all formations everywhere. every conditioned thing (formation) had broken up in the same way. a further Knowledge. Having seen how the dissolution of two things. there will gradually arise. too.] At which stage. just as at the present it breaks up. or in any kind of life or existence that is brought to mind. together with their respective aspects of fear. the meditator will also come to understand: "These formations are not within any power or persons or entity to control. vii. or among the states of consciousness engaged in noting. during the very act of noting. without a vitalising factor [without nutritive essence] and unsatisfying. they can arise at any time. .202 vi. any object noted and the Insight-thought engaged in noting it. takes place moment by moment. whether among the objects noted. Therefore. Such understanding of their fearfulness is arriving at the Knowledge of the Awareness of Fearfulness. [It has also the name: Knowledge of Fear. too. When it has arisen. Awareness of Fearfulness (Bhayatupatthana-nana) When Knowledge of Dissolution is mature. his mind will be gripped by fear and appear helpless. as just so it will break up in the future. (through observing the dissolution of all object-andsubject-formations). the Knowledge of Misery will arise in him. Just at the time of noting any formation that is evident. then before long. this formation will appear to him in its aspect of fearfulness. and keeps on noting continuously. Knowledge of Misery (Adinava-nana) When he has realised the fearfulness (of the formations) through attaining to the Knowledge of Fear. the awareness of Fearfulness and other (higher) Knowledges. will appear bland. the meditator also understands by inference that in the past. that is.

Knowledge of Disgust (Nibbida-nana) Seeing thus the misery in conditioned things (formations).203 So he sees. but spends his time continuously engaging in it. Even so he does not give up the practice of Insight. Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance (Muncitu-kamyatanana) When through this Knowledge (now acquired) he feels disgust with regard to every formation noted. At times. that has the aspect of being disgusted with the formations. lean and tend only towards Nibbana. Even if he directs his thought to the happiest sort of life and existence. or to the most pleasant and desirable objects. ix. will find no satisfaction in them. On the contrary. only unsatisfactoriness. The knowledge relating to that desire is the Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance. that alone is happiness". only misery. his mind will not take delight in them. usually various painful feelings arise in his body. only suffering. at that time. his mind finds no delight in those miserable things but is entirely disgusted with them. and also an unwillingness to remain long in one particular body posture. At that time. viii. Therefore the following thought will arise in him between moments of noting: "The ceasing of all formations that are falling away from moment to moment. there will arise in him a desire to forsake these formations or to become delivered from them. He therefore should know that this state of mind is not dissatisfaction with meditation. but is precisely. his mind will incline. The meditator has now attain to the Knowledge of Misery. the Knowledge of Disgust. . his mind becomes discontented and listless.

x. Due to that. making him incapable of keeping to one particular posture for any length of time. his consciousness engaged in noting seems to shrink from the object noted at each moment of noting. Knowledge of Re-observation (Patisankhanupassananana) Being thus desirous of escaping from the formations. sharp. and of growing intensity. the comfortless nature of the formations will become more evident than ever. suffering and without a ‘self’ will be clearly evident to him. Then the nature (or characteristic) of the formations. The term "re-observation" has the same meaning as "re-noting" or "re-contemplation". but should endeavour to remain motionless for a longer period in the same posture and continue to carry on the practice of noting. may I soon be free from this! Oh. he will be able to overcome his restlessness. the knowledge arising at that time is the Knowledge of Reobservation. the meditator makes a stronger effort and continues the practice of noting these very formations with the single minded purpose of forsaking them and escaping from them. Though he wants to change his body posture. This state. however.204 Even if these states do not arise. still he should not give in easily to that wish. For that reason. the aspect of suffering will be particularly distinct. there will usually arise in his body various kinds of pains which are severe. he feels a longing thus: "Oh. Hence his whole body and mental system will seem to him like an unbearable mass of sickness or a conglomeration of suffering. their being impermanent. A state of restlessness will usually manifest itself. and wishes to escape from it. At this stage. between moments of noting. may I be able to give up these formations completely!" At this juncture. too. simply manifests the unbearable nature of the formations. may I reach the state where these formations cease! Oh. . By doing so. then he will soon want to change it. and among these three.

When it ceases in this way. it does so for good and will not arise again. and also the idea that his Insight Knowledge is not yet clear enough. however. If he perseveres thus. dismiss such thoughts by applying the act of noting to them. and by virtue of this.205 Now his Insight Knowledge is quite strong and lucid. he will perceive that it is disappearing. even his painful feelings will at once cease as soon as they are firmly noted. But if. part by part. . Then he will overcome the painful feelings and the restlessness in being unable to remain long in one particular posture. Unsatisfactoriness and ‘Selflessness’ through the act of noting which functions with promptness in quick succession. when the constant flow or continuity of feelings of the same kind was apparent as a single unit. without abandoning the practice. from moment to moment. is realising a Strong Knowledge of Re-observation. still he is not satisfied. Though in that way the Insight Knowledge may have become strong and perfectly lucid. it is a progressive development from the stage of Knowledge of Comprehension. hours and days. it will cease entirely before long. the passing away. In other words. and he should go on with his task of continuously noting the body and mental formations as they occur. the ceasing and disappearing of each single moment of feeling will become apparent separately in each corresponding act of noting. Even if a painful feeling does not cease completely. That is to say. He should. His noting will then function rapidly. his noting will become clearer as time passes in minutes. This understanding of the Three Characteristics: Impermanence. that feeling of pain is firmly and continuously noted. He will even think: "My Insight Knowledge is not clear". and at every moment of noting he will understand clearly the Characteristics of Existence.

on attaining Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away. In this act of noting. effort is no longer required to keep formations before the mind or to understand them. is arriving at the Abandoning of Fear at the stage of Equanimity about Formations. and Insight Knowledge.206 xi. such as grief arises. in successive order: The Aspect of Fearfulness. . At the earlier stage. no mental disturbance will arise. This. there arose. be it in the form of fear or of sorrow. the Perception of Misery. After the completion of each single act of noting. the breaking up of formations which are disappearing more rapidly is closely perceived. and there is no lack of fortitude in bearing with it. Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations (Sankhara-upekkha-nana) When this Knowledge of Re-observation is mature. firstly. the Desire for Deliverance. It is as if no further effort need be made by the meditator. the Aspect of Disgust. Even if a painful feeling arises in the body. But now these mental states no longer arise even though. due to seeing the Dissolution of Formations. Generally. pains will be entirely absent. at this stage. will of itself note and understand it. Even if the meditator thinks about something fearful or sad. This is realising the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. no mental disturbance. the object to be noted will appear by itself. however. as if borne onward of itself. they do not arise at all. and Dissatisfaction with the Knowledge so far acquired. there will arise knowledge perceiving evident body and mental processes in continuous succession quite naturally. Earlier. too. in the present state too. great joy had arisen on account of the clarity of Insight.

he is impartial and neutral towards all formations. even if sent out towards a variety of objects. If he resumes the practice of noting with great vigor. that comes into his sense doors. even though there is present the exceedingly peaceful and sublime clarity of mind belonging to Equanimity about Formations. it will not stay away for long but will soon return to the usual object to be noted. This is "Equable Vision" at the stage "Equanimity about Formations". he understands them [in a pure act of understanding]. whereas previously. From now onwards there is no need for the meditator to make further. and will resume continuous noting. he will have discarded fear and delight. the mind now functions smoothly of itself. and even if it does go. His noting will now proceed in a continuous and steady process. before long. no strong feeling of joy will arise. . deliberate effort. it will go on even for two or three hours without interruption. desirable or undesirable. the noting will function efficiently as if by itself. He cherishes no desire nor hate with regard to any object. generally it refuses to go. or thinks about various enjoyable things. This is the Abandoning of Delight at the stage of Equanimity about Formations. but taking them as just the same in his act of noting. This is attaining to the State of Long-lasting Practice of Equanimity about Formations. With the Abandoning of Fear and Delight and imbued with Equable vision (as described above). With reference to knowledge functioning in a continuous flow.207 But now this kind of joy does not arise. which is the knowledge present in the mental states of Equanimity about Formations. Though he sees desirable objects conducive to joy. then.

The meditator at this stage is no longer disturbed by unpleasantness or fear as in Bhanga nana. .208 Sankharupekkha Nana and it’s Three Characteristics Sankharupekkha nana is peaceful and pleasurable. however it does not manifest. he hears it as a mere sound and note "knowing. knowing". one will gain Magga nana and Phala nana successively. He will also feel that he is just observing the conscious mind. There is prolonged contemplation without changing of position. On noting a sound. noting is effortless. Contemplation is likened to the soft touch of cotton. In other words the noting mind settles on the object of noting just like a cotton swab absorbs water as soon as it touches the water. he will be happy and consequently noting becomes easy and effortless. Hence. He also experiences soothing feeling as if sprinkled with a spray of cool water. This is the special characteristics of Sankharupekkha nana. Mind is not prone to wandering when the Sankharupekkha nana is strong. The object of noting becomes subtle and the noting mind is stable and in control. If he is patient. or by strong delight as in Udayabbaya nana. He tries to note the frightful experience as in the Bhaya nana. all should strive for the attainment of Sankharupekkha nana. He is capable of withstanding the vicissitude of life. As the sense object and the noting mind are so subtle. There is no more desire and fright related to mundane or supra-mundane world. more and more subtle is the Dhamma. Those who contemplate Sankharupekkha nana can be classified into three types. He also lets loose his noting conscious mind but it does not wander off. the meditator is unaware of "rising" and "falling" but only aware of the conscious mind. Since the noting mind is fixed on the sense object. According to one's perfection. the mind does not wander.

If he has the knowledge of the fact that Sankharupekkha nana is not always distinct. It is any layman or monk who is still possessed of all the ten fetters (samyojana) binding to the round of rebirths. therefore thinks there is laxation in his contemplation of Dhamma. it is ineffective for Arahant. However. 'worldling'. (b) Distinction To the puthujjana and sekkha. in other words. thinking that he is not such a one. is depressed. Differences or Significance (a) Effectiveness Puthujjana and the seven sekkha. Sakadagami magga. all three contemplate this nana in the same way. . Sotapatti phala. Sankharupekkha nana is distinct and sharp at times but not always and the meditator. when the controlling powers (indriya) are balanced. there are similarity and also differences or significance in contemplating Sankharupekkha nana. a meditator who believes himself to be a striver for Nibbana. Sakadagami phala. (2) Sekkha: those who are striving for the realisation of Nibbana. (3) Arahant: Those who have eradicated all defilements and have achieved Enlightenment. Anagami phala and Arahatta magga) gain merits by contemplating Sankharupekkha nana. ordinary man. (each of those who has attained Sotapatti magga. This is a significant feature of Sankharupekkha nana. Anagami magga. he would be much relieved. Among these three types. and therefore has not yet reached any of the four stages of holiness (ariya-puggala). Whereas there is no merits or demerits for the Arahant as it is the last existence for him.209 (1) Puthujjana: 'one of the many folk'. It will be distinct when concentration is strong. When it is not sharp.

he therefore.210 For the Arahant. A puthujjana contemplates in order to dispel kilesa and to achieve the progress of Insight. has to practise for the attainment of higher Magga nana and Phala nana. An Arahant is content and satisfied as he has utterly eradicated all kilesa and thus. (e) Passing time A Puthujjana contemplates with enjoyment at Sankharupekkha nana. strong ‘self’-tormenting practices and taking refuge in incorrect faith. Sankharupekkha nana is constantly distinctive. A sotapan has already discarded the three attachments. An Arahant who has completely dispelled kilesa. A Sotapan also contemplates and enjoys at Sankharupekkha nana and at the same time he develops ecstatic state of fruition (Phala-samapatti). Since they have not completely eliminated kilesa and realised Nibbana. however there is no contentment for them. puthujjana and sekkha. they are not yet content. whereas a sotapan strives for higher Magga nana and Phala nana. the Dhamma and the Sangha. . also in the Buddha. (2) clinging to mere rites and rituals. (3) perplexity or doubt about the past and future existences. contemplates so as to have bodily happiness (kaya sukha) in the present life which is the last existence for him. (d) Elimination Puthujjana has to endeavour to expel three attachments namely: (1) erroneous views of ‘self’ and that of the aggregates. (c) Contentment Both puthujjana and sekkha practise Vipassana meditation. This is the difference in Sankharupekkha nana between an Arahant. there is no need to strive for higher Magga nana and Phala nana.

there are Sixteen stages in the progress of Insight. strong and lucid. His contemplation is well balanced. however he is not to be disheartened. painful or without ‘self’. This Knowledge when culminating in maturity. and becoming keen. blessings and power. This is Insight Leading to Emergence*. because one day he will achieve the remaining two Vipassana wisdom. he passes time by noting anicca. Thus. Insight Leading to Emergence (Vutthanagamini-Vipassananana) So. After these Thirteen stages of progress of Insight. These two are Anuloma Nana (adaptive knowledge which rises in connection with the Four Noble Truths) and Gotrabhu nana (knowledge which destroys the lineage of common worldlings).] .211 An Arahant contemplates and develops ecstatic state of fruition. It is called "Leading to Emergence" because it emerges from the contemplation of formations (conditioned phenomena) to the supramundane path that has Nibbana as its object. xii. manifests itself two or three times or more in rapid succession. Ariya Phala nana and Paccavekkhana nana (retrospective knowledge) follow in succession. Now that act of noting any one characteristic out of the three. Ariya Magga nana. through Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. and Knowledge of Re-observation. he notes the formations as they occur. dukkha and anatta. No matter what progress of Insight a meditator may have reached. [*"Insight Leading to Emergence" is the culmination of Insight. which is endowed with many virtues. He may be at this stage for quite a while. it is necessary to contemplate at Sankharupekkha Nana. by noting their dissolution. and is identical with the following three knowledges: Equanimity about Formations. Desire for Deliverance. which is still more lucid in its perfect understanding. will understand the formations as being impermanent.

Hence. When he brings them to mind thus. which is the Stilling of the Formations (or conditioned phenomena). has alighted upon non-occurrence is said to have realised Nibbana. it reaches. . through the practice of noting. whatsoever that has the nature of arising is also bound to cease. fall at every moment upon the (conditioned) body and mental formations called here "continuous occurrence" because they go on occurring over and over again in an unbroken flow. like a river's current. the meditator who wishes to realise Nibbana should repeatedly bring to mind. the meditator's consciousness leaps forth into Nibbana. One who. it arrives at non-occurrence.212 Thereupon. as if it "alights upon" Cessation. immediately after the last consciousness in the series of acts of noting Insight Leading to Emergence. Then there appears to him the stilling (subsidence) of all Formations called Cessation. until Adaptation Knowledge is reached. In other words. taking it as its object. having practised in the correct manner. here called "bringing to mind" will. consciousness passes beyond it and alights upon "nonoccurrence" which is the very opposite of the body and mental formations called here "occurrence". every body and mental process that appear at any of the Six Sense Doors. This mode of realisation of Nibbana has been mentioned in many discourses of the Buddha. the Cessation of all Formations. But in the last phase. for example: the Vision of Truth arose. instead of falling upon that continuous occurrence. Herein the words "bound to cease" indicate the aspect of realising the stilling and ceasing of all formations which have the nature of arising. his consciousness engaged in noting. that is to say.

of Mind. extremely fast and active knowledge reappears and his knowledge which advances with a big rush towards a noble path known as "Vutthana-magga is called "Vutthana-gamini Vipassana-nana" (Insight Leading to Elevation). The pure and perfect knowledge it yields is an instrument that reveals to the meditator the path by which he has come. has in this manner arrived at non-occurrence (by the consciousness alighting upon it). is: "Knowledge of Adaptation”. and become an Ariya of one degree or another. xiii. That special knowledge appears with the realisation that physical and mental phenomena which occur at the Six Sense Doors momentarily are impermanent. has been carried through to completion. of View. and can lead on to the perfect intuitive insight that will destroy the defilements. The mind thus independent of and unmoved by all phenomenal existence is ready to perfect the Path and know the Four Noble Truths (Saccanulomika-nana). to break the fetters binding one to the world. he is said to have "realised Nibbana".). . etc.213 When the meditator. one is said to have achieved the fourth state in Vipassana. When this stepwise developing of knowledge. While such realisation is going on automatically. At this stage one is all set to overcome the defilements. or the Sixth Purification. having already before practised correctly and without deviation by way of the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away and the other Knowledges (or by way of the Purification of Conduct. Knowledge of Adaptation (Anuloma-nana) Here the knowledge by way of noting what occurs last in the series constituting Insight leading to Emergence. from Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away up to the state of readiness to perceive the Four Noble Truths. He has made Nibbana a direct experience and has actually seen it. suffering and not ‘self’ (anatta).

End of the Purification by Knowledge and Vision of the Course of Practice. This is the "Nana" that is gained in consonance or in harmony with the preceding eight "Vipassana-nana" and subsequent “Magga-nana" (Knowledge of the Path). Gotrabhu-nana pushes the mind across the threshold. As soon as the mind crosses the threshold. The 'Magga nana' is called "Nana-dassana-visuddhi" (Purity of Insight). After “Anuloma-nana” there arises "Gotrabhu-nana" (Knowledge overmastering kinship) which grasps the sensation towards Nibbana where the miseries and sufferings connected with rupa and nama entirely cease. is a "Sotapanna" (Stream-winner). Then. Phala and Nibbana" takes place. called 'Parikamma' (preparation).214 The knowledge that arises at the last moment is "Anuloma-nana" (Knowledge of Adaptation) which consists of three 'javanas'. This is the knowledge which severs the lineage of “Putthujjana” (worldlings) and enters the lineage of the “Ariya” (Noble Ones). Anuloma-nana transforms the mind to become qualified to enter the threshold of Nibbana. there arise "Sotapatti Magga and Phala Nana" (Insight Wisdom Arising from the Noble Path of Streamwinning and its Fruition) which realises Nibbana. One who has acquired knowledge up to the stage of “pacavakkhana-nana” according to the procedure outlined above. This is “Paccavakkhana-nana" (Insight of Retrospection). . The moment of arising of the 'Magga and Phala Nana' does not last even for a second. impulse moments. Then retrospective reflection of the peculiar experiences of the "Magga. it becomes aware of Nibbana. 'Upacara' (approach) and 'Anuloma' (adaptation).

it does not recur. 7. in the supramundane absorption called Fruition attainment (phalasamapatti). Path Knowledge (Magga-nana) It is followed immediately by knowledge that abides in that same Nibbana. Insight has now come to full maturity. etc. falls for the first time into Nibbana. 17). the Fruition consciousness is a resultant (vipakacitta). Here. By attaining to that knowledge. etc. Fruition consciousness has the function of experiencing the degree of liberation made possible by the corresponding Path. maturing into the Knowledge of the Supramundane Paths and Fruitions]. and endures for two or three mind-moments. Maturity Knowledge (Gotrabhu-nana) Immediately afterwards. i. since it is immediately followed by the path consciousness* of Streamentry or Once-returning. Purification by Knowledge and Vision (Nanadassana-Visuddhi) xv. Maturity Knowledge occurs only as a single moment of consciousness. one has left behind the designation and stage of an unliberated worldling and is entering the lineage and rank of the noble ones. the knowledge of one who has become one of the lineage (gotra). and endures for one mind-moment. [*Gotrabhu-nana (Maturity Knowledge) is. Each Path consciousness arises only once.e. literally. This is Path Knowledge*. *Path consciousness has the function of eradicating defilements. Subsequently it can be repeated.215 xiv. which is void of formations (conditioned phenomena) since it is the Cessation of all Formations. lasts only for one moment of consciousness. the stream-enterer. The corresponding Fruition consciousness initially rises immediately after the Path moment.] It is also known as: Purification by Knowledge and Vision]. Path Knowledge. in this passage. like maturity knowledge. Maturity Knowledge* manifests itself. . etc. [*Path Knowledge is the knowledge connected with the four supramundane paths of stream-entry. which may repeat itself many times and may also be deliberately entered into by way of the "attainment of fruition" (see No. which is void of formations since it is the cessation of them. it is never repeated in the mental continuum of the person who attains it. and with practice can be made to endure for many mind-moments. Path consciousness is a wholesome mental state (kusalacitta). as it were. being followed by the fruition knowledge* resulting from it. only the path of stream-entry is meant.

the path factors become fixed in destiny. This is realising Fruition Knowledge. since a worldling may change character and turn away from the Dhamma. Subsequently there arises Knowledge of Reviewing. like the duration of a single thought of noting. The Stream is the Noble Eightfold Path. It also weakens greed. and of never being reborn in any of the woeful planes of existence. not long. Path and Fruition is. and clinging to rites and rituals. these factors are not fixed in their destination. and lasts for just an instant. which is void of formations since it is the cessation of them. Fruition Knowledge (Phala-nana) That is immediately followed by knowledge that belongs to the final stage and continues in the course of its predecessor. But in a noble disciple who has attained to the experience of Stream Entry. doubt about the Triple Gem. Though the factors of the Eightfold Path may arise in the mundane wholesome minds of virtuous worldlings. in the belief they can lead to Enlightenment. Knowledge of Reviewing (Paccavekkhana-nana) The duration of the threefold Knowledge of Maturity. . hatred and delusion. so the supramundane Noble Eightfold Path flows uninterrupted from the arising of right view to the attainment of Nibbana. and flow like a stream inexorably leading to Nibbana. It abides in that same Nibbana.216 This entry to the irreversible path to Enlightenment is Stream Entry. As the Ganges flows uninterrupted from the Himalayas to the ocean. He is assured of reaching final deliverance in a maximum of seven rebirths. xvi. xvii. The Path consciousness of Stream Entry has the function of cutting off the first three fetters: ‘personality view’ or wrong view of ‘self’. however. It is very short.

the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away usually arises at the beginning.217 Through this Knowledge of Reviewing the meditator discerns that the Insight Leading to Emergence came along with the very rapid function of noting. which occur with great force. etc. the meditator still continues the practice of noting body and mental processes as they become evident. This is Knowledge Reviewing Fruition. has the nature of the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away. Even if they double their effort and attempt to proceed with the practice of Insight. produced by virtue of the attainment. the path consciousness entered into the cessation (of formations). but not necessarily so. the body and mental processes appear to him quite coarse. After having reviewed in this way. It may occur. at the lower three stages of stream-entry. stream-winners. and immediately after the last phase of noting. resume the practice of Insight (by noting). This is the usual order in this respect. when some meditators emerge from the attainment of Path and Fruition. [The knowledge of reviewing defilement still remaining. He further discerns that the object just experienced is void of all formations. etc. is not obtained at the stage of Arahantship where all defilement have been eliminated. This is Knowledge Reviewing Nibbana. This is Knowledge Reviewing the Path. have Reviewing of Defilement. great faith. They continue to experience only rapture. For when the noble disciples.] But while he is thus engaged in noting. He also discerns that the consciousness abided in this same state of cessation during the intervening period between the path and reviewing. tranquillity and happiness. they will fail to discern the phenomena clearly and separately. . However. at the moment of their occurrence. not subtle as before at the time of the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. they are unable to carry out the practice of noting anything apparent at that time. rapture and tranquillity. arise flooding the whole body. Owing to that. Some meditators. happiness. This is because the knowledge present now.

The rapture and happiness. two hours. The only difference here is the capacity of the fruition attainment to last long. which then arise are praised by meditators thus: "Surely. or for an hour or more. then. meditators feel as if they were in some wide open space suffused with radiance and most delightful. say for six. too. rapture and tranquillity will fade. One should also set one's mind resolutely upon the further tasks: to be able to repeat the achievement of Fruition attainment. the Fruition Consciousness of the First Path alone reaches Cessation of Formations by way of the attainment of fruition. of a serene character. If his power of concentration is still short of perfection. the meditator can once again proceed with noting the body and mental processes as they occur. But if his concentration has reached perfection. to abide in it a long time. But at that time. happiness. without break. and. Because of this. in the case of one who does the Insight practice of noting with a view of attaining only to the First Path and Fruition. his Insight Knowledge will gradually grow and soon will reach the stage of Equanimity about Formations. fifteen or thirty minutes. This occurs in precisely the same way as the Path and Fruition Consciousness that occurred earlier in the consciousness-sequence belonging to the initial attainment of the First Path. xviii. only the Equanimity about Formations will go on repeating itself. lasts for one hour. at the time of achievement. . and he will be able to discern them clearly. ten. distinguishing them separately. to achieve it rapidly. which is extraordinarily serene through strong faith prevailing. I have never before felt and experienced such happiness"! After two or three hours have passed. that faith. or more.218 This state of mind. first the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away will appear. Attainment of Fruition (Phalasampatti) While he is engaged in noting.

the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations will arise quickly even after four or five acts of noting. the meditator should note any body and mental process that becomes evident to him at the Six Sense Doors.219 As one who applies himself to achieving the attainment of Fruition. . xix. in fact. soon Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations will be reached. The mind can thus reach absorption even while one is walking up and down. Hence. and that his mind is not well concentrated. While he is thus engaged. If the power of concentration has reached perfection. or while taking a meal. and the Fruition attainment can remain for any length of time resolved upon. the Fruition Consciousness will repeatedly become absorbed in Cessation by way of Fruition attainment. During the Fruition attainment. The development of Insight belonging to the Higher Paths is. that the first objects consisting of formations appear to him rather coarse. the mind will abide only in the Cessation of Formations and will not be aware of anything else. he will see. But when skill in the practice has been acquired. not as easy as that of Insight belonging to the Fruition attainment already achieved by the meditator. he should resolutely set his mind upon the task of attaining to the Higher Paths and Fruitions. Advancing from there in due sequence. What should now be done by one who has set himself that task? Just as before: He should carry out the practice of noting (anything occurring) at the Six Sense Doors. The Higher Paths and Fruitions When the meditator has thus become skilled in achieving the Fruition attainment. at the stage of Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away. Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away will arise at the beginning.

when beginning the practice. But although Equanimity about Formations has been attained. He abides merely in Equanimity about Formations. it just goes on repeating itself. the Higher Path and Fruition arise in the same way as before (i. to similar types of persons in general. After Fruition. that is to say. . he then directs his mind to reach the Fruition already attained. he cannot attain the next Higher Path within one. he will reach it perhaps in two or three minutes. if the Insight faculties have not yet reached full maturity. three. Anything else concerning the method of Practice for Insight and the Progress of Knowledge right up to Arahantship can be understood in precisely the same way as described. This statement is made here. if his Insight faculties are immature.220 It is in fact somewhat difficult. However. It is. when the Insight faculties are mature. based on the experiences usually gained by persons of the present day who had to be given guidance from the start and who did not possess particularly strong intelligence. one who practises Insight for attaining to a Higher Path will find that immediately after Equanimity about Formations has reached its culmination. he can gain the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. or more days. that follow are also the same as before. due to the fact that Insight has to be developed anew. In a single day. by inference. or even in a single hour. two. however.. etc. as at the time of the First Path and Fruition). it is preceded by the stages of Adaptation and Maturity. Though he who has won (one of the lower) Fruitions and may be able to enter into it several times within one hour. If. the stages of Reviewing. however.e. Here it is applied. not so very difficult as it had been in the first time.

The development of paramita is not possible without great effort. thus one should not be deterred regarding this matter. If it is not possible at this life time. and because one has to strive that lengthy a period. he is not able to attain the Third Path easily. The meditator should bear in mind the following undeniable point. If one has developed paramita to an appreciable extent. without which. although the person who has attained the First Path is likely to attain the Second Path soon with comparative ease. In the case of the attainer of the Third Path.221 Essential to the Progress: In the foregoing paragraphs. he will find it will take some time before he attains to the Third Path. Those who have not yet developed paramita fully will come to a standstill at the Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations. the words to the effect that the Progress of Insight will end up in the realisation of the Knowledge of the Paths and Fruition (maggaphala-nana) refer only to those who have gained maturity in the fulfilment of paramita (perfections). as this present effort may be leading to the maturing of paramita. one cannot possibly know whether one is able to attain any Path at all. one cannot possibly attain any Path without further effort. the attainment of a Path comes only after practising for a considerable time. one has sown potent seeds for the harvest of a Path in the next existence. An important point to be noted here is that. . at the very least. one’s effort will lead to its maturity and consequently one can attain the Path aspired to. The reason is that both attainers of the First Path and the Second Path are well practised in the observance of virtue (sila). he must have the added quality of a fully developed concentration (samadhi). Even though granted the possibility that one has fully developed one’s paramita. it must not be assumed that one has not yet fully developed one’s paramita. In some cases. Without utmost effort to develop one’s powers.

four years. having developed the path of stream-entry. the state of non-returning. the Noble Eightfold Path. two months.. .... six months. the state of non-returning. a month. the state of non-returning. or if some remainder of clinging is yet present.. highest knowledge here and now.. three months. Dhamma and Sangha. five months.. that is.. A stream-enterer is one who has entered the stream that leads irreversibly to Nibbana.. five years. or if some remainder of clinging is yet present. one who has escaped from rebirth in woeful states and will be reborn at most seven more times. doubt and adherence to rules and rituals.... then one of these two fruits may be expected. He added that not only for seven years. then one of these two fruits may be expected. but that should any person practise these Four Foundations of Mindfulness as prescribed for only six years. or if some remainder of clinging is yet present. highest knowledge here and now. highest knowledge (arahantship) here and now. four months.. Let alone a year. three years.. by abandoning wrong views and doubt.. whosoever practises these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in the manner thus expounded for seven years.. but that should any person practise these Four Foundations of Mindfulness for seven months. and he is free from the prospect of rebirth in any of the woeful realms.. A stream-enterer has cut off the coarsest fetter – personality view. The Results The Stream-enterer A meditator. one year. he has unshakeable confidence in the Buddha. half a month... becomes a stream-enterer. two years.. then one of these two fruits may be expected..222 The Blessed One’s Assurance The Blessed One has assured that....

One who takes birth in good families two or three times before attaining Arahantship (kolankola). The Once-returner Having developed the path of Once-returning. He has freed himself as well from all degrees of defilements strong enough to lead to rebirth in the woeful planes. takes rebirth in the human world. Thus. One attains the fruit in a heavenly world. takes rebirth in the human world. There are five kinds of Once-returner One attains the fruit of once-returning in the human world.223 Of the four taints (asava). takes rebirth in a heavenly world. The Once-returner has eliminated the grosser forms of lust. takes rebirth in a heavenly world. although attenuated forms of these defilements can still arise in him. envy and avarice. and attains final Nibbana there. one becomes a Oncereturner. One attains the fruit in a heavenly world. false speech and use of intoxicants. His conduct is marked by scrupulous observance of the Five Precepts: Abstinence from taking life. one who returns to this world only one more time. hatred and delusion. . he has eliminated the taint of wrong views. One attains the fruit of once-returning in the human world. doubt. One who will be reborn only once more before attaining the goal (ekabiji). and attains final Nibbana here. sexual misconduct. with the attenuation of lust. and attains Nibbana here. and attains final Nibbana there. There are three types of Stream-enterer One who will be reborn seven times at most in the human and celestial worlds (sattakkhattuparama). hate and delusion. stealing. they do not occur often and their obsessive force is weak.

. one becomes a Non-returner. It should be noted that whereas the ekabiji stream-enterer has only one more rebirth. attain final Nibbana. A Non-returner has fully eradicated sensual lust and ill will. he is still called “once returner” because he returns only once more to the human world. Nevertheless. the fetters that bind to the sensuous world. It should be noted that while only Non-returners are reborn in the Pure Abodes. one who does not return to this (sensuous) state. takes rebirth in a heavenly world and passes the full life-span there. Thus. generates the final path before he has reached the midpoint of the life-span (antara-parinibbayi). hatred and worry. The texts mentioned five types of Non-returner: One who. and then takes rebirth again in the human world.224 One attains the fruit in the human world. One who generates the final path after passing the midpoint of the life-span. even when on the verge of death (upahaccaparinibbayi). One who attains the final path without exertion (asankharaparinibbayi). where one attains final Nibbana. the fifth type of once-returner has two. He has also eradicated the taint of sensual desire. having been reborn spontaneously in a higher world. The Non-returner Having developed the path of Non-returning. as well as all greed taking a sensuous object. there is no fixed determination that all Nonreturners are reborn there. by totally abandoning sensual lust and ill will. he will be spontaneously reborn in a fine-material realm and there.

and there attains the final path (uddhamsoto akanitthagami). no longer returns to the sensuous plane. The Arahant Having developed the path of Arahantship. a destroyer of taints. these five higher fetters are also eradicated: desire for finematerial existence. The path of Arahantship eradicates. conceit. but he is still bound to the round of existence by the five higher fetters (uddhambhagiyasamyojana). The five fetters abandoned by the first three paths are called the lower fetters (orambhagiya-samyojana) because they bind beings to the lower world. shamelessness. One who has eradicated them. restlessness and ignorance. sloth and torpor. desire for immaterial existence. the sensuous plane of existence.225 One who attains the final path with exertion (sasankharaparinibbayi). One who passes from one higher realm to another until he reaches the Akanittha realm. too. the remaining unwholesome cetasika left unabandoned by the earlier paths: delusion. The fourth path also destroys the remaining two taints – the taint of attachment to existence and the taint of ignorance – for which reason the Arahant is called a “destroyer of taints” (khinasava). fearlessness of wrongdoing. restlessness. conceit. Mahasi Sayadaw . with the total abandonment of defilements one becomes an Arahant. a supreme recipient of offerings in the world. With the attainment of the path of Arahantship. the Highest Pure Abode. the Non-returner.

226 MahÈsatipaÔÔhÈnÈsuttaÑ .

bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati? Idha bhikkhave. Katame cattÈro: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. Tatra kho bhagavÈ bhikkh| Èmantesi 'bhikkhavo'ti. DÊghaÑ vÈ assasanto dÊghaÑ assasÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. Uddeso niÔÔhito KÈyÈnupassanÈ ŒnÈpÈnapabbaÑ KathaÒca pana bhikkhave. Dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. dÊghaÑ vÈ passasanto dÊghaÑ passasÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu araÒÒagato vÈ rukkham|legato vÈ suÒÒÈgÈragato vÈ nisÊdati palla~kaÑ ÈbhujitvÈ ujuÑ kÈyaÑ paÓidhÈya parimukhaÑ satiÑ upaÔÔhapetvÈ. maggo sattÈnaÑ visuddhiyÈ sokapariddavÈnaÑ samatikkamÈya dukkhadomanassÈnaÑ attha~gamÈya ÒÈyassa adhigamÈya nibbÈnassa sacchikiriyÈya. 'Bhadante'ti te bhikkh| bhagavato paccassosuÑ. VedanÈsu vedanÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. Citte cittÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. So sato'va assasati. yadidaÑ cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈnÈ. sato'va passasati.227 MahÈsatipaÔÔhÈnÈsuttaÑ EvaÑ me sutaÑ ekaÑ samayaÑ bhagavÈ kur|su viharati kammÈsadammaÑ nÈma kur|naÑ nigamo. bhikkhave. . BhagavÈ etadavoca: Uddeso EkÈyano ayaÑ.

228 RassaÑ vÈ assasanto rassaÑ assasÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. PassambhayaÑ kÈyasa~khÈraÑ assasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. bhikkhu dÊghaÑ vÈ assasanto dÊghaÑ assasÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. Evampi kho bhikkhave. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. dÊghaÑ vÈ passasanto dÊghaÑ passasÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. RassaÑ vÈ assasanto rassaÑ assasÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. rassaÑ vÈ aÒchanto rassaÑ aÒchÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. SabbakÈyapaÔisaÑvedÊ assasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. bhikkhave. bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. sabbakÈyapaÔisaÑvedÊ passasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. evameva kho. passambhayaÑ kÈyasa~khÈraÑ passasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. 'Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. rassam vÈ passasanto rassaÑ passasÈmÊ’ti pajanati. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. passambhayaÑ kÈyasa~khÈraÑ passasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. dakkho bhamakÈro vÈ bhamakÈrantevÈsÊ vÈ dÊghaÑ vÈ aÒchanto dÊghaÑ aÒchÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. rassam vÈ passasanto rassaÑ passasÈmÊ’ti pajanati. PassambhayaÑ kÈyasa~khÈraÑ assasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. Anissito ca viharati. SeyyathÈpi bhikkhave. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. SabbakÈyapaÔisaÑvedÊ assasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. sabbakÈyapaÔisaÑvedÊ passasissÈmÊ’ti sikkhati. bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. ŒnÈpÈnapabbaÑ niÔÔhitaÑ .

Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. bhikkhave. Ôhito vÈ ÔhitomhÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. tathÈ tathÈ naÑ pajÈnÈti.229 KÈyÈnupassanÈ IriyÈpathapabbaÑ Puna caparaÑ. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. bhikkhu gacchanto vÈ gacchÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Èlokite vilokite sampajÈnakÈrÊ hoti. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. IriyÈpathapabbaÑ niÔÔhitaÑ KÈyÈnupassanÈ SampajÈnapabbaÑ Puna caparaÑ. Anissito ca viharati. sayÈno vÈ sayanomhÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. . Sa~ghÈÔipattacÊvaradhÈraÓe sampajÈnakÈrÊ hoti. Gate Ôhite nisinne sutte jÈgarite bhÈsite tunhÊbhÈve sampajÈnakÈrÊ hoti. nisinno vÈ nisinnomhÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. SamiÒjite pasÈrite sampajÈnakÈrÊ hoti. bhikkhu abhikkante paÔikkante sampajÈnakÈrÊ hoti. YathÈ yathÈ vÈ panasasa kÈyo paÓihito hoti. bhikkhave. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Evampi kho bhikkhave. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Asite pÊte khÈyite sÈyite sampajÈnakÈrÊ hoti. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. UccÈrapassÈvakamme sampajÈnakÈrÊ hoti.

Anissito ca viharati. TamenaÑ cakkhumÈ puriso muÒcitvÈ paccavekkheyya: "ime sÈlÊ. pittaÑ semhaÑ pubbo lohitaÑ sedo medo assu vasÈ kheÄo si~ghÈÓikÈ lasikÈ muttan’ti. ime taÓÉulÈ'ti. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. bhikkhave. SampajÈnnapabbaÑ niÔÔhitaÑ KÈyÈnupassanÈ PaÔik|lamanasikÈrapabbaÑ Puna caparaÑ. ime mÈsÈ. Evameva kho. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. bhikkhu imameva kÈyaÑ uddhaÑ pÈdatalÈ adho kesamatthatÈ tacapariyantaÑ p|raÑ nÈnappakÈrassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiÑ kÈye kesÈ lomÈ nakhÈ dantÈ taco maÑsaÑ nhÈru aÔÔhi aÔÔhimiÒjaÑ vakkaÑ hadayaÑ yakanaÑ kilomakaÑ pihakaÑ papphÈsaÑ antaÑ antaguÓaÑ udariyaÑ karÊsaÑ matthalu~gaÑ. bhikkhu imameva kÈyaÑ uddhaÑ pÈdatalÈ adho kesamatthakÈ tacapariyantaÑ p|raÑ nÈnappakÈrassa asucino paccavekkhati. bhikkhave.230 ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. "Atthi imasmiÑ kÈye kesÈ lomÈ nakhÈ dantÈ taco maÑsaÑ nhÈru aÔÔhi aÔÔhimiÒjaÑ vakkaÑ hadahaÑ yakanaÑ kilomakaÑ pihakaÑ papphÈsaÑ antaÑ antaguÓaÑ udariyaÑ karÊsaÑ pittaÑ semhaÑ pubbo lohitaÑ sedo medo assu vasÈ kheÄo si~ghÈnikÈ lasikÈ muttan’ti". ime vÊhÊ. bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. seyyathidaÑ sÈlÊnaÑ vÊhÊnaÑ muggÈnaÑ mÈsÈnaÑ tilÈnaÑ taÓÉulÈnaÑ. ime muggÈ. SeyyathÈpi. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. . Evampi kho bhikkhave. bhikkhave. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. ubhatomukhÈ putoÄi p|rÈ nÈnÈvihitassa dhaÒÒassa. ime tilÈ. bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati.

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vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. PaÔik|lamanasikÈrapabbaÑ niÔÔhitaÑ KÈyÈnupassanÈ DhÈtumanasikÈrapabbaÑ Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kÈyaÑ yathÈÔhitaÑ yathÈpaÓihitaÑ dhÈtuso paccavekkhati: ‘atthi imasmiÑ kÈye pathavÊdhÈtu ÈpodhÈtu tejodhÈtu vÈyodhÈtu’ti. SeyyathÈpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghÈtako vÈ goghÈtakantevÈsÊ vÈ gÈviÑ vadhitvÈ catumahÈpathe bilaso vibhajitvÈ nisinno assa, evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kÈyaÑ yathÈÔhitaÑ yathÈpaÓihitaÑ dhÈtuso paccavekkhati: ‘atthi imasmiÑ kÈye pathavÊdhÈtu ÈpodhÈtu tejodhÈtu vÈyodhÈt|’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. DhÈtumanasikÈrapabbaÑ niÔÔhitaÑ

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KÈyÈnupassanÈ NavasivathikapabbaÑ Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ ekÈhamataÑ vÈ dvÊhamataÑ vÈ tÊhamataÑ vÈ uddhumÈtakaÑ vinÊlakaÑ vipubbakajÈtaÑ. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto'ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ kÈkemi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ kulalehi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ gijjhehi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ ka~kehi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ sunakhehi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ byagghehi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ dÊpÊhi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ si~gÈlehi vÈ khajjamÈnaÑ vividhehi vÈ pÈÓakajÈtehi khajjamÈnaÑ. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati.

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Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ aÔÔhika~khalikaÑ samaÑsalohitaÑ nhÈrusambaddhaÑ. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ aÔÔhika~khalikaÑ nimmaÑsalohitamakkhitaÑ nhÈrusambaddhaÑ. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati.

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Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ aÔÔhika~khalikaÑ apagatamaÑsalohitaÑ nhÈrusambaddhaÑ. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ aÔÔhika~i apagatasambandhÈni disÈ vidisÈ vikkhittÈni, aÒÒena hatthaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena padaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena gopaphaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena janghaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena |raÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena kaÔiÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena phÈsukaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena piÔÔhiÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena khandhaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena givaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena hanukaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena dantaÔÔhikaÑ aÒÒena sÊsakatÈhaÑ. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati.

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Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ aÔÔhika~i setÈni sa~khavaÓÓapaÔibhÈgÈni. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ aÔÔhika~i puÒjikatÈni terovassikÈni. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati, ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati, vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti, yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. Anissito ca viharati, na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Evampi kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Puna caparaÑ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathÈpi passeyya sarÊraÑ sivathikÈya chaÉÉitaÑ aÔÔhika~i p|tÊni cuÓÓakajÈtÈni. So imameva kÈyaÑ upasaÑharati: ‘ayampi kho kÈyo evaÑdhammo evaÑbhÈvÊ etaÑ anatÊto’ti.

NavasivathikapabbaÑ niÔÔhitaÑ Cuddasa kÈyÈnupassanÈ niÔÔhita VedanÈnupassanÈ KathaÒca pana. NirÈmisaÑ vÈ sukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayamÈno nirÈmisaÑ sukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. NirÈmisaÑ vÈ adukkhamasukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayamÈno nirÈmisaÑ adukkhamasukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. Dukkham vÈ vedanaÑ vediyamÈno dukkhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. SÈmisaÑ vÈ sukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayamÈno sÈmisaÑ sukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. SÈmisaÑ vÈ dukkhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayamÈno sÈmisaÑ dukkhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. bhikkhu sukhaÑ vÈ vedanaÑ vediyamÈno sukhaÑ vedanaÑ vediyÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti.236 Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. Anissito ca viharati. bahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. NirÈmisaÑ vÈ dukkhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayamÈno nirÈmisaÑ dukkhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. bahiddhÈ vÈ vedanÈsu vedanÈnupassÊ viharati. bhikkhu vedanÈsu vedanÈnupassÊ viharati? Idha. Samudaya vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ kÈyasmim viharati. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. AdukkhamasukhaÑ vÈ vedanaÑ vedayamÈno adukkhamasukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. SÈmisaÑ vÈ adukkhamasukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayamÈno sÈmisaÑ adukkhamasukhaÑ vedanaÑ vedayÈmÊ’ti pajÈnÈti. ‘Atthi kÈyo'ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. bhikkhave. Evampi kho bhikkhave. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ vedanÈsu . bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ vedanÈsu vedanÈnupassÊ viharati.

237 vedanÈnupassÊ viharati. Sa~khittaÑ vÈ cittaÑ sa~khittaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ vedanÈsu viharati. vikkhittaÑ vÈ cittaÑ vikkhittaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. ‘Atthi vedanÈ’ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. Sa-uttaraÑ vÈ cittaÑ sa-uttaraÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ citte cittÈnupassÊ viharati. bhikkhu vedanÈsu vedanÈnupassÊ viharati. SamÈhitaÑ vÈ cittaÑ samÈhitaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ cittasmiÑ viharati samudayavayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ cittasmiÑ viharati. Anissito ca viharati. anuttaraÑ vÈ cittaÑ anuttaraÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. . ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ citte cittÈnupassÊ viharati. asamÈhitaÑ vÈ cittaÑ asamÈhitaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. amahaggataÑ vÈ cittaÑ amahaggataÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. bahiddhÈ vÈ citte cittÈnupassÊ viharati. MahaggataÑ vÈ cittaÑ mahaggataÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. SamudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ cittasmiÑ viharati. Evampi kho bhikkhave. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. bhikkhave. bhikkhu citte cittÈnupassÊ viharati? Idha. vÊtarÈgaÑ vÈ cittaÑ vÊtarÈgam cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. SamohaÑ vÈ cittaÑ samohaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. VedanÈnupassanÈ niÔÔhitÈ CittÈnupassanÈ KathaÒca pana. bhikkhu sarÈgaÑ vÈ cittaÑ sarÈgaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. samudayavayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ vedanÈsu viharati. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ vedanÈsu viharati. avimuttaÑ vÈ cittaÑ avimuttaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. vÊtamohaÑ vÈ cittaÑ vÊtamohaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. SadosaÑ vÈ cittaÑ sadosaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. VimuttaÑ vÈ cittaÑ vimuttaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti. vÊtadosaÑ vÈ cittaÑ vÊtadosaÑ cittan’ti pajÈnÈti.

bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati paÒcasu nÊvaraÓesu. bhikkhave. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati paÒcasu nÊvaraÓesu? Idha. bhikkhave. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya. . asantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ thinamiddhaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ thinamiddhan’ti pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati? Idha. yathÈ ca uppannassa byÈpÈdassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. asantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ byÈpÈdaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ byÈpÈdo'ti pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca pahÊnassa byÈpÈdassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave.238 ‘Atthi cittan’ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. Evampi kho. YathÈ ca anuppannassa kÈmacchandassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. asantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ kÈmacchandaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ kÈmacchando'ti pajÈnÈti. SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ byÈpÈdaÑ 'atthi me ajjhattaÑ byÈpÈdo'ti pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa kÈmacchandassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. YathÈ ca pahÊnassa kÈmacchandassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. KathaÒca pana. YathÈ ca anuppannassa byÈpÈdassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu santaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ kÈmacchandaÑ 'atthi me ajjhattaÑ kÈmacchando'ti pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu citte cittÈnupassÊ viharati. CittÈnupassanÈ niÔÔhitÈ DhammÈnupassanÈ NÊvaraÓapabbaÑ KathaÒca pana. Anissito ca viharati. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ thinamiddhaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ thinamiddhan’ti pajÈnÈti.

na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. YathÈ ca pahÊnassa thinamiddhassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati paÒcasu nÊvaraÓesu. yathÈ ca uppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. samudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. YathÈ ca pahÊnÈya vicikicchÈya ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ uddhaccakukkuccaÑ 'atthi me ajjhattaÑ uddhaccakukkuccan’ti pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca anuppannÈya vicikicchÈya uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. ‘atthi dhammÈ’ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. samudayavayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. NÊvaraÓapabbaÑ niÔÔhitÈ . SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ vicikicchaÑ 'atthi me ajjhattaÑ vicikicchÈ'ti pajÈnÈti. asantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ vicikicchaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ vicikicchÈ'ti pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca anuppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. Evampi kho. asantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ uddhaccakukkuccaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ uddhaccakukkuccan’ti pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannÈya vicikicchÈya pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati.239 YathÈ ca anuppannassa thinamiddhassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. bhikkhave. yathÈ ca uppannassa thinamiddhassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya anissito ca viharati. YathÈ ca pahÊnassa uddhaccakukkuccassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti.

bhikkhu 'iti r|paÑ. samudayavayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. iti sa~khÈrÈ. iti saÒÒÈ. . yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya anissito ca viharati. iti r|passa attha~gamo. iti vedanÈ. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. iti viÒÒÈnassa attha~gamo’ti. iti saÒÒÈya samudayo. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati paÒcasu upÈdÈnakkhandhesu? Idha. samudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. KhandhapabbaÑ niÔÔhitÈ DhammÈnupassanÈ ŒyatanapabbaÑ Puna caparam. iti sa~khÈrÈnaÑ samudayo. bhikkhave. KathaÒca pana. ‘atthi dhammÈ’ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati chasu ajjhattikabÈhiresu Èyatanesu. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati paÒcasu nÊvaraÓesu. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. iti viÒÒÈnam.240 DhammÈnupassanÈ KhandhapabbaÑ Puna caparam. KathaÒca pana. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati chasu ajjhattikabÈhiresu Èyatanesu. Evampi kho. iti vedanÈya samudayo. iti sa~khÈrÈnaÑ attha~gamo. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. iti r|passa samudayo. bahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati paÒcasu upÈdÈnakkhandhesu. iti vedanÈya attha~gamo. iti viÒÒÈnassa samudayo. iti saÒÒÈya attha~gamo.

sadde ca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa saÑyojanassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. KÈyaÒca pajÈnÈti. r|pe ca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca anuppannassa saÑyojanassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu cakkhuÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa saÑyojanassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca pahÊnassa saÑyojanassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yaÒca tadubhayam paÔicca uppajjati saÑyojanaÑ taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca anuppannassa saÑyojanassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. GhÈnaÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca anuppannassa saÑyojanassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca pahÊnassa saÑyojanassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. phoÔÔhabbo ca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca pahÊnassa saÑyojanassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. JivhaÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. yathÈ ca uppannassa saÑyojanassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yaÒca tadubhayam paÔicca uppajjati saÑyojanaÑ taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca pahÊnassa saÑyojanassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca anuppannassa saÑyojanassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca anuppannassa saÑyojanassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. rase ca pajÈnÈti. gandhe ca pajÈnÈti. yaÒca tadubhayam paÔicca uppajjati saÑyojanaÑ taÒca pajÈnÈti. yaÒca tadubhayam paÔicca uppajjati saÑyojanaÑ taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa saÑyojanassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. . yathÈ ca pahÊnassa saÑyojanassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa saÑyojanassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yaÒca tadubhayam paÔicca uppajjati saÑyojanaÑ taÒca pajÈnÈti.241 Idha. SotaÒca pajÈnÈti.

ŒyatanapabbaÑ niÔÔhitÈm DhammÈnupassanÈ Bojjha~gapabbaÑ Puna caparam. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati sattasu bojjha~gesu? Idha. yaÒca tadubhayam paÔicca uppajjati saÑyojanaÑ taÒca pajÈnÈti. bahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. ‘atthi dhammÈ’ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. YathÈ ca anuppannassa satisambojjha~gassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. . yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya anissito ca viharati. AsantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ satisambojjha~gaÑ ‘natthi me ajjhattaÑ satisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. samudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. bhikkhu santaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ satisambojjha~gaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ satisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti.242 ManaÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati sattasu bojjha~gesu. yathÈ ca uppannassa saÑyojanassa pahÈnaÑ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. samudayavayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. KathaÒca pana. bhikkhave. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati chasu ajjhattikabÈhiresu Èyatanesu. bhikkhave. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. yathÈ ca uppannassa satisambojjha~gassa bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|rÊ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. dhamme ca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca anuppannassa saÑyojanassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca pahÊnassa saÑyojanassa ÈyatiÑ anuppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. Evampi kho.

SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ passaddhisambojjha~gaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ passaddhisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ viriyasambojjha~gaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ viriyasambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti.243 SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ dhammavicayasambojjha~gaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ dhammavicayasambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca anuppannassa dhammavicayasambojjha~gassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. AsantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ dhammavicayasambojjha~gaÑ ‘natthi me ajjhattaÑ dhammavicayasambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa passaddhisambojjha~gassa bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|rÊ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. AsantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ passaddhisambojjha~gaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ passaddhisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. . yathÈ ca uppannassa dhammavicayasambojjha~gassa bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|rÊ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. AsantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ pitisambojjha~gaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ pitisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca anuppannassa viriyasambojjha~gassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa viriyasambojjha~gassa bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|rÊ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. AsantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ viriyasambojjha~gaÑ ‘natthi me ajjhattaÑ viriyasambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ pitisambojjha~gaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ pitisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca anuppannassa passaddhisambojjha~gassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca anuppannassa pitisambojjha~gassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. yathÈ ca uppannassa pitisambojjha~gassa bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|rÊ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti.

samudayavayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. yathÈ ca uppannassa upekkhasambojjha~gassa bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|rÊ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. YathÈ ca anuppannassa upekkhasambojjha~gassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati cat|su ariyasaccesu? . samudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. Evampi kho. YathÈ ca anuppannassa samadhisambojjha~gassa uppÈdo hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya anissito ca viharati. AsantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ samadhisambojjha~gaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ samadhisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati sattasu bojjha~gesu. KathaÒca pana. AsantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ upekkhasambojjha~gaÑ 'natthi me ajjhattaÑ upekkhasambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. ‘atthi dhammÈ’ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ upekkhasambojjha~gaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ upekkhasambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. Bojjha~gapabbaÑ niÔÔhitÈm DhammÈnupassanÈ SaccapabbaÑ Puna caparaÑ. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammanupassi viharati cat|su ariyasaccesu.244 SantaÑ vÈ ajjhattaÑ samadhisambojjha~gaÑ ‘atthi me ajjhattaÑ samadhisambojjha~go'ti pajÈnÈti. bahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. bhikkhave. yathÈ ca uppannassa samadhisambojjha~gassa bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|rÊ hoti taÒca pajÈnÈti.

245 Idha. ayaÑ vuccati. idaÑ vuccati. maraÓaÑ. jarÈ? YÈ tesaÑ tesaÑ sattÈnaÑ tamhi tamhi sattanikÈye jarÈ jiraÓatÈ khaÓÉiccaÑ pÈliccaÑ valittacatÈ Èyuno saÑhÈni indriyÈnaÑ paripÈko. . maraÓaÑ: yaÑ tesaÑ tesaÑ sattÈnaÑ tamhÈ tamhÈ sattanikÈyÈ cuti cavanatÈ bhedo antaradhÈnaÑ maccu maraÓaÑ kÈlakiriyÈ khandhÈnaÑ bhedo kaÄebarassa nikkhepo jÊvitindriyassupacchedo. soko. Katamo ca. sokaparidevadukkhadomanassu pÈyÈsÈpi dukkhÈ. piyehi vippayogo dukkho. bhikkhave. jÈti. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. jÈti? YÈ tesaÑ tesaÑ sattÈnaÑ tamhi tamhi sattanikÈye jÈti saÒjÈti okkanti abhinibbanti khandhÈnaÑ pÈtubhÈvo ÈyatanÈnaÑ paÔilÈbho. sa~khittena paÒcupÈdÈnakkhandhÈ dukkhÈ. ayaÑ dukkhanirodhagÈminÊ paÔipadÈ’ti yathÈbh|taÑ pajÈnÈti. appiyehi sampayogo dukkho. bhikkhave. KatamÈ ca. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. jarÈpi dukkhÈ. KatamÈ ca. ayaÑ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathÈbh|taÑ pajÈnÈti. KatamaÒca. ayaÑ vuccati. yampicchaÑ na labhati tampi dukkhaÑ. dukkhaÑ ariyasaccaÑ? JÈtipi dukkhÈ. maraÓampi dukkhaÑ. ayaÑ dukkhanirodho’ti yathÈbh|taÑ pajÈnÈti. KatamaÒca. bhikkhave. bhikkhu idam dukkhan’ti yathÈbh|taÑ pajÈnÈti. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. ayaÑ vuccati. jarÈ. aÒÒataraÒÒatarena byasanena samannÈgatassa aÒÒataraÒÒatarena dukkhadhammena phuÔÔhassa soko socanÈ socitattaÑ antosoko antoparisoko. bhikkhave. soko? Yo kho.

bhikkhave.246 Katamo ca. KatamaÒca. idaÑ vuccati. ayaÑ vuccati. KatamaÒca. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. yÈ tehi saddhiÑ sa~gati samÈgamo samodhÈnaÑ missÊbhÈvo. dukkhaÑ? YaÑ kho. idaÑ vuccati. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. cetasikaÑ dukkhaÑ cetasikaÑ asÈtam manosamphassajaÑ dukkhaÑ asÈtam vedayitaÑ. Katamo ca. domanassaÑ? YaÑ kho. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. upÈyÈso. kÈyikaÑ dukkhaÑ kÈyikaÑ asÈtaÑ kÈyasamphassajaÑ dukkhaÑ asÈtaÑ vedayitaÑ. piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti iÔÔhÈ kantÈ manÈpÈ r|pÈ saddÈ gandhÈ rasÈ phoÔÔhabbÈ dhammÈ. aÒÒataraÒÒatarena byasanena samannÈgatassa aÒÒataraÒÒatarena dukkhadhammena phuÔÔhassa Èdevo paridevo ÈdevanÈ paridevanÈ ÈdevitattaÑ paridevitattam. ayaÑ vuccati. bhikkhave. ye vÈ panassa te honti atthakÈmÈ hitakamÈ phÈsukakÈmÈ yogakkhemakÈmÈ mÈtÈ vÈ pitÈ vÈ bhÈtÈ vÈ bhaginÊ vÈ mittÈ vÈ amaccÈ vÈ ÒÈtisÈlohitÈ vÈ. ayaÑ vuccati. yÈ tehi saddhiÑ asa~gati . bhikkhave paridevo. bhikkhave. Katamo ca. bhikkhave. dukkhaÑ. domanassaÑ. appiyehi sampayogo dukkho. upÈyÈso? yo kho. bhikkhave. paridevo? Yo kho. appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti aniÔÔhÈ akantÈ amanÈpÈ r|pÈ saddÈ gandhÈ rasÈ phoÔÔhabbÈ dhammÈ. bhikkhave. aÒÒataraÒÒatarena byasanena samannÈgatassa aÒÒataraÒÒatarena dukkhadhammena phuÔÔhassa ÈyÈso upÈyÈso ÈyÈsitattaÑ upÈyÈsitattaÑ. ye vÈ panassa te honti anatthakÈmÈ ahitakÈmÈ aphasukakÈmÈ ayogakkhemakÈmÈ. Katamo ca. bhikkhave. bhikkhave.

sattÈnaÑ evaÑ icchÈ uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaÑ na jarÈdhammÈ assÈma. piyehi vippayogo dukkho. ByÈdhidhammÈnaÑ. ayaÑ vuccati. sattÈnaÑ evaÑ icchÈ uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaÑ na jÈtidhammÈ assÈma. sattÈnaÑ evaÑ icchÈ uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaÑ na sokaparideva-dukkhadomanassu-pÈyÈsa-dhammÈ assÈma. bhikkhave. na ca vata no maraÓaÑ ÈgaccheyyÈ’ti. sattÈnaÑ evaÑ icchÈ uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaÑ na byÈdhidhammÈ assÈma. na ca vata no byÈdhi ÈgaccheyyÈ’ti. na ca vata no sokaparideva-dukkhadomanassu-pÈyÈsa-dhammÈ ÈgaccheyyÈ’ti. JarÈdhammÈnaÑ. na kho panetaÑ icchÈya pattabbaÑ. MaraÓadhammÈnaÑ. Idampi yampicchaÑ na labhati tampi dukkhaÑ. KatamaÒca. Idampi yampicchaÑ na labhati tampi dukkhaÑ. na kho panetaÑ icchÈya pattabbaÑ. bhikkhave. na kho panetaÑ icchÈya pattabbaÑ. . bhikkhave. Idampi yampicchaÑ na labhati tampi dukkhaÑ. Idampi yampicchaÑ na labhati tampi dukkhaÑ. Sokaparideva-dukkhadomanassu-pÈyÈsa-dhammÈnaÑ. yampicchaÑ na labhati tampi dukkhaÑ? JÈtidhammÈnaÑ. na kho panetaÑ icchÈya pattabbaÑ. bhikkhave. na kho panetaÑ icchÈya pattabbaÑ. bhikkhave. na ca vata no jarÈ ÈgaccheyyÈ’ti. na ca vata no jÈti ÈgaccheyyÈ’ti.247 asamÈgamo asamodhÈnaÑ amissÊbhÈvo. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. Idampi yampicchaÑ na labhati tampi dukkhaÑ. sattÈnaÑ evaÑ icchÈ uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaÑ na maraÓadhÈmma assÈma.

ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. idaÑ vuccati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ . ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. Ime vuccanti. KiÒca loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ? Cakkhu loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. bhikkhave. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. seyyathidaÑ: kÈmataÓhÈ bhavataÓhÈ vibhavataÓhÈ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. bhikkhave. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. SotaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. JivhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. taÓhÈ kattha uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. bhikkhave. KÈyo loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. Samudayasaccaniddeso KatamaÒca. GhÈnaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ.248 Katame ca. SÈ kho panesÈ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. dukkhasamudayaÑ ariyasaccaÑ? YÈyaÑ taÓhÈ ponobhavikÈ nandÊrÈgasahagatÈ tatratatrÈbhinandinÊ. bhikkhave. Mano loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. sa~khittena paÒcupÈdÈnakkhandhÈ dukkhÈ. kattha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati? YaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. R|pÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. sa~khittena paÒcupÈdÈnakkhandhÈ dukkhÈ? SeyyathidaÑ r|pupÈdÈnakkhandho vedanupÈdÈnakkhandho saÒÒupÈdÈnakkhandho sa~khÈrupÈdÈnakkhandho viÒÒÈÓupÈdÈnakkhandho. bhikkhave. dukkhaÑ ariyasaccaÑ. SaddÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ.

etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. Sotasamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. GhÈnasamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. SotaviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ManoviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. KÈyasamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. JivhÈsamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. Cakkhusamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. Manosamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati.249 nivisati. . GandhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. KayaviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. CakkhuviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. GhanaviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. PhoÔÔhabbÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. DhammÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. RasÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. JivhaviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati.

ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. GhÈnasamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. GandhasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. JivhÈsamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ManosamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. SotasamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. KÈyasamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. RasasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati.250 CakkhusamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. GandhasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. PhoÔÔhabbasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. DhammasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. SaddasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. R|pasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. PhoÔÔhabbasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. R|pasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. RasasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. SaddasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ . ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati.

Rasavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. Dhammavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. DhammasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. R|pavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. PhoÔÔhabbataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. R|pataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. PhoÔÔhabbavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati.251 uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. SaddataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. DhammataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. GandhataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. RasataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. Gandhavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. . Saddavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati.

ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. taÓhÈ kattha pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. dukkhasamudayaÑ ariyasaccaÑ. JivhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. dukkhanirodhaÑ ariyasaccaÑ? Yo tassÈyeva taÓhÈya asesavirÈganirodho cÈgo paÔinissaggo mutti anÈlayo. SotaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. Kinca loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ? Cakkhu loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. GandhavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. kattha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati? YaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. GhÈnaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. RasavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. SaddavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. Mano loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ.252 R|pavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. bhikkhave. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. bhikkhave. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ uppajjamÈnÈ uppajjati. KÈyo loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ.IdaÑ vuccati. DhammavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. Nirodhasaccaniddeso KatamaÒca. SÈ kho panesÈ. . PhoÔÔhabbavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nivisamÈnÈ nivisati. bhikkhave.

etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. GhÈnaviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. Cakkhusamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. KÈyaviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. RasÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. JivhÈviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ManoviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. CakkhuviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. SaddÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati.253 R|pÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. Sotasamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. GandhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. PhoÔÔhabbÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. SotaviÒÒÈÓaÑ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. DhammÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. GhÈnasamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. . ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. JivhÈsamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati.

ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. PhoÔÔhabbasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. SotasamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. RasasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. RupasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. DhammasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ.254 KÈyasamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. SaddasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. KÈyasamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. CakkhusamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. GhÈnasamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. GandhasaÒÒÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. . ManosamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. Manosamphasso loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. JivhÈsamphassajÈ vedanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati.

ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. . SaddasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. R|pavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. PhoÔÔhabbasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. GandhasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. Gandhavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. DhammataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. RasataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. Saddavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. Rasavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. SaddataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. R|pataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. PhoÔÔhabbataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. RasasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati.255 R|pasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. DhammasaÒcetanÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. GandhataÓhÈ loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ.

dukkhe ÒÈÓaÑ. bhikkhave. DhammavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ.256 PhoÔÔhabbavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. bhikkhave. . etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. SaddavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. dukkhanirodhagÈminÊ paÔipadÈ ariyasaccaÑ? Ayameva ariyo aÔÔha~giko maggo. Dhammavitakko loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ayaÑ vuccati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. IdaÑ vuccati. KatamÈ ca. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. dukkhasamudaye ÒÈÓaÑ dukkhanirodhe ÒÈÓaÑ dukkhanirodhagÈminÊyÈ paÔipadÈya ÒÈÓaÑ. sammÈdiÔÔhi. sammÈdiÔÔhi? YaÑ kho. bhikkhave. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. RasavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. seyyathidaÑ sammÈdiÔÔhi sammÈsa~kappo sammÈvÈcÈ sammÈkammanto sammÈ-ÈjÊvo sammÈvÈyÈmo sammÈsati sammÈsamÈdhi. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. dukkhanirodhaÑ ariyasaccaÑ. R|pavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. PhoÔÔhabbavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. Maggasaccaniddeso KatamaÒca. GandhavicÈro loke piyar|paÑ sÈtar|paÑ. etthesÈ taÓhÈ pahÊyamÈnÈ pahÊyati. ettha nirujjhamÈnÈ nirujjhati. bhikkhave. bhikkhave.

. bhikkhave. sammÈ-ÈjÊvo? Idha. Katamo ca.257 Katamo ca. KatamÈ ca. sammÈsa~kappo? Nekkhammasa~kappo ÈbyÈpÈdasa~kappo avihiÑsÈsa~kappo. bhikkhave. sammÈkammanto? PÈnÈtipÈtÈ veramanÊ. cittaÑ paggaÓhÈti. sammÈvÈcÈ. sammÈvÈcÈ? MusÈvÈdÈ veramanÊ. Katamo ca. bhikkhave. Katamo ca. bhikkhave. ayaÑ vuccati. bhikkhu anuppannÈnaÑ pÈpakÈnaÑ akusalÈnaÑ dhammÈnaÑ anuppÈdÈya chandaÑ janeti vÈyamati vÊriyaÑ Èrabhati cittaÑ paggaÓhÈti padahati. AyaÑ vuccati. UppannÈnaÑ kusalÈnaÑ dhammÈnaÑ ÔhitiyÈ asammosÈya bhiyyobhÈvÈya vepullÈya bhÈvanÈya pÈrip|riyÈ chandaÑ janeti. sammÈsa~kappo. ayaÑ vuccati. pharusÈya vÈcÈya veramanÊ samphappalÈpÈ veramanÊ. ariyasÈvako micchÈ-ÈjÊvam pahÈya sammÈ-ÈjÊvena jÊvikaÑ kappeti. vÈyamati vÊriyaÑ Èrabhati cittaÑ paggaÓhÈti padahati. sammÈkammanto. pisuÓÈya vÈcÈya veramanÊ. ayaÑ vuccati. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. kÈmesumicchÈcÈrÈ veramanÊ. AnuppannÈnaÑ kusalÈnaÑ dhammÈnaÑ uppÈdÈya chandaÑ janeti vÈyamati vÊriyaÑ Èrabhati cittaÑ paggaÓhÈti padahati. adinnÈdÈnÈ veramanÊ. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. ayaÑ vuccati. sammÈ-ÈjÊvo. sammÈvÈyÈmo. bhikkhave. padahati. UppannÈnaÑ pÈpakÈnaÑ akusalÈnaÑ dhammÈnaÑ pahÈnÈya chandaÑ janeti vÈyamati vÊriyaÑ Èrabhati. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. sammÈvÈyÈmo? Idha.

bhikkhave. AyaÑ vuccati. Idam vuccati. bhikkhu vivicceva kÈmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaÑ savicÈraÑ vivekajaÑ pÊtisukhaÑ paÔhamaÑ jhÈnaÑ upasampajja viharati. bhikkhave. sato ca sampajÈno sukhaÒca kÈyena paÔisaÑvedeti. PÊtiyÈ ca virÈgÈ upekkhako ca viharati. Sukhassa ca pahÈnÈ dukkhassa ca pahÈnÈ pubbeva somanassadomanassÈnaÑ attha~gamÈ adukkha-masukhaÑ upekkhÈsatipÈrisuddhiÑ catutthaÑ jhÈnaÑ upasampajja viharati. dukkhanirodhagÈminÊ paÔipadÈ ariyasaccaÑ. bhikkhave. bhikkhu kÈye kÈyÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. Katamo ca. sammÈsati. bhikkhave. vedanÈsu vedanÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. VitakkavicÈrÈnaÑ v|pasamÈ ajjhattaÑ sampasÈdanaÑ cetaso ekodibhÈvaÑ avitakkaÑ avicÈraÑ samÈdhijaÑ pÊtisukhaÑ dutiyaÑ jhÈnaÑ upasampajja viharati. citte cittÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. sammÈsamÈdhi. bhikkhave. sammÈsamÈdhi? Idha. . bhikkhave. dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati ÈtÈpÊ sampajÈno satimÈ vineyya loke abhijjhÈdomanassaÑ. bhikkhaveÈ sammÈsati? Idha. AyaÑ vuccati.258 KatamÈ ca. tatiyaÑ jhÈnaÑ upasampajja viharati. yaÑ taÑ ariyÈ Ècikkhanti ‘upekkhako satimÈ sukhavihÈrÊ’ti.

‘atthi dhammÈ’ti vÈ panassa sati paccupaÔÔhitÈ hoti. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya sattavassÈni. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. ajjhattabahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. sattavassÈni. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. chavassÈni. samudayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. samudayavayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. na ca kiÒci loke upÈdiyati. yÈvadeva ÒÈnamattÈya paÔissatimattÈya anissito ca viharati. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. TiÔÔhantu. TiÔÔhantu. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya chavassÈni. Yo hi koci. Evampi kho. bhikkhave. TiÔÔhantu.259 Iti ajjhattaÑ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. . SaccapabbaÑ niÔÔhitÈm DhammÈnupassanÈ niÔÔhitÈ Yo hi koci. paÒcavassÈni. bhikkhave. vayadhammÈnupassÊ vÈ dhammesu viharati. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya paÒcavassÈni. bahiddhÈ vÈ dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. bhikkhu dhammesu dhammÈnupassÊ viharati cat|su ariyasaccesu. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya cattÈrivassÈni. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. bhikkhave.

sattamÈsÈni. bhikkhave. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya dve vassÈni. dve vassÈni. bhikkhave. tÊÓi vassÈni. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. ekaÑ vassaÑ. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya cha mÈsÈni.260 TiÔÔhantu. bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya ekaÑ vassaÑ. TiÔÔhantu. cha mÈsÈni. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. Yo hi koci. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya tÊÓi vassÈni. Yo hi koci. bhikkhave. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya paÒca mÈsÈni. bhikkhave. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya sattamÈsÈni. cattÈrivassÈni. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. TiÔÔhantu. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. . tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ.

ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya ekaÑ mÈsaÑ. bhikkhave. bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. Yo hi koci. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ 'ti. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. bhikkhave. Yo hi koci. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. ekaÑ mÈsaÑ. Yo hi koci. cÈttari mÈsÈni. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya aÉÉhamÈso. paÒca mÈsÈni. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya cÈttari mÈsÈni. tÊni mÈsÈni.261 TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. bhikkhave. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. Yo hi koci. Yo hi koci. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya tÊni mÈsÈni. bhikkhave. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. sati vÈ upÈdisese anÈgÈmitÈ. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya sattÈhaÑ. aÉÉhamÈso. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. ime cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈne evaÑ bhÈveyya dve mÈsÈni. bhikkhave. TiÔÔhantu bhikkhave. . tassa dvinnaÑ phalÈnaÑ aÒÒnataraÑ phalaÑ pÈÔika~khaÑ diÔÔheva dhamme aÒÒÈ. dve mÈsÈni.

These are the roots of trees. Whatever should be done by a compassionate teacher. Idamavoca bhagÈva. I have done. maggo sattÈnaÑ visuddhiyÈ sokapariddavÈnaÑ samatikkamÈya dukkhadomanassÈnaÑ attha~gamÈya ÒÈyassa adhigamÈya nibbÈnassa sacchikiriyÈya. done.262 EkÈyano ayaÑ. bhikkhus. desiring their welfare. bhikkhave. Iti yaÑ taÑ vuttaÑ idametaÑ paÔicca vuttan’ti. MahÈsatipaÔÔhÈnasuttaÑ niÔÔhitaÑ “Thus. lest you regret it later. out of compassion for his disciples. do not be negligent. This is our instruction to you. bhikkhus. AttamanÈ te bhikkh| bhagavato bhÈsitaÑ abhinandunti.” you. have I taught the unconditioned.” . Meditate bhikkhus. yadidaÑ cattÈro satipaÔÔhÈnÈ'ti. these are the empty huts.