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describtion

1-Plain film radiography

ADVANTAGES
Widely available Good visualisation of most calculi and phlebolithsOften useful in assessing distant metastatic spread
Non-ionising radiation Good soft tissue discrimination Excellent sensitivity for mass lesions Easy to scan in most planes Rapid (Possible tissue characterization with Doppler)

DISADVANTAGES
Limited soft tissue information Low sensitivity for involvement of adjacent structures Radiation dose high

Extra oral films post-ant & panoramic & lateral oblique films. Intraoral films: periap., occlusal to avoid overexposure
Many adjacent body tissues have significant differences in accoustic impdence, thereby allow recognition by U.S. •Ultrasound imaging relies upon the transmission of high frequency sound (7-10MHz) which is attenuated as it passes through the tissues. •Calculus with diameter of a more than 2 mm can be identified better than with plain xray. •It is very sensitive for in detecting salivary gland tumors and in distinguishing extra glandular masses

2-Ultrasound

Operator dependent Poor visualization of deep structures Limited bony information
Difficult to scan in planes other than axial May require intravenous contrast for best results Radiation dose (high)

3-Computed tomography multislice

Wide field of view Very sensitive for soft tissue calcification bone involvement Usually good soft tissue discrimination Not operator dependent

4-C.T Sialography

Non-ionising radiation Excellent soft fissure (including bone marrow)discrimination Ability to reconstruct images in any scan plane Not operator dependent

5-Magnetic resonance imaging

Superior to CT scan in distinguishing the parotid gland from the surrounding structures.

Non-ionising radiation Excellent soft fissure (including bone marrow)discrimination Ability to reconstruct images in any scan plane Not operator dependent

Not widely available Poor cortical bone detail Long scanning time Restricted field of view in some circumstances Not tolerated by all patients

6-Nuclear medicine

The principles of nuclear medicine imaging is the absorption by the body of a material which emits radiation ( Gamma ray emitting radionuclide)the detection of display of that radiation in such a way as to provide the anatomical, physiological or pathological information. Administration of radionuclide may be ( ingested, inhaled or IV)the emitted radiation is detected by gamma cameraconsisting of a scintillation crystal + photomultipliers (hence h‟name scintigraphy.
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography..Common radionuclei used are TC-99m, Galium-67, Strontium-89. is a technique whereby cross-sectional images of tissue function can be produced allowing the removal of the effect of overlying and underlying radioactivity.

Patho-physiological information Good for assessment of metastatic spread

Poor anatomical discrimination Radiation dose (low

7-spect

23I SPECT scan demonstrating salivary gland uptake as well as tumor uptake (arrow).

8-PET/CT

is a nuclear medical imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body.
is a minimally invasive technique .a small camera is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts .When stone is 5mm or less, it can be removed purely by an endoscop, particularly when the stone is located above the muscles that comprise the floor of the mouth. Using a small wire basket retrieval system

9Diagnostic Sialendosc opy.

can be conducted under local anesthesia minimally invasive technique diagnostic and therapeutic