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HISTORY 2 11:30-12:30 TTHS P(405)

Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta (October 29, 1866 – June 5, 1899), an Ilocano born in Manila, was a Filipino pharmacist andgeneral who fought in the Philippine-American War. He was also the founder of the Philippines's first military academy, which existed during the First Philippine Republic. He was regarded as the most brilliant of the [1] Filipino military officers during the war. Succeeding Artemio Ricarte as commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, he organized professional guerrilla soldiers later to be known as the Luna sharpshooters. His three-tier defense, now [2] known as the Luna Defense Line, gave the American troops a hard campaign in the provinces north of Manila. Family background Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta was born on October 29, 1866 in Urbiztondo, Binondo, Manila. He was the youngest of seven children of Joaquín Luna de San Pedro, from Badoc, Ilocos Norte, and Spanish mestiza Laureana [3] Novicio-Ancheta, from Luna, La Union (formerly Namacpacan). His father was a traveling salesman of the products of government monopolies. His older brother, Juan, was an accomplished painter who studied in theMadrid Escuela de [4] Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Another brother, José, became a doctor. Education At the age of six, Antonio learned reading, writing, and arithmetic from a teacher known as Maestro Intong. He memorized [3] the Doctrina Christiana(catechism), the first book printed in the Philippines. Common Catholic vocal prayers were all included in the book. The primary goal of the book was to propagate the Christian teachings in the Philippines. He initially studied at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1881. He went on to study literature and chemistry at the University of Santo Tomas, where he won first prize for a paper in chemistry titled Two Fundamental Bodies of Chemistry. He also studied pharmacy, swordsmanship, fencing, and military tactics, and became a sharpshooter. On the invitation of his brother Juan in 1890, Antonio was sent by his parents to Spain, to [3] acquire a licentiate (at Universidad de Barcelona) and doctorate (at Universidad Central de Madrid) in Pharmacy. Reform propagandist In Spain, he became one of the Filipino expatriates who mounted the Propaganda Movement and wrote for La Solidaridad, headed by Galicano Apacible. He wrote a piece titled Impressions which dealt with Spanish customs and idiosyncrasies under the pen-name "Taga-ilog". Also, like many of the Filipino liberals in Spain, Luna joined the Masonry [3] where he rose to being Master Mason. Luna was active as a researcher in the scientific community. After receiving his doctorate, Luna published in 1893 a scientific treatise on malaria entitled El Hematozoario del Paludismo (Malaria) , which was favorably received in the scientific community. He then went to Belgium and France, and worked as assistant to Dr. Latteaux and Dr. Laffen. In recognition of his ability, he was appointed commissioner by the Spanish government to study tropical and communicable [3] diseases. In 1894, he went back to the Philippines where he took the competition for chief chemist of the Municipal Laboratory of [4] Manila, came in first and won the position. He and his brother Juan also opened the Sala de Armas, a fencing club, [3] in Manila. When he learned of the underground societies that were planning a revolution and was asked to join, he scoffed at the idea and turned down the offer. Like other Filipino émigrés, he was in favor of reform rather than revolution [4] as the way towards independence. Nevertheless, after the existence of the Katipunan was leaked in August 1896, the [4] Luna brothers were arrested and jailed in Fort Santiago for "participating" in the revolution. His statement concerning the revolution was one of the many statements used to nail down the death sentence for José Rizal. Months later, José and [3] Juan were freed but Antonio was exiled to Spain in 1897, where he was imprisoned at the Cárcel Modelo de Madrid.

Juan. General Pio del Pilar. Luna felt that bureaucratic placebos were being thrown his way. he was made the Director of War and Supreme Chief of the Army. A score of veteran officers became the teachers at his military school. heeding the advice of General Merritt and Commodore (later Admiral) George Dewey. a mestizo formerly serving the Spanish Army. He recruited other mestizos and Spaniards who had fought in the Spanish army during the 1896 revolution for training. and had his brother Juan design the school's uniforms (the [5] Filipino rayadillo). which began upon the return of Emilio Aguinaldo in Cavite. ill-fed and ill-trained young troops into a real army. he was given a letter of recommendation to Emilio Aguinaldo and a revolver by Felipe [5] Agoncillo. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. patriotic songs and poems. 1898. short stories. arousing the envy of the other generals. Tambobong. Boustead was reportedly infatuated with Rizal.” This four-page daily was filled with articles. when all he wanted was to [4] organize and discipline the enthusiastic. He decided to publish a newspaper. whose fleet had moored in Manila Bay. with a battalion of tiradores and a cavalry squadron. and other aspects of [5] military science under Gerard Leman. Manila had been completely surrounded by the revolutionary troops. To silence Luna. when the Americans landed troops in Intramuros. using convents and town halls. Aguinaldo appointed him as Chief of War Operations on September 26. But Aguinaldo. Upon his release. that he had decided to join. Luna thought the Filipinos should just walk in and enter Intramuros to have joint occupation of the walled city. However. Luna studied field fortifications. which was more than all the other newspapers put together. General Mariano Noriel. a woman who was also courted by José Rizal. Divisoria. and held Ermita and Malate. The paper came out in September 1898. He appointed Captain (later Colonel) Manuel Bernal Sityar. Personal life Luna also courted Nellie Boustead. He built tranches with the help of his chief engineer. Luna saw the need for a military school. General Jose Alejandrino. lookouts and communication systems. In a party held by Filipinos.His more famous and controversial brother. Parañaque. repenting for his blunder during the first phase of the Philippine Revolution. which ended at the Pact of Biak-naBato. planned the reorganization. “La Independencia. He devised two courses of instruction. Luna apologized to Rizal. so in October 1898 he established a military academy at Malolos the Academia Militar. the precursor of the present Philippine Military Academy. thus averting a duel between the [6] compatriots. and was an instant success. a drunk Antonio Luna made unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. A movable feast of information. Knowing that the fate of the infant Republic was a contest for the minds of Filipinos. as superintendent. Gregorio del Pilar marched through Sampaloc.000 copies [5] were printed. and Caloocan. [4] . Luna turned to journalism to strengthen Filipino minds with the ideas of nationhood and the need to fight a new imperialist enemy. Antonio's case was dismissed by the Military Supreme [4] Court and he was released. humor and good writing. However. arsenals. In quick succession. and assigned the rank of Brigadier General. Upon arriving in Hong Kong. the Academia had to be suspended [4] indefinitely by March 1899 due to outbreak of the Philippine-American War. set up an inventory of guns and ammunition. Colonel Luciano San Miguel occupied Mandaluyong. then prepared himself for the second phase. Since June 1898. Pacheco. 1898. Navotas. quartermasters. taking Tondo. organization. who had been pardoned by the Spanish Queen Regent herself. left for Spain to use his influence to intercede for Antonio. guerrilla warfare. Noriel cleared Singalong and Paco. Luna tried to complain [4] to American officers at a meeting in Ermita about the disorder made by American soldiers. Soon enough. He also insisted on strict discipline over and above clan armies and clique loyalties. The staff was installed in one of the coaches of the train that ran from Manila to Pangasinan. He returned to the Philippines in July 1898. and Azcárraga. sent Luna to the trenches where he ordered his troops to fire on the Americans. Makati. 4. who would later be the commanding general of the fortress at Liège. Philippine-American War Luna was one of the first to see action in Manila on August 13. After the disastrous farce of the American Occupation. Antonio.

General Otis delayed for almost a [8] month in hopes that Filipino forces would be deployed in its defense. Illustrating the concern that the Americans had. Filipino casualties were high. however. Luna determined that he would wage a series of delaying battles and prepare a fortress in northern Luzon. Fighting took place at Marikina. the telegram stated. when the battalion from Kawit. Firstly. and Paco. 1899. On February 7. and a hundred freight cars.” A Filipino counterattack began at dawn on February 23. Nevertheless.When the Treaty of Paris. Bugallon had managed to advance another fifty meters before he was seen by Luna to collapse by the side of the road. Fierce fighting ensued but the Filipinos were forced to withdraw thereafter. Surviving the encounter. after receiving orders from Aguinaldo. was turned down by the High [5] Command. When Luna saw that the American advance had halted. amounting to around 2. some of the successful Filipino sectors ran low on ammunition and food. Luna had to gather an escort of around 25 men to save Bugallon.000 killed [7] and wounded. “Situation critical in [5] Manila. Cavite. If the American forces penetrated his lines. Troops directly under Luna's command were divided into three: the West Brigade under General Pantaleon Garcia. Two days later. The plan was to employ a pincer movement. with the sharpshooters (the only professionally trained troops) at crucial points. Luna personally had to carry wounded officers and men to safety. of these rescues. In doing so. it began “by virtue of the barbarous attack upon our army on February 4 . under which Spain was to cede the Philippines to the United States. the most dramatic was that of Commander José Torres Bugallón. with Dewey's US fleet firing from the Manila Bay. rushed to the front lines from his headquarters at Polo (presentday Valenzuela City) and led three companies to La Loma to engage General Arthur MacArthur's forces. It was only partly successful because of two main reasons. and the raping of Filipino women by US troops. refused to replace the former. already past their prime. Secondly. claiming afterwards that the Filipinos had started shooting first and the whole Filipino line from Pasay to Caloocan returned fire and the first battle of the Filipino-American War ensued. who Luna declared was equivalent to 500 men. Bugallon died thereafter. when most of the Filipino generals were at a ball in Malolos to celebrate the success of the American anti-imperialists delaying the ratification of the Treaty of Paris. the obvious next objective for American forces would be the Republic capital at Malolos. and were thus forced to withdraw to Polo. Sta. Luna issued a detailed order to the field officers of the territorial militia. and others had predicted and about which they had warned Aguinado and his generals previously. After being hit by an American bullet. As the Americans kept up their fire on the road. Caloocan was left with American forces in control of the southern terminus of the Manila to Dagupan railway. was made public in December 1898. the US Senate voted for annexation. Luna. This. However. Luna failed to relieve the Pampango militia. Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). The Americans gained the time and the opportunity to start hostilities with the Filipinos at the place and time of their choice. with his troops. Containing five specific objects. Caloocan. Mesa near the Balsahan Bridge. with their superior firepower and newly arrived reinforcements. the Americans had not expected such resistance.” and ended with “war without quarter to false Americans who wish to enslave us. However. Luna tried to encourage Bugallon to live and gave the latter an instant promotion to [5] lieutenant colonel. Your early arrival great importance. After consolidating control of Caloocan. The Filipinos were subjected to a carefully planned attack with naval artillery. Luna quickly realized that only decisive military action could save the republic. and the East Brigade under General Licerio Gerónimo. An American patrol fired on Filipino troops. Mabini. the burning and looting of whole [5] districts. saying that they had orders to obey only instructions directly . along with five engines. in response to the incident. mainly to stabilize their lines. the Americans staged an incident [7] along the concrete blockhouses in Sta. he again mobilized his troops to [5] attack La Loma on February 10. [5] The sandatahanes or bolomen inside Manila would start a great fire to signal the start of the assault. fifty passenger coaches. They were so surprised that an urgent cable was sent to General Lawton who was in Colombo. On the night of February 4. using the battalions from the North and South. the conflict became the war of conquest. who still believed that the Americans would grant full independence. Ana. the Center Brigade [5] under GeneralMariano Llanera. He proposed a strategy that was designed to trap the Americans in Manila before more of their troops could land by executing surprise attacks while building up strength in the north. Independence or death!” The order labeled the US forces "an army of drunkards and [7] thieves" in response to the continued bombardment of the towns around Manila. occupation and annexation that [5] Luna.

Still outraged and furious. and/or insulted. which they described as consisting of numerous bamboo trenches stretching from town to town. One asked for help in launching a counterattack in San Fernando. This version was that Mascardo had left to visit his girlfriend. Janolino's men fired [5] at Luna. American military observers were astonished by the Defense Line. Luna proceeded to the headquarters alone. Such insubordination had become quite common among the Filipino forces at that time as most of the troops owed their loyalty to the officers from their provinces. arrested. Luna rushed down the stairs and met Captain Pedro Janolino. As a result. Luna went to Aguinaldo and asked to be reinstated with more powers over all the military chiefs. to form a new cabinet. as the Republic was constructing a guerrilla base in the Mountain Province. forcing Luna to [3] withdraw despite his heroic action to defend the remaining sectors. and continued building defenses at Pangasinan where the Americans were planning a [5] landing. Receiving the depressing reports from the field through his La Independencia correspondents. two of the carriages broke down and he proceeded in the only one left. Pampanga. Colonel Joaquín Luna. As he was about to depart.from Aguinaldo. The base was planned to be the last stand [5] headquarters of the Republic in the case the Americans broke through the Defense Line. Luna. As the American troops occupied each new position. Luna received two telegrams. with Colonel Francisco Román and Captain Eduardo Rusca. and Luna placated himself by disarming the Kawit Battalion. However. Another version of Mascardo's reasoning emerged and it was probably [9] that which reached Luna. Luna asked why he had not been told [5] the meeting was canceled. and was told that Aguinaldo had left for San Isidro in Tarlac. Luna was absent from the field for three weeks. during which the Filipino forces suffered several defeats and setbacks. mainly in resentment for the rearmament of the Kawit Battalion as the Presidential Guard. one of Antonio’s brothers. the Americans had broken through his defenses at the Bagbag River. An example of this occurred during the Battle of Calumpit wherein Luna ordered General Tomás Mascardo to send troops from Guagua to strengthen the former's defenses. had decided to detain him. which included bamboo spikes and poisonous reptiles. warned him that a plot had been concocted by "old elements" or the autonomists of the Republic (who were bent on accepting American sovereignty over the country) and a clique of army officers whom Luna had disarmed. having earlier shed his cavalry escort. As a [5] result. infuriated by Mascardo's actions. Death On June 2. tried to placate the general's anger by convincing Luna to push the case to President Aguinaldo. they were subjected to a series of traps that had been [5] set in the trenches. proved to be a strict disciplinarian and thereby alienated many in the ranks of the common soldiers. The Luna Defense Line was planned to create a series of delaying battles from Caloocan to Angeles. However. And so it went. Luna shrugged off all these threats. wounding him at the head. Having high hopes that he would be promoted as Prime Minister and Secretary of War. accompanied by some elements of the Kawit battalion whom he had previously dismissed for insubordination. one of Luna's aides. The series of trenches allowed the Filipinos to withdraw gradually. signed by Aguinaldo himself. Pampanga. then on horseback and eventually in three carriages to Nueva Ecija with 25 of his men. 1899. During the journey. He staggered out to the plaza where Román and Rusca were rushing to his aid. incident after incident until Luna proferred his resignation. Mascardo ignored orders by Luna insisting that he was going to Arayat to undertake an "inspection of troops". and the other. however. Janolino swung his bolo at Luna. the counterattack soon collapsed. By the end of May 1899. and Aguinaldo agreed by making him [5] Commander-in-Chief of the Filipino forces in Pampanga and Bulacan. even as he tried to fire his revolver at one of his attackers. As he went up the stairs. battle after battle. ordered him to go to the new capital at Cabanatuan. Upon returning to the field. he ran into an officer whom he had previously disarmed for cowardice. whom he had once threatened with arrest. Nueva Ecija. Luna. but they too were set upon and shot. Upon arriving at Cabanatuan on June 5. a hated “autonomist”. Enraged. firing from cover at the advancing Americans. towns or districts and not to the central command. reiterating his trust for Aguinaldo. and an old enemy. Major Hernando. with Roman being [2] . Aguinaldo hesitantly accepted the resignation. Luna set [7] off. first by train. in haste to communicate with the President. a single shot from a rifle in the plaza rang out. while others started stabbing him. Aguinaldo complied to detain Mascardo for twenty-four hours. however.

the most brilliant and capable of the Filipino generals at the time. and [7] made to pledge allegiance to the United States on April 1. which contained his inheritance of gold coins. As he lay dying. Isabela by American forces. A monument of Luna was erected at Plaza Lucero in Cabanatuan. one of Luna's remaining aides. Also. Aguinaldo suffered successive. Luna "was the only general the Filipino army had. It was named BRP Gen. Nueva Ecija. The book does mention the wealth of his family which was proved by a silk bag that Luna wore. Aguinaldo was captured in Palanan." Subsequently. after the general of the same name. In his book. disastrous losses in the field. including General Venacio Concepción. Commemoration    The famous University of the Philippines Diliman Sunken Garden was named as General Antonio Luna Parade [12] Grounds. In the 102nd birth anniversary of Luna (1968).killed and Rusca severely wounded. the standard biography about Luna. Agoncillo stated that the loss of Luna showed the existence of a lack of discipline among the regular Filipino soldiers and it was a major weakness that was never remedied in the course of the [7] war. For historian Teodoro Agoncillo. Ysidra was the aunt of Jose Cojuangco. Antonio Luna (PG-141). whose headquarters in Angeles. In 1999. resulting in the latter becoming one of the [11] richest women in the Philippines by 1900. Isabela. However. Luna-Cojuangco Affair There were talks concerning Luna diverting millions of pesos from the Republic's treasury. stated in his memoirs that if only Luna had finished the planned [5] guerrilla camp in Mountain Province. father of Corazon Aquino. particularly from Ilocos and Pampanga. It was this same bag that had saved Luna's life at the Battle of Santo Tomas on May 4. Ysidra Cojuangco. does not cite anything about this affair.Malolos: The Crisis of the Republic. to the hometown of his sweetheart. . General Frederick Funston. Luna's death did not directly attribute to the resulting fall of the Republic. was a decisive factor in the fight [5] against the American forces. who received the credit of capturing Aguinaldo at Palanan. after which Aguinaldo relieved Luna's officers and men from the field. however. [3] [14]     Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim led a commemorative program on Luna's 144th birth anniversary. the first postwar Philippine fifty peso bill featured a portrait of Luna until it was replaced in 1969 by a portrait of Sergio Osmeña. General Jose Alejandrino. On March 23." For General James Franklin Bell. Aguinaldo may have not been running for his life at the Cordillera Mountains. Luna uttered his last words: " Cowards! Assassins!". was named after the general. Even the Americans developed an admiration for him. as he retreated towards northern Luzon. soldiers connected with Luna were demoralized and as a result eventually surrendered to the Americans. He said that Luna's guerrillatactics preceded that of China's Mao Zedong and Vietnam's Vo Nguyen [2] Giap and Ho Chi Minh. when it had stopped a bullet that hit it from completely [5] penetrating Luna's body. He was hurriedly buried in the churchyard. A Philippine military base. The death of Luna. He was later brought to Manila. Aguinaldo besieged the same day Luna was [5] assassinated. 1901. former President Ferdinand Marcos delivered a speech about the general. 1899. In 1951. It is currently the [15] Office of the Director of the Government Arsenal. the book The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna by Vicencio Jose. stated that Luna was the "ablest and most aggressive [10] [10] leader of the Filipino Republic. the second and last of the General Emilio Aguinaldo-class patrol vessel was commissioned by the Philippine [13] Navy. Luna's wealth was said to have been entrusted to Ysidra. Pampanga. Bataan. Camp Antonio Luna in Limay.