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Robbins: Organizational Behavior

Chapter Thirteen

POWER AND POLITICS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Contrast leadership and power. Define the four bases of power. Clarify what creates dependency in power relationships. List seven power tactics and their contingencies. Explain how sexual harassment is about the abuse of power. Describe the importance of a political perspective. List those individual and organizational factors that stimulate political behavior. Identify seven techniques for managing the impression one makes on others. Explain how defensive behaviors can protect an individual’s self-interest. List the three questions that can help determine if a political action is ethical.

CHAPTER OVERVIEW If you want to get things done in a group or organization, it helps to have power. As a manager who wants to maximize your power, you will want to increase others’ dependence on you. You can, for instance, increase your power in relation to your boss by developing knowledge or a skill that he needs and for which he perceives no ready substitute, but power is a two-way street. You will not be alone in attempting to build your power bases. Others, particularly employees and peers, will be seeking to make you dependent on them. The result is a continual battle. While you seek to maximize others’ dependence on you, you will be seeking to minimize your dependence on others, and, of course, others you work with will be trying to do the same. Few employees relish being powerless in their job and organization. It hass been argued, for instance, that when people in organizations are difficult, argumentative, and temperamental, it may be because they are in positions of powerlessness, where the performance expectations placed on them exceed their resources and capabilities. There is evidence that people respond differently to the various power bases. Expert and referent power are derived from an individual’s personal qualities. In contrast, coercion, reward, and legitimate power are essentially organizationally derived. Since people are more likely to enthusiastically accept and commit to an individual whom they admire or whose knowledge they respect (rather than someone who relies on his or her position to reward or coerce them), the effective use of expert and referent power should lead to higher employee performance, commitment, and satisfaction. Competence especially appears to offer wide appeal, and its use as a power base results in high performance by group members. The message for managers seems to be: Develop and use your expert power base! The power of your boss may also play a role in determining your job satisfaction. “One of the reasons many of us like to work for and with people who are powerful is that they are generally more pleasant, not because it is their native disposition, but because the reputation and reality of being powerful permits them more discretion and more ability to delegate to others. The effective manager accepts the political nature of organizations. By assessing behavior in a political framework, you can better predict the actions of others and use this information to formulate political strategies that will gain advantages for you and your work unit. Some people are just significantly more “politically astute” than are others. Those who are good at playing politics can be expected to get higher performance evaluations, and hence, larger salary increases and promotions. They are more likely to exhibit higher job satisfaction. WEB EXERCISES At the end of each chapter of this instructor’s manual, you will find suggested exercises and ideas for researching the WWW on OB topics. The exercises “Exploring OB Topics on the Web” are set up so that you can simply photocopy the pages, distribute them to your class, and make assignments accordingly. You may want to assign the exercises as an out-of-class activity or as lab activities with your class. Within the lecture notes the graphic will note that there is a WWW activity to support this material.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior

Chapter Thirteen

The chapter opens introducing Jacques Nasser, the former CEO of Ford Motor Co. Nasser’s style managed to anger almost every core relationship Ford Motor company had. He alienated many people with the decisions he made, but most importantly, he aliened Mr. Ford, whose family owned 40 percent of the voting stock, and who was Chairman of FMC. He failed to maintain the support of the one person with the power to terminate his relationship with FMC. A Definition of Power 1. Definition: Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Notes:

Power may exist but not be used. It is, therefore, a capacity or potential.

2. Probably the most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependency.

• • •

The greater B’s dependence on A, the greater is A’s power in the relationship. Dependence, in turn, is based on alternatives that B perceives and the importance that B places on the alternative(s) that A controls. A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire. Notes:

Contrasting Leadership and Power 1. Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. 2. Differences between Leadership and Power:

Goal compatibility:

a. Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. b. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led.

The direction of influence: a. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. b. Leadership research, for the most part, emphasizes style. c. Power does not minimize the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. d. The research on power has tended to encompass a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance.

Bases of Power A. Formal Power 1. Coercive Power: Notes:

• •

The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. 18

2. therefore. Coercive power and reward power are actually counterparts of each other. we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals. When people have needed information. you have reward power over that person." Expertise has become a powerful source of influence as the world has become more technological. If I admire and identify with you. Expert Power: • • Expert power is "influence wielded as a result of expertise. (For example. managers have access to data that subordinates do not have). suspend. Personal Power 1. a. assuming that B values his or her job.Robbins: Organizational Behavior A. Legitimate Power: • In formal groups and organizations. Referent Power: • Its base is identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. Reward Power: • • The opposite of coercive power is reward power. If you can give someone something of positive value or remove something of negative value. 2. It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. B.) Notes: Chapter Thirteen • • At the organizational level. Information Power: • Refers to power that comes from access to and control over information. Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers. If you can remove something of positive value from another or inflict something of negative value upon him/her. People comply because doing so produces positive benefits. others become dependant on them. A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss. if A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B finds embarrassing. or knowledge. the most frequent access power is one’s structural position. These rewards can be anything that another person values. • • 3. you can exercise power over me because I want to please you. It includes acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organization. b. As jobs become more specialized. or demote B. • • 4. Similarly. you have coercive power over that person. one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. 19 . is broader than the power to coerce and reward. however. special skill. Formal Power (cont. Legitimate power. A possesses coercive power over B.

Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen 20 .

Others follow because they can articulate attractive visions. the thing(s) you control must be perceived as being important. etc. 2. you gain power over them. the greater the power A has over B. • Scarcity a. a. • Dependency. 3. b. those individuals or groups who can absorb an organization’s uncertainty will be perceived as controlling an important resource. Charismatic Power: • • Is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. A resource needs to be perceived as scarce to create dependency. What Creates Dependency? • Importance a. then. Organizations actively seek to avoid uncertainty. It also explains why so many of us aspire to financial independence. Low-ranking members in an organization who have important knowledge not available to high-ranking members gain power over the high-ranking members. you make them dependent upon you and. c. When you possess anything that others require but that you alone control. Individuals in occupations in which the supply of personnel is low relative to demand can negotiate compensation and benefit packages. c. demonstrate follower sensitivity. The General Dependency Postulate: • The greater B’s dependency on A. a. therefore. This is why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather using just one. Personal Power (cont. • 21 . d. The scarcity-dependency relationship can further be seen in the power of occupational categories. Nonsubstitutability a.Robbins: Organizational Behavior B. which are far more attractive than can those in occupations where there is an abundance of candidates. is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. Therefore. b. b. take personal risks. Referent power explains why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials. it is a lot like charisma. the more power that control over that resource provides. To create dependency. The more that a resource has no viable substitutes. Notes: Dependency: The Key to Power 1.) Notes: Chapter Thirteen • • Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person.

c. • Resistance leads to managers using more directive strategies. managers are more tempted to use assertiveness and sanctions to achieve their objectives. b. co-workers. creation of goodwill. and given to over 750 employees. The manager’s expectation of the target person’s willingness to comply • When past experience indicates a high probability of success. managers who control resources that are valued by others. (See Exhibit 13-2). • Attempting to persuade their superiors to accept new ideas. Ways Powerholders Get What They Want Notes: Chapter Thirteen • One hundred sixty five managers were asked to write essays describing an incident in which they influenced their bosses. • Where success is less predictable. The most popular strategy was the use of reason. • Managers use reason to sell ideas to employees and friendliness to obtain favors. The findings identified seven tactical dimensions or strategies: • • • • • • • • • Reason—Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas Friendliness—Use of flattery. Employees do not rely on the seven tactics equally. • Second. managers use simple requests to gain compliance. • First. The manager’s relative power impacts the selection of tactics in two ways. These were condensed into a 58-item questionnaire. or who are perceived to be in positions of dominance. acting humble. they use friendliness. they usually rely on reason. c. use a greater variety of tactics than do those with less power. b. managers with power use assertiveness with greater frequency than do those with less power. The manager’s objectives for wanting to influence causes them to vary their power tactics. • Seeking benefits from a superior. Three hundred seventy power tactics were identified and grouped into 14 categories. or employees. From those essays: a. 22 . Contingency variables that affect the selection of a power tactic a. and being friendly Coalition—Getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request Bargaining—Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favors Assertiveness—Use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance Higher authority—Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back up requests Sanctions—Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments 3. 2. These respondents were asked not only how they went about influencing others at work but also for the possible reasons for influencing the target person.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Power Tactics 1.

This coalition expansion is to facilitate consensus building f. a. can combine their resources to increase rewards for themselves. The decision must also be implemented. b. In contrast. coalitions in organizations often seek to maximize their size. costly. Power in Groups: Coalitions 1. The implementation of and commitment to the decision is at least as important as the decision. Predictions about Coalition Formation • First. The organization’s culture • The organizational culture in which a manager works. • The organization itself will influence which subset of power tactics is viewed as acceptable for use by managers. The natural way to gain influence is to become a powerholder but this may be difficult. • 4. and quickly disappear. Those “out of power” and seeking to be “in” will first try to increase their power individually. e. People in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. 23 .) d. achieve their target issue. or impossible. 2. More coalitions will likely be created where there is a great deal of task and resource interdependence. Notes: Notes: Chapter Thirteen • In such cases.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Power Tactics (cont. Decision-making in organizations does not end just with selection from among a set of alternatives. c. e. risky. therefore. coalitions move the other way—they try to minimize their size. • Differences are consistent with values among countries—reason is consistent with American’s preference for direct confrontation and coalition is consistent with the Chinese preference for using indirect approaches. It is necessary for coalitions in organizations to seek a broad constituency. • Another prediction relates to the degree of interdependence within the organization. a. In political science theory. If ineffective. will have a significant bearing on defining which tactics are considered appropriate. d. b. the alternative is to form a coalition—an informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue. 3. • US prefers reason whereas China prefers coalition tactics. Successful coalitions have been found to contain fluid membership and are able to form swiftly. there will be less interdependence among subunits and less coalition formation activity where subunits are largely selfcontained or resources are abundant. efforts will be made to form a coalition of two or more “outs” who. by joining together.

2.’’ There continues to be disagreement as to what specifically constitutes sexual harassment: a. etc. sexual artifacts like nude calendars in the workplace. a. coalition formation will be influenced by the actual tasks that workers do.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Power in Groups: Coalitions (cont. sexual harassment by one’s boss typically creates the greatest difficulty for those who are being harassed. Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the TEAM EXERCISE – Understanding Power Dynamics found in the text and at the end of these chapter notes. 24 . and is perceived. and coercive threats that a woman will lose her job if she refuses a sexual proposition. It was the congressional hearings in the fall of 1991 in which law professor Anita Hill graphically accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment that challenged organizations to reassess their harassment policies and practices. as hostile or abusive. b. off-color jokes. Because of power inequities. b. The supervisor-employee dyad best characterizes an unequal power relationship. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 1. The more that the work that people do is routine. recurring requests for dates when it is made clear the woman is not interested.) Notes: Chapter Thirteen • Finally. the greater the likelihood that coalitions will form. Importance: Notes: • • The issue received increasing attention by corporations and the media in the 1980s because of the growing ranks of female employees. • Although coworkers do not have position power. The more routine the task of a group. It is also worth noting that individuals who occupy high-status roles (like management positions) sometimes believe that sexually harassing female employees is merely an extension of their right to make demands on lower-status individuals. Overt forms of sexual harassment of female employees. a. the greater their substitutability. This includes unwanted physical touching. Sexual Harassment Defined: • • "Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment. b. they can have influence and use it to sexually harass peers. • • • Most studies confirm that the concept of power is central to understanding sexual harassment." A 1993 Supreme Court decision added that the key test for determining if sexual harassment has occurred is whether comments or behavior in a work environment “would reasonably be perceived. The problem today—subtle forms of sexual harassment such as unwanted looks or comments.

It is wrong. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. and interests. but that influence. and symbolic protests. which often turns potential conflict into real conflict. It includes such varied political behaviors as withholding key information from decision makers. forming coalitions. Notes: Chapter Thirteen • Women in positions of power can be subjected to sexual harassment from males who occupy less powerful positions. or processes used for decision-making. c. bypassing the chain of command. c. • • A. Sexual harassment is about power: a. whistleblowing. cooperation. Damned If You Don’t found in the text and at the end of these chapter notes. This sets up the potential for conflict over resources. leaking confidential information. The Reality of Politics 1. b. The employee devalues the woman through highlighting traditional gender stereotypes that reflect negatively on the woman in power. goals. It encompasses efforts to influence the goals. Definition: those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization. etc. etc. The “Legitimate-Illegitimate” Dimension Notes: • Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics— complaining to your supervisor. and support. such as sabotage. Illegitimate political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game. a. The vast majority of all organizational political actions are legitimate. 2. not everyone’s interests can be provided for causing the conflict. Politics: Power in Action 1. The extreme illegitimate forms of political behavior pose a very real risk of loss of organizational membership or extreme sanction. • Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the CASE INCIDENT – Damned If You Do. whistleblowing. 3.) a. Coworkers exercise power by providing or withholding information. This definition encompasses key elements. Politics is a fact of life in organizations. spreading rumors. Organizations are made up of individuals and groups with different values. 25 . It is illegal. 2. Resources in organizations are also limited. criteria. b.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace (cont. Because resources are limited. 3. Political behavior is outside one’s specified job requirements. A suggestion for a class exercise follows the material. Coworkers are the most frequent perpetrators of sexual harassment in organizations. or attempt to influence. It is about an individual controlling or threatening another individual. b. etc.

While knowledge is an increasingly important source of power. A suggestion for a class exercise follows the material. You believe that your roommates' parents could influence the university president’s final decision. Networking refers to "establishing effective relationships with key people inside" and/or outside the organization and is an important activity performed by managers who were promoted the fastest. You have been helping your roommate survive a couple of key classes by tutoring him/her and helping with papers by offering suggestions. Most managerial decisions take place in the large and ambiguous middle ground of organizational life. 7. and how would you cash in your political capital? 26 . are well-respected alumni. It is possible for an organization to be politics free. Should you use your relationship with your roommate to affect the administration’s final decision? 4. and “called in” these obligations when needed. however. Lead a discussion of the ethicality of using personal contacts to get “what you want” in the following situation. 4. Research indicates that a person’s location within an organization is an important determinant of his/her influence. The most important factor leading to politics within organizations is the realization that most of the “facts” that are used to allocate the limited resources are open to interpretation. Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the MYTH OR SCIENCE? – “It’s Not What You Know. that is not the organization most people work in. The Reality of Politics (cont. These forces create a competition. people within organizations will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. It’s Who You Know” This statement is somewhat true. The student government has been ineffective in getting the administration or board to hear the students. but for you and your other friends. MYTH OR SCIENCE? – “It’s Not What You Know. and are golfing buddies with the university’s president. 2) they established a wide political network. with heavy loans and having to work. This evidence is not a rejection of job-relevant expertise but it indicates that “who you know” is important. this is a big deal. if all members of that organization hold the same goals and interests. What’s an adequate improvement? 5. A study of general managers found: 1) they fully understood the importance of networking. These are activities we call politicking. non-traditional—to pay a fee every semester for the next three years to fund the building of a new physical learning center for the campus. What is good performance? b. You discover that your roommate’s parents are major donors to the university.Robbins: Organizational Behavior A. Situation: The administration of a state university wants all students—full. Your roommate went from failing to a C+ in these classes. stressed the obligations of these contacts. Students are upset because they do not want to pay for something they will not use. 3. a. It’s Who You Know” found in the text and below. Teaching notes 1. and 5) they did favors for these contacts. knowing the right people increases your chances of getting ahead. Your roommate does not care about the fee because money is not an issue. Because most decisions have to be made in a climate of ambiguity. 6. 2. Do you have enough political capital to get your roommate to help? How could you increase. part-time. which 3) provided them with information.) Notes: Chapter Thirteen • • Gains by one individual or group are often perceived as being at the expense of others. 4) established cooperative relationships that could enhance their careers.

when the existing pattern of resources is changing. zero-sum reward allocation practices. and when there is opportunity for promotions. a. needs. When organizations downsize to improve efficiency. Individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor. The less trust there is within the organization. and expectations of success will influence the tendency to pursue illegitimate means of political action. Promotion decisions have consistently been found to be one of the most political in organizations. The more alternative job opportunities an individual has. and self-serving senior managers will create breeding grounds for politicking. Employees who are high self-monitors. When an organization’s resources are declining. The Machiavellian personality is comfortable using politics as a means to further his/her self-interest. the higher the level of political behavior and the more likely it will be illegitimate. possess an internal locus of control. politics is more likely to surface. • An individual’s investment in the organization. c. and other factors that are likely to be related to political behavior. d. a. role ambiguity. Cultures characterized by low trust. 2. a. or influential contacts outside the organization. c. 27 .Robbins: Organizational Behavior Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 1. Individual factors: Notes: Chapter Thirteen • Researchers have identified certain personality traits. • There are fewer limits to the scope and functions of the employee’s political actions. the more likely he/she will risk illegitimate political actions. A low expectation of success in using illegitimate means diminishes the probability of its use. unclear performance evaluation systems. • The greater the role ambiguity. b. a prominent reputation. perceived alternatives. c. Organizational factors: • • Political activity is probably more a function of the organization’s characteristics than of individual difference variables. high pressures for performance. democratic decision-making. the more one can engage in political activity with little chance of it being visible. and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. the less likely he/she is to use illegitimate means. d. b. e. Role ambiguity means that the prescribed behaviors of the employee are not clear. people may engage in political actions to safeguard what they have. The more that a person has invested and the more a person has to lose. b. The high self-monitor is more sensitive to social cues and is more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low self-monitor.

Robbins: Organizational Behavior Factors Contributing to Political Behavior (cont. Low political skills individuals often respond with defensive behaviors— reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action. In countries that are more unstable politically. change. a climate is created that supports politicking. especially those who began their careers in the 1950s and 1960s. If I win.” • The more time that elapses between an action and its appraisal. Subjective criteria in the appraisal process: • Subjective performance criteria create ambiguity. When employees see top management successfully engaging in political behavior. you must lose! • This encourages making others look bad and increasing the visibility of what you do. conferences. Making organizations less autocratic by asking managers to behave more democratically is not necessarily embraced by all individual managers. 4. h. Reaction to organizational politics is also moderated by culture. employees quit. • The result is that managers. The effect of politics is moderated by the knowledge the individual has of the decision making system and his/her political skills: • • High political skills individuals often have improved performance. may use the required committees. j. 5. and group meetings in a superficial way as arenas for maneuvering and manipulating. • Single outcome measures encourage doing whatever is necessary to “look good.) f. When it get too much to handle. 3. g. It is a de-motivating force and performance may suffer as a result.” there is motivation to do whatever is necessary to make sure the outcome is favorable. • Sharing their power with others runs directly against some managers’ desires. i. 28 . The perception of politics leads to anxiety or stress. 2. The more pressure that employees feel to perform well. the more likely they are to engage in politicking. or blame. • If a person perceives that his or her entire career is riding on the next “whatever. There is very strong evidence indicating that perceptions of organizational politics are negatively related to job satisfaction. Notes: Chapter Thirteen A. workers will tolerate higher levels of politicking that more politically stable counties. How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 1. The zero-sum approach treats the reward “pie” as fixed so that any gain one person or group achieves has to come at the expense of another person or group. the more unlikely that the employee will be held accountable for his/her political behaviors.

• The researchers compared IM techniques that focused the conversation on themselves (called a controlling style) with techniques that focused on the interviewer (referred to as a submissive style). Ignorance is Bliss found in the text and below. 5. regardless of the beneficial or detrimental effects for them. Being perceived positively by others should have benefits for people in organizations. If the image claimed is false. IM does not imply that the impressions people convey are necessarily false. Misrepresentation can have a high cost. A suggestion for a class exercise follows the material. • • Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the OB IN THE NEWS – Among the Politically Inept. You can actually believe that ads contribute little to sales in your region or that you are the key to the tripling of your division’s sales. In one study. 7. The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them Notes: Chapter Thirteen • • We know that people have an ongoing interest in how others perceive and evaluate them. for instance. Only a limited number of studies have been undertaken to test the effectiveness of IM techniques. and they received more job offers. A more recent study confirmed the value of a controlling style. you may be discredited. • • Excuses and acclaiming. 29 . Impression Management 1. When the applicants’ credentials were also considered. • 3. Another employment interview study looked at which IM techniques worked best. High self-monitors are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation. Those applicants who used the controlling style were rated higher by interviewers on factors such as motivation. 2. and the interviewers seemed somewhat more inclined to hire these people. it was apparent that the IM techniques alone that influenced the interviewers. and even technical skills. 8. Who engages in IM—the high self-monitor • Low self-monitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities. • • These have been essentially limited to job interview success. enthusiasm.Robbins: Organizational Behavior B. The evidence is that IM behavior works. Situations that are characterized by high uncertainty or ambiguity that provide relatively little information for challenging a fraudulent claim increase the likelihood of individuals misrepresenting themselves. 6. may be offered with sincerity. 4. interviewers felt that those applicants for a position as a customer service representative who used IM techniques performed better in the interview.

it is quite the opposite. Pamela Cuming. does it often seem that the politically clueless are the most confident and self-assured about their political skills? The answer may lie with studies undertaken at Cornell University. Goode. Life Thread Publications. The researchers concluded that one reason that the ignorant tend to be overly self-assured is that the skills required for competence often are the same skills necessary to recognize competence. How to Use It. 1978 The System Made Me Do It! A Life Changing Approach to Office Politics . Prentice-Hall. Researchers Discover.. the answers to these questions are often argued in ways to make unethical practices seem ethical. Source: E. Incompetents tend to be more confident of their abilities than people who do things well. rights. Michael Korda. They reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices. by Susan Osborne. They can persuasively argue that unfair actions are really fair and just. now out of print but available in libraries!) C. and justice. D7. Sherry Suib Cohen. For instance. Betty Lehan Harragan. 3. one of the findings from these studies was that college students who score lowest on grammar tests were the most likely to overestimate how well they had performed. 4. O. 1975 Tender Power: A Revolutionary Approach to Work and Intimacy. The final question that needs to be addressed relates to whether or not the political activity conforms to standards of equity and justice. Would they want to learn these skills—what could be gained or lost? Suggested reading list on this topic: • • • • • Games Mother Never Taught You: Corporate Gamesmanship for Women. Whether or not “politicking” is a skills than can be learned. 1985 (This is an excellent book. Three ethical decision criteria are utilitarianism. Ignorance is Bliss. 2000. 1977 (a classic book for anyone who wants to understand corporate politics) Power! How to Get It. Ignorance Is Bliss Why are some of the most politically inept people so completely unaware of their incompetence? Why. 1997. 30 . PhD. How one could learn these skills—given they are more often organizational and situational specific. A suggestion for a class exercise follows the material. 2. Class Exercise: Discuss with students the following: 1.Among the Politically Inept. P. Ballantine Books.” New York Times. These studies help explain why the humor-impaired persist in telling jokes that are not funny or the politically clueless continue to give advice to others on the fine points of “getting ahead” at work. Unfortunately. The first question you need to answer addresses self-interest versus organizational goals. “Among the Inept. in fact. So incompetents suffer a double liability. p.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen OB IN THE NEWS -. Powerful people can become very good at explaining self-serving behaviors. Box 185. AddisonWellesley. Newark CA 94560-0185 Turf and Other Power Plays. January 18. Notes: Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the POINT-COUNTERPOINT – Creating “Special Deals” for “Special Employees” found in the text and at the end of these chapter notes. The second question concerns the rights of other parties. The researchers at Cornell have found that most incompetent people do not know they are incompetent. 3. 2. 5. Ethical actions are consistent with the organization’s goals. while their weak selfmonitoring skills also rob them of the ability to realize it. The Ethics of Behaving Politically 1. Actually. Warner Books. See Exhibit 13-8 for an illustration of a decision tree to guide ethical actions.

the most frequent access power is one’s structural position. therefore. the most frequent access to a power base is one’s structural position. or the threat of application. one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. Power may exist but not be used. of physical sanctions. • Expert Power Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise. It includes acceptance by members of an organization of the authority of a position. In formal groups and organizations. It is. special skill. Contrast power tactics with power bases. Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. The greater B’s dependence on A. Legitimate power. Dependence. As jobs become more specialized. A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire. or knowledge. People comply because doing so produces positive benefits. the generation of frustration through restriction of movement. • Legitimate Power In formal groups and organizations. People comply because doing so produces positive benefits. • Reward Power The opposite of coercive power is reward power. • Referent Power Its base is identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. is broader than the power to coerce and reward. so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. What are some of the key contingency variables that determine which tactic a powerholder is likely to use? Answer – See Exhibit 13-1. It is a lot like charisma. therefore. or the threat of application. The opposite of coercive power is reward power. or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. • Coercive Power The coercive power base—rests on the application. the generation of frustration through restriction of movement. we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals. To the degree that an individual seeks rewards. What is power? How do you get it? Answer – Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B. Expertise has become a powerful source of influence as the world has become more technological. or knowledge. Probably the most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependency. or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. your ability to give or withhold them gives you power over that individual. therefore. Referent power explains why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials. Which power bases lie with the individual? Which are derived from the organization? Answer – Individual based Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise.Robbins: Organizational Behavior QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW Chapter Thirteen 1. special skill. As jobs become more specialized. Organizationally based The coercive power base rests on the application. however. one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals. the greater is A’s power in the relationship. 2. It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. 3. it is a lot like charisma. To the degree that an individual seeks rewards. a capacity or potential. in turn. of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain. your ability to give or withhold them gives you power over that individual. Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. is based on alternatives that B perceives and the importance that B places on the alternative(s) that A controls. Referent power explains why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials. 31 .

• Leadership research. Political behavior is dependent on having some type of power. achieve their target issue. costly. Politics is a fact of life in organizations because organizations are made up of individuals and groups with different values. or it can be a way to circumvent the lack of organizational power. Organizations actively seek to avoid uncertainty. for the most part. 5. therefore. and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. and quickly disappear. 7. and interests. the thing(s) you control must be perceived as being important. • Power does not minimize the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. It includes such varied political behaviors as withholding key information from decision makers. • Power does not require goal compatibility. leaking confidential information about organizational activities to the media. or attempt to influence. efforts will be made to form a coalition. the greater the power A has over B. There are also illegitimate political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game. Therefore. criteria. emphasizes style. Also. Answer – Three elements create dependency. State the general dependency postulate. • Importance To create dependency. requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led. What does it mean? Answer – The greater B’s dependency on A. Define political behavior. goals. Why is politics a fact of life in organizations? Answer – Many definitions focus on the use of power to affect decision making in the organization or on behaviors by members that are self-serving and organizationally non-sanctioned. whistleblowing. Dependency is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. Resources in organizations are also limited. • Leaders achieve goals. Low-ranking members in an organization who have important knowledge not available to high-ranking members gain power over the high-ranking members. on the other hand. you make them dependent upon you and. • Leadership. 8. exchanging favors with others in the organization for mutual benefit. What creates dependency? Give an applied example.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen 4. We shall define political behavior in organizations as those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization but that influence. 6. The scarcity-dependency relationship can further be seen in the power of occupational categories. risky. This sets up the potential for conflict over resources. How are power and politics related? Answer – Both are used to affect decision making in the organization or behaviors by members. • Nonsubstitutability The more that a resource has no viable substitutes. • Scarcity A resource needs to be perceived as scarce to create dependency. • Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. Successful coalitions have been found to contain fluid membership and are able to form swiftly. which often turns potential conflict into real conflict. merely dependence. Both also have a “legitimate-illegitimate” dimension. The natural way to gain influence is to become a powerholder. When building a personal power base is difficult. • Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics. you gain power over them. The logic— strength in numbers. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. gains by one individual or group are often perceived as being at the expense of others within the 32 . Individuals in occupations in which the supply of personnel is low relative to demand can negotiate compensation and benefit packages that are far more attractive than can those in occupations where there is an abundance of candidates. or processes used for decisionmaking. or impossible. What is a coalition? When is it likely to develop? Answer – A coalition is an informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue. When you possess anything that others require but that you alone control. It encompasses efforts to influence the goals. those individuals or groups who can absorb an organization’s uncertainty will be perceived as controlling an important resource. the more power that control over that resource provides. and lobbying on behalf of or against a particular individual or decision alternative. spreading rumors.

the realization that most of the “facts” that are used to allocate the limited resources are open to 33 . These forces create a competition among members for the organization’s limited resources. Finally.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen organization.

What is impression management? What type of people are most likely to engage in IM? Answer – This is the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. Support your boss. and in the lower ranks. Being perceived positively by others should have benefits for people in organizations. and thus are open to interpretation. and do not speak negatively of him/her to others. and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. Do not undermine your boss. 4. Individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor. where facts are rarely fully objective. there are fringe members whose status is questionable. when the existing pattern of resources is changing. • An individual’s investment in the organization. needs. and when there is opportunity for promotions. Then project the appropriate image. 8. What factors contribute to political activity? Answer – Exhibit 13-5 illustrates both individual and organizational factors. Based on the information presented in this chapter. Low self-monitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities regardless of the beneficial or detrimental effects for them. Frame arguments in terms of organizational goals. 7. QUESTIONS FOR CRITICAL THINKING 1. Develop powerful allies. Avoid “tainted” members. High selfmonitors are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation. The Machiavellian personality is comfortable using politics as a means to further his/her self-interest. It helps to have powerful people in your camp. 3. Gain control of organizational resources. 10. Who engages in IM—the high self-monitor. 2. Individual factors—researchers have identified certain personality traits. role ambiguity. Develop the right image. 34 . Organizational factors—Political activity is probably more a function of the organization’s characteristics than of individual difference variables. Knowledge and expertise are particularly effective resources to control. 3. it is important that your boss and those in power in the organization be made aware of your contribution. Your immediate future is in the hands of your current boss. politics is more likely to surface. perceived alternatives. • Organizational culture is characterized by low trust. 1. possess an internal locus of control. Cultivate contacts with potentially influential people above you. Because performance evaluation has a substantial subjective component. When an organization’s resources are declining. 5. If you know your organization’s culture. We know that people have an ongoing interest in how others perceive and evaluate them. what would you do as a recent college graduate entering a new job to maximize your power and accelerate your career progress? Answer – Eight suggestions for improving organizational political effectiveness. 6. Make yourself appear indispensable. you understand what the organization wants and values from its employees. 9. You do not have to really be indispensable as long as key people in the organization believe that you are. In almost every organization. at your own level. • Making organizations less autocratic by asking managers to behave more democratically is not necessarily embraced by all individual managers. people within organizations will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. 2. Be visible. and other factors that are likely to be related to political behavior. and expectations of success will influence the tendency to pursue illegitimate means of political action. Because most decisions have to be made in a climate of ambiguity. etc. The high self-monitor is more sensitive to social cues and is more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low self-monitor.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen interpretation creates political behavior. • Traits—employees who are high self-monitors. Effective politicking requires camouflaging your selfinterest. 1.

” Do you agree or disagree? Defend your position. they should think through the ethicality of such techniques. So. Use Exhibit 13-6 as a reference for some of the more popular IM techniques and examples of each. or attempt to influence. Excuses and acclaiming. On the one hand. or obfuscation. It is merely a way to get things accomplished within organizations. Work is where most of us spend the majority of our waking hours. bypassing the chain of command.” “Workplace romances are a natural occurrence in organizations. age. A 1993 Supreme Court decision added that the key test for determining if sexual harassment has occurred is whether comments or behavior in a work environment “would reasonably be perceived. embellishment. and symbolic protests. Answer – The variety of student responses should take into consideration the following items. office romances have a high probability of creating problems. the naturally volatile state of personal relationships and the need for professionals working together regardless of personal feelings. Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics— complaining to your supervisor. It is only natural that personal relationships and. The above adds to the confusion on this issue. Misrepresentation can have a high cost. whether intentionally or not. etc. “Sexual harassment should not be tolerated at the workplace. etc. After four excellent years. deception. 3. for instance. it may appropriately help a superior be more aware of you and things you are doing. the changing roles and socialization of men and women is adding to the confusion and probability of miscommunication in the workplace. sales in your territory are off 30 percent this year. IM does not imply that the impressions people convey are necessarily false. if any. Describe three defensive responses you might use to reduce the potential negative consequences of this decline in sales. 5. on the other. or sex-based. On the one hand. The “legitimate-illegitimate” dichotomy. forming coalitions. may be offered with sincerity. 4. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. The extreme illegitimate forms of political behavior pose a very real risk of loss of organizational membership or extreme sanction. as hostile or abusive. impression management may lead to false impressions. Illegitimate political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game are sabotage. in using impression management? Answer – Key here is helping students understand that they have. selective presentation. romances will develop. Key here is that the students understand the difference between their current college environment and the professional environment in the real working world. You are a sales representative for an international software company. Sexual harassment is a basic violation of that. If the image claimed is false. Answer – Students can choose from several defensive behaviors. “Politics is not inherently bad. but we recommend the best three in this situation would be: • Justifying—includes developing explanations that lessen your responsibility for a negative outcome and/or apologizing to demonstrate remorse. • Misrepresenting—involves the manipulation of information by distortion. in some cases. central to our value system is equality of people whether gender. The inherent elements of political behavior in organizations are those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization but that influence. However. One can make an argument for either side of this issue. You can actually believe that ads contribute little to sales in your region or that you are the key to the tripling of your division’s sales. and is perceived.’’ There continues to be disagreement as to what specifically constitutes sexual harassment. • Scapegoating—the classic effort to place the blame for a negative outcome on external factors that are not entirely blameworthy. Situations that are characterized by high uncertainty or ambiguity that provide relatively little information for challenging a fraudulent claim increase the likelihood of individuals misrepresenting themselves.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen 2. Also. whistleblowing. The vast majority of all organizational political actions are legitimate. 35 . At the same time. used impression management. the reality is that office romances are part of men and women working together. due to the sensitivity of the equality and harassment issue. you may be discredited. Which impression management techniques have you used? What ethical implications are there.” Are both of these statements true? Can they be reconciled? Answer – Sexual harassment is any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment.

quiet. They allow managers to negotiate favorable treatment with employees they like. They provide greater rewards for employees and allow them to tailor their job to better meet their personal needs. So allowing one employee in a department to take off two hours early every Thursday afternoon to coach his son’s Little League team often means others in that department will have to take up some of his work. Rousseau. M. We have spent three-quarters of a century building formalized human resource systems that ensure consistent treatment of the workforce. cooperation. Here are just a few. the decline in unionization and the weakening of the job security–based model of organizational careers have led to less standardized conditions of employment. Special deals reward the wrong behaviors. managers are negotiating special treatment for certain employees. important contacts. 260–73. Customization of employment relationships. These special deals have advantages for both employees and managers. or high marketability. Although these employees may also be high performers. if they are not. managers have considerable leeway to negotiate idiosyncratic deals with employees. under the guise of flexibility. One person’s merit is another’s favoritism. maintaining standardized practices is more likely to provide the appearance of fairness that is needed to create a climate of trust. the demand for knowledge workers with distinctive competencies in a highly competitive market means workers have greater power to negotiate employment conditions suited to their tastes and preferences. upgraded travel arrangements. high status.Robbins: Organizational Behavior POINT-COUNTERPOINT – Empowerment Improves Employee Productivity POINT Chapter Thirteen In countries such as France. “The Idiosyncratic Deal: Flexibility versus Fairness?” Organizational Dynamics. COUNTER POINT Talk about opening up a can of worms! Making special deals with certain employees is bound to undermine whatever trust there is in an organization. In contrast. Special deals give too much power to managers. In order to hire. Two trends help explain the growth in special deals for certain employees. Source: This is largely based on D. whether or not they are contributing the most. Resources in organizations are limited. Special deals are not cost free. Examples of this special treatment include higher pay than others for doing similar work. For instance. Using idiosyncratic deals to supposedly enhance flexibility is a major step toward trashing these systems. terms of employment are largely mandated by law and hence highly standardized. One employee’s gain is often at another’s expense. They encourage employees to “kiss up” to their boss and to treat every attempt to get a raise or time off as a bargaining opportunity. and less demanding employees who are good performers are likely to be excluded. and efficiency. Second. and allowing certain employees to spend time on personal projects during work time. if not the actuality. Spring 2001. in countries such as the United States. built a trusting relationship with his or her manager. In these latter countries. evidence indicates that many single and childless employees resent the “family-friendly” benefits—such as helping to find an employee’s spouse employment or paid child care—that many companies offer to married workers and those with children. Our position is that special deals undermine trust and cooperation at work. There is no shortage of arguments against special deals for special employees. Belgium. Special deals are unlikely to be perceived as fair by those who do not receive them. What do these employees have that allow them to make idiosyncratic arrangements? It can be unique credentials. Great Britain. pp. These systems are critical to promoting fairness. These deals are typically proposed as bargaining chips when negotiating initial employment terms or after the employee has been on the job a while. They also give individual managers greater latitude in motivating their employees and flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances. and the Netherlands. and keep highly skilled workers. and becomes a valued performer. that those with power get favored treatment. but it must also include the willingness of an employee or prospective employee to speak up. it contributes to politicizing the work environment. This has the potential to create conflicts. allowing an employee to work from home several days a week. Special deals tend to go to aggressive employees. permitting an employee to leave early to fulfill family obligations. motivate. Although management may desire flexibility in its relationships with employees. They create the appearance. and New Zealand. First. only increases politics in the workplace. managers are increasingly using this latitude to customize their treatment of “special” individuals. special skills. Shy. 36 .

whether there should be lecture or discussion. etc. why they felt that way. 2. 7. Discuss their ideas. experiences. etc. Or. offer it without explanation of its teaching points. before reviewing this material. the majority probably won’t. This exercise works best if you can do it before starting the class for the semester. Students may argue that 1) your offer was not real or 2) there is a difference between college and work. Help them explore why they did not think the offer was real and realize that the principle is the same here as in work.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen Teaching notes 1. 5. how performance will be measured. Offer students the opportunity to design the class (the rest of the class) this semester—what content is to be covered. Ask the students who did not participate or who communicated that they did not want to design the course or didn’t know enough to do so.” Have them offer reasons. Should there be any “special deals” like the ones mentioned in the article? What would be fair or not fair in this situation? 6. only the immediate context is different. Finally. discuss why these empowerment efforts are failing. to discuss whether they think employees want to be “empowered. those who redesign the class and those who did not participate. to support their position. Some students will take the opportunity. 4. Ask if this experience supports one or the other position. etc. Use both. 37 . 3. and record them on the board.

Create three groups. Note: The text suggests using dollar bills—poker chips are effective alternative without having to worry about getting the money back to its owner. and to decide how to use its money b. Members of the middle group may enter the space of the lower group when they wish but must request permission to enter the top group’s space (which the top group can refuse). 1979. Key is that students understand that if either the perception or reality of such a disparity of power exists. a. 4.Robbins: Organizational Behavior TEAM EXERCISE – Understanding Power Dynamics Chapter Thirteen Purpose: For students to experience the reality of power due to organizational factors Time: 30–45 minutes Instructions: 1. Exchange. Bottom group: To identify its resources and to decide how best to provide for learning and the overall effectiveness of the organization 5.) 3. pp. no.  3. Summarize what occurred within and among the three groups. the middle group blue chips and the bottom group white poker chips. worthless. and to decide how to use its money c. which will provide fodder for an interesting discussion. If you are lucky. What are some of the differences between being in the top group versus being in the bottom group? c. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications. Divide groups based on criteria given by the instructor. Be prepared to help them keep calm until the end. Each of the three groups chooses two representatives to go to the front of the class and discuss the following questions: a.E. 2. Members of the top group are free to enter the space of either of the other groups and to communicate whatever they wish. Rules a. 2. Inc. (Can be any task you assign. Explain that the chips will be redeemed at the end of the exercise for prizes—the red the most value. The lower group does have the right to knock on the door of the middle group and request permission to communicate with them (which can also be refused). with or without notice. What can we learn about power from this experience? d. and instructed to read the following rules and tasks. 3. Debriefing. assigned to their workplaces. employees will feel the same frustration they did. Turn the question back to the class and ask students if anyone has had an experience with a similar disparity of power. b. The members of the top group have the authority to make any change in the rules that they wish. How can they. One of the major discussion/sticking points will be the reality of the exercise. Do not argue with the students. Tasks a. Bolman and T. Top group: To be responsible for the overall effectiveness and learning from the exercise. Deal. vol. without giving away the exercise. some students will argue it is not real and that there is not that much imbalance in power.] 38 . 4. Members of the lower group may not disturb the top group in any way unless specifically invited by the top. How accurate do you think this exercise is to the reality of resource allocation decisions in large organizations? Teaching notes 1. with their employees? [This exercise is adapted from L. some students will perceive this disparity with the administration or faculty of your institution. blue are second most valuable and white. In all likelihood. individually. This exercise may create some significant anxiety or even rebellion in the lower group. Give the top group red poker chips. whenever they wish. Middle group: To assist the top group in providing for the overall welfare of the organization. 38–42. at any time. Conduct exercise. Groups go to their assigned work places and have 30 minutes to complete their tasks. minimize the possibility of this disparity when they begin working. b.

Fran sat her down and listened to her story. Yesterday. Fran’s impression of Jennifer is quite positive. 4. I would say there was a probability that the job offer was likely to become public information due to unforeseen circumstances and in order to give any offer proper consideration. Questions 1. Jennifer would ask him to stop and not do it again. Damned If You Don’t Chapter Thirteen Fran Gilson has spent 15 years with the Thompson Grocery Company rising through the ranks of this 50store grocery store chain to become a regional manager. If anything. Fran: "I recommend: taking Jennifer to H. I can’t even offer solace to Jennifer as that would constitute improper involvement. what would you do? Answer – Students’ responses will vary but students cannot stall. I would call the recruiter. Jennifer said that Ken began making off-color comments and his behavior got progressively worse including leering and touching. Analyze Fran’s situation in a purely legalistic sense. Since Jennifer is not her employee nor does she have reporting authority over Ken. “I came to you. About all she knew regarding his personal life was that he was in his late 30s. I would prepare to tell my current bosses that I had been approached about another job. and involved in a long-term relationship. Answer – Fran must take action. she needs to take this to H. ask H.. They must act. Answer – Ken holds tremendous power over Fran since he has information that she does not want her bosses to know about. or doesn’t warn Ken informally.” Jennifer said that she had come to Fran because she did not know what to do or whom to turn to. so she agreed to consider the position of vice president and regional manager for a national drugstore chain. Finally. She made it very clear to the recruiter that Ken was the only person at Thompson who knew she was considering another job. Ken Hamilton. Fran met Jennifer through Ken. passes this on the HR. but she had no reason to think Jennifer was lying. single.000 a year.Robbins: Organizational Behavior CASE INCIDENT – Damned If You Do. She and the company are now legally exposed.R. Fran also thinks she is ready to take on more responsibility. 3. but it fell on deaf ears. and. ask if he had talked with Ken yet and how long it would be until a decision. this should build my equity in that I did the right and legal thing regardless of the consequences to me. Ken reminded Jennifer that her six-month probationary review was coming up. the director of finance.R. Fran tells Ken it is a dream job and expresses her positive excitement. What Fran heard was hard to believe. nor should she contact Ken and give him a warning that HR is investigating. If you were Fran. “He told me that if I did not sleep with him that I could not expect a very favorable evaluation. time had now become a factor. because you are a friend of Ken’s and the highest ranking woman here. Analyze Fran’s situation in an ethical sense. I might wait a short time before revealing this to my bosses. because she is Ken’s friend. She asked Ken last week if she could use his name as a reference.R. as this could compromise her later." 39 . The only person at Thompson who knows Fran is looking at this other job is her good friend and colleague. Jennifer came to Fran to talk. which is proper since she is not in the chain of command dealing with the incidents. plus this is a very serious accusation. overseeing seven stores and earning approximately $95. and Jennifer to not involve me and explain the personal relationship with Ken. Analyze Fran’s dilemma in political terms. Will you help me?” Fran had never heard anything like this about Ken before. You might want to talk to friends or relatives who are in management or the legal profession for advice in this analysis. She can ask HR and Jennifer to leave her out of the process. he could see it as a betrayal and reveal her job possibility with the other company. If she acts against Ken. 2. but to do this would defuse and take power from Ken if he decided to retaliate. She should not investigate the claim on her own. HR would not want her involved. What is the ethically right thing for her to do? Is that also the politically right thing to do? Answer – By giving the issue to HR. Fran. Depending on the recruiter’s response. Ken agreed to give her a great recommendation. Jennifer Chung has been a financial analyst in Ken’s department for five months. Fran has fulfilled her obligation both legal and ethical to the organization and to Jennifer.

Could they work at an organization you are involved with? Why or why not? Go to: http://www.com/fact/content/?020722fa_fact Make a list of every impression management behavior you spot in the article. Read and print the article. These are not necessarily sexual harassment issues.com/archive/article/22/02/97. Point to: http://www.goto. Information and policies concerning sexual harassment are often joked about. Learn about current trends in sexual harassment issues from HRMagazine.com/magazine/19950201/2142.newyorker. Ethics in the boardroom? You bet. and doing something about.workforce.com www. the Society for Human Resources’ (SHRM) monthly publication to its members. Learn how Craig Ohlson of Activation does it to be the top salesperson in a featured article in Inc. and more importantly. Read this article at : http://www. The Talent Myth. Write a short reaction paper describing the power tactics he uses to influence his customers.asp?NID=218 2. Knowing about “personal power” is one thing—applying it to everyday work life is another. Could any of his methods be applied to an activity you are involved in—why or why not? Power and gender equity are hot topics among HR professionals.eeoc.com/!cirihal5.org/hrmagazine/articles/1098emplaw. Also visit: http://www. Magazine.shrm. Are smart people overrated? That was the question put forth by New Yorker Magazine in the article.com www.com and take the self-test to become more aware of your own personal values.htm .html to read the article.excite. Read the articles and the related links.html to learn how apply an ethical framework to your activities.refresher. Write three things in a short journal entry you learned about yourself after reading this website. The Performance Management Magazine offers its take on ethics—this time as applied to all levels of employees in an organization. despite the bad news we heard from the media on a daily basis.com www. Go to: http://www. Click on the link for spiritualityhealth.google.looksmart. Point to http://www.inc.lycos.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen Exploring OB Topics on the World Wide Web Search Engines are our navigational tool to explore the WWW. ethics everyday. Then make a list of impression management techniques you plan to develop in the next years. Bring it to class for a discussion session. misunderstood.html for the EEOCs statistics on the number of claims filed during the last 10 years.com 1.gov/stats/harass.php . 5. 6. scorned.hotbot. 4. Are there issues discussed that you have not considered previously? Write a short journal entry of two or three paragraphs about what you learned from the article. Bring both lists to class for discussion.com/article_dtls. 3. Write a two page paper on what you learned concerning the trends regarding sexual harassment. 7.com www. Some commonly used search engines are: www. or write a short reaction paper on whether or not you agree with the ideas put forth in the article.com www. CEO’s are talking about. 40 . To learn more go to: http://www.pmezine. but systemic organizational issues of concern.

41 . Bring it to class for discussion. Go to: http://www.htm and develop your own personal power map for an organization your are involved (or have been involved) with.itstime.Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Thirteen 8.com/oct97map.