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Bakht Baidar Khan Arshad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal Mustafa

Department of Livestock Management

University of Agriculture Faisalabad





The past more than half a century is a witness to the fact that except a few, no serious attempts have been made to write books even on a few of the so many wide open aspects of the field of animal sciences. Among other factors that keep the animal science sector lagging behind, utter lack of relevant books of local origin is probably the most important. The dearth of documented information concerning various species of our farm animals adversely affects the learning potential of our students, who have been reported to complain about the non-availability of professional books written in Pakistan. I personally feel that as animal scientists we cannot exonerate ourselves of this responsibility. Of course, not all of us would have the aptitude to write books. However, those who opt to take up this tiresome and time-consuming job, their efforts must be appreciated. We must not forget that beginnings are always small. It is really encouraging to learn that sheep and goats being the victims of a long neglect, have attracted the attention of experienced animal scientists and teachers of long standing to write a book on them. A look into the contents of the book ‘Sheep and Goat Production’, makes me believe that it would adequately serve the purpose for which it has been produced. Its made-easy format would be rather more helpful to the students, field workers and progressive farmers. A collection of over 650 questions along with their answers should more than suffice to cover the discussion on important topics in relation to sheep and goat production.

Sajjad Zaheer Malik
Director General (Ext.) L & DD Dept., Punjab

Innumerable publications on sheep and goat farming/production are there in the world market. More than 98% of them are of foreign origin and are thus either not available here or their prices are beyond the means of a common man. The book under discussion has not been produced to burden the market with another such publication rather it has been brought out employing a novice format to meet the requirements of beginners who venture to plan a small ruminant enterprise, but are found confronted with a series of questions. Answers to many of such questions are already embodied in this ‘easy to read and understand’ book. In addition, feasibilities in respect of keeping sheep and goats (pertaining to one breed of each spp.) have been outlined herein to facilitate the solution of their input: output dilemma. Another section of society most pertinent to books is professional students community. It often happens that even at the end of an academic session/semester, many students in a class, would not know what type of questions, relevant to a course, may be asked in the Exam. This book, for sure, would create an awareness in them as to the type of Exam. questions and as to the manner of answering them. Among other features of the book are: the discussion on behaviour and welfare of small ruminants and clues on the application of biotechnology in animals. A comprehensive review on terminology related to various aspects of small ruminants is also a part of this book. Most of the answers to the questions included in this book have been picked up as such from various sources of literature listed under references at the end. We feel highly obliged in sharing the fruit of hardwork of those so many authors/editors. Under the circumstances it does not seem possible for us to individually convey to them our grateful thanks, but indeed we remain indebted to all of them. No book will ever be complete and this one is no exception since knowledge about sheep and goats is increasing so rapidly that no book can be an absolute ultimate. We feel no hesitation to mention here that at places details of a few most sophisticated techniques used abroad in small ruminant production have been intentionally avoided simply because farmers/producers here have yet to go a long way to enable themselves to take full advantage of such costly tools and techniques. We would like to record our thanks to our colleagues, namely Drs. Muhammad Younas, Muhammad Abdullah, Muhammad Yaqoob, Syed Hassan Raza and Prof. William Hohenboken, a friend from USA; all of them provided us a lot of useful literature for this book. Special thanks are extended to Mr. Farooq Ahmed, Dr. Akhter Saeed and Dr. Asad Saeed for arranging recent literature for the purpose from abroad. Suggestions in black and white from any quarter to effect further improvement and to remove any omissions in the contents of this book will always be welcome.

March, 2003

Bakht Baidar Khan Arshad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal Mustafa




PART- II includes following contents of the book:


Since it is not possible to discuss genetic gain or improvement without a basic understanding of genetics. grandparents and. If it carries different genes like the goat in our example with the genes for white and colour. in fact. just as an example. in fact. This is shown in Figure 6 where two goats are mated. would expect to gradually improve the productivity of their stock. Big improvements can often be made by changes in husbandry practices so that the animals become fitter. their kids or what is called F1 generation. the dominant gene will always be expressed. Write a detailed note on selection for breeding of small ruminants.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION BREEDING AND REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT Q. generation by generation. there will be limitations on how much productivity can be increased in this way. healthier and better fed. One is homozygous for white and will be genotypically white. the white goat is phenotypically white but its genotype is white/coloured. If. If two different genes for a particular colour come together. These limitations will be the result of the genetic make-up of the animals. It helps if the genetic make-up of the parents is known. When these two are mated. Some characteristics are readily passed on and are highly heritable while others are not readily passed on and are referred to as of low heritability. It is rare for a single gene to control a characteristic or trait as shown in the simple example but it serves to show how characters are inherited. In other words all animals are born with a potential for production and that potential is the result of mixing of characteristics inherited from the animals’ parents. Most people who farm sheep/goats or for that matter any farm animal. could be like the parents either heterozygous or homozygous white. both parents were heterozygous white. it will. one from the sire and one from the dam. therefore. If in this example the goat had received genes for colour from both its parents. whereas the other 2 whites would be heterozygous and 1 would be homozygous for colour and would therefore be (phenotypically) coloured. In this example.PART. The appearance of an animal as controlled by its genetic make-up is referred to as its phenotype. which occur in pairs. it would then have been coloured. be white because white is what is called a dominant gene and colour is what is called a recessive gene. If the goat has a gene for colour from one parent and one for white from the other. for the purposes of this book only a simplified explanation is given. By selecting animals with certain characteristics and mating them it is possible to gradually improve the performance of that line. the offspring would be either white or coloured in the ratio 3:1 (Figure 7) with 1 homozygous and phenotypically white. it is termed heterozygous. it is known as homozygous for that particular character. A pair or more of genes will control a particular characteristic and thus in the case of colour a goat will either be coloured or white (most of the discussion made here in respect of goat. However. all of its ancestors. is equally applicable to sheep). The other is heterozygous and will be phenotypically white because white is dominant. Some characteristics are linked to others and it may be. All inherited characteristics are carried by genes. in selecting 4 . however. With selective breeding the intention is to cross animals together in such a way that the progeny will hopefully be even better than their parents. If an animal is carrying a pair of identical genes for a particular character such as the coloured offspring in the example.

a reference to commercial dairy farming in several western countries appears logical. you are not working for breed improvement. The same is applicable to goats. there is a good chance of producing female offspring that will be homozygous (pure) polled animals. However. as some people describe. To further elaborate. Q. but never forget that you are going to get milk from its daughters and meat from its male offspring. you are merely freshening them. Almost invariably these practical. While some of that. One such trait in goats is polledness or hornlessness. even though ewes/does with a future history of twinning may have only a single that first time. These will be inter-sexed. In fact. Turn these twin ewe lambs/doe kids in with a ram/buck wearing a marking harness. Q. If a naturally polled male is mated with a female carrying the gene for polledness. In USA. The ones that are marked and presumably bred. Naturally polled males do occur without the problem of inter-sex but evidence suggests that fertility is lower in these. Q. No animal is perfect. of course. while at the same time preventing new ones from showing up. Although multiple births certainly require more attention and care. Ewe lambs/doe kids that have twins the first time are more valuable than those who lamb/kid with a single.PART. which may cancel out or be even less desirable than the trait that was being selected for. There is an old saying “breed the best to the best and cull the rest”.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION for one desirable feature or trait. yet the profits seem worth the effort. to produce double the number of lambs. If traits or characteristics are of low heritability. Milk production per cow has more than doubled during the last century. tough-minded. but consider the vast reduction in the amount of grain and hay expenses (grain feeding not largely practised under our conditions) for the smaller number of ewes. you are not even breeding sheep/goats. Discuss the sheep breeding management as it does prevail in Pakistan. which means they may have some parts of the male and female reproductive tract and characteristics and they will be infertile. the genetic gain achieved by selecting specific animals showing those characteristics will be less than for traits of high heritability. is due to better feeding practices. These figures seemingly sound strange. while 353 ewes producing two lambs each to equal it. it all depends on how well fed the animals are. at one of the universities the data were analysed in this respect and it was stated that it would require 5721 ewes producing one lamb each to yield a $25000 profit. Briefly indicate the importance of twins. Thus the hope for improvement will be achieved only slowly over a number of generations. They are not. Discuss the importance of breed improvement. Choose your potential replacement ewes/does from among your earlier-born twin ewes/does. which means possessing both female and male sexual organs. If the sire is not better than the ewe/doe. hermaphrodites. can be kept for your own flock and sell the rest. that one also selects for an undesirable feature. Still they pass on both the inherited ability to breed early and to have twins and they will produce more lambs/kids during their lifetime. It is the job of the breeder to eliminate those faults as much as possible in future generations. You are not going to milk the buck. 5 . cost-conscious farmers use the best purebred registered animals they can find. surely a large share of the credit must go to genetics. all have faults. Your chances of improving your flock are practically nil if you breed your ewes/does to the neighbour’s nondescript ram/buck simply because it happens to be cheap and available. It sounds no less than a universal truth.

ii) During the same period 65% Kachhi were in oestrus. Selection is largely subjective in the absence of records such as birth and weaning weights. The number of lambs born per ewe conceived was 1. Private breeders do care for growth as the larger i) ii) iii) 6 . In the bigger flocks. Hand mating is not known since it may be impracticable in the case of transhument and sedentary breeders because of absence of mating facilities. 4 to 5 per day for 4 to 5 days. Others tie a cord on the opening of the sheath to check mating. Rams are not allowed to breed before 2 years of age. and iv) The incidence of twin births was 36% in autumn and 21% in spring. A comparison of spring and autumn breeding seasons indicated that: Fertility was 83% in autumn and 73% in spring. The number of lambs born per ewe was 1. Breeders who practice seasonal breeding tie an apron around the belly of ram in the off-season to avoid mating. but iii) The crosses behaved mid way between two parents. Kachhi from Sindh and Awasi from Lebanon and its crosses showed that oestrus occurred: i) In the second to fourth month after lambing.88 in spring. A study of the incidence of post-lambing oestrus in Lohi. many small farmers do not maintain their own rams.PART. 70% Lohi came into oestrus. two or more rams may be allowed to mate at a time. fecundity.I. Some breeders in Balochistan believe that breeding twice a year ensures regular milk supply for the families.21 in spring. A ram is usually put with a flock of 40 to 50 ewes but in some cases as many as 80 to 90. but at public experimental farms due attention is paid to such traits. or quality and quantity of wool produced. In some areas (D.25 in autumn and 1. Khan). In such cases the stronger ram is overused and the weaker underused and as a result some of the ewes are not mated and others are served by overused rams and do not conceive. but hire them at Rs.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Some mating occurs throughout the year but the principal breeding seasons remain autumn and spring.04 in autumn but 0.

Anatomy: The most obvious part of the male’s reproductive system is the scrotum containing the testes. permanent lameness or infertility. The incidence of mismothering is high in cases where lambs are kept separate from their mothers. The shepherds of Balochistan take extra care to avoid mismothering. In most parts of the Punjab province. Since white wool fetches the highest price. being the highest in Kachhi breed (4 to 23%). This may vary in size according to breed but. probably due to poor mothering instinct. which are suspended herein by spermatic cord. Where lambs are kept separate. Breed uniformity is keenly maintained for an all−white body and recognized spots. Briefly discuss the anatomy and physiology of sex organs of a small ruminant male. The records at public sheep farms show that the incidence of mismotheirnbg varies in different breeds (1. In most of the cases culling of sheep is not very systematic. damaged udders. suckling is allowed morning and evening after the families have removed part of the milk especially from good milkers. if any. Others avail the occasions of weekly/monthly/sheep goat markets to sell their surplus/culled stock.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION and heavier ram lambs would attract the attention of the breeders. Mortality in such lambs is high and the growth rate generally below average. abnormally small testes are a sign of likely low 7 . Lambs are allowed to suckle for 4 to 5 months. Q. In parts of Balochistan lambs are grazed separately by children near the camp. lambs accompany their mothers as soon as they are able to walk. There the flock is halted at a distance from the lamb enclosure and ewes are freed one by one to allow them to recognize their lambs when rejoining occurs. in general.5 to 3%).PART. It is practised in ewes and male lambs and is generally done when the family needs money or 2 to 3 months before the annual religious occasion of Eid-ul-Azha. Mismothered lambs are reared on foster ewes by forced suckling. Male surplus stock is commonly castrated and reared to one year age and in other cases to 2 years age to sell at high prices. ram lambs with a white coat. Culling of ewe lambs is rare. on the extremities. The ewes are culled for broken mouths. well developed body and strong constitution are selected for future breeding. Lambs are not allowed to accompany the mothers to pasture.

During hand mating of pedigree animals. this may not cause a severe fertility problem. Full maturation occurs in the tail of the epididymis and the spermatozoa become motile during ejaculation when they come in contact with the secretions of the accessory glands (the vesicular or the seminal vesicular gland. These newly formed immature spermatozoa are immotile and are very sensitive to unfavourable temperature and nutritional conditions. Males of Teddy goat breed exhibit quite a bit sexual activity at 5 to 6 months of age. when a female is led to a specific male. the penis has a S-bend known as the sigmoid flexure (Figure 8). These spermatogonia divide repeatedly to form spermatids. it is important that 8 . Thus in hot weather the scrotum will allow the testes to hang down from the wall of the abdomen and conversely when cold they will be drawn up close to the body. Prior to mating a ram/buck will spend varying amounts of time in courtship behaviour. In some goat breeds especially in some Angoras. nutritional status and environmental factors also play an important part. In extremely hot weather this temperature regulatory mechanism may break down resulting in poor spermatozoa production. Spermatozoa are formed from cells in the testes called spermatogonia. show year round sexual activity. One testis may not descend (called monorchid) or in some cases both may not (called cryptorchid). Although sexual desire in ram/buck is influenced a great deal by the presence of receptive females. Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum will also cause problems of fertility. The spermatozoa travel along in fluid secreted by the tubules. the scrotum may be almost completely bifurcated (split purse). with remarkable directional accuracy. The other external sex organ is the penis.PART. especially when stimulated by receptive females. except in temperate regions. Young males are particularly precocious and fertile matings have been recorded from kids of 4 months of age. the male (goat) is able.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION fertility. the penis is normally retracted into a tube called the prepuce. Normal production of spermatozoa occurs at a temperature 4 to 7°C lower than body temperature. During periods of intense sexual activity. especially during the breeding season. It is considered a fault in show animals. Physiology: The rams/bucks. When the penis is protruded from the prepuce. It takes about 50 days from the formation of the spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules to the time they are stored in the tail of the epididymis. On the end of the penis is the thin tubular protrusion of the urethra called the urethral process. which are discharged into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. The scrotum not only supports and protects the testes but also it is an important means of temperature regulation. However. it is the most important to ensure that both testes are in place in the scrotum and that they are of reasonable size with no abnormal swellings and that they feel firm and not soft and spongy. until they reach the epididymis where they are stored. to spray urine over himself or anyone who is standing close enough. When purchasing males for stud. Another important function of the testes is the production of the hormone testosterone. To give extra length during copulation. which eventually form the spermatozoa. which certainly is an important stimulation for both male and female. this duration may be reduced as the movement of the spermatozoa through the epididymis may be speeded up. prostate and bulbo-urethral glands). The secretion of this hormone is controlled by gonadotrophic hormones secreted by the pituitary gland situated at the base of the brain. In the male sheep/goat.

which stimulates the pituitary gland into secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). If she is not pregnant. As its name suggests. The lengthening nights cause increased release of the hormone melatonin from the pineal gland within the brain. the fertilised embryo develops freely in the uterus for about 21 days until implantation takes place and the embryo becomes attached to the wall of the uterus by way of the placenta. At the end of the vagina is the cervix or neck of the uterus (Figure 9). the corpus luteum.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION restraints are not imposed on this behaviour and the most successful results will always be from animals that are allowed some time together in an enclosure. which also stimulate the male to sexual excitement. the ewe/doe will normally begin to show oestrus or heat behaviour. remains and produces the hormone progesterone. If a fertile mating takes place. As the Graafian follicle matures. Q. Briefly discuss the anatomy and physiology of sex organs of a small ruminant female. it secretes the hormone estrogen. If the ewe/doe is pregnant. The ovaries change in appearance according to the stage in the reproductive cycle. Anatomy: Unlike the male most of the female’s reproductive organs are internal and would only be seen by attending a post-mortem examination or by obtaining the relative part of the body from a slaughtered animal. and these also can be seen on the ovary and are an indication of an ewe/doe that is ovulating normally. which eventually stimulates the brain into triggering off the release of luteinising hormone (LH) into the bloodstream. which effectively act as a seal between the vagina and the uterus. to facilitate mating. the corpus luteum regresses. The only external feature is the vulva which undergoes some changes during oestrus and when parturition (lambing/kidding) is imminent. FSH stimulates the development of the follicle within which an ovum will develop and from which it will be released. the remaining structure is called a corpus luteum. have occurred. This behaviour is a combination of signals to the male that she is at the correct period in her ovulation cycle for mating when changes in the reproductive tract. In a normal adult ewe/doe. the vagina is approximately 7 to 8 cm in length. The vulva becomes somewhat swollen. The cervix varies in length from about 4 to 8 cm and is made up of 5 to 6 muscular rings. the corpus luteum remains and plays a part in maintaining the state of pregnancy. copious mucus is produced and the cervix dilates. It then causes the release of gonadotrophin releasing hormone. When an ovum is shed. The onset of the sequence of events gives rise to oestrus behaviour. About 30 to 36 hours before ovulation occurs. The vulva opens into the vagina wherein the male’s penis deposits semen during copulation. The ovum remains viable in the oviduct for 10 to 12 hours. Physiology: The decreasing daylight triggers off breeding activity in small ruminants. The caruncles which form the points of attachment on the uterine wall are present all the time. formed after rupturing of the follicle. The eggs or ova are shed from what are called the Graafian follicles and these can be seen during a postmortem examination if they are near to maturation. or heat. Progesterone acts as a signal to the 9 . Pheromones (specific odours) are released by the female. The release of LH causes the follicle to rupture and an ovum will be released into the oviduct.PART. The uterus is made up of two large tubes or horns and at the end of each of these horns are the oviducts and ovaries. in an ewe/doe and the whole cycle of events is called the oestrous cycle. If an ewe/doe is pregnant. meaning yellow body.

During the breeding season. be sure to change gradually. a maintenance ration of at least 100 to 150 g per day. fighting with other males and little or no supplemental feed. rams/bucks (get run down) lose condition during the breeding season from eating so little and chasing the females. at which time he can be fed and watered and allowed to rest. Extensive tests (Figure 10) in Australia have shown such animals gain weight faster. The cycle then starts again and a nonpregnant ewe and doe will continue to cycle in this way every 16 to 17 days and 19 to 21 days respectively until the end of the breeding season. One good ram/buck can handle 25 to 30 ewes/does. feed the ram buck at least 300 g concentrate mixture per day. Keep him in good condition but not fat. the animal shows little or no sex activity. On a small flock where the ram/buck gets good feed. One way to conserve his energy is to separate him from the females for several hours during the day. In case conception does not occur. Use him two or three times a week from the age of one year to one and a half years. do this long enough before breeding season so that he becomes acclimated to his new surroundings. get to market faster and have more lean meat than either castrated or uncastrated males. While the male hormones are still present to increase weight gain with more lean meat. Discuss the salient points in respect of proper breeding age and care of a ram/buck. Ordinarily a well-grown ram/buck is considered the best. 10 . They then succumb to diseases because of their low resistance. Since summers here are very hot. In some animals. In case you are going to feed him a different ration than he had previously. the corpus luteum regresses and the level of circulating progesterone consequently falls. use him sparingly during his first breeding season. After separating him from the bred females. plus leafy hay as necessary during the winter should carry him through until good pasture is available again. This sterilizes the animal due to increased body heat. What do you understand by Induced Cryptorchidism or Short Scrotum? This is still another approach where the elastrator rubber ring is used on the scrotum. the role of corpus luteum is taken over by the placenta. An elevated body temperature whether from heat or due to an infection. provide him a cool shady place to protect from the heat. Keep him separate on good feed and pasture until breeding time. A buck may be ready to breed at about six to seven months. Q.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION brain to shut down the cycling mechanism and prepares for and helps maintain pregnancy. Excess weight results in a lowering of potency and efficiency. Semen quality is affected at 100 degrees and is seriously damaged at air temperatures beyond that. The scrotum of ram should be sheared before the onset of severe summer. but not the goat. The ram/buck may be run with the ewes/does at night and in the early morning. but keep him Q. If you are buying a new ram/buck. therefore. about six years of service can be expected of him. Several hours at that temperature may leave him infertile for weeks. depending on his breed (Teddy bucks at four to five months). but it is better not to use him until one year. can cause infertility. This method is used at about four weeks of age and the animal is called an induced cryptorchid (having hidden testicles).PART. if he is a lamb/kid. On open range there may be overuse with more females per ram/buck. However. but the testes are pushed back up into the body cavity.

If you are raising lambs/kids for marketing as meat animals. If many females are being re-marked. This stimulus is not as pronounced when the male is constantly with the females as it is when he is placed in the adjoining pasture or pen about two weeks ahead of the breeding season. High humidity coupled with temperature can also decrease sexual urge. instead of marking harness. It has a holder on its chest for a marking crayon. A study of sex drive in rams done at a university in UK showed that some breeds of rams have keener olfactory (nose) development than others and are able to detect oestrus in ewes that goes unnoticed by other breeds. Aggressive potential and ram/buck fertility are not necessarily related. Change of colour in case of buck may be done after 18 to 19 days. using only paints that will wash out of the fleece such as lamp black. This system consists of keeping the fastestgaining ram lambs/buck kids sired by the fastest-gaining ram lambs/buck kids. Q. What are the uses of a ram/buck marking harness? Is there any suitable alternative to it? The ram/buck marking harness is a device that helps keep track of the ewes/does who are bred. in order to stimulate the onset of oestrus in the flock. it means they were not bred the previous times he tried to breed them. otherwise there is inevitable fighting and head-butting until the boss is decided. However. Each ewe/doe is marked with the colour of crayon the day he breeds her. In case of ram use one colour for the first sixteen days he is with the ewes. As an alternative. The same happens when marking harness is used. Mix the colour with a lubricating oil or even with vegetable ghee. Inspect the ewes/does each day and keep record of the dates so that you will know when to expect each one to give birth. there are reports that mating success of dominant rams/bucks does far exceed that of the subordinate ones.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION penned in a cool place during the heat of the noon and afternoon and provide fresh water.PART. This might indicate that the breeding male was sterile. venetian red. Be careful that at any one time not more than one normal male should be turned in with the ewes/does. Q. But to be on the safe side. It involves changing rams/bucks fairly frequently and creates the problem of disposing a 11 . you may try a system called ‘recurrent selection of ram lambs/buck kids’. Owners of large flocks often use a vasectomized ram/buck turned in with the ewes/does about three weeks prior to scheduled breeding. What are the advantages of raising your own ram/buck and what care is to be observed? One advantage of raising your own ram/buck is that you can see that what he looks like at the usual market age for meat. Recurrent selection is a way of improving the potential for fast growth in your lamb/kid crop. While using a colour in the crayon. then change colour for the next sixteen days and again for the next. A sense of smell greatly determines a ram’s/buck’s awareness of oestrus in the ewes/does. the colour of female animals be kept in view (Figure 11). The older a ram/buck gets. Does the presence of a ram/buck show some effect on ewes/does? The presence of the ram/buck. it is better to try another ram/buck. Q. If the weather was extremely hot just before or after you turned the male in. The same colour will be stamped on the back of the ewe/doe indicating that it has been bred. especially its smell has a great effect on sexual activity of the ewes/does. use a marking paint on the ram/buck brisket (lower chest). the less you can tell about how he looked as a lamb/kid or how his offspring will look when they attain market age. since they are still coming into heat. you can blame heat for it.

riding other does or being ridden by them. Q. there with moderate winters and hot summers. The way ram lambs/buck kids are raised can have some effect on their future sexual performance. He will be more prone to butting and becoming dangerous if he is familiar with you than if he is shy.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION three or four year old ram/buck. Normally each oestrous cycle has four different phases i. On average the duration of oestrus or heat period in sheep and goats is 28 and 24 hours. The desired lambing/kidding time may depend on the availability of pasture. At the beginning of heat. Define gestation period and give the range and average gestation periods for sheep and goats. What are the usual indications that an ewe/doe is in heat? The usual signs are nervous voices such as ‘baa baa’/bleating. do not pet him much or handle him unnecessarily. Some will actually show no interest in receptive females. knowing that newborns experience very poor weight gain in hot 12 . oestrus. After the ewe/doe ovulates near the end of heat. the mucus discharge from vulva will be clear.PART. slightly swollen vulva sometimes accompanied by a discharge. local weather conditions. but it will turn cloudy toward the time of ovulation. Q. It is better to choose the lambing/kidding time that fits your priorities and plan to breed about five months before you want newborns. Q. The duration of oestrous cycle on average is 16-17 days in sheep and 18-21 days in goats. In areas where modern husbandry practices are in operation. it can be sold as a breeding male. When you are raising a lamb/kid as a breeding male. What is meant by early-or late lambing/kidding? Give advantages of both early and late lambing/kidding. time restraints. targeted lamb/kid markets etc. lambing/kidding should be timed to take advantage of new pasture growth. Various studies have shown that rams/bucks raised from weaning in an allmale group will show lower levels of sexual performance in later life. Q. The duration between two heat periods is called the oestrous cycle. It may vary even in the same country. Do not let children play with him even when he is small. labour. the lambing/kidding is planned for autumn or early winter to maximize weight gain. the mucus will get thick and whitish. Q. In some cases increased but interrupted micturition is also observed. What is meant by oestrous cycle? Give the duration of oestrous cycles for sheep and goats. Thus you could plan for the lambs/kids to be about five to six weeks old at about the time of the first good early growth of pasture. The period from the date an animal gets conceived to that date it gives birth to one or more newborns is called gestation period or pregnancy period.e. respectively. It ranges from 148-152 days in sheep and goats with an average of 150 days (five months). proestrus. What constitutes ‘early’ or ‘late’ lambing/kidding will depend on climate of the given area. can trade with another small ruminant raiser or can be sold for slaughter on Eid-ul-Azha. Q. If it is a good one. metoestrus and dioestrus. The optimal time varies greatly among different geographical areas. What do you understand by oestrus or heat period? Oestrus is one phase of the oestrous cycle and it denotes the period during which an ewe or doe is receptive to the breeding male. tail wagging and drop in milk production (in milk goats). What may be the optimal time of year for lambing/kidding? Discuss briefly. When the cost of hay or concentrate feeding is a consideration. somewhat off feed.

Some breeds are slow maturing than others. iii) Milder weather means fewer chilled lambs/kids. ii) It avoids lambing/kidding danger in severe weather. Teddy goats mature much earlier than other goat breeds. with a good fence between them. put your ram/buck in a place adjacent to the ewes/does. If you eliminate ticks before lambing/kidding. ii) Ewe lambs/doe kids are more apt to breed as well grown lambs/kids. In milk goats a reasonably early breeding helps the udder develop better. What preparations specific to the start of breeding season need to be made? Deworm the ewes/does.PART. An ewe/doe should reach 70 to 75% of her mature weight before being bred. It is the sudden contact with the rams/bucks that excites the females. If not well fed. their reproductive life-time may be shortened. Late Lambing/Kidding i) It is easy to shear ewes before lambing. Ewe lambs according to their feeding practices should have attained 38 to 45 kg by breeding time as their later growth will be held back a little as compared to unbred lambs. Appropriate vaccines important to both mothers and/or newborns should be timely used. Remember. On the other hand. iii) You can have all lambs/kids born by the time best spring grass is there. while those in temperate coastal climates may let the rams/bucks run with the ewes/does the year round and let nature take its course. Q. a similar reaction was obtained just by fastening a ram/buck-scented pad to the ewe’s/doe’s nose. ‘absence makes the heart grow fonder’. Q. those in far northern areas often plan for lambing/kidding during March or April in order to avoid severe winter. Also. Never pen your rams/bucks next to ewes/does before this ‘sensitizing’ period just prior to breeding. Trim their feet since they will be carrying extra weight during pregnancy. Trim away any wool/dung-tags from around the tail. there the ewes who breed as lambs are thought to be the most promising as they show early maturing which is a key to prolific lambing. v) Concentrate ration can be saved since there is good grazing available. iv) There are fewer problems with flies at docking. In countries where early marketing of lambs for meat is practised. if needed. Some large flock owners have initiated the use of a vasectomized (sterilized) ram/buck to stimulate the onset of oestrus in the flock. iv) Ewes/does can give birth on the pasture. which can be a sales factor to stress when selling breeding stock. If replacement ewes are chosen for their ability to breed as lambs. A properly fed Teddy doe is ready for breeding at five months of age. none will get on the lambs/kids and thus you will not have to treat for ticks again. the flock will improve the capacity for ewe lamb breeding. A well fed ewe/doe is ready for breeding earlier than a poorly fed one. castrating and disbudding. Some studies have indicated that the sound and smell of the male will bring ewes/does into heat earlier. Advantages: Early Lambing/Kidding i) There are fewer parasites on the early grass pasture. At seventeen days/nineteen days before you want to start breeding. Breeding season is shorter for ewe lambs/doe kids than for mature ewes/does. What age is appropriate to breed an ewe/doe for the first time? A female that is bred before she matures fully may become stunted since she cannot put nutrients into both her growth and foetal development. Check all animals for ticks. 13 . Subject the ram/buck to deworming too.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION temperatures.

Thin females require a longer flushing period. Various studies have indicated that flushing results in 18 to 25% increase in the number of lambs/kids. Flushing promotes increased ovulations. For cases of anaemia. the signs should become more obvious. It is not as effective in animals that are already in good condition. possibly because with better nourishment the ewes/does are more likely to drop more ova. Define flushing and explain its role in small ruminant breeding. but it also helps synchronizing them by bringing them into heat at about the same time. High quality forage may be used for flushing or it can be accomplished by supplementing the usual summer diet with concentrate ration. Briefly write down the simplest and the best method for heat detection in small ruminants.e. It is most productive when initiated seventeen/twenty-one days prior to turning in the ram/buck and continued tapering off gradually for about thirty days. Rub a piece of cloth over various parts of ram’s body or over the scent glands of a mature buck and keep it in a jar with a tight fitting lid to retain the odour.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Q. and some farmers think it is even more.PART. Commonly known causes are anaemia. Q. During daily oestrus check. One of the best heat-detectors is a ram/buck wearing a breeding apron to prevent actual mating or a male that has been vasectomized. What is an abnormal heat? Give the causes responsible for this phenomenon. You can start with 100 g concentrate mixture/head/day and work up to 300 g in the first week continue that quantity for seventeen/twenty-one days. hormonal treatment can cure. This process not only gets the ewes/does in a better physical condition for breeding. embryonic death. three or four dairy does. particularly if you have put the ram/buck in an adjoining place but it is preferable to have them bred in the second heat since they are expected to drop a greater number of eggs and are more likely to produce twins. Weak or silent heat. thus increasing the number of lambs/kids born. to have them bred? Dairy does are usually kept separate from bucks to prevent male odour from ruining the milk and are bred annually to maximize milk flow. It is also a factor in twinning. Treatment is probably unnecessary when abnormal heat is due to embryonic death since either embryonic material become reabsorbed or abortion occurs. The ewes/does will probably come in heat once during that seventeen/twenty-one days of flushing. If one is in heat. longer than normal cycles. When you turn in the ram/buck. continuous heat. Does bred early in the season have better lactation records and their female kids mature early enough (if well fed) to be bred the following season. in a slight weight-gain situation to prepare for breeding. preventing long strung-out lambing/kidding session. No treatment is necessary when heat signs are exhibited during pregnancy since ovulation does not occur. A miniature version of the ram/buck rag may help detect heat. shorter than normal cycles or heat signs during pregnancy are the conditions that may be termed abnormal heat. Better wait until her second or third heat to avoid having kids come during the 14 . What would you suggest to homesteaders having two. Q. moldy feed and estrogen content in some legume forages (red clover/white clover has estrogen and lowers lambing/kidding percentages). Q. But it is not desirable to breed a doe during her first heat of the season. open the jar and let the ewes/does sniff the contents. If cystic ovaries are the cause. cystic ovaries. Flushing is the practice of placing the ewes/does on an increasing plane of nutrition i. the animals should be treated for blood-sucking worms (two weeks before breeding) as well as for nutritional deficiencies. taper off the extra grain gradually.

For Method-I 600 to 700 iu are given during the non-breeding season and 500 to 600 iu during the transitional period i. Preferably identify the buck and doe(s). the cycle before the one when mating was planned turns out to be the last for that season. usually light to induce ovulation. If the buck shows little or no interest in your doe. you may have misjudged the signs of heat or noticed them too late. If possible.PART. These sponges are inserted into the vagina and are left to release the hormone over a predetermined period. The amount of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin) given will depend on the stage in the season. within 2 months of the normal cycle. it is an advantage to be able to produce and supply milk all the year round. The buck will cooperate quickly and the fuss will be over soon. but it is not always easy to tell when that occurs. Kids show sexual activity earlier than older goats and therefore. since bucks have an uncanny sense for right timing. Discuss practical aspects of reproduction management to maximize goat’s reproductive performance to achieve optimum numbers of healthy kids. all too often. Virgin does are often hard to settle. the date they were mated and the buck’s owner. For Method-II the same principle applies but 100 iu less PMSG is used than for the longer sponge-in method. Table 10 shows two methods commonly used. It seems fairly safe to take the doe to the buck as soon as you notice that she is in heat. Some keepers leave problem does with a stud for a full month. Two possible regimes for using progesterone sponges for induction of oestrus Method-I Method-II Day 1 Day 1 Sponge-in 15 . The restriction of seasonal breeding is a problem to some farmers since it results in seasonal milk production and for those who depend on milk production for their livelihood. There are two ways of stimulating goats to breed out of season: one involves the administration of hormones or analogues of hormones and the other involves the alteration of environmental conditions.2 mg of prostaglandin (cloprostenol) is injected intramuscularly at the same time as the PMSG injection. Q.1 to 0. Breeders should not depend too much on getting animals mated at the end of the season since. pick out a stud in advance and make arrangements early so that you do not miss the breeding season. French workers have recently shown that prolonged progesterone treatment can adversely affect fertility and they advocate shorter sponge-in method. It is better to hand breed which involves holding her collar or a lead. Look for a handsome buck that has a history of producing daughters with good milking records/ability.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION worst part of winter or to have freshening of your does so spread as to create a continuous milk flow. it is unwise to leave male and females together about 4 months after their birth. The most common method of treatment involves the use of sponges impregnated with the hormone progesterone or a synthetic version of it. Table 10. If you do not own a buck. breed her again in about twelve hours to ensure conception. (These are requirements for registration of animals of the same breedpurebred animals).e. The PMSG is given as a source of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinising hormone (LH) to increase the ovulation rate and thus to increase the chance of conception. For the shorter sponge-in method 0. The best time to breed a doe is in the middle of heat.

m of floor space with tubes approximately 3 m above the floor. it is perhaps possible that by housing goats in late summer or early autumn in a shed that is fairly dark. he will tend to stimulate the females into oestrus some 2 to 4 weeks early and they will tend to be synchronous. it would be extremely useful for a farm wishing to produce milk throughout the year.3 m of 40-watt fluorescent tube per 3 sq. Work done in USA has shown that out of season mating can be planned by using a controlled artificial lighting regime based on the principle of a period of long artificial days followed by a period of shorter days. It was also suggested 16 . The level of light recommended was 0. It is also possible to synchronise oestrus by injections of synthetic prostaglandin. The role of the hormone melatonin in controlling seasonal oestrus behaviour is well known. Male Effect: If a male is run with females during the transitory period prior to the expected breeding season. thus influencing the time of sponge removal. a ‘billy rag’ is used. If a timed mating is required for a goat whose last oestrus is not known. thus removing any endogenous progesterone (packets of sponges come with detailed instructions on how to insert them. which causes the degeneration of the corpus luteum. If this technique can be used with goats. By administering melatonin. Care should be exercised with them as clumsy use can result in severe damage to the wall of the vagina.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PMSG Day 17 Day 9 Prostaglandin -Day 9 Sponge-out Day 19 Day 12 Oestrus Day 20-21 Day 13-14 AI* 42-44 hours after sponge removal * There is evidence that time of day affects fertility. These threads may be chewed off by other goats. Nylon threads are attached to the sponges to facilitate removal. This can only work if there is an active corpus luteum. This rag will be kept in screwtop jar and will be brought out to be waved under the nose of a female that is not showing any signs of heat when it is thought she should. A system involving 60 days of 20 hours light during January and February. depending on the goat’s natural cycle. particularly when inserting sponges into virgin animals. to accelerate the shorterning day effect and thus the goats may well show first heat signs a few weeks earlier. applicators are also supplied).PART. the optimum time for AI being 1200 to 1400 hours. The increased lighting is also likely to increase winter-feeding activity. Those goats not mated went on to cycle normally in the autumn. Goats respond quickly to prostaglandin and usually come into heat 24 to 48 hours after treatment. a substance produced by the uterus of non-pregnant goats. The purpose of prostaglandin is to cause regression of any corpus luteum that may be present. This is a rag that has been rubbed over the stud male thus becoming impregnated with his very characteristic smell. In case goats failed to exhibit oestrus. which will probably increase milk yields. scientists have been able to induce oestrus behaviour and ovulation out of season. followed by ambient lighting from March 1. which can be done in feed. resulted in the goats showing a single oestrus period during late April through June with most showing oestrus in May. If a selected mating of the females is intended then a vasectomised teaser male can be used. Often this is enough to start a female cycling. Light Effect: Having discussed earlier that how differences in day length are the main trigger for the onset of the breeding season. two injections are given 11 days apart.

Q. Young breeders are very likely to abort or may be unable to produce enough milk for the lamb/kid. Sperm may be able to fertilize an ovum for 24 to 36 hours after ejaculation. If possible it is very useful to run a vasectomised teaser male with such groups of young goats. it should therefore be in place in the reproductive 17 . Several of the usual signs of oestrus have already been discussed elsewhere in this book. Oestrus often starts late at night thus signs might be observed early the following morning. Write a note on mating management. Dwarf breeds such as Teddy goats may be an exception. Probably in comparative isolation. Because the sperm has a longer (12 to 24 hours) period of viability than ovum (10 to 12 hours). Those who experience more trouble in detecting oestrus seem to be those who have one or two goats. Exceptions to these rules would also occur in intensive systems where they are well fed and are able to develop early. pawing her with the front legs. feeding and care of an unproductive female is a burden for farmers. he will mark the oestrus females when he attempts to mount them. fertility is reduced.e. Is heat detection a problem in goats? Unlike cows and more particularly buffaloes. It is best if rams/bucks are not used for mating before one year age. They exhibit a number of behavioural signs which in goats that are regularly handled. sperm are deposited into the vagina. copulation takes place. be aged about 14 months. If the females are checked twice daily it will be possible to pick out those that are in heat and these can then be taken to the appropriate stud male. Q. It is much different to their normal call and will soon be recognized once one is familiar with the normal calls and behaviour. leading to nutritional stress and a high probability that the young will die. it can be difficult to notice oestrus behaviour. heat or oestrus detection in goats is not normally a problem. Ideally she would have one pair of permanent incisors i. In spite of all these signs oestrus is sometimes missed. Once oestrus has been detected. At ejaculation. The age at which an ewe/doe should first be mated will vary according to breed. However. the plaintive crying will be accompanied with wishful looks towards the males and if they get the opportunity. The main signs of male sexual excitement are pursuing the female. If a sheep raddle harness is used on the male.PART. the typical oestrus behaviour and the interaction between goats at this time are suppressed. When large groups of young goats are run together. If mated too young she herself will be stunted. curling back of the upper lip and usually a loud snorting sound.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION that the males should also be kept in the same extended light conditions if they were to work satisfactorily out of season. The most evident sign of heat is the plaintive cry that nearly all goats make at this time. If there are males on the farm. the females will stand around the male’s pens showing what in human terms would be called flirting behaviour. are easily recognized. Those with large herds. such as milkers. restricting her capacity for long and productive life. especially if there are male goats on the farm. because with ageing of the sperm during this period. rarely experience problems in this respect. It is important that the young female is well grown before she is expected to become pregnant and rear a lamb/kid. but sooner the better. from where they are transported through the uterus and into the oviducts by the muscular contractions of these organs. An ewe/doe should never be mated before one year old. their feeding and health status.

18 . The simplest system is to let the male(s) run with the females during the breeding season and after allowing 2 or 3 cycles i. it probably means the female is not in oestrus. Kidding will be expected over a 6 to 9 week period 150 days from when the males were first put in with the females. These would be put together in a pen.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION tract before ovulation takes place so that it is ready for the descending egg. For pedigree mating and certainly where a single female is brought to a particular stud male. usually have a lower conception rate. For various reasons sheep/goat keepers may want to control the time of mating. it is desirable that farmers should know when mating took place so that the precise kidding date can be predicted and also many people would like to put particular females to a particular male. which may involve much rubbing against and spluttering over the female. Give a few helpful hints to improve mating management in goats. If the raddle crayon is changed to a different colour every 20 days. If the goats are checked twice a day. Q. it will be possible to detect those matings that were unsuccessful as these goats will be mated a second time 21 days after the first. a sheep raddle harness could be used and thus the females would be marked as they were mated. There are several methods to control mating and the season at which kids are born. It would thus be necessary to group the females according to the male that one wanted to use. In more intensive systems. This mating system is exactly the same as used for most commercial sheep flocks and can be used with extensive goat system such as prevalent here. However. Whichever. If the male is working well and the female is properly in heat. 6 to 9 weeks. If the male spends a lot of time rubbing and spluttering without mounting the female.PART.e. In goats the duration of oestrus is almost 2 to 3 days and the appropriate time for mating should be 12 to 22 hours after the onset of oestrus with ovulation occurring between 24 to 36 hours after the onset. it would be possible to record the goats mated each day. This behaviour should not be constrained in any way as this could jeopardize the chances of success. system of mating is used. Q. To be able to time matings. This may be in order for lambs/kids to be born at a favourable time of year when feed is plentiful or it may be to ensure in respect of goats that milk is available at a certain time of year. Discuss manipulation of breeding in small ruminants. his performance and ability must be suspected. This simply means the female will be led to the male who would normally be brought out of his pen onto a convenient level piece of ground nearby. Oestrus lasts for about 24 to 36 hours in sheep. a male may spend some time going through courtship behaviour. When the male mounts the female. goats are normally fertile animals and a conception rate at the first mating of over 80% can be expected during the natural season. mating will usually take place very quickly. If the male has behaved like this with a number of females. a hand-mating technique will be used. it is assumed that all females likely to be mated will have been mated and the males can be removed. paddock or field. Goats that have been induced into oestrus out of season using hormone treatment such as progesterone sponges. However. If using this system one male will be required for every 30 to 40 females. farmers may want to breed their sheep/goats to take advantage of seasonal changes in the prices of sheep/goats or their products. Mating should take place 12 to 18 hours after the onset of oestrus with ovulation occurring 24 to 36 hours after the onset. a good sign of a successful mating is if he throws his head back as this is the normal sign of ejaculation having occurred.

For ease of management it is desirable to castrate all unwanted young males if they are to be kept beyond the age of 3 to 4 months since fertile matings have been recorded at this age.1 0. In some countries it is also used to reduce the odour of the meat from male goats. number of lambs/kids born and a column for remarks. of lambs/kid s Ma le Nur Hero i Ran Goga o Hir ni Ma no Goga 10. The apron tied above behind the shoulders hangs below the abdomen of the animal in front of the prepuce in such a way that if penis is extended.00 11. Devise a simple chart providing space for the number of matings.00 15. The string must be removed for successful mating (Figure 12). introducing males into the flock at the time desired for mating. For most farmers this method of breeding control is suitable only for goats that are housed for most of the year. Castration: Unwanted breeding males may be made infertile by crushing their spermatic cords using a special metal pincer called Burdizzo castrator. Rubber ring method is also used but only on very young lambs/kids. it is forced to deviate to the right or left. canvas or other suitable material.1 0. A breeding chart for the day-to-day recording of mating and lambing/kidding Fe mal e Male Ist mati ng 2nd mati ng 3rd matin g Due date for birth Date gave birth No. by reducing the energy spent on sexual activity and fighting.1 0. Castration is one method of ensuring that poor quality males do not breed. making copulation impossible. predicted lambing/kidding dates. the ram/buck is unable to perform mating. Q.PART. Ram/Buck Apron: The ram/buck wears an apron made of leather. It will also increase both the fat content of the final carcass and the lamb’s/kid’s growth rate.1 0.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Separation of Males from Females: This requires the year round separate management of males and females. Ram/Buck Penis String: A string is looped at one end around the testicles and at the other around the prepuce of the ram/buck so that if the animal extends its penis.00 11.00 21100 31100 61100 10-301 3-401 6-401 28-401 9-32001 3-42001 5-42001 27-42001 1 2 Fem ale 1 Female small One was dead Remar ks - 1 1 Goga/ Hero 2811-00 - 2 19 .

Foetal bones show up after about 85 to 90 days and of course with a good X-ray. For economic reasons it is often useful to determine whether or not an ewe/doe is pregnant. It may also be necessary if one is buying or selling sheep/goats that are supposedly pregnant. after thorough examination can identify such an animal. Diagnosis may also be made by X-ray. The male Goga also did not prove successful on Ist mating with Rano as well as Hirni. Q. it is therefore. Write a note on genital hypoplasia. A milk test for pregnancy. most often in offspring of two naturally hornless goats. possible that he is no longer adequately fertile. diagnosis can be done after about 35 days gestation and if left a little longer. can usually count the number of foetuses. developed for cows. it is then probable that she is infertile. The most practicable for small flocks is to check milk or urine for estrone sulphate. Affected goats may have abnormal external genitals. A small ruminant-oriented reproduction expert. involves testing for a metabolite produced by the placenta of pregnant animals called oestrone sulphate. About a month before kidding. Such a diagnosis can save feed as a non-pregnant animal will be fed less and also if non-pregnant there may be time to try another mating before the end of season. Suggest some effective measures for pregnancy diagnosis in small ruminants. A doe that has been bred should be dried off three months later for replenishment of depleted body reserves and so that milk production would not compete with foetal development. A goat milk sample can be tested for the purpose after 35 to 50 days gestation. Normally what physical changes can be observed during gestation period in small ruminants? Discuss the case of a dairy doe. false positive results do not occur. even its meat tastes strong and bucky. Start feeding her a little grain ration on the milk stand both to readjust her to milking routine and to check her udder for any 20 . The gene for hornlessness some how inhibits normal development of the reproductive organs. At this time foetuses can be felt by firm palpation deep into the lower abdomen just in front of the udder. It is useless for breeding. is the pregnancy diagnosis by ultra-sonic scanning. If you find that the doe is not pregnant. During the last 6 weeks of gestation. Unborn kids put on about 70% of their weight during the last five to six weeks of gestation. It is an important cause of infertility in small ruminants especially goats (both bucks and does). Such animals may be culled from the flock. Using a rectal probe. Genital hypoplasia also called inter-sex or hermaphroditism denotes lack of proper development of the reproductive organs. This system works equally well with goats. Similarly. it is often possible to see the foetuses moving particularly when the goats are lying down. A recent development. the doe should really fill out. if the chart shows that a certain female does not mate successfully even with three attempts.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION As can be seen in the example above (chart) that the male Goga was at fault since Mano mated successfully with Hero at 3rd mating. It can appear in any breed. As soon as it is identified do away with it. the number of foetuses should be clearly visible. but many are not so easy to identify. It may also occur when one parent is horned and the other polled. Since it is only produced by the placenta. a hormone produced by a living foetus that can be detected as early as thirty-five days after conception. particularly for sheep. you may still have time to rebreed her. twice with one male and 3rd time with another male. Tests can provide an answer. Q. Q.PART. For the first three months you will see little change and it will be nearly impossible to tell whether she is pregnant.

It will burst to reveal two feet with a tiny nose resting on them. restrict legume roughage and calcium supplements in the rations of high producers. Do not interfere or you will upset the doe and may cause unnecessary complications. If you intend to build up a sizeable flock. When contractions get closer together at the start of hard labour. When parturition starts. the uniformity of its gene pool. She may lie down and not get up until her first kid is born. though three or four are not uncommon. Selection in favour of desirable characteristics involves culling against undesirable ones. most of desirable traits for sheep and goats are heritable to a fairly high degree. The two basic rules of selective breeding are: i) Never mate two sheep/goats that have the same fault. management etc. Older and poorly fed does tend to kid late. ii) Keep sight of your goals and make every decision with those goals in mind. milk her out to prevent damage to the udder and ligaments supporting the udder. Her vulva may distend. Soon come out shoulders.). If the udder of a heavy milker becomes tight and shiny. 21 . how good your foundation stock is. bulging water bag.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION problems. Take the doe to a roomy stall (pen) where the bedding is fresh and clean for the health of both the mother and newborn. she will not be very hungry for the next few days. raise your standards. the doe may develop depressed areas on both sides of her tail and hollowness at her hips. Goals may include improving milk production. She may paw the ground. She may carry the kid(s) lower so that her pelvic bones seem sharper and her pinbones become raised. You can reach your goals faster if you concentrate on only one trait at a time. During the last week or two. otherwise undesirable ones may creep in. A single is possible for does first kidding. It is a stringy. Clip the hair around her tail and udder. the number of breeders you select from. The doe may consume placenta and if she does. Fortunately. anomalies of the teeth or joints. Her udder may fill out. the doe may become withdrawn. improving quantity and quality of wool. indicating that her time is near. extra or double teats. What do you know about selective breeding? Explain in detail. improving growth rate of lambs/kids or decreasing susceptibility to certain disease conditions. hips and hind legs. Multiple births usually shorten the gestation period.PART. In a multiple birth. Unwanted hereditary defects include overshot or undershot jaw. no matter how minor it seems. which may be two. you will see a round. How fast you make progress toward your goals depends on the accuracy of your records. The afterbirth or placenta usually comes out at the time of kidding or just afterwards. Breeding for appearance alone often leads to degeneration of wool and milk production or reproductive capabilities. Otherwise remove the placenta and burn or bury it. careful selective breeding will increase its value. Two or three weeks before kidding. thin. Some traits are not genetically controlled but depend on environment (nutrition. The first kid should be no more than fifteen minutes away and the entire process should take about forty-five minutes. dark. lie down and get up restlessly. weak anatomical structure or incorrect conformation and colour for the breed. milky-looking membrane. the relationship between the traits you are selecting for and their degree of heritability. depending on the number of kids born. At the end of or close to five months. undescended testicle(s). bleat. eat less and discharge white mucus. Q. light. she will pass gelatinous strings of bloody mucus. increasing the lambing/kidding rate. pant or rearrange the bedding. She may labour for a few hours before she actually kids. Any time you seem to be achieving your goals. there may be one or more. but do not ignore all others.

It involves mating animals that are not closely related or are entirely unrelated. linebreeding. Inbreeding brings out latent weaknesses to make you aware of their existence so that you can work toward eliminating them. Outbreeding: It is the opposite of inbreeding. Many books contain linebreeding charts which may be taken as suggested guidelines. have the good points of both the parents and is usually faster growing. outbreeding and crossbreeding.e. but it can also intensify undesirable ones if those are not carefully culled against. The value of crossbreeding can be determined in practice by comparing the lamb/kid with the two parent breeds considering particularly the factors that are of importance in your situation: body conformation. Selective breeding needs a whole lot of record keeping and a huge amount of patience. which may give you a false sense of satisfaction. Crossbreeding: When both parents belong to the same breed. Only years of careful selection can make you certain of the pedigree of each sheep/goat in your breeding team and that no undesirable latent characteristics lurk in the background. Outbreeding involves careful selection of an animal to complement your flock with the particular characteristics you need and no undesirable ones that may spoil your programme. each parent is of distinct different breed. you continue to produce sound offspring. the lamb/kid is termed as a purebred. This is especially true if you start with unrelated sheep/goats so that your first few matings produce exceptionally fine lambs/kids. Its goal is to combine the desirable traits of two distinct populations with an additional advantage that it produces hybrid vigour. because blindly plugging the names of sheep/goats into a chart only due to their position in the family tree is likely to produce frustration.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Do not get excited by your early success. usually a ram/buck but it may also be an ewe/doe. Inbreeding is the mating of closely related animals to develop a uniform genetic base so that eventually every sheep/goat in your flock is nearly identical in production and/or appearance. prolificacy. However. Such a sheep/goat is most likely to be found in another flock that is inbred. you can be more or less sure that there are no hidden genetic defects in your flock. In crossbreeding you get a lamb/kid that can potentially (but not necessarily). Instead choose each breeder according to its individual merit and potential for bringing you closer to your goals.PART. linebreeding. rate of growth and size. Outbreeding becomes necessary in an inbreeding programme when undesirable traits show up or when it turns out that a flock cannot be developed according to the plan because it does not carry the genes for certain desired characteristics. milk. It aims at concentrating the blood of one founding parent. the increased hardiness and growth performance that is often found in a crossbred when it is compared to the average of its purebred parents. Inbreeding: Methods of selective breeding include inbreeding. the result of hybrid vigour. wool. Because it involves such heavy culling that inbreeding (linebreeding) is not feasible for very small flocks. Q. The effectiveness of any form of inbreeding is increased with the number of sheep/goats involved which may be divided among cooperating flock owners. Inbreeding allows this by intensifying desirable characteristics. preferably one with distant ancestors common to your flock. outbreeding and crossbreeding. Hybrid vigour is the 22 . Write short notes on inbreeding. the lamb/kid is called a crossbred. If after four or five generations of inbreeding. making the offspring superior to either parent. A large breeding population lets you cull freely to keep only animals that help you to achieve your goals. Heterosis is the hybrid vigour i. Linebreeding: It is a form of inbreeding.

is called grading up.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION major reason for crossbreeding. But showring wins are often weighted more in favour of appearance over meat. The actual improvement depends partly on the ram/buck chosen and partly on how carefully you select the ewe lambs/doe kids that are kept for replacement. Briefly discuss backcrossing and grading up. Individual heterosis comes from crossing two different breeds and normally results in an average of 8 kg more meat (if well fed) than by pure breeding. The lambs/kids resulting from this mating should not be bred back to the same ram/buck. It is a form of inbreeding.PART. Table 11. wool producing ability or dairy 23 . Q. is the crossing of a purebred ram/buck with a crossbred ewe/doe and causes on average 18% more meat produced per ewe/doe. Exact degree of heritability is not easy to ascertain due to the interrelationship of heritable characteristics as well as the complications of undetected environmental factors. Grading Up: The use of a good purebred ram/buck on a flock of very ordinary ewes/does and keeping the best of the resulting offspring. Give below the estimated heritability of some important traits of dairy goats as well as Angora goats. There are several ways to evaluate the worthiness of potential breeders. as reported by researchers of Ohio State University. Degree of heritability of certain traits Trait Heritability (%) Milk Annual milk yield 36-64 Total yield 25-66 Fat yield 30-67 Fat (%) 32-62 Protein yield 32-47 Angora traits (%) Protein (%) 59 Total fibre yield Casein (%) 65 Fibre length Lactose (%) 38 Greasy fleece weight Flavour 27 Clean fleece weight Milking time 67 Fibre diameter Birth weight 01 Face cover Liveweight at 7 months 49-77 Kemp score General body weight 50 Body weight Age at first kidding 54-77 Weaning weight Number of kids 10 48 22 15-40 20 12 31-59 20-43 30-50 20-55 Q. The other reason is to breed in such a manner as to allow the strong points of one breed to compensate for the weakness of another. Q. you have probably improved the quality of your flock. Backcrossing: Breeding your best ewe lambs/doe kids to the same unusually good ram/buck is called backcrossing. One is to look at showring experience if you want to breed for winners. Estimates of heritability show the percentage of progress you can reasonably expect when breeding selected parents (Table 11). If done for several years. Maternal heterosis. keeping the best of the ewe lambs/doe kids and disposing off the original ewes/does. Briefly discuss various methods of evaluating breeding animals.

The third method is through light manipulation. Progeny testing cannot be practised until after the animal reaches sexual maturity. The accuracy of ram’s/buck’s estimated breeding value increases as the number of progeny with performance information increase. Oestrus may be controlled in three basic ways. By this method a pregnancy rate of 67 to 100% was achieved in various breeds of dairy 24 . Write a note on progeny testing. The ram/buck must be mated to a large number of average ewes/does and not a small number of highly selected females. Into each pen of six does. which offers some advantages if you have a large flock.PART. Oestrus manipulation is a means to influence the occurrence of heat. The does are then kept under natural light for another thirty-five days. He is left there for sixty days during which two or three light-introduced heat cycles occur. Like showring scoring. It involves light treating does for twenty hours a day over a sixty-day period starting in early January. It was designed to evaluate sires used for artificial insemination. this method of selection can be very expensive and greatly increases generation interval because selection of parents cannot be carried out until after offspring have been measured. This system was established (in USA) by a committee within the National Association of Animal Breeders as a means of placing value on individual traits by using a sliding scale from worst to best. A ram/buck rag is an empty burlap sack or an old blanket that has been liberally rubbed over a mature ram or buck’s musk glands. A third alternative that provides more objective evaluation is linear appraisal. a buck is introduced that has also been light-treated to stimulate fertility. A more effective but complicated method has been devised at the International Dairy Goat Research Center at Texas A & M. In addition. using one four-foot-forty-watt fluorescent tube for each forty-two square feet of floor space. Progeny testing is perhaps the most objective way to evaluate breeding animals. a system of scoring by comparing each animal to an established standard of excellence for its breed. hung at a height of 2. One is by hormonal treatment. Synchronizing heat (having ewes/does come into heat together) makes artificial insemination cheaper and easier. Simulating the light conditions of fall prepares rams/bucks and female animals for out-of-season breeding. What do you understand by oestrus manipulation? Discuss in detail. Classifiers are trained and licensed by the various sheep/goat registered associations (mostly in western world). However. Another means of evaluation is through classification. showring placement is mostly determined by comparing the exhibited animals to each other rather than to an ideal. The second is to introduce a vasectomized ram/buck into the flock or to hang a ram/buck rag in the barn. Q.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION character. It involves keeping track of performance of an animal’s offspring. Q.7 to 3m. condenses the period during which you have to be on hand for lambing/kidding and produces groups of lambs/kids of similar ages that can be more easily raised together. It is a form of pedigree selection and is a method of estimating the breeding value of an animal by the performance or phenotype of its offspring. classification involves some degree of subjectivity on the part of the judge. Ram/buck odour generally causes ewes/does to come into heat within about a week. Manipulating heat cycles helps produce a more regular flow of lambs/kids and that of milk from dairy goats by allowing groups of ewes/does to lamb/kid at the times you designate. A disadvantage is that conception rates and foetus survival rates tend to be lower during out-of-season hot summer months.

Q. for which hormonal treatment may be necessary for optimum results. Some breeds might perform better in this respect than others e. The development of the udder is influenced by a number of hormones including progesterone from the ovaries. female’s forage intake during lactation which is conditioned at this time. Briefly discuss the role of hormones in the development of udder in small ruminants in the last a few weeks of gestation. does not appear advisable to burden them any more unless substantial feed resources are developed and made available for them. However. mohair yield of Angora kids and probably wool producing capacity of sheep. Sterile solution and sterile procedure are essential to avoid serious complications. Any programme of accelerated lambing/kidding will require very early weaning of lambs/kids to prepare the ewes/does for their next lambing/kidding. the possibility of proper feeding of ewes/does and their offspring must be explored. They infused the uterus with 200 ml saturated sucrose solution via the cervix. There is often a temptation to milk out a little at this time to relieve pressure but unless the ewe/doe is in obvious discomfort. During the last a few weeks of gestation the udder will undergo rapid development and in case of heavy milkers may look swollen and engorged. Obtaining two lamb/kid crops a year (without use of hormones) seems possible. management practices and the age and breed of your ewes/does. Scientists in the Utah State University have devised and tested a method to overcome the common problem of uterine debris that prevents ewes/does from breeding back early enough to have two lamb/kid crops in twelve months. The placental lactogen is produced in greater quantities according to the amount of placental tissue. Q. The long run effect of two crops a year on reproductive span. it is better not to do this since it will affect the production of colostrum at lambing/kidding. Environmental control of oestrus is easier with certain breeds than with others. Q. the weather. Because underfeeding of small ruminants in this country has definitely kept them back from utilizing their existing potential. prolactin from the pituitary gland and placental lactogen from the placenta.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION goats.PART. It therefore. the development of udder and subsequent milk yield (which is important for the newborn lambs/kids as well as for the sale of goat milk later on). Teddy goats have already exhibited ample capacity to produce two kid crops a year. your latitude. Thus ewes/does carrying a number of foetuses are likely to produce more milk than those with single foetus. Discuss the possibility of accelerated lambing/kidding in sheep/goats. Q. life span of ewes/does and on lamb/kid birth weight as well as their growth rate needs to be considered. What are the important measures of reproductive efficiency in small ruminants? Discuss briefly. within four days of lambing/kidding and obtained beneficial response. How effectively the occurrence of heat can be controlled with ram/buck scent or lighting depends on the season. What specific traits are favourably influenced by better feeding of small ruminants during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy? Better feeding during the last 10 weeks of gestation period will influence the size of lambs/kids. 25 . apart from the physiological possibility. The effect of severe hot and cold weather on newborns has also to be kept in view.g.

However. Lactation: In the early stages of lactation. or why the reproductive rate of a flock is poor. for example difficulties of hormonal nature. Postweaning Mortality Rate: The number of lamb/kid deaths after weaning.e. owing to some infertility problems and thus no signs of oestrus. access to a well equipped laboratory is required. Problems of reproductive management can be identified and normally overcome. Homosexual males may not do so. Q. An index that includes an estimate of preweaning mortality is weaning rate i. but may not show overt signs of oestrus. females may not show signs of oestrus. If the ewe/doe is showing signs of oestrus the next question is Is oestrus regular? Try to record when oestrus occurs. Important measures to assess individual reproductive performance are: Parturition Interval: The frequency with which individual ewes/does produce lambs/kids. Such questions are: Is the ewe/doe showing signs of oestrus? It is important to check whether oestrus is being detected properly. These indicators may include the number of lambs/kids born per number of breeding females per year (lambing/kidding rate). Such a facility is not commonly available. unless the owner is very alert.PART. Some measures of reproductive performance of a whole flock may express the number of lambs/kids born either from the breeding females that were actually mated or from the potential breeding females i. ensuring that sheep and goats are able to generate enough replacements for themselves. including infertile females. this is called nutritional anoestrus.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Reproduction is said to be the engine of the flock. Litter Size: The number of lambs/kids born per ewe/doe. Preweaning Mortality Rate: The number of lamb/kid deaths up to weaning. oestrus detection can be a problem. important that reproductive problems.e. It is therefore. In flocks where males are not run continuously with females. resulting into loss of 10 to 20% body weight can cause the ewe/doe to stop showing signs of oestrus. Females may be experiencing normal cycles. whereas if deeper physiological problems are suspected. Causes of short cycles are: 26 . consideration must be given to the question of whether there are any females that are not reproducing. Any of the following factors may cause anoestrus: Poor Condition: Poor nutrition over long periods. Sometimes oestrous cycles are very short (6 to 10 days) or very long. if any. are spotted as early as possible and action taken to remedy the situation. The reproductive rate of both individual sheep/goats and the flock as a whole is an important determinant of the overall success of the flock. the number of lambs/kids weaned per number of breeding females per year. expand the flock and supply excess stock for sale. this is known as lactational anoestrus. Sickness: If the ewe/doe is very ill. it is necessary to check this and also to check that the ram/buck responds normally to females. Alternatively she may not be cycling at all. she may not show signs of oestrus. Give a detailed account of reproductive problems in small ruminants. Women and grown up members of the family associated with handling and care of the animals might help in this regard. In addition. A series of questions might be asked when investigating the reasons why an ewe/doe is not lambing/kidding.

consider the possibility that the ewe/doe is currently pregnant. If the answer to all previous questions is yes. Age: Eventually females become too old to breed. Ovarian Cyst: Cysts on the ovary produce estrogen. for one of the following reasons: Pregnancy: If the reproductive problem reported is a recent one. they may no longer be able to mount and mate a female successfully. By the third or fourth ewe/doe of the day. but are rare. in order to achieve successful copulation. Mummified Lamb/Kid: If a lamb/kid becomes mummified in the uterus. If oestrus is being regularly shown. The next question is Is the male with the ewe/doe all the time? If the answer is no. or simply not ovulating at all. Over Use: Rams/bucks should not be expected to serve successfully more than one or two females per day. Age: When the males grow weak through age. The corpus luteum may prematurely regress. Previous Metritis: Infection of the uterus may occur after lambing/kidding and can leave the female infertile. it may not be possible for her to be mated twice at the recommended interval of 12 hours. he may attempt to serve them but the sperm quality would fall with each female served. It is common in crossbreeding programmes for the ewe/doe and ram/buck to need assistance at mating. The female may have to be supported while the male mounts. Metritis: Infection of the uterus after lambing/kidding may result in short oestrus cycles. Hormonal Disturbance: A hormonal disturbance resulting in a persistent corpus luteum. Physical Damage: Any physical damage to the penis or testicles can render the male sterile. Does the ewe/doe stand to be mated? Standing to be mated is the true sign of oestrus. she may be too small to support the weight of the ram/buck. If a male is run with a batch of females that come into oestrus close together. If the ewe/doe has to be taken for matting to a distant male. the ram/buck may be effectively infertile.PART. then it is time to consider the possibility that the doe is infertile. which may shorten the cycle. Hereditary Condition: Hereditary deformities do occur. Homosexuality: Males reared exclusively with other males in the absence of females can develop homosexual behaviour patterns and will not respond to females in oestrus. however. causing short cycles. but the ewe/doe is still not breeding properly. Females may be infertile. Males may be infertile due to: Brucellosis: Infection with brucellosis in males can result in orchitis (swollen testicles). causing him to be sterile. the question arises Is the ram/buck proven to be fertile. but there are still problems. Hereditary Condition: Occasionally a ram/buck is born with deformed reproductive organs. Anoestrus: Possibly due to malnutrition or disease. for example during transportation. even if the ewe/doe is in oestrus. Also lameness or other physical problems can make the male unable to mount a female.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Stress: When the ewe/doe is stressed. Causes of long oestrous cycles are: Embryonic Death: The death of the embryo in the uterus. 27 . it can serve to stimulate repeated short cycles. either not showing signs of oestrus. which can make the ram/buck temporarily infertile or permanently sterile. then there may be problems either in detecting oestrus or in mating at the correct time in relation to ovulation.

and sometimes permanently crippling injuries. clogging may be tried which simply means fastening a piece of wood to one fore leg by a leather strap. A half-pail of water on his face when he comes to butt. too. because they are unable to charge from any distance. in most cases artificial insemination (AI) costs about the same as stud service and for them both can be less expensive than keeping a ram/buck. Adding a bit of vinegar to the water makes it a better deterrent. will. but natural breeding is still more popular with large flocks because breeding by ram/buck is both easier and surer. try the water cure. Is artificial insemination practised in small ruminants? It is practised in several countries such as UK. Leading a ram/buck with one hand under his chin will keep him from getting his head down into butting position. since AI sires are screened for health problems transmitted through sexual contact. They can make him playful and dangerous. the ewe/doe may be rendered infertile. If you have a ram/buck that already butts at you. this encourages him to butt. leaving the legs at about the natural distance apart.e. a water pistol or dose syringe of water on his face suffices to check him. What to do with a battering ram/buck? The battering ram/buck may not be considered just funny. To prevent fighting and the possibility of being injured. And you can keep a closed flock to prevent the spread of diseases. if they have been separated for a while. In a confined area they cannot back up far enough to do any damage. Never pet him on top of his head. If no pen is available. In addition. It discourages them from butting each other.PART. Two strong rams/bucks who are both very determined will keep fighting until their heads are bleeding and one finally staggers to his knees and is hard for him to get up. you can put them together in a small pen for a few days. Strange rams/bucks will fight when put together. USA. What do you understand by metritis? Normally after lambing/kidding there is a reddish discharge from the vulva for up to 14 days. Russia. After repeating a few times. Q. Keep children away from it. or people. Switzerland and France. This will slow down and discourage both fence jumping and fighting. His head is held so low that as he charges you. there may be an infection and inflammation of the uterus known as metritis. he does not see forward well enough to swerve suddenly. A course of antibiotics normally results in full recovery. It can inflict serious. A dangerous ram/buck that is very valuable can be hooded so that he can only see downward and somewhat backward. A ram/buck butts from the top of his head. not from his forehead. Rams/bucks will occasionally kill one another. They may stand close and push each other around. AI is especially important where stud rams/bucks are not available locally. Never pen a smaller. younger one with a large dominant one. AI lets you take advantage of a wide range of superior rams/bucks from across the country. Hobbling also keeps them from jumping the fence.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Q. For small flock owners. Canada. A quick step to the right or left will help you avoid the collision. Q. they can be hobbled i. Well acquainted ones. if the discharge is dark red and sticky. 28 . fore and hind legs of the same side can be fastened with ends of a broad leather strap just above the pastern joints. Australia. however. He must then be kept apart from other rams/bucks as he is quite helpless. if chronic metritis develops. However.

It is used to keep the semen at –320°F during transportation and storage. However. skilled staff. It is best if the handler can lean into and rest his back into a corner. so that the processor’s tank can be promptly returned. An insemination technique. If you have a large flock.PART. The amount of semen collected from a male varies but averages 15 to 20 straws per ejaculate. (COBS) was formed about two decades ago to develop an artificial insemination service particularly for goats. The inseminator lifts the goat by her hocks and brings her up so that the handler can hold the hocks tight up against the goat’s lower abdomen pulling her up against his chest. The owner or handler stands astride the goat’s neck. AI programme should not be considered unless conditions/facilities such as a supply of semen. and iii) if a trained inseminator is not located nearby then travelling costs can make the service expensive. The most common method of restraint for AI involves holding the goat’s back legs off the ground and presenting her rear to the inseminator. in contrast to as much as two days for natural semen. ram/buck. using an instrument called a laproscope. facing the goat’s rear. Since semen is viable only eight to twelve hours after being thawed. The semen storage tank is the most costly piece of equipment. the muscular bands can make it difficult to insert the gun into the cervix. The chances of conception will be reduced if this happens. but can be mitigated if a group of compatible members of a farmer’s community/club pool resources. Certain disadvantages of AI are: i) Conception rates from AI would not be expected to be as good as with natural mating. deposits semen directly into the uterus through the body wall. The semen is diluted so that each straw contains approximately 120 million sperm. The breeder must have another tank for the semen. it is therefore critical that insemination be well coordinated with ovulation. The inseminator uses an instrument called a speculum to look into the vagina of the goat to locate the entrance to the cervix. the semen is then splashed onto the entrance. The first few years of this company were spent making preliminary arrangements and now semen can be successfully diluted and frozen in liquid nitrogen at –196°C and experienced inseminators are achieving conception rates at first service of over 60%. Some breeders keep a ram/buck to stimulate ovulation and help them identify ewes/does in heat. Rough handling of ewes/does during AI reduces the chances of conception. By doing so it is possible to restrain even quite large goats for insemination. semen processor and inseminator. the semen is frozen in 0. The help of a veterinarian is required for this purpose. A record of AI should include the date.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION In several countries. it is delivered by a bus/van in the processor’s transporting tank. If the goat is at the proper stage of oestrus. After semen is selected according to the histories of stud rams/bucks (published in various catalogues). In Britain the company Caprine Ovine Breeding Services Ltd. even though they use AI to breed their animals to superior distant studs. The initial investment is fairly high. For AI through the cervix. the cervix may be slightly dilated and it is sometimes easy to insert the AI gun some distance into the neck of the cervix. technical equipment and 29 . This technique allows less semen to be used to achieve conception rates at least as good as when cervical technique is used. try to achieve oestrus synchronization before calling an AI technician to your place to do the job. more and more small flocks owners especially goat-keepers are learning how to do and many are willing to do it for others.5 ml plastic straws. ii) special training and expensive equipment are required. identification of ewe/doe. Conception rates vary between 50 and 70%.

Q. any illnesses and their treatment. it is normal to expect 50% male and 50% female. three or four will become pregnant. In recent years the techniques for preserving fertile embryos and transplanting them into suitable recipient animals that become surrogate mothers have been considerably developed in several western countries. Good synchronization of the donor’s and recipients’ oestrous cycles is the most important and stress and nutrition can affect embryo survival after implantation. broken mouth (teeth missing). Write a detailed note on culling. 12 on average. are valuable and therefore. lambing/kidding record. There are many points in the programme where the embryos may die. When considering the economics of embryo transfer. you need to keep good records and this requires ear tags/tattooing. lamb/kid growth. it might be successfully used only under research station conditions. being fertilized. rejected lambs/kids. Not all the recipients will be suitable for use and of the five. Culling means eliminating old and unproductive animals from the flock according to a scheduled annual or biannual programme. Q. Taking all these variables into account. Embryos can be frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen in a similar way to semen and thus they can be shipped around the world and can be used a long time after they were collected. prolapses. udders and feet. inverted eyelids. making use of the same laboratory and technicians. still it is important to have clear records with tags than without. The embryo transfer requires highly skilled staff and sophisticated equipment. Even if you can recognize each of your sheep/goats by name. It may be possible to run a goat AI programme alongside a buffalo/cattle AI programme. the average number of kids born per flush will be five to six and of these. Embryo transfer involves treating a goat with a series of injections of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to synchronize oestrus and to induce super-ovulation. are also treated with hormones so that their oestrous cycle will be exactly synchronized with that of the donor. udder abnormalities. usually for reasons of scarcity. The goat is mated repeatedly throughout the peak of her oestrus period in order to enhance the chances of a large number of ova. Two of these will then be transferred by a similar operation to each of the recipient goats. The embryos thus collected are examined under microscope by an embryologist to determine those that are fit to be used. For every 12 embryos flushed two would probably be infertile or unsuitable for transfer. At the same time a number of ordinary goats. wool quality. milk yield and milking ability. limpers who do not respond to regular trimming and foot baths or those with insufficient milk and whose 30 . foot problems.PART. she undergoes a small operation to exteriorize the uterus. which is then flushed to recover any fertile embryos that may be present. it is important to remember that 12 embryos recovered will not mean 12 live kids born. Cull out ewes/does with defective udders. The following records may be helpful: fleece weight of each clip/each year. usually 7 to 10. Discuss embryo transfer in goats. It has been used most in breeds and species that. To know which animals to cull. therefore. The technique is particularly attractive for rapidly increasing the number of progeny that can be produced by one female in a single breeding season. where the relatively high cost involved can be justified. Six days after the donor is mated.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION good transport and communications as well as highly motivated farmers/goat keepers exist. At culling time review the records as well as inspect teeth.

Consider all the points listed under purchase of new ewes/does. There may be some exceptions to these deficiencies such as an ewe/doe who regularly has twins/triplets and passes on her prolific traits to her daughters. also consider survivability. 31 . During the four to six weeks period after culling. “They cannot shear grass if the blades do not match”. An expert says. mothering instinct. even suck out wax plug if necessary. the animals may be provided some supplementary ration to enhance their marketability so that they may fetch better prices. Culling may be done at least a month before the dates of marketing shows that are held at one or two nearby places. on the occasion of Eid-ul-Azha. And it is not enough to just have teeth. Keep in mind especially the ease of lambing/kidding (to avoid animals that all require assistance at parturition time). especially male stock. Improvements of a flock require rigid culling. the bite itself is important. Consideration for only growth and conformation may not be enough. lamb/kids that find out teats. production of large quantities of nourishing milk from the start. It can also be managed to coincide with the demand for sacrificial slaughter of animals.PART. This one may warrant bottle feeding of her lambs/kids for another season of lambing/kidding.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION lambs/kids grow slowly.





Give a list of diseases which pertain to pregnant ewes/does. Early detection and treatment is important. causes. lying on upward slope. Wash your hands and disinfect the loop.PART. The vaginal lining. Hind end be elevated. mastitis. Increased forage yields are speeding the depletion of selenium in topsoil and increased animal stocking/ha on a given land area also contributes to the problem. Wash the prolapsed part with normal cold antiseptic water. Too much selenium is acutely toxic. Pregnancy disease also termed as pregnancy toxaemia or ketosis is highly fatal if not treated immediately. Vaginal prolapse. Insert the prolapse loop. feeding too much roughage during late pregnancy. deficiency of selenium. You can remove the loop as she goes into labour. Q. Prolapse-harness may be used to hold the loop in place. milk fever (lambing sickness. hypocalcium. Give an injection of a suitable antibiotic to avoid infection. For lubricating and disinfecting the vaginal mass. rough handling in shearing or during deworming in late pregnancy. homemade prolapse-loop is used in case prolapse has occurred (Figure 13). What is meant by pregnancy disease? Give its synonyms. but sometimes can follow a difficult labour. symptoms and treatment. retained placenta. May hold her on back. pregnancy disease (ketosis). with her shoulders on the ground and her hindquarters up against your knee. In many countries. At the same time prolapse-harness may be applied. calcium deficiency) etc. Conventional treatment for the vaginal lining just barely protruding is confine the pregnant animal in such a place where her hind end is well elevated. with foetus and stomach causing excessive pressure. Replace the vaginal lining using a lubricant. At one time the standard holding of prolapse was with deep sutures (one at the top of vaginal opening and one across the bottom) to hold the vagina in (Figure 14). likely inherited. It could be a genetic weakness. in selenium deficient areas. The slightest indication of prolapse would call for an additional selenium injection along with usual prolapse-repair measures. In western country markets several selenium products are available. inject the animals with selenium a week before parturition. abortions. For prevention of prolapse. To replace the vaginal protrusion and insert the loop or retainer: Put a rope (1½ cm) or belt around her middle in front of the udder so that she cannot strain. straight in. a cream is available in the local market. Injection be given intramuscular but preferably subcut. .II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PROBLEMS OF PREGNANT EWES/DOES Q. causing ewe/doe to cough a lot as in pneumonia or lungworms. Blood tests can give an accurate information about selenium status of the animal and the soil scientist about the soil. flat horizontally. thus decreasing pressure. extra fat ewe/doe. but not so tight that she cannot lie down and get up. ketosis or calcium deficiency. Mark this ewe/doe for culling since the prolapse produces permanent damage and might happen again. protruding from genital opening can be seen as a red mass. Important causes are: anatomical weakness. to relieve pressure. Vaginal prolapse mostly occurs before parturition. It usually occurs in last week or so of pregnancy and inflicts mostly 36 Q. Give a detailed account of vaginal prolapse in ewes/does.

then caesarean section will be required to save the ewe/doe. better continue for four days even if she is recovered. When the ewe/doe is breaking down significant levels of fat from body reserves. For treatment 4 ounces of propylene glycol or 4 ounces of glycerine diluted with warm water or any commercial preparation should be given by mouth twice a day. When this occurs. It can be readily diagnosed by urine tests for ketones and acetones if test strips are available. What type of fever is milk fever? Give the most salient causes. As a matter of fact milk fever is a misnomer. prevention requires calories. or she may not move around well. encourage daily exercise. provide rising level of nutrition in last 4 to 5 weeks of pregnancy. avoid stress and hurried driving of pregnant animals.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION twin or triplet carrying ewes/does. Because once a full-blown case occurs and treatment proves ineffective. give special attention to nutrition of old animals with poor teeth. Sometimes confusion arises as to whether it is pregnancy toxaemia or hypocalcemia (milk fever). So much calcium is needed to form the bones and teeth of foetus(es) and so much of it goes into ewe’s/doe’s milk. that she suddenly may be unable to supply it all. Pregnancy toxaemia can be accurately diagnosed by test strips (ketone sensitive strips). This deficiency 37 . she may reach the point where ketones are being produced faster than her body can excrete them. it may be said that if it is before parturition and there is a possibility that the ewe/doe may not have been fed properly in the last month. rather mainly of insufficient energy intake. whereas if it is after lambing/kidding and the ewe is providing milk for twins/triplets and has had adequate feed with molasses. Loss of lambs/kids will occur unless she is very close to normal parturition time. Among important preventive measures are: avoid over fatness early in pregnancy. due either to simple calcium deficiency or deficiency caused by metabolic disturbance. it is more likely to be milk fever (hypocalcemia). no sudden change in concentrate ration. symptoms and suggest an effective treatment for this ailment.PART. Ketones are the byproduct of fat metabolism. they build up to toxic levels and thus ketosis or pregnancy anaemia takes place. It is not a thin ewe/doe or blood sugar problem. but can be just before. Simply stated. It is not a fever. In general. The temperature of the ailing animal is either normal or subnormal and the ears become very cold. with sweet acetoniecsmelling breath. weak in legs. mostly refuse to eat. supply a constant source of water. avoid purchasing ewes/does too close to lambing/kidding. it is probably pregnancy toxaemia. It is simply a state of calcium deficiency in the dams in post-lambing/post-kidding situation. then become unable to rise. Recovery becomes doubtful if treatment delayed long. teeth grinding and breathe rapidly. When she is taking in less energy than required to sustain herself and the growing foetus(es). It is possible to avoid this disease by using ketone test strips early. Usual symptoms are: sleepy-looking dull eyes. to prevent relapse. add molasses to the feed of all animals if you have even one case of ketosis. Q. give molasses in drinking water. Keep propylene glycol on hand before lambing/kidding for prompt treatment of any suspected cases. treat the feet of any lame ewe/doe. she begins to use stored body fat to provide this energy. give at least 300 g concentrate ration per head/day.

it may be confused with pregnancy toxaemia. the first milking should be done at once and the colostrum frozen for future use. such as when a male is running with the pregnant females and bumps them away from feed. Strict sanitation. EAE-Vibrio vaccine used well in time protects the animals from both the infections. but invade the uterus. Stray cats should not be allowed to stay at the farm premises. The other causes are vibriosis and enzooatic abortion of ewes (EAE).PART. they can be carriers that may contaminate feed and water. which causes late term abortions. Treatment of an EAE outbreak is the feeding of 500 mg CTC per ewe or doe per day. It is not the same species of Chlamydia that causes respiratory diseases. breathing fast. muscle tremors. uterine discharges. Once the condition is sufficiently advanced. protected storage of dry forage. the drug may be injected subcut (75 to 100 cc. Give a detailed account of abortions in ewes/does. Q. further followed by 500 mg/head/day of chortetracyline (CTC) until the lambing/kidding season is over. If milk fever occurs before lambing/kidding. When an ewe/doe has aborted in the last few weeks of pregnancy or has a still birth and there is no orphan to graft on her while she has a full udder. Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan (Coccidium) of cats. stillbirths and weak lambs. Infection of sheep/goats occurs through eating forage. placenta and foetus during late pregnancy. in sheep. If the newborn is dead due to a difficult birth. Abrupt change of feed. divided equally for five injection sites). Subcut gives a slower reaction and it is a safer procedure at home with less chance of cardiac arrest. If in doubt call your local veterinarian for help. followed by three day injections of 8 cc pen-strep. No effective treatment or vaccine so far. The rest of the animals can be vaccinated. Milk fever represents a true medical emergency in which life or death of the animal is a race against time. treatment should start before the animal is down. Injury is often a cause of abortion.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION can cause death in a short time. It spreads to ewes/does by contact with aborting animals. or a dead foetus. grains and other feedstuffs where cats have defaecated. If. however. Q. grain and off-the-ground feeding troughs may help reduce the incidence and spread of disease. when pregnant ewes/does rush for feed through narrow doorways or when they are chased by dogs. a period without feed or a sudden drastic change in the weather may be the contributory factors to cause this disease. If veterinary assistance is not available and you cannot give intravenous injection. Although it is reported that ewes/does that have aborted from this are immune to further abortions. How would you proceed with retained placenta in ewes/does? 38 . staring eyes and dullness. The onset of disease is sudden and progress very rapid. Abortions and stillbirths are common. infecting other animals. infected foetal membranes. Vibriosis is caused by bacteria that may live in the gall bladder and intestine of the animal. Moldy feed with mold spores infecting and destroying the placenta. stilted gait followed by staggering. Initial signs are excitability. To be successful. clean uncontaminated water. it is a calcium shortage. the animal will show a dramatic improvement after calcium is given. Enzooatic abortin of ewes/does (EAE) is caused by an organism called Chlamydia. pink eye etc. Next the animal lies down and is unable to get up. she should be milked out on third day and again in a week. can cut off nourishment to the foetus leading to abortion. intravenous injection of 100 cc calcium borogluconate or calcium gluconate is the only remedy that will save the animal. then slips into coma followed by death.

Forcible removal of the afterbirth to be done only by a person who can differentiate between the maternal and the foetal cotyledons to separate them. and hereditary weakness. The afterbirth often comes out normally mostly within first hour after birth. More appropriate would be to get it diagnosed from a relevant laboratory and know which is the causative organism. causing you to think it is yet retained.5 to 1 million units. loss of lamb/kid. showing up at the ewe/doe’s next lambing/kidding when she has milk in only half of her udder and the other half is hard. The milk becomes watery or thick and flaky. mastitis will respond if penicillin treatment (or other recent medication) is given early enough in dosage of 0. Usual causes for retained placenta are: exhaustion following difficult birth. If the animal is treated promptly at the first signs of the disease. concentrate ration not withdrawn at least five days prior to weaning. which not milked out to dry up. nutritional disorder such as deficiency of selenium. sudden weaning of lambs/kids while ewe/doe still has full milking capacity. animal lying on dirty. udder injury from large nursing lambs/kids. infection or abortion. 39 . cold and wet ground. Do you think mastitis can be prevalent in ewes/does? Write a note on it.PART. carrying one hind leg as far from the udder as possible and does not want her youngone to nurse. The affected side of her udder is hot. You can allow quite some time⎯ up to six hours after birth. suitable antibiotics be injected. This type of mastitis is critical and the ewe/doe should be marked for culling. there is 50% chance of saving the udder. resulting from poor feeding in the last four weeks of pregnancy. while ewe/doe has large milking udder. Q. Important causes are: undue exposure to rainy weather. which becomes almost blue and is cold to touch. There are combination treatment drugs for both acute and mild chronic cases and these are effective against several of the causative bacteria. infection from an active mastitic animal to another. Occasionally mastitis causes gangrene of the udder. udder injury from high thresholds in barns or from underbrush. then get proper treatment. Yes! it does. magnesium or calcium. Large and repeated doses of dihydrostreptomycin may be helpful. soiled wet bedding. Early detection and prompt treatment can minimize udder loss. Mastitis is an infection and inflammation of the udder usually affecting one side and can be caused by one or a combination of different bacteria. Better get help from a reproduction man who can administer a medicine that can assist in expelling it. as you might cause some injury to herself. swollen and painful. Also infected side milked out completely and milk destroyed and antibiotics inserted into the teat. In several cases. To treat the mastitis cases. In case six hours have passed. In acute cases the ewe/doe has a high fever (105 to 106 degrees) and usually goes off feed. Some animals may eat the afterbirth if you are not there to take care of it. She will limp. depending somewhat on the activity of the dam.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION The retained placenta is also called retained afterbirth. Subclinical mastitis may go undetected. home treatment consists of an injection of streptomycin or penicillin to ward off infection. affecting the ability of uterine muscles to contract properly. Do not try to pull it out. premature birth.


some born slightly premature. Provide adequate feeder space (approximately 50 to 60 cm per animal) so that all animals will have excess to the feed at one time. the feed must have adequate calories and nutritional balance to support that growth. Grains can be supplemented to 12 to 15% protein content with soybean meal or other source of protein. Grain and berseem hay should be given on regular basis to avoid risk of pregnancy disease or enterotoxaemia. Since 70% of the growth of foetuses takes place in the last five to six weeks period.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PRE-LAMBING/PRE-KIDDING AND LAMBING/KIDDING Q. kids should have access to quality hay. Do the weaned and nursing kids need supplementation? As long as kids are receiving adequate amounts of milk from their mothers. therefore. shortened gestation period. 1/3 shelled maize and 1/3 wheat (for the selenium content). Poor energy supplementation can also result in hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). What harmful effects are expected if small ruminants are maintained on poor feeding during last five weeks of pregnancy? Low birth weight of newborns. What type of feed needs to be given to small ruminants during early months of pregnancy? When flushing related feeding period is over. which causes them to utilize excessive quantities of stored fat reserves and can in turn lead to pregnancy toxaemia. For larger ewes/does 400 g and for Teddy does 150 g should suffice. 450 g of supplement for each 3 kids should be provided. Barley is a good feed if available. Possibly. low fat reserve in newborns. otherwise timid or older ewes/does would face difficulty in getting their feed. Older and larger kids may have their supplement reduced to 450 g daily for each 5 kids.PART. resulting in more deaths from chilling and exposure. Q. they should have free choices of a mineral-salt mix containing selenium. just continue with normal feeding. low wool production from lambs as adults. What type of feed would you suggest for small ruminants during the last five to six weeks of pregnancy? Ewes/does during the fourth month of pregnancy need about four times as much water as they did before pregnancy. Q. Do not use a mineral mix intended for buffalo/cattle because it may be fortified with copper at levels that are toxic to small ruminants. increased chances of pregnancy 41 . Do not overfeed ewes/does during the early months of pregnancy. to support themselves or the growing foetus(es). Approximately not less than 300 g concentrate mix per day/animal is a good rule of thumb. During the last month the foetuses become so large that they displace much of the space previously occupied by the rumen. In addition. they do well provided the range is in good condition. Overfeeding during early pregnancy can cause animals to gain excessive weight that may cause difficulty at parturition. These recommendations should be considered to be minimum levels. Thus the need for more high protein feed and less roughage because the ewes/does are unable to ingest sufficient quantities of any low energy feed. A programme of increased feeding must be maintained during late gestation to avoid pregnancy disease and other problems. Q. Since here most of the range is poor. A good concentrate mix would be 1/3 whole oats.

which can irritate the lining of lungs and trachea. Ordinarily. production of tender layer (break) in ewe’s fleece. As a general rule you will need approximately one pen for every ten ewes/does in the flock. A closed barn without proper ventilation allows build up of ammonia from faecal decay and urine. resulting into serious problems at parturition time. A healthy barn must not be very warm but should be clean. they might be developing pregnancy toxaemia. Are there any advantages of shearing before lambing? If weather is mild and you are sure that sheep would be handled gently then they can be sheared about four weeks before lambing. easier to assist at lambing. keeps the lamb from getting separated from its mother (especially in the case of twins or triplets) and protects the lamb from being trampled by other animals or becoming wet and chilled/exposed to high temperature. Some people remove the newborns from their mothers soon after birth especially in case of milk goats. Such animals can be separated to provide them extra feed and thus to avert the risk of some serious disease problems. ewe less apt to lie on her lamb in pen.PART. damp barn is extremely conducive to bacterial growth. with clean bedding. predisposing the animal to respiratory diseases. where they can walk around freely before labour. which can be easily detected in urine. The pen is primarily for use after the lamb/kid has born. Pregnancy disease (ketosis) results when ketones are produced faster than they can be excreted and they rise to toxic levels in the blood stream. The larger pen is preferred if you want to have the ewe/doe confined where facilities are better for helping in a difficult birth. Q. Also. dry and free of drafts. they are penned together for three days so that they can be easily observed and treated should complications arise. tagging)? It simply means trimming wool/hair from the crotch and udder and a few centimeters forward of the udder. Warm or drafty barns can cause pneumonia. which can be used to identify the animals deficient in energy. Excessive feeding. take notice of any droopy ewes/does and those that are found off feed. Do not allow dogs or 42 . waste products called ketones are created. Discuss in detail the requirements for an ideal lambing/kidding pen. What do you understand by Crotching (crutching. These consequences are more pronounced in ewes/does carrying twins and triplets. When fat cells are converted into energy. easier to spot an impending prolapse in time to save ewe. A warm. Animals that are not getting enough feed to meet their energy requirements will use reserve body fat. The following are some advantages: No dirty. The pen allows the mother and newborn to become well acquainted. Ewes/does prefer a large area for actual lambing/kidding. Wool can be washed dried and sold with rest of the fleece (Figure 15). It is said that in goats 90% births are normal. on the other hand. ewes/does slower to come into milk and less milk. germ-laden wool tags for lambs to suck. if necessary. at this advanced stage of pregnancy. clean udder makes it easier for lambs to find teats. Q. Have a 1½ x 1½ meter lambing/kidding pen (also called claiming pen or jug) ready for newborn and its mother.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION toxaemia. a small feeder and a container of water that cannot be spilled and is tall enough that a newborn cannot fall into it and drown. easier to predict lambing time by ewe’s appearance. Only about four or five ounces of wool/hair from goats having long hairy coats are removed. A simple test kit for ketones is available at big medical stores. Q. fewer germs in contact with the lamb as it emerges at birth. can result in excessive growth of the lambs/kids and an overweight condition in ewes/does.

Some ewes/does (especially first timers) come to milk only to dry after a day or two. Newborns sometimes will starve to death in a pen without a sound.e. ½ water) One tablespoon castor oil (or cod liver oil) One beaten egg yolk One tablespoon glucose or sugar Mix well and give about 2 ounces at a time the first day. On the third day the formula can be made without the egg yolk and sugar and the oil can be reduced to one teaspoon per 26 ounces of milk. If the newborn is raised more than one half meter off the ground. Q. however. Lamb/kid nipple is larger. use that one when the newborn is older. supplement it with a couple of 2-ounce bottle feedings for the first two days. Q. It is better to underfeed than to have a sick lamb/kid. What care needs to be observed with young females lambing/kidding first time? Young ewes/does undergoing parturition for the first time can be nervous or confused because of lack of experience or not yet fully developed maternal instincts. If the ewe/doe drops newborn outside. preferably with milk taken from another ewe/doe or with newborn milk formula. Powdered milk-replacer is not yet available in this country. so never assume that she will continue to milk after the first day. but not always. so keep bottles and nipples clean. If the newborn cries loud. Use a baby bottle and enlarge the nipple hole to about the size of a pinhead. the mother will lose its sight and run back to where she dropped it. Do not overfeed any milk at any time. If the mother is well fed its milk should increase. she does have milk and the newborn is getting some. If the newborn (lamb/kid) calls out to her along the way she will normally follow readily. Carry the newborn slowly. supplement it with a couple of 4-ounce feedings of lamb/kid milk-replacer during the first week. Give below the formula for emergency newborn lamb/kid milk and how much to use? It may be stated here that the milk prepared according to the below given formula is not a complete substitute for colostrum. If a young ewe/doe does not have sufficient milk for the newborn. then increase to about 8-ounce feedings at two weeks old. Insufficient milk letdown can sometimes be resolved by injections of oxytocin. After third day goat milk or buffalo milk can be used changing the formula milk gradually.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION strangers to approach the pen area because the ewes/does usually become frightened and nervous and can quickly turn a protective pen into a ‘lamb/kid blender’ with fatal results. that is one indication of its being hungry. Q. What are the usual signs that indicate an ewe/doe is ready for lambing/kidding? 43 . If still insufficient for the newborn. On the second day. close to the ground so that she can see it and follow. A bottle lamb/kid is more subject to infections than the one on mother’s milk. two to three hours apart. They should be penned with their newborns for at least three days until they have become accustomed to nursing lamb(s)/kid(s). allowing from two to three hours between feeding. Poorly fed old ewes/does also may have insufficient milk supply. Therefore check milk daily for the first three days i. it is not difficult to get her to the pen nearby. increase the feedings to three ounces at a time or four ounces to a large lamb/kid. it can be beneficially fed for the first two days: 26 ounces milk (½ canned milk.PART.

Store these in shopper bags to keep clean. Appropriate arrangement for light if electricity not there. Your ewes/does are soon approaching parturition. She will pick out her spot to give birth to lamb/kid. the ewe/doe gets a sway-backed. Some appropriate device for warming and drying newborns in cold weather. A reliable disinfectant (not irritating to skin) for hands and equipment. Calcium gluconate for treatment of milk fever. Propylene glycol for treatment of pregnancy toxaemia. sometimes pawing the ground before lying down. The udder is enlarged. Some of the things even may not be used still it is logical to have them on hand because births may take place any time during day or night. dip well in antiseptic solution before using. Small sharp scissors for trimming umbilical cord. as they lie down or get up. Antibiotic uterine boluses in case of retained placenta (afterbirth). Hand shears for crutching. Here is a list of pre-lambing/kidding supplies which should be on hand before the actual lambings/kiddings start. Lambing/kidding snares (loops) to pull newborn in difficult delivery. Bucket of warm water for ewe/doe to drink. Elastrator pliers with rubber rings for castration and docking (if necessarily required). 44 . Antiseptic and lubricating ointment for your hands if you have to assist in delivery. Baby bottle with slightly enlarged nipple hole for the newborn. Heavy cotton or nylon line (rope) for loops. What preparations do you need to make in this regard? Preparations should be ideal. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Keep your fingernails clipped close in case you have to assist in delivery. 18-gauge. Molasses. Pepto-Bismol for simple diarrhoea due to overfeed. Sterile syringes and disposable needles. Old terry towels for drying off newborns. Mineral oil in case of constipated newborn. This is more noticeable in case of sheared sheep. Frozen colostrum (thaw at room temperature if needed) or use newborn lamb/kid milk formula if mother’s milk not available. The ewe/doe will normally have made a bag by now but some seem to hold until the last minute. The vulva will relax and often be a little pinker than before but should not be protruding and red. They go off feed. Tincture of iodine (7%) in a small wide-mouth bottle for treating umbilical cord.PART. pen-strep. Sometimes animals carrying twins or triplets start grunting several days before parturition. Combiotic. The list is not in the order of importance or the sequence in which these may be needed.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION As the time approaches for actual lambing/kidding. Q. sunken appearance in front of the hip bones and a restless attitude. Clean plastic bucket.

Colostrum powder or Colostryx (new antibody supplement). if available. snip it off with scissors and submerge it in 7% tincture of iodine contained in a wide-mouthed bottle. When the ewe/doe lies down with nose pointed up and strains and grunts. • Record book and hanging scale to weigh newborns. as this can disrupt the mothering-ownership pattern. Protect the newborn from severe hot or cold weather. If the navel cord is over 5 cm long. give it one to two minutes bath in fresh water up to neck. • Alcohol and cotton. • Lambing/kidding pens with feed and water. You can pull the newborn by timing your pulls with her straining. • Prolapse retainer and prolapse harness. Once dry they can withstand quite low 45 . Put it under a slow-moving ceiling fan. If the cord is not cut to the proper length. Let her take her time to deliver the lamb/kid before trying to assist unless the newborn is showing and she is making a little/progress. It penetrates the cord. If the mother is too exhausted by a difficult labour to dry off the newborn. Great majority of cases will give birth normally and easily. put the newborn near her nose to encourage her to establish identity with her lamb/kid. grasp it firmly by the hind legs and swing it aggressively in an arc several times in order that centrifugal force will expel the mucus. Do not remove the newborn from her mother’s sight. Make sure that you have a good grip on the lamb/kid to avoid throwing it out of the barn. • Antibiotic preparations for lamb scours. you can treat the cord with tincture of iodine again in twelve hours. dry it and give one to two ounces of colostrum if it can take it. Also make sure that its head does not strike the ground or any other article around. Q. Put the mother and her lamb/kid under a covered place having through and through ventilation. It is mostly recommended that you allow the mother one-half to one hour after the water bag comes out. Iodine should be applied soon after birth because many bacteria can enter via the navel. What needs to be done when actual lambing/kidding starts? Give details of precautions and care to be observed in this respect. disinfects it and assists in drying. Press the container against newborn’s belly. do it yourself with clean old terry towels so that it does not get cold from being wet too long. If the newborn has difficult breathing or excess mucus in the throat or lungs. Remove it from the water. that indicates the beginning of actual labour. When the birth has taken place. if electricity is available. • Rectal thermometer. some ewes/does may try to nibble too much of the navel and can injure the newborn. But it has to be judged from her appearance as to whether the ewe/doe is becoming so tired that she needs assistance. otherwise colostrum of another ewe/doe may be used. then place it near the ewe’s/doe’s nose quickly so that she can identify it as her own and clean it off (now is the time to graft on an orphan or triplet that needs a foster mother). wipe the mucus off the newborn’s nose. then turn the animal up so that the entire cord and the area surrounding it are covered.PART. to protect from scorching heat. If it is extremely hypothermic. • 5% glucose in saline solution. guard the newborn against hypothermia. Even if she is not able to lick off. In cold weather.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION • Ear tags and applicator. As an extra precaution against infection.

Nervous mothers may require restraint for the first few feedings until they get the feeling of being a mother. Q. Also the eyelids need to be checked to see if they appear to be turned in. getting the urge when it feels the warmth in its mouth. wet lambs/kids can chill quickly. What is colostrum? Why is it important to feed it to the newborn? Colostrum is the first milk secreted by the small ruminants during 48 to 72 hours after the termination of pregnancy. it may be tightly inflated with milk. unable to rise and its tongue and mouth will feel cold to touch. Such a newborn will appear stiff. Nursing here refers to getting milk by the newborn from her mother. It has higher nutrient contents such as protein. enterotoxaemia and other common clostridial diseases (see elsewhere under vaccination schedule). If a dead lamb/kid is born. Occasionally the ewe/doe will not allow its newborn to nurse because she is nervous. After the first feeding there is some assurance that it will have the strength to look for the next one. dry it well and place it in a warm environment until totally recovered. vitamins and is a mild laxative to pass the meconium (the foetal excreta. Therefore. strip the teats to unplug them. which retain a great deal of body heat. people there plug the teats of sheep/goats with wax after weaning the lambs/kids. Discuss nursing in relation to newborn lambs/kids. but due to a large ratio of skin area to body weight. if it is strong enough to get on its feet. The udder or teats should be cleaned with a few swabs of a weak chlorine solution (Clorox) before nursing by the lamb/kid. In certain countries plastic lamb coats are used in cold weather. if so. Q. but you need to keep watch from time to time that it does nurse. The best method of warming a frozen lamb/kid is to submerge it up to neck in water that is quite warm to touch. Let the lamb/kid nurse by itself. This helps prevent intestinal infection in the newborn. It has also been reported that the newborn is drawn by the smell of the waxy secretion of the mammary pouch gland in her groin.PART. This can cause serious trouble and blindness if it is not corrected. energy but also antibodies against the common disease organisms in its environment. It is often not advisable to wait for the newborn to nurse. has a tender or sensitive udder. Normally the newborn has the instinct to look for her mother’s teats. When the ewe/doe stands up. When the mouth begins to feel warm to the touch and it begins to struggle. The colostral protection of the newborn could have been greatly enhanced if the ewe/doe was previously vaccinated (twice) with Covexin-8 to protect against tetanus. you can rub a young orphan lamb/kid all over with the birth fluid and give it to ewe/doe to mother. as the lamb/kid may not suck strongly enough to remove the little waxy plug. black tarry substance that is passed 46 . You can then milk out the excess colostrum (save it if possible) to remove the pressure on the udder. In countries where modern husbandry practices are in vogue. If the udder appears sensitive. Most newborns will revive in just a few minutes. Restrain her and allow the lamb/kid to nurse. It usually cooperates. Feed it one to two ounces of warm colostrum as soon as it can take it. but do not wait more than one-half to one hour without it nursing as the mother’s first milk (colostrum) provides not only warmth.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION temperatures. It is comparatively denser than normal milk and off white to yellowish in colour. These can be especially useful for twins and triplets on marginal milk intake. the eyelashes would irritate the eye (a condition called entropion). she will nudge the newborn toward her udder with her nose. rather just roll the mother on her side and push the teat into lamb’s/kid’s mouth from the side. or is rejecting the newborn.

The small intestine of the lamb/kid possesses very temporary ability to absorb these large molecular antibodies from the colostrum. This ability to absorb decreases by the hour until it is almost nonexistent by sixteen to eighteen hours of life of the newborn.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION shortly after the newborn nurses). Give twoounce feedings the first two days and increase to four to five ounces by the third and fourth day. Many deaths that are attributed to disease are actually due to starvation and the newborns will often die having not uttered a sound or indicated that they were starving. a good percentage of goats are twin producers. Continue offering molasses in lukewarm water till the time she is penned with the newborns. they are probably not getting enough milk. A weak newborn or one of light birth weight can be lost because of a delay in nursing. the fewer antibodies it has the opportunity to absorb and the less chance of survival if it develops problems. while the Teddy goat is well known for its triplets. increase concentrate ration gradually. The antibodies protect the newborn until it starts to manufacture its own. This makes it possible to keep records of newborn’s 47 . energy and muchneeded antibodies to the newborn against the common disease organisms in its environment. For such lambs/kids some sort of economical milk-replacer may be used. the best is to identify them by ear tags. Q. Q. depending upon their yield. However. gradually increasing as they grow. Solidly frozen colostrum will keep for a year or more. What is to be fed to an ewe/doe after birth of a newborn? Ewes/does are often thirsty after giving birth. should gradually be given from 400 to 500 g concentrate mixture per head/day. If they are crying a lot. Q. milk out a bit of this colostrum and freeze it in small quantities in separate containers. give a supplemental bottle but still leave them nursing. If fed in time it provides warmth. If she is short of milk. rendering the colostrum worthless. temporary marking may be done on a visible part of their body so that they can be easily traced for supplemental feeding. However. What is meant by ear tags? What are the different types of tags? Ear tags are a device used for identification of animals. Thaw frozen colostrum at room temperature or in lukewarm water. The milk goats. those animals having twins and triplets to nurse. What extra care is required for twins/triplets? Rarely sheep in this country produce twins. They are offered a bucket of warm (not hot) water containing half a cup of stock molasses per head. If the mother does not have plenty of milk for them. If an ewe/doe has too much milk that her udder is too full and the teats are enlarged from it. Offer good berseem hay but no concentrate the first day especially to those ewes/does that have one newborn. To identify such newborns. Cow/buffalo or goat colostrum can be stored and used in emergencies. Since these are either inserted into or clinched on the ear hence called ear tags. Twins/triplets require vigilance to assure that all newborns are claimed by their mother and that each is getting its share of colostrum. The longer a lamb/kid has to survive without colostrum. Never use hot water or a microwave oven to thaw colostrum because it can denature and destroy the antibodies. When there are several lambs/kids. they may be given some grain the first day. Find out the hungry ones and assist them by holding them to their mother.PART. They may be reluctant to drink cold water which then can result in lowered milk production. Always make sure that the newborns are actually nursing and always recheck the dams that they are continuing to give milk for the first few days.

Q. Q. even after they are weaned. Later. The small lamb/kid tag should only be inserted into the ear approximately half the length of the tag in order to leave room for growing ear. the month born etc. These should be applied while the newborn is still penned with its mother. then gradually get darker until they are a normal brown small bunch of pellets sticking together in clumps. delivery is seldom possible without some repositioning or assistance. The hind legs have a prominent tendon. The droppings are bright yellow. while the hock 48 . Q. • Old clean terry towels. date of birth and growth. The condition of droppings is important. These remain yellow for at least a weak. • Antibiotics to give after assisting. The pelvic opening is usually large enough for the lamb/kid to come out if it is in the normal position. How the lamb’s/kid’s legs and position are identified in a dystocia case? First make sure that the legs you feel belong to the same lamb/kid. whether singles or twins. If these become loose and runny. Give her time to expel it herself but do not wait until she has stopped trying. lubricate one hand and slip it in gently to try to find out the position of the lamb/kid. The front legs above the knees have a muscular development. • Antiseptic lubricant or mineral oil. Q. Some tags are metallic with almost any combination of numbers and letters and some are plastic in a variety of colours. you can be certain which newborns are hers. • Iodine (tincture) in small wide-mouth bottle. The front knee bends the same way as the pastern. • Antibiotic uterine boluses. Write a short note on lamb/kid droppings. which is passed a few hours after the birth of a lamb/kid. First to come out is the foetal meconium. with a noose on the end of each one. before trying to determine the position of lamb/kid. What equipment and medicines you need to have on hand to deal with abnormal lambing/kidding positions at the time of parturition? The following are essentially required: • Several long pieces of strong cord. At what stage ewe/doe needs help in delivery? Often the ewe/doe will give birth unassisted but you should be prepared for abnormal delivery. One evident advantage of penning newborns with their mothers is that you can keep an eye on how well they are eating and how well it is coming out the other end. With identification tags on ewes/does also. If it is not in this position.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION parentage. with the front legs and the head coming first. During lambing/kidding season keep your fingernails cut short. these are little brown marbles. this is called ‘scours’. The different colours are used to identify sex. and easier to decide what to keep for your flock and what to sell. one and one-half to two hours of labour.PART. Some are self-clinching. When you are sure that the ewe/doe has tried enough without success. • Good light in the delivery area. • Bucket of clean soapy water to wash hands and arms and external parts of ewe/doe. As a general rule you can allow a half-hour to an hour after the water bag breaks. often one or both of the lambs/kids come backwards and it is easy to get their legs mixed up. In twin births. then wash your hands and arms and external parts of the mother. while others need a hole punched for the tag.



(back knee) joint bends the opposite way from the hind foot. If you have a small lamb/kid, catch it and feel the difference between its fore and hind legs. When repositioning a lamb/kid to change an abnormal position, avoid breaking the cord as the lamb/kid will not attempt to breathe as soon as the cord is broken. While helping, time your pulling to coordinate with the mother’s contraction. If she is tired and has stopped trying, she will usually start again when you start pulling. If the mother is obviously in distress and has laboured over an hour with no progress and it seems difficult to get the lamb/kid into proper position for delivery, get the help of an obstetrician. Be sure you learn all you can, while he is working to get the lamb/kid out. If a lamb/kid is dead in a mother and is so large that it cannot be pulled out, the obstetrician may have to dismember to remove it out. Q. What are the possible lamb/kid positions in which it may be found in the uterus of its mother? There are almost a dozen of such positions; only one of these is normal (Figure 16). The rest embody varying degrees of abnormality. i. Normal, front feet and head coming out. ii. Large head or shoulders or both large (tight delivery). iii. Front half out, hips stuck. iv. Head and one leg, with one leg turned back. v. Head, with both legs turned back. vi. Both legs, with head turned back. vii. Hind feet coming first. viii. Breech. ix. Lamb/kid lying crossways. x. All four legs presented at once. xi. Twins mixed up, presented at once. xii. Twins, one coming backward, one forward. Q. Write short notes on three of above mentioned positions i.e. normal birth, large head or shoulders and front half out while hips stuck. Normal Birth: Nose and both front feet are presented. The back of lamb/kid is toward mother’s back. It should start to come out one-half hour to an hour after the water bag has passed. No help needed unless the lamb/kid is large or has large head or large shoulders. Large Head or Large Shoulders: Mother may have difficulty even with the lamb/kid in normal position, if lamb/kid (l/k) is extra large or the mother has a small pelvic opening. Large shoulders are stopped by the pelvic opening. Use a gentle outward and downward pulling. Pull to the left or right, thus shoulders go through at more of an angle and more easily. Occasionally the head is large or swollen if the mother has been in labour quite a while. Assist by pushing the skin of the vulva back over the head when the l/k is half-way out, the mother usually can expel it by herself, unless she is completely exhausted. When the head is extra large, draw out one leg a little more than the other, while pushing the mother’s skin back past the top of the l/k’s head. Once the head is through, you can extend the other leg completely and pullout l/k by both legs and neck. Pulling gently from side to side assists birth more than only outward and downward movement as in normal delivery.




Use mineral oil or antiseptic lubricant with difficult large l/k. Use loop over l/k’s head so that the top of the noose is behind the ears and bottom in the l/k’s mouth (Figure 17). Gentle pulling on the head as well as the legs is better than pulling on legs only. Front Half of l/k Out, Hips Stuck: This is a difficult position for the mother who may be exhausted from labour. While pulling gently on l/k, swing it a bit from side to side, and if it does not work, give it about a quarter turn while pulling. A large l/k in a small ewe/doe will often need this kind of assistance. Q. Write short notes on the following three abnormal positions of lamb/kid (l/k). i) Head and one leg coming out, ii) Head, with both legs turned back, iii) Both legs, with head turned back. Head and One Leg Coming Out: To change this to a normal birth position, attach a snare (loop) cord to the one leg that is coming out and also one onto the head. Then push them back enough to enable you to bring the retained leg forward, so that you can pull the l/k out in normal position. The cord on the head is important, for the head may drop out of the pelvic girdle, making it difficult to get it started again. If the right leg is presented, the mother should be lying on her right side so that the turned-back leg is uppermost. This would make it easier either to get that backward leg into the right position or even to help the mother to l/k even though the leg is not in the normal position. Head, With Both Legs Turned Back: Attach noose onto head (behind ears and inside mouth). Try to bring one leg down into position, then the other, without pushing the head back any further than necessary. Attach cord loop onto each leg as you get it out, then pull l/k. If your hand cannot pass the head to reach the legs, place the mother with her hind end elevated, which gives you more space. With loop over l/k’s head, push it back until you are able to reach past it and bring the front legs forward, one at a time. Put the mother back in normal reclining position, start head and legs through pelvic arch and pull gently downward. Both legs, With Head Turned Back: Head may be turned back to one side along the l/k’s body or down between its front legs. If front legs are showing, slip a noose of heavy cord over each front leg then push back the l/k until you can insert lubricated hand and feel the head position, then bring head forward into its normal position. With noose on legs you would not lose them. Pulling gently the legs in downward direction, guide the head so that it will pass through the opening of the pelvic cavity at the same time as the feet emerge on the outside. If the head does not come out easily, it is either large in size or the lamb/kid may be turned on its back (with its back down toward the mother’s stomach). With cords still attached to legs, you may have to push it back again and give it a half turn, so that its legs are pointed down in normal position since it will come out easier that way. Q. Write short notes on the following three abnormal positions of lamb/kid (l/k). i) Hind feet coming out first, ii) Breech, iii) Lamb/kid lying crossways. Hind Feet Coming Out First: Pull gently as the l/k often gets stuck when half-way out. Swing the l/k from side to side while pulling until ribs are out, then pull out quickly. Wipe off its nose at once so that the newborn can breathe. Delay at this point can suffocate the l/k in the mucus that covers the nose. Sometimes it is easier for the l/k if it is twisted one-half turn so that its back is toward the mother’s stomach or even rotating a quarter turn while pulling it out. Finish pulling it out quickly since the umbilical cord is




pinched once the l/k is half out and if l/k tries to breathe, it will draw in mucus, making the respiration difficult. Breech: In this position the l/k is presented backwards with its tail toward the pelvic opening and the hind legs pointed away from the pelvic opening. Change breech position by placing the mother with her hind end somewhat elevated so that the l/k inside her can be pushed forward in the uterus. This will hardly make enough space to reach and slip your hand in under the l/k’s rear. Take the hind legs one at a time, flex them and bring each foot around into the birth canal. When the legs are protruding, you can pull gently until the rear end appears, then grasp both the legs and the hind quarters if possible and pull downward, not straight out. If the mother is too exhausted to labour any more, try to determine if there is another l/k still inside her, if not give her an injection of an appropriate antibiotic or insert an antibiotic uterine bolus to prevent infection. If still there is no progress, get the help of an obstetrician. Lamb/Kid Lying Crossways: It sometimes happens that the l/k is lying across the pelvic opening and only the back will be felt. If you push the lamb/kid a little, you can feel which direction is it. It can usually be pulled out easier hind feet first, especially if these are closer to the opening. If you do push it around to deliver in normal position, the head will have to be pulled around. In case it is also upside down, it will need to be turned a half-way to come out easily. Q. Write short notes on the following three abnormal birth positions of lamb/kid (l/k). i) All four legs presented at once, ii) Twins coming out together, iii) Twins, one coming out backward. All Four Legs Presented At Once: If the hind legs are as convenient as the front, choose the hind legs and you would not have to reposition the head. If you choose the front legs, head also must be maneuvered into correct birth position along with the legs. Attach cords to the legs before pushing back to position the head. Twins Coming Out Together: When you have too many feet in the birth canal, try to sort them out, tying cords on the two front legs of the same l/k and tracing the legs back to the body to make sure it is the same l/k, then position the head before pulling. Push the second l/k back a little to give room for delivery of the first one. Twins, One Coming Out Backward: With twins coming together, it is often easier to pull out the one that is reversed. More often both lambs/kids are reversed, so you will pull the lamb that is closer to the pelvic opening. Sometimes, the head of one twin is presented between the forelegs of the other twin, a confusing situation but very rare.




which applies a small strong rubber ring to cut off the circulation. therefore. There is no loss of 54 Q. which is about 2. The ewe’s/doe’s primer and booster injections of Covexin-8 will protect her and will pass on this protection to lambs/kids from birth until the age of about nine or ten weeks. proper housing (protection from severe weather). The use of the elastrator is the most favoured method. weaning and deworming. castration. What is meant by docking and why is it done? What appropriate methods are available for this purpose? Docking denotes removal of tail. each lamb/kid should get its own injection of Covexin-8 by the age of ten weeks. To remove the tail by elastrator. Long-tailed sheep can accumulate large amounts of manure on the wool. It is not practised in goats. Q. attracting flies and then maggots (fly strike) and can serve as a general source of filth. docking (only in sheep. proper feeding.5 cm from the base of tail. interfering with breeding.PART. there is only a limited immunity passed on to the lamb/kid. Q. To protect against certain forms of pneumonia to which the newborn is quite susceptible. If the lamb has not been protected with Covexin-8 vaccine then administer 300 to 500 units of tetanus antitoxin to the lamb at docking. Castration simply means to render the male animal ineffective for breeding purposes.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION BABY LAMBS/KIDS What management practices do you suggest to take good care of baby lambs/kids? The following practices are usually taken into consideration. It is also very economical in terms of accessories and equipment and is the easiest to learn and use. This is much easier when the lambs are two to three days old and the tail is still small. apply the rubber ring at the third joint. Emasculator: It is a pincer instrument that gives bloodless castration by crushing the spermatic cord and arteries when you clamp it onto them like pliers. a knife and hammer over a wooden block. Since they will still need immunity from tetanus. Tails should be docked before the lambs are turned out of the lambing pen. It minimizes shock and eliminates bleeding problems. Q. Identification. Write a note on the use of vaccines in baby lambs/kids. . lambing and shearing. Castration of male lambs/kids can be done as soon as the testicles have descended into the scrotum. The elastrator rubber rings should be stored in a small wide-mouth bottle having a disinfectant or Clorox solution (dilute chlorine solution) to keep them sterile. if necessary). causing the tail to drop off in a couple of weeks. it should have its own vaccination (intranasal) with Naselgen. Two important methods used for castration are: (1) by Emasculator (Burdizzo emasculator). enterotoxaemia and other clostridial diseases. vaccination. a hot electric chisel or clamp (this cauterizes the wound to lessen bleeding).5 to 3. a Burdizzo emasculator and knife or the elastrator. While using dip the elastrator plier and your fingers in clorox solution to disinfect them. Local vaccines that meet the requirements should preferably be used. 2) by Elastrator (using a rubber ring). Even though the ewe/doe had her Naselgen. What does castration mean? Discuss two important methods used for castration of male lambs/kids. Docking can be done by cutting with a knife. There are many ways to remove tails. Although currently it is not in vogue here but it has advantages especially in long-tailed sheep breeds.

as is necessary in an accelerated lambing/kidding programme when you intend lambing/kidding more frequently than the customary once a year. which they start nibbling at about ten days old. in countries such as Australia. It is our wish that our sheep/goats could have a higher percentage of twins or triplets produced by them so that they could be made here a subject of discussion for an ideal feeding plan but keeping in view the situation on the ground it simply seems a wishful thinking on our part. less pain and setback to the lamb’s/kid’s growth and no danger of infection. A lamb/kid restricted to milk nursing diet will develop the various compartments of its stomach at a slower rate than those started on creep and hay at say ten days of age. a fly repellent spray can be used. which is just a special pliers. the growing lambs/kids need grain and hay in their own feeders (called creep). In hot weather. In addition to mother’s milk and the grass. an early introduction of the creep feeding is important. When the elastrator is removed. In other words. There is no internal haemorrhage or shock and the risk of infection is slight. Do not castrate good promising males that you need for breeding or you want to sell as breeding males. Start creep feeding early since it helps to establish their rumen function. The ignorance and economic condition of small ruminant producer in this country have kept them underfed and ever resigned from being considered for an ideal feeding plan. cutting off the blood supply. An ewe/doe with twins or triplets cannot consume enough roughage to support herself and give milk for them to grow.PART. As a general rule. Elastrator: When the lamb/kid is about ten days old and that the testicles have descended into the scrotum. then clamp the emasculator onto the neck of the scrotum where it joins the body. these compartments are turned on at about three to six weeks of age. Q. However. castration is desirable. while those with twins should get at least 350 to 400 g/day plus some hay or good grazing. Thus the testicles wither within twenty to thirty days. you can pull the scrotum through the stretched rubber ring over the jaws of the elastrator. on each testicle cord separately. castration may not be done. 55 . Uncastrated males will grow faster than castrated males and ewe’s lambs/doe kids. Lambs/kids from heavy milking mothers can gain up to 70% more during the nursing period than those from poor milkers. New Zealand. put tincture of iodine on the ring after about a week. Be sure that the testicles are down. Moreover. the lambs/kids must be eating at least 100 g concentrate a day/head plus leafy hay otherwise they will suffer an acute setback in growth at weaning. Much earlier than weaning. Also their meat will be leaner. Lambs/kids from good milkers will double their birth weight in two weeks. If there is some infection problem. an ewe/doe with a single lamb/kid (l/k) should approximately have (under our conditions) 200 g/day concentrate ration. USA where they market for meat at the age of five or six months. The testicles will atrophy in about 30 to 40 days. thus she will need sufficient supplemental feed until they are weaned. Check that testicles have descended into scrotum. the ring tightens around the neck of the scrotum where it attaches to the body.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION blood. If you intend to keep the male lambs/kids longer than six months (for slaughter). especially if you wish to wean your lambs/kids early. Discuss in detail an ideal programme (or plan) to feed lambs/kids and ewes/does.

Panacur or any other more recent drugs. As weaning time approaches. Yes! Lambs/kids are much more susceptible to parasite infestation than adults because sheep/goats like some other species. Parasite populations thrive where warmth and rainfall (or irrigation) are sufficient to promote maximal vegetation growth.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION It has been recommended that you prepare your own concentrate mixture using the following: 60% maize. 10% bran. Ewes (but not milk goats) should have their grain decreased and then withdrawn at least five days before weaning so that their milk supply will dwindle accordingly (to lessen the incidence of mastitis). Although sheep/goat flocks migrate in winter to comparatively less cold areas. Ivomec. Also introduce a little grain. In some circumstances it may be necessary to deworm lambs/kids every four weeks. This has the advantage of keeping them from calling to each other and disturbing your sleep. 10% soybean meal with about 1% bone meal and 1% mineralized salt. Weaning is commonly effected at about eight weeks of age or when lambs/kids triple their birth weight and are chewing their cuds. leaving the lambs in familiar surroundings. Weaning can be done gradually by putting the ewes in a different pasture during the day and then returning them during the night. Why do people suggest to use lamb/kid coats for the newborns? In certain parts of Pakistan it is very cold during winter. They can start using creep at ten to fourteen days of age. Q. gradually substitute water for some milk until they are drinking entirely water. Weaning denotes separation of lambs/kids from their dams so that they do not any more get milk from their udders. Q. Write a short note on weaning of lambs/kids. then fed whole later. it should be well lighted because lambs like it that way and eat better. it is therefore advisable that the lambs and may be kids also be well adjusted to getting a good amount of their nutrition from creep feed and leafy hay. Q. Simply cessation of feeding milk to lambs/kids at an appropriate age is also termed as weaning. Since ewes milk heavily for only three to six weeks after lambing. heavily stocked pastures or overgrazed pastures may need deworming before weaning and then again when they are separated from the ewes/does and placed on clean pasture. This mixture can be coarse ground at first. What does creep feeding mean? The creep is an enclosed space where lambs can enter and eat all they want. the lambs will adjust better if the ewes are removed. Lambs/kids on lush. It is important to make them eat some solid food. offer them hay free choice since they need it for rumen development. Read label directions for proper dosage and note withdrawal times for animals going to be slaughtered in due course of time. yet newborns are very susceptible to chilling because of their large skin area and they are born without the fat covering under the skin that serves as a natural insulation against cold and chilling. allowing the lamb/kid to direct the energy it consumes 56 . Q. When the lambs/kids are ten days to two weeks old. Lams/kids should be dewormed at weaning time using a safe dewormer such as Lavamisole. Sprinkle some grain in the water to encourage them to eat. 35 cm high) and openings (Figure 18). having good fresh water. At weaning time. The creep should be sheltered.PART. Do you think deworming lambs/kids is necessary? Explain. 20% oats. but ewes cannot enter because of the size of the doors (20 cm wide. develop a degree of resistance to worm infestation over a period of time. well bedded with clean paddy straw. If the creep is in the barn. The use of a coat greatly reduces the heat loss.

are very sanitary and do not confuse or frighten the mother.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION toward growth and fat production. By folding the bag lengthwise. 57 . These are tear resistant but not so strong that the lamb/kid cannot walk out of it in case it gets caught or snagged.PART. Since these are completely open at the rear and the bottom. therefore. two coats can be made from a single bag. A less expensive disposable coat. can be made from white plastic bags. very similar to the commercial coats.


These are a sort of brain washing techniques or ‘fool the sense of smell’ methods: i) Use foetal fluids from the mother to which the l/k is to be grafted (either its mother or another one) and smear over the newborn. Do not leave a rejected newborn unattended with the mother. rejection or loss of milk production before the lamb/kid reached weaning age. so either roll the mother on her side and put the newborn’s nose against her teat to get it to nurse or milk the dam and feed the newborn with a bottle. The newborn may be exhausted with heat/chilled and then be abandoned as dead. Tickling it under its tail helps stimulate the sucking reflex. occasionally one will adopt and bond to the other’s newborn and the second ewe/doe will reject the first ewe’s/doe’s newborn. Treat the teats if they are sore or lacerated. Swapping newborns: If two ewes/does give birth at the same time in close proximity. Keep the dam tied where the newborn can nurse until she accepts it. it is hard to fool her into accepting it. check her udder for sensitivity as well as check the l/k’s teeth. First time mother syndrome: If a young ‘first-time’ ewe/doe. confused or just frightened of the newborn. then moved elsewhere and delivered the other. one that of a hungry lamb/kid (l/k) and the other of an uncomfortable mother. She may have sore or chapped teats. she may be exhausted and not interested in her newborn. If an ewe/doe has a single lamb/kid which she rejects. The lamb/kid (l/k) may have wandered off before the mother has had a chance to lick it and become familiar with it. forgetting about the first.PART. Generally it is said that once an ewe/doe rejects a l/k for any reason. First feeding thus gives you a little time to arrange a forced acceptance by the mother. However. If she rejects one of a pair of twins. either from its own mother or from another. ii) 59 . A little filing can remedy sharp teeth. You want to get her to accept her newborn. How does a lamb/kid become orphan? An orphan lamb/kid may result from the death of the ewe/doe. How would you persuade the ewe /doe to accept her newborn? It requires a lot of patience and ingenuity. she may be nervous.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION ORPHAN LAMBS/KIDS Q. the newborn is hungry and thus very cooperative. you have double trouble. either you can convince her to accept it or you can attempt to graft it onto another mother who has lost her l/k or has only a single. Try to provide the l/k with several nursings of the vital colostrum. This is considered one of the most effective methods of grafting. Q. The following are the most common reasons: The ewe/doe may have a painful or sensitive udder because of overabundance of milk or mastitis. An ewe/doe may even disown one or all her lambs/kids for reasons known only to her. Rub the newborn with a little molasses water to encourage the mother to lick it. since she may injure it by stepping on it or butting it. In most cases. Because of a difficult birth. She may have delivered one baby in one location. there are a number of things to try. Should the mother reject the newborn after it starts to nurse. abandonment. Your first consideration is the urgent need for the l/k to receive colostrum. not before.

a tranquilizer will sometimes work well to calm her. While grafting an orphan on an ewe/doe. It may take one to five days before she surrenders to accept the l/k. the weaker l/k may not be able to compete with the larger one and will suffer restricted growth or at times may be starved completely. which is stretched over an accepted l/k for a few hours. Have the rejected (orphan) l/k nearby and watch the lambing/kidding. An orphan l/k that is one or two weeks of age may be so aggressive at nursing that it will frighten the ewe/doe. then do not wait until she starts butting it. Care and judgement has to be exercised in assessing the size of l/k that you are attempting to graft. it will absorb the smell and can then be turned inside-out and stretched over the newborn you wish to graft. be sure she gets water often with molasses mixed in it. The most typical situation is the birth of twins and the rejection of just one of them. or if you did not catch the water bag. be sure that the orphan l/k is less than a week old otherwise the new l/k will not get its share of milk. Therefore. iv) In case she is a ‘first-time mother’ or she is not very tame. Q. In the meantime. especially the tops of the head and the rear ends. Make sure the ewe/doe has room to lie down and has plenty of feed. rather take positive action right away. You may need to help the l/k by holding the mother and pushing the newborn to the right place. put its contents into the empty bucket. In any such attempt. Present them both to the ewe’s/doe’s nose and usually she will lick them and claim them both. is to flick the tips of the mother’s ears with a switch until she becomes so rattled that she urinates from the mental stress. v) Another method which might sound a bit cruel.PART. if another ewe/doe goes into labour and delivers one newborn. Q. As the delivery is completed.II iii) SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Use an ‘adoption coat’ or ‘fostering coat’ made of cotton. Now. Spraying the rear end of both lambs/kids with a confusing scent is the easiest thing to try and most often it works. If the mother starts showing hostility toward one of her twins. Q. dip the waiting orphan into the water bag liquid. if there is a significant difference in age and size between two lambs/kids placed on an ewe/doe. How would you give an orphan lamb/kid to an ewe/doe who has lost her lamb/kid? 60 . then rub the orphan with the newborn. Do not neglect the newborn when you are working with the orphan. She may then accept the l/k. you may have to take the orphan (reject) back. How would you graft an orphan lamb/kid on a different ewe/doe? Have a bucket of warm water ready and also an empty bucket. If fortunately you are able to catch the water bag. Also. Dry it off and keep trying to get its mother to take it (or bottle feed it yourself). One possibility is to pen or tie the mother in such a way that she cannot hurt the newborn. you might choose to graft the rejected l/k to it. How would you proceed for ’forcible acceptance’ of lamb/kid (l/k) by her mother? If polite attempts do not succeed then it is time to get tough. both of them will have to be supervised carefully. dip the orphan into the warm water up to its head. if the mother delivers twins. The most reliable and successful way is to tie her up and adopt the rest of the procedure as stated above. You may need to tie her hind legs together temporarily so that she cannot keep moving and thus prevent the l/k from nursing. for it may be difficult to leave water in front of her.

which is the first place. For orphan l/k. What care needs to be given to a bottle lamb/kid? The first need of a bottle lamb/kid is to have its nose mucus wiped off to enable it to breathe. Q. not advisable. Now it needs some real colostrum. difficult to raise a colostrum-deprived l/k. either from its mother who may have rejected it or is too weak to stand up (roll her over and help the l/k) or from another mother who has just given birth. It is possible. When it is a l/k that is several days old and does not need the colostrum as much as a newborn. therefore. Why is the method of using ‘dead lamb/kid skin’ for fastening like a coat over the orphan not desirable for grafting an orphan onto an ewe/doe? Skinning a dead lamb/kid is not simple unless you are adept at it. then rub the towel on the orphan. giving special attention to washing the rear end. What is meant by a bottle lamb/kid? When the mother of a l/k has died or has no milk or has been incapacitated by pregnancy disease or calcium deficiency (at least temporarily) or completely refuses to accept her baby. such l/k then becomes a bottle l/k. dip the l/k in warm water containing a bit of salt and some molasses. she usually has adopted the l/k. or defrosted from the freezer. wash the orphan with warm water. By the time she licks off the salt and molasses. Then mix one ounce colostrum powder (if none of the colostrum available) with one cup warm water for the first twelve to eighteen hours of feeding. you need to administer antiserum in order to protect it temporarily against enterotoxaemia and tetanus. The process is messy and unsanitary since you may not know why the l/k is dead and could result in transferring germs and disease. then dry it and put iodine on its navel at once. After that just use lamb/kid milk replacer. Q. this gives you an opportunity to milk out and freeze some of this valuable fluid. Even if the ewe/doe is weakened by a hard labour and/or has no milk. Instead another less messy method may be adopted. the ewe/doe checks in determining whether the l/k is her own. she should be allowed to clean the l/k as much as she will. The l/k is too young to receive Covexin-8. you wipe it off. On the third day you can add child’s vitamin drops. Q. Rub a damp towel over the dead l/k. but no doubt. Such lambs/kids are considered a real headache for the flock owner/supervisor. It is therefore. For the first 48 hours you can feed the newborn every three hours with no more than ½ cup per feeding.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION When you find an ewe/doe who has delivered a dead l/k and you have a young orphan who needs mother. Dip your hand in the same warm water and wet its head. Q. It is milk whey antibody product for lambs/kids and transfers certain amount of immunity to the newborn when mixed with diluted canned milk or cow milk for the first day. After that one ounce colostrum powder with two cups of warm water for the next day. Can buffalo or cow colostrum be used beneficially to feed a lamb/kid as a substitute for its mother’s colostrum? 61 . Buffalo or cow colostrum are the next best substitutes for ewe/doe colostrum. Then one ounce colostrum powder can be mixed with 950 ml of canned milk diluted with ½ water. If the mother does not lick off its nose. if unable to nurse. In certain countries there is commercial preparation of colostrum powder called Colostryx. Before doing this. she will still claim it and even as a bottle baby it can stay with her.PART. the best thing is to give one or two ounces of another ewe’s/doe’s colostrum for the specific antibodies.

therefore. Q. The best time to inject buffalo or cow would be 5 ml Covexin-8 six weeks prior to calving. substitute plain water or oral electrolyte solution (such as ORS or Nimkol) for one feeding because the l/k needs fluid. give with spoon.PART. How would you take care of a bloated bottle lamb/kid? Although this is an infrequent situation yet it can happen if the l/k is overfed or if it drinks too fast (nipple hole too large). Q. Q. with a booster dose of 5 ml two weeks before calving. D and E and necessary minerals. Suggest a feeding plan for an orphan lamb/kid Age 1-2 days 3-4 days 5-14 days 15-21 days 22-35 days Amount 2-3 ounces. A lamb milk-replacer contains 30% fat. If it does not take in the bottle. especially when they start eating grain from the creep feeder. given three times a day. of Livestock & Dairy Development in this country have not shown any interest so far in this respect. feed industry as well as the provincial Depts. When lamb/kid is three months old. more fat has been provided in a lamb milk-replacer. Fat percentage in a kid milk-replacer may range from 20 to 25%. six times a day approximately (colostrum) 3-5 ounces. Reduce the volume of milk until the condition clears. along with concentrate mixture and leafy hay Slowly change to ½ litre. six times a day (gradually changing over to milkreplacer) 4-6 ounces. If this occurs. A pregnant buffalo or cow can be vaccinated with sheep/goat vaccine Covexin-8 or a locally available vaccine. the water needs increase with age in case of orphan or bottle lambs/kids. four times a day and start with leafy hay and crushed grain 6-8 ounces. four times a day. A yellow semi-pasty diarrhoea is the first sign of overfeeding. Therefore. Milk-replacers are fully fortified with vitamins A. but the ration be changed very gradually 62 . dilute their regular feeding with more water or substitute an occasional feeding with plain water. kids etc. may feed whole grain and alfalfa or good gazing containing 25% grain. 24% protein on a dry matter basis and no more than 25% lactose. Since ewe milk contains higher percentage of fat. What is a milk-replacer and what are its main contents? Milk-replacer is a high protein high energy feed. treat for diarrhoea. livestock producers.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Yes! It may be substituted. The lambs/kids can still be vaccinated at six to nine weeks. It is suggested that when used during the first week the replacer should at least be diluted up to 20% dry matter. In a number of countries. As with other animals. several times and the first two milkings of colostrum will be high in antitoxins and give lambs/kids good protection (it would provide an enormous quantity of colostrum for freezing). However. High lactose levels can cause diarrhoea and bloat. Immediately cut back on the amount of milk being given and give one small feeding of two ounces of milk containing one tablespoon (for l/k under one month) or two tablespoons (for l/k over one month) of human antacid medicine with simethicone or mucaine. It is important to control the volume of milk fed per feeding to bottle lambs/kids. milk-replacers are commercially prepared and marketed for calves. If the droppings become more loose. lambs. which will then protect them up to twenty-four weeks.

If the heart is beating. artificial respiration becomes mandatory. Move its legs around in the water to increase circulation. involving the risk of rejection by its dam. Soaking the newborn in water removes its natural odour. Be sure that water is heated gradually otherwise death due to shock may take place. however.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PROBLEMS OF NEWBORNS Q. Sometimes a finger inserted gently in the throat will stimulate the coughing reflex and thus breathing may start. the temperature of newborn is 102 degrees. there is no need of excessive heating and unnecessary use of heat lamp. The shock may cause the lamb/kid to gasp and to breathe.PART. When you catch it vertically on the upswing. causing a forced expiration. grasp the newborn firmly by the rear legs. but the newborn is still not breathing. keeping its head out. swing it upward vertically in a gentlearc. Q. The quickest method to warm a chilled newborn is to immerse it in hot water. If your attempts are still unsuccessful. Rub the newborn dry. give warm milk if it will suck and wrap it in a blanket until it begins to regain its strength. 63 . the weight of the viscera falls in the opposite direction. In this case it may be suffering from anoxia (lack of oxygen) or have fluid in its lungs. as it is faster. Release the pressure and gently press on the chest to express the air. The first few minutes are critical. sometimes a cold water shock treatment will work. Inflate the lungs very gently (newborn’s lungs small and may be ruptured) by blowing into the nostrils until you see the chest expand. If it gurgles with the first breaths or has difficult breathing. If. This helps in two ways: i) centrifugal force aids the movement of the fluid from the lungs and ii) the weight of the viscera presses on the diaphragm. Put the newborn in cold water in a drinking trough keeping its head out. what to do? In such a situation. Q. Grasp the lamb/kid by the nose so that your thumb and fingers are slightly above the surface of the nostrils. How would you warm a newborn lamb/kid if it gets too cold due to exposure? If a newborn is so cold from exposure that its mouth and tongue feel cold or cool to the touch. Normally two or three ‘swings’ will suffice. comfortable to touch. What measures may be adopted to aid a weak lamb/kid at birth? A lamb/kid might have been weakened by a protracted or difficult birth. causing a forced inspiration. catching it momentarily on the return end of the upswing with the free hand so that the newborn is stopped abruptly with the head up in a vertical position. easier to control the temperature and does not tend to dehydrate the newborn. Keep it in warm water until its body temperature is near 102°F now the mouth and tongue feel warm. Repeat procedure until it begins to breathe. because too much of a temperature differential will predispose it to pneumonia. dry off the nose. then apply external heat instead of warming it with a heat lamp. Then make sure the newborn is warmed and help it to nurse. then gradually heated to about 110 to 115°F (43-46°C) over a period of 5 to 10 minutes. because the newborn has lost its ability to maintain and control its body temperature. Be sure that you have a firm grasp on the newborn (since it will be very slick) and that there are no obstructions in the path of your swing. Heated water has advantages over a heat lamp.

Do not force the newborn. if it has no sucking impulse otherwise the colostrum will go into its lungs and cause death. thus the antibodies remain intact and are immediately usable. The gut of the newborn does not break down the proteins in colostrum. Hold it up to the dam if she will stand still. If you do not have colostrum then cow’s milk. but the newborn must receive colostrum in subsequent feedings during the first few hours of life. Experienced farmers state that it is not necessary that the very first feeding be colostrum (to avoid confusion it is emphasized here that this would be applicable to those cases which yet lack sucking instinct or where colostrum is not available immediately). A severely chilled newborn may need four hours of heat to return to normal temperature. It is thus urgent that the newborn gets its colostrum feedings soon. warm. then try the stomach tube feeding method. Some reports suggest (need further investigation) that newborn lambs are completely dependent on colostrum to protect them against certain diseases for they get no protection from antibodies transferred to them while they are still in uterus. It should be warm enough but not too hot. When there is no electricity nor a hair dryer. The following can be used in place of colostrum but these may not be called as 100% substitute for colostrum. cow colostrum. The same procedure may be used for a stronger newborn if it has not located the right place and begun to nurse within one hour after birth. Then wait for half an hour to see if this gives it energy and the desire to suck. Use two ounces of the dam’s colostrum. colostrum may be fed through stomach tube as the newborn is in dire need of energy. hot air may be provided from the nozzle of a hair dryer. to give it strength. Colostrum from another newly lambed ewe. For a very weak newborn. In case the newborn has not yet regained its sucking instinct. The ability of the newborn to absorb antibodies in the colostrum is a straight-line decrease from time of birth to approximately 16 hours of life. milk replacer. The newborn needs to be turned and rubbed and its legs exercised occasionally. or from a goat having a newborn. Name the possible substitutes for colostrum when the colostrum of the dam is not available to its newborn lamb/kid. the newborn loses its ability to absorb the life-protecting antibodies. diluted canned milk. Q. Try the dextrose injection. Feed about 1 ounce. If not. you may have to give the first feeding from a baby bottle with the nipple enlarged to about the size of a pin head. see if it will suck or else use a stomach tube. Discus the importance of colostrum feeding to newborn lambs/kids. When its body temperature is 100°F. warmed to body temperature. How to proceed with feeding of a weak lamb/kid? Discuss. you may use a hot water bottle (not hot enough to burn). Maintain heat until its temperature is normal. electrolyte solution (or Gatorade) or clean water with a small amount of corn syrup will suffice. and inject in divided doses of 5 or 10 ml per injection site subcutaneously (neck area or behind the armpits). The newborn can be put in a small box and through a small opening in the box. A weak newborn that has not been able to stand up to try to nurse within half an hour will need help. The head of the animal is to be kept out of box for fresh air. Put the animal in a small box and apply the heat first to belly where it is the most needed. Q. frozen colostrum from these species. Q. no matter how much colostrum you feed. commercial 64 .II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION An alternative to warm water is hot air.PART. using 50 ml of a 5% dextrose solution in saline. After about 16 hours. or put the dam down and hold the newborn to nurse. For extremely chilled newborns this would not be sufficient. rather absorbs them unchanged.

It is easier for two people to operate the stomach tube. If you put your thumb and finger along the outside of the neck and pass the tube with other hand. In addition. get a male catheter tube from a drugstore and use it with a 60-cc hypodermic syringe for a direct feeding into the newborn’s stomach. 65 . Sheep/goat supply companies have devised a ‘Lamb/kid Reviver’ for this purpose.PART. Before inserting to inject milk. back into its throat. if the finger feels cool from moving air.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION colostrum powder “Colostryx” milk whey antibody product for lambs. The tube should be about 40 cm long. insert the end of the catheter tube into the syringe filled with 2 ounces of warm colostrum (or warmed canned milk. because these are very irritating to tissue. The tube should be kept in warm sterile solution. giving the animal time to swallow. neck and back. Leave this needle in the vial and use a separate needle to make the injections. spoiling the vial for further use. Insert the tube slowly over the tongue. When it is not available. wipe dry. to avoid contaminating the glucose solution. you can actually feel the tube as it goes down. Calcium solutions containing dextrose or 50% dextrose should only be used intravenously. A tube into the lungs will usually elicit a cough. this solution is injected subcut in divided doses of 5 to 10 ml per injection site. Even the slightest contamination will grow very rapidly in glucose. They will resolve rapidly. Hold the newborn’s body (on a table) with your left forearm. which should be sterile. Do not worry about the small bumps on the injection sites. Never inject direct into the armpit. Always refrigerate the glucose solution after opening and do not use it if it becomes cloudy. having the following constituents and can be fed for the first two days after birth: 26 ounces milk (½ canned milk. Sterilize the top of the vial with alcohol. disconnect the tube from the milk-filled syringe to determine that the tube is actually in the stomach and not in the lungs. so remove and try again. Stomach tube feeding is resorted to in case of a severely weak lamb/kid with no sucking impulse. and insert a disposable sterile needle into the stopper to fill the syringe. Do not insert it too far. When you have confirmed the correct position of tube. What care is required in injecting dextrose to a very weak newborn lamb/kid? Dextrose injections can be given if the newborn cannot suck and you do not have or you cannot comfortably use the stomach tube feeding. making a straight line between the newborn’s head. but it is possible with one person. Warmed to body temperature. ½ water) 1 tablespoon cod liver oil or castor oil 1 tablespoon glucose or sugar 1 beaten egg yolk Q. but insertion should be far enough. Discuss the stomach tube emergency feeding method and the precautions required in this connection. warm and wet. Use a sterile disposable 18-or 20-gauge needle. hold a wet finger at the protruding end. An injection into the lungs can kill the newborn. Any area of loose skin on the neck or behind the armpit is a proper injection site. To further confirm. the tube is in the lungs and not in the stomach. You can purchase 50 ml of 5% dextrose solution in saline from an animal health supplier. Q. The average insertion distance is 25 to 28 cm. Open the mouth of the animal with fingers of left hand to insert the tube. there is an Emergency Colostrum Formula. Then push the tube down its neck and into the stomach. because wet tube slips in more easily. Dextrose injection is meant to provide quick energy to the very weak newborn.

lambs given the same amount in the same way during the first 10 to 18 hours of life. It is caused by drafts in cold damp housing. which in turn stimulates the respiratory reflex. Concrete floors should have a thick layer of paddy straw or sugar cane tops bedding to prevent floor drafts. Pneumonia is probably responsible for more lamb deaths than any other disease. constipation.PART. since lower levels result in immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to infection. forced bottle-feeding of a newborn with impaired sucking reflex. for this feeding only) and slowly squeeze the milk into the newborn’s stomach. acute indigestion. This causes inhalation of excessive volume of foetal fluids. it would subside within a few days. If it is a mild attack. so that it will not drip into the lungs on the way out. Describe the causes. overheating of lambing pens and then exposure to cold. make sure that selenium and vitamin E levels in your ewes/does are normal. causing the animal to attempt to breathe before birth is complete. thus resulting in mechanical pneumonia. Q. coccidiosis. If pneumonia is a recurring problem in your young lambs/kids. floor drafts in lambing/kidding pens with solid bottoms such as cement concrete. enterotoxaemia (overeating disease). Most of the diseases given in the list below inflict lambs as well as kids with the exception of one or two. Adequate ventilation in the lambing/kidding barn is necessary. Parainfluenza III (PI-3) is a common viral disease of cattle but has been documented as a major cause of respiratory disease in sheep. improper stomach tubing or oral medication can allow fluid to enter the lungs. tetanus (lockjaw). Another successful treatment is the use of an intranasal vaccine. Give a list of diseases that commonly occur in lambs/kids. navel ill. Mechanical pneumonia will be dealt with separately. This will also help to protect from pneumonia. Also. Under conditions of stress coupled with a bacterial exposure. Nasalgen-IP or any other effective vaccine. scours in nursing newborns. Q. will check a build up of ammonia-laden stagnant air. What do you know about mechanical pneumonia in newborns? Discuss. prevention and treatment of pneumonia in lambs/kids. Some suitable antibiotic such as oxytetracycline may be 66 . The Nasalgen-IP vaccine is simply to be sprayed into the nostril (1ml in each nostril of ewe and ram. Withdraw the tube quickly. exposure to infectious agents. entropion (inverted eyelids). Proper management is the key to success in the prevention of pneumonia as well as so many other ills. parasites. On average. white muscle disease (stiff lamb). it is responsible for as much as 31 to 54% death loss in lamb/kid population. Windows in barns with grills and covered with burlap bags or any material to stop draft. polio (polioencephalomalacia). founder).II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION undiluted. An abnormal birth position or any interruption of the umbilical blood supply to the yet unborn lamb/kid results in an oxygen deficit. Pneumonia. it can cause a high incidence of fatal pneumonia both in lambs and adult. It functions on the same immunological parameters as the oral polio vaccine in humans. Use this procedure cautiously and only when you feel that without it the newborn would surely die. Q. It goes without saying that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. urinary calculi (stones. Lambs/kids may be given an injection of pen-strep immediately during first 4 to 5 hours of birth. acidosis (grain engorgement. Mechanical or ‘foreign body’ pneumonia results when fluids or other foreign matter enters the lungs. such as excessive birth fluids or milk in the lungs of newborns. water belly).

infection may be suspected and the lamb/kid will need preventive treatment for dehydration and infection. For one day. keep yourself in touch with a competent veterinarian. 2 ounces dextrose. milk. contaminated bottle. Oral electrolyte solution should be given to replace the electrolyte loss and tetracycline as an antibacterial therapy. If white scours is a recurring problem in your baby kids. In most cases it is caused by filth. While medicines are definitely useful in scours. By treating the umbilical site with strong tincture of iodine soon after birth and seeing that the newborn nurses its mother for colostrum within the first hour. then substitute a feeding with water or oral electrolyte solution (1 litre water. Acute form of navel ill causes a rise in temperature. nipple. If the lamb/kid is nursing. coli infection. feeders or kidding pen (in case of sheep. reduce its amount until the condition resolves. ½ teaspoon salt and ¼ teaspoon sodium bicarbonate) or Nimcol. plus all causes stated above). then return to milk feeding but give smaller quantities than before. Give electrolyte solution only for one day or until the diarrhoea ceases.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION administered to avoid complications. newborn declines to suck and often a thickening (abscess type) can be felt around the navel. Some scour medications contain vitamins in addition to antibiotics. A second application of tincture of iodine about 12 hours later is a good practice. symptoms and treatment. It has many causes. poor sanitation. A colostrum deprived kid is very susceptible to bacterial scours. The yellow kind of scours is the least serious and is caused by overfeeding of milk. some producers give each kid/lamb 1cc of benzathine penicillin at birth. Scours denotes diarrhoea in newborn kids/lambs. What is meant by navel ill? Write down its causes. If bottle feeding. either from bottle or because a strong lamb/kid is sucking a mother who has an excess of milk. With bottle kids. Give a detailed account of scours in nursing kids. you can minimize the danger of navel ill. Clean bedding in the lamb/kid pen will lessen the chance of infection. discontinue milk feeding at once. When it is a severe infliction. often the result is not very hopeful. White scours are very serious and usually indicate E. milk out the doe to reduce the amount of milk available and give the lamb/kid a feeding of water or Nimkol to satisfy its appetite. Q. In case milk-replacer powder is being used. 67 . feed either limewater (¾ teaspoon slaked lime to 2 litres water: add the lime to water. a lamb sucking on a dirty wool tag from an uncrotched ewe. The illness becomes serious within a few days. Q. which can result in rapid dehydration. second dose may be given after four hours.PART. subcut. Navel ill is a term used to describe infections from various organisms that gain entrance to newborn lamb/kid’s body through the umbilical cord shortly after birth. To prevent bacterial scours. shake it several times during the day and then let it stand until it is clear. If the scours continue for more than a day. Drain off the clear liquid as limewater) or a similar oral electrolyte solution @ 2 ounces after each three hours to prevent dehydration. good management and sanitation will prevent many problems. Two teaspoons of PeptoBismol or Kaopectate or one tablet of entox in powdered form mixed with water will help firm up the droppings and form a protective coating in the intestine. Death may follow soon. toxaemia and death if not treated immediately.

stands in a humped up manner.PART. help from a competent veterinarian may be sought. Check the animal frequently. Thus excessive lactic acid is produced by the fermentation of high energy diet. Disinfect the area if it is irritated and oil it lightly to prevent further sticking. produce a gluing effect there. enterotoxaemia and all clostridial diseases that may strike lambs/kids. A constipated newborn looks uncomfortable. However. Here. This vaccine is for tetanus. As a result. Some protection against tetanus is obtained by vaccinating the ewes/does in the last two months of pregnancy (two separate injections) with Covexin-8. Since navel ill can be caused by various bacteria. Lahore. Repeat the dose if necessary. Administer two tablespoons of mineral oil or one tablespoon castor oil for two weeks old and ¼ to ½ cup mineral oil (carefully) for two months old lamb/kid. If not noticed and corrected. probably cannot afford high plane grain feeding to their lambs/kids. Fodder/hay from deficient (in selenium) areas should not be fed to ewes after third month of pregnancy or during lactation unless supplemented by whole-grain wheat (where wheat is abundant) and mineralized salt with selenium (Se) in it. which protects the mother and passes protection to the newborn in the colostrum. White muscle disease in lambs is caused by insufficient selenium in the soil and thus in the ewe feed. The faeces collect and dry into a mass under the tail. the newborn will die. The children in the family out of love for their pets might overfeed them with grains. Quick detection and surgery is the only treatment. Q. which may prove fatal. depression. Write a note on constipation in lambs/kids. these cannot be reversed. ‘Pinning’ is fairly common in under a week old newborns. no signs of droppings or only a few hard ones. Lambs born with stiff neck will respond to SE treatment. acidosis is commonly encountered in adult male sheep/goats purchased for 68 . the acidity in rumen increases and severe digestive upset occurs. combined with a deficiency of vitamin E. The animal can be saved if the birth defect is not too severe. At least 70% roughage is a safe ratio for lambs/kids under our conditions. Sometimes the newborn will grind its teeth and if constipation continues. is a diseased condition which occurs very rarely under our conditions since sheep/goat producers here. A similar vaccine is also available from VRI. lameness. Such cases will often go undetected for the first few days until the distended abdomen and discomfort are observed. Any shift to a higher grain percentage should be very gradual. Q. Animals that develop stiff lamb disease have difficulty getting up or walking and are gradually affected by muscle paralysis. Write a brief note on acidosis in lambs/kids. will go into convulsions and may die unless medicated. the problem may arise in lambs/kids being raised as pets by certain people. Treatment should also include vitamin E. Once muscle changes occur. Occasionally a lamb/kid can suffer from a rare birth defect in which it is born without anal opening.An injectable preparation containing both Se and vitamin E is given to the ewe 2 to 4 weeks before lambing. Q. Clean the dried faeces with a damp rag. Important symptoms include inappetance. ‘founder’ or ‘grain engorgement’. rather two names for the same disease.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Tetanus is one of the serious diseases caused by a bacillus that can enter through the cord. Acidosis is sometimes also referred to as ‘acute indigestion’. resulting into plugging up the lamb/kid. Are the white muscle disease and stiff lamb two different diseases? No! These are not different diseases. trimming off some of the wool/hair if necessary. coma and death. leading to engorged lambs/kids.

However. castration and tail docking (if really necessary) can put lambs/kids in danger of tetanus. the lambs/kids should be vaccinated with a priming 5 ml dose and 2 ml booster dose of Covexin-8 about a month later. Overeating disease is also named as enterotoxaemia. Some people use chloro-tetracycline to control enterotoxaeimia. chilling or high summer temperatures can cause a variable feed intake that is conducive to disease outbreak. Add ground limestone or dicalcium phosphate 1 to 2% of the ration to make Ca: P approximately 2:1.PART. vaccinate the ewe/doe with Covexin-8. which may lodge in the kidney. Q. Keep both salt and fresh water in easy access. while the wounds are healing. This vaccine provides protection against all clostridial diseases. What is the other name of overeating disease? Give the causes and symptoms of this disease along with preventive measures. Another application of iodine after 12 hours is further useful. maize fodder. Do you think that lambs/kids may have the problem of urinary calculi? Yes! The problem is there. Vaccines available from VRI. What conditions are commonly responsible for tetanus in lambs/kids? Navel cord. the dam will need only booster dose. Too heavy grain feeding or an abrupt change in feed may also be the causes of this disease. if the dams were not boostered with Covexin-8. then you should administer 300-500 units of tetanus antitoxin at the time of castration. • Hard water may be partly the cause. The salts they excrete in the urine can form stones. but immunization (prevention) seems a more healthier and sure way. therefore. castrated or not. Diarrhoea. one or more causes can result in this problem: • Low water intake due to unpalatable water or too cold weather. People are excited to see their animals fattened well before slaughter on Eid.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION slaughter a few days to a few weeks before Eid-ul-Azha. Fairly young lambs/kids who are getting too much milk from their heavy milk dams also fall prey to this disease. a 5 ml priming dose between breeding and 6 to 8 weeks prior to lambing/kidding and the booster 2 ml dose 2 weeks before parturition. It is advisable to booster the ewes/does with Covexin-8 during the last months of pregnancy (two separate injections) as is the practice in several western countries. Thus sometimes they resort to overfeeding of grain to which the animals are not accustomed. This leads to a gross imbalance of grain-to-roughage ratio and a severe digestive upset. Wet bedding. can partially serve the same purpose. An application of tincture of iodine takes good care of navel cord. Q. convulsions or sudden death are the characteristic symptoms. In following years. provided they got the normal amount of colostrum. with high nitrate content. The antitoxin will protect the lambs/kids for about two weeks. Older lambs/kids carrying a heavy load of tapeworms are especially vulnerable. Add ammonium chloride to feed about 1/5 ounce per day/head. and low in vitamin A. using technical grade. Of the following. After 10 weeks age. The immunity provided by the dam will protect the newborns till about 10 weeks of age. Lahore. Q. It is caused by Clostridium perfringens and can strike the biggest and best lambs/kids. bladder or urethra. 69 . • Growing crops under heavy fertilizer. Since prevention is the very best plan. It is a problem of growing ram lambs/buck kids that are over one month old. • Ration high in phosphorus and potassium such as wheat bran. Several such cases meet a fatal end every year.

PART. put him on a dry floor for an hour or so. The absence of testosterone after castration keeps the urethra from growing to its maximum diameter. unless there is a blockage. the blockage is at the outer end of urinary passage. Coccidiosis in lambs causes severe diarrhoea. incoordination. Treatment with 0. By avoiding overstocking of ranges and mandatory rotation of pastures. Coccidiosis is an acute contagious parasitic disease spread between sheep by faecal contamination of feed and/or water. colic and eventually the rupture of the urinary tract into the body cavity. symptoms and possible measures of medication. It was found in 1974 that all strains of a common rumen bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) produced thiaminase. help of a competent veterinarian may be sought. The parasites seriously arrest the lamb/kid growth and a severe infestation can cause anaemia and death. fed free choice. stand with back arched. It should be introduced as a standard practice to deworm the lambs/kids when they are separated from their dams at weaning. Lamb may be prevented from walking in feeders so that no manure gets into them. Ruminal contents contain high levels of thiaminase (an enzyme that destroys thiamine). may castrate your animals after 6 weeks. Strict sanitation and proper arrangement of feed and water containers to prevent contamination. Sometimes manipulation with a small catheter tube may dislodge the stone. and may kick at stomach. It is reported that in 90% cases. Q. the parasite problem may recur. Mature ewes/does eliminate millions of parasite eggs in their droppings each day. sometimes bloody but usually dark. Hormonal changes occur when ram lambs/buck kids are castrated at less than 4 weeks age. If it is a persistent problem. hence the name ‘water belly’ and death. Exact predisposing mechanisms are not clear. Q. Ewes should receive this continuously from 30 days before lambing till after the lambs are weaned. he will urinate in that time. What type of disease is coccidiosis? Discuss its causes. Deccox or Bovatec is fed continually to control coccidiosis and improve feed efficiency. Q. Use Ivomec or Levamisole or any other deworming drug that is safe for the youngones. Turn the animal up and feel for a small stone that can be gently pushed down the urinary passage. Faeces may be got examined for the presence of the coccidian oocysts and use Amprolium or any new drug developed for this purpose. switch tail.5 g thiamine hydrochloride leads to rapid recovery. The blockage of the urinary tract causes pain. It is caused by an acute thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Clinical symptoms are blindness. Thus the lambs/kids are subject to infestation with parasite larvae from the pasture. dribble urine (sometimes bloody). coma and death. depression. Animals having urinary calculi strain to urinate. Treatment may be 70 . Polio is a noninfectious disease of sheep. parasite load can be reasonably reduced. Deccox can be mixed into salt @ 900 g in 22 kg of loose salt. Write a note on polio (polioencephalomalacia) in sheep. If an animal appears to be straining and unable to urinate.II • • SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Animals fed pellets only have more of this problem (so far not fed here). Maize oil cake and soybean meal are less apt to cause problems. Discuss the parasite problem in lambs/kids. who may administer a drug having a dilating action or a smooth muscle relaxer to permit the calculi to pass or may even remove the stone surgically. If the stone can be felt right at the end and cannot be dislodged with gentle pressure. • Sorghum-based rations as well as cottonseed meal add to the risk of calculi. While ewes/does should be dewormed before lambing/kidding.

use white cotton thread and a sharp needle.II SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION repeated after two days. put the needle through a small piece of skin and sew it down (the upper eyelid would be sewn to the forehead and the lower eyelid to the jaw). Q. What do you understand by entropion? Write a brief note on it. You can roll the eyelid(s) outward and hold in proper position by a clip or sewing. the eyelashes irritate the eyeball. Inspect each lamb at birth so that the condition is found soon and corrected. Do not keep such a lamb for breeding. Roll the eyelid out. Using two little metal clips (surgical clips) is easier than stitching. It is hereditary. They can be clipped into place with forceps or small pliers and left on for a few days. A lamb recovered from this disease can contract it again. but more prevalent in wooly-faced breeds. For sewing. In a few days the eyelids will have conformed to a normal position and the stitches can be removed. inviting infection and even blindness. if diet remains the same as before.PART. 71 . There are more than one way to correct it. When a lamb is born. Entropion denotes inverted eyelids. causing the eye to water constantly. Use a mild antiseptic in stitching or applying clips. Mark it for slaughter. When this happens. often its lower or sometimes the upper eyelid or both eyelids are rolled inward.