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The PON is an access network based on Optical Fiber. It is designed to provide virtually unlimited bandwidth to the subscriber.

A passive Optical network is a single, shared optical fiber that uses a passive optical splitter to divide the signal towards individual subscribers. PON is point to multipoint network architecture. PON is called passive because other than at the central office there are no active element within the access network. A PON enables an service provider to deliver a true triple play offering of voice, video and data PON Architecture: The elements of a PON are (i) Optical Line Terminal(OLT) (ii) Passive Optical Splitter and (iii) Optical Network Unit(ONU). The Optical Line Terminal is the main element of the network and is usually placed in the Local Exchange. It is a network element with PON line card, basically a aggregation switch. It works as an interface between core network and PON network. Optical Splitter is a passive device with single input and multiple output. Optical power at input is split evenly between outputs. Not only signal travels from input to the outputs, signal can also travel from the output to the input. Splitters can be placed anywhere in between CO and Subscriber premises. It is used to connect an optical port of OLT with multiple subscribers. Optical Network units(ONUs) serve as an interface to the network and are deployed at customer premises. It provides several interfaces for accessing triple play services and in the upper side it connects with the OLT via optical splitter. OAC: Optical Access Network An access network is a network that connects a service provider with its home or business subscribers. The architecture of an access network (Figure 1) is composed of three major components : The first component is a hub, which is usually referred to as Central Office (CO). The second component is referred to as Remote Node (RN). The third component is referred to as Network Interface Unit (NIU). An access network can be seen to consist of two different networks: 1).Distribution network is the network that connects the RNs with the NIUs. 2).Feeder network is the network that connects the CO with the RNs. There mainly two different access network architectures utilizing optical fiber are commercially deployed in the field. These are Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) and Fiber-To-The-x (FTTx). 1  Hybrid Fiber Coax(HFC): HFC is an access network utilizing optical fiber is commercially deployed in field. The structure of HFC is such that the feeder network takes advantage of the optical fiber as transmission medium and the distribution network employs coaxial cable infrastructure that has already existed in many places for many years. 2 Fiber access system(FTTx):

The rest of the transmission path between the x and the subscriber is electrical. easy-tomanage connectivity to Ethernet-based IP equipment both at the customer premises and at the central office. which offers 2. GPON offer higher split ratio of 1: 32/64/128 which results in an OLT reduction by more than a factor of 2 over EPON. It is governed by the ITU-T and is designated as ITU-T G. The x letter in the FTTx usually stands for Cabinet (Cab).25Gbps data rate for both upstream and downstream. data and video services on the same PON. It offers 1. 16 ONUs at a range of 20 km can be connected with a single port of OLT.e. It established the general requirements for PON protocols.In FTTx. PON Standard: There are three standards with respect to PONs: (i) BPON (ii) EPON (iii) GPON. GPON can support ONUs that are located as far as 30 Km from the OLT. EPON is based on Ethernet . Fiber to the x (FTTX) is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to replace all or part of the usual metal local loop used for last-mile telecommunications.984 GPON(Gigabit PON) standard. (ii) (iii) . (i) APON/BPON: The ATM passive optical network(APON) was the first attempt towards a PON standard. optical fiber is used in both feeder and distribution networks. EPON supports 1:16 split ratio i. APON use Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM) as the underlying transport mechanism to carry used data. Curb (C). It is well suited to carry packetized traffic as well as time-sensitive voice and video traffic. It provides simple. EPON: The Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON/GE-PON)is governed by IEEE and is designated as IEEE 802. GPON: The most recent PON standard is the ITU-T G.488 Gbps bandwidth and direct support of both TDM(POTs & E1) and Ethernet traffic at the edge of the network with possible triple play voice.3ah. Home (H) or Premises (P) depending on how close the optical fiber is drawn with respect to the subscriber’s location. BPON did not gain much popularity due to lack of bandwidth and widespread use of Ethernet protocol. Building (B). unlike other PON technologies which are based on ATM.983.