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PART- III

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION

Bakht Baidar Khan Arshad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal Mustafa

Department of Livestock Management

University of Agriculture Faisalabad

2003

PART- III
FOREWORD

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION

The past more than half a century is a witness to the fact that except a few, no serious attempts have been made to write books even on a few of the so many wide open aspects of the field of animal sciences. Among other factors that keep the animal science sector lagging behind, utter lack of relevant books of local origin is probably the most important. The dearth of documented information concerning various species of our farm animals adversely affects the learning potential of our students, who have been reported to complain about the non-availability of professional books written in Pakistan. I personally feel that as animal scientists we cannot exonerate ourselves of this responsibility. Of course, not all of us would have the aptitude to write books. However, those who opt to take up this tiresome and time-consuming job, their efforts must be appreciated. We must not forget that beginnings are always small. It is really encouraging to learn that sheep and goats being the victims of a long neglect, have attracted the attention of experienced animal scientists and teachers of long standing to write a book on them. A look into the contents of the book Sheep and Goat Production, makes me believe that it would adequately serve the purpose for which it has been produced. Its made-easy format would be rather more helpful to the students, field workers and progressive farmers. A collection of over 650 questions along with their answers should more than suffice to cover the discussion on important topics in relation to sheep and goat production.

Sajjad Zaheer Malik


Director General (Ext.) L & DD Dept., Punjab

PREFACE
Innumerable publications on sheep and goat farming/production are there in the world market. More than 98% of them are of foreign origin and are thus either not available here or their prices are beyond the means of a common man. The book under discussion has not been produced to burden the market with another such publication rather it has been brought out employing a novice format to meet the requirements of beginners who venture to plan a small ruminant enterprise, but are found confronted with a series of questions. Answers to many of such questions are already embodied in this easy to read and understand book. In addition, feasibilities in respect of keeping sheep and goats (pertaining to one breed of each spp.) have been outlined herein to facilitate the solution of their input: output dilemma. Another section of society most pertinent to books is professional students community. It often happens that even at the end of an academic session/semester, many students in a class, would not know what type of questions, relevant to a course, may be asked in the Exam. This book, for sure, would create an awareness in them as to the type of Exam. questions and as to the manner of answering them. Among other features of the book are: the discussion on behaviour and welfare of small ruminants and clues on the application of biotechnology in animals. A comprehensive review on terminology related to various aspects of small ruminants is also a part of this book. Most of the answers to the questions included in this book have been picked up as such from various sources of literature listed under references at the end. We feel highly obliged in sharing the fruit of hardwork of those so many authors/editors. Under the circumstances it does not seem possible for us to individually convey to them our grateful thanks, but indeed we remain indebted to all of them. No book will ever be complete and this one is no exception since knowledge about sheep and goats is increasing so rapidly that no book can be an absolute ultimate. We feel no hesitation to mention here that at places details of a few most sophisticated techniques used abroad in small ruminant production have been intentionally avoided simply because farmers/producers here have yet to go a long way to enable themselves to take full advantage of such costly tools and techniques. We would like to record our thanks to our colleagues, namely Drs. Muhammad Younas, Muhammad Abdullah, Muhammad Yaqoob, Syed Hassan Raza and Prof. William Hohenboken, a friend from USA; all of them provided us a lot of useful literature for this book. Special thanks are extended to Mr. Farooq Ahmed, Dr. Akhter Saeed and Dr. Asad Saeed for arranging recent literature for the purpose from abroad. Suggestions in black and white from any quarter to effect further improvement and to remove any omissions in the contents of this book will always be welcome.

March, 2003

Bakht Baidar Khan Arshad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal Mustafa

PART- III

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION

PART- III includes following contents of the book:


INTERNAL PARASITES IN SHEEP AND GOATS EXTERNAL PARASITES MEDICATION HOOF CARE RANGE SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION HOUSING AND HANDLING FACILITIES DAIRY GOATS MEAT WOOL MOHAIR

PART- III

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION

INTERNAL PARASITES IN SHEEP AND GOATS


Q. In what way the internal parasites harm the sheep/goats? There are reports that indicate that sheep and goats are comparatively more resistant to bacterial and viral diseases, but more susceptible to internal parasites. Another report suggests that goats as compared to sheep are less prone to parasitic infestations. A weekend condition from parasite infestation can be a principal cause of a disease outbreak. A heavy load of parasites is a vicious cycle leading to undernourishment of the animals, making them further vulnerable to parasite damage. The highest death loss occurs in lambs/kids, yearlings and extremely old animals, with death loss higher in poorly fed animals. Internal parasites (Figure 19) reduce productivity, cause anaemia, bottle jaw, coughing, bronchitis, wool break, progressive weakness reduced milk yield and death. Q. Can sheep/goats develop some degree of immune resistance to worms? The development of a degree of resistance to worm loads in old animals results from constant exposure to migrating worm larvae over time because the larval proteins act as a form of vaccination against the larvae. This immunity is actually the development of antibodies that cause allergic reactions. A mini-allergic reaction occurs in the tissues surrounding the encysted worm larvae, in which a combination of smooth muscle contractions and fluids cause the parasites to be dislodged and expelled into the lumen of the intestine. Then they pass out with the faeces. This partial immunity to worms takes about two years to develop fully. This explains why older ewes/does do not accumulate as much worm burden as lambs/kids in the same pasture and younger animals must be dewormed more often than the older population. Q. Discuss briefly the life cycle of worms. For specific and detailed information about life cycles of various internal parasites, you are referred to a text book on Parasitology. Here the life cycle will be dealt in very general terms. More than twelve species of parasites are considered responsible for causing problems in sheep/goats. They live in true stomach, small and large intestines, lungs and liver where they feed on blood and body fluids, causing anaemia and serum loss. Millions of eggs from these parasites pass out with faeces, with cough and under favourable conditions of warm weather and moisture, hatch into infective larvae in about 5 to 7 days. These larvae migrate into the moist sections of the grass and are ingested more by sheep than goats (probably due to their habit of grazing close to ground surface). Once swallowed they invade the tissues of digestive tract etc. where they undergo a maturing stage and emerge as adult worms in about 21 days. Most of the eggs and/or larvae are killed under conditions of hot dry weather and severe cold temperatures, which largely helps sterilize the pasture. However, nature has provided a survival mechanism for these worms that allows them to survive periods of adverse conditions by hibernating as immature worms in tissues and then emerge weeks or months later when conditions for survival are more favourable.

Q.

Suggest measures that can help reduce parasite load of small ruminants. 4

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Population density appears to be the main contributory factor for heavy parasite loads. A small number of animals on a given area will deposit less eggs than a large number on the same area. By rotating animals from one pasture to another, you can allow time for worm larvae to die from age and exposure on the recently contaminated grass. The eggs/larvae of many stomach worms can survive three months in cool damp weather but much less in dry hot weather. An old Scottish rule of thumb is Never let the church bell strike thrice on the same pasture. Overstocking of pastures cuts down the feed supply which weakens the animals. It also causes them to graze the grass more closely, ingesting more larvae to increase their worm load. Animals in poor nutritional condition cannot tolerate as much worm load as well nourished can. Lack of proper diet, insufficient protein and incorrect balance of nutritional elements, including vitamins and minerals (such as Se), makes them more vulnerable to worm damage. Another step toward better parasite control is sanitation. Never put feed directly on the ground to avoid contamination. Make sure that the water supply is clean and protected from faecal contamination. It is necessary to be able to recognize symptoms of worm build up and carry out an adequate control programme using appropriate medicines. Q. What are the more appropriate time periods for deworming sheep/goats? With the development of safer and more effective deworming drugs, deworming can be carried out without harming ewes/does or their youngones. Ewes and may be does too should be dewormed at the beginning of the flushing period i.e. two to three weeks before breeding. With higher parasite loads they will not settle properly and will have protracted lambing/kidding period. They will produce fewer twins and more weak newborns and will have less milk for them. Pregnant animals with more worms are drained of needed energy. Their weakness leaves them more susceptible to pneumonia or pregnancy disease and too weak to withstand a difficult delivery. Post parturition rise in parasite load also takes place, which is due to hormonal changes that trigger the encysted larvae to wake up and complete their life cycle. A similar rise in worm burden also occurs in breeding male, more so in ram than buck, as spring approaches. This refers to the worms survival mechanism already mentioned in a foregoing question/answer. Therefore, deworming at three weeks postparturition is advisable. It helps save the ewe/doe energy for milk production which otherwise could have been wasted by worms. In climates where worm infestations can occur during gestation, it may be necessary to deworm two to three weeks prior to lambing/kidding. However, at this late stage handle the pregnant animals carefully since the stress of catching and deworming may trigger some problem. Levamisole or Ivomec is good for this late pregnancy deworming, because they have some effect against hypobiotic (arrested) and migrating larvae. Other vermifuges kill only the adult forms, allowing the migrating larvae to become active the day following deworming. For the most part, deworming medicines have no residual activity. They are only good the day you give them. Next day the immature larvae are free to build up the worm burden all over again. In most small ruminant-rearing areas, the worm population is severely depressed during severe winter months. This then means that about 90% of the parasite population is in the sheep/goat with 10% on the pasture. When these animals gain access to the pasture during favoruable weather, the ratio reverses. Thus the most suitable time to exhaust the new seasons worm population is to reduce it as much as possible in the sheep/goats prior to grazing season so that these animals cannot transfer or seed the population back to the

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pasture. The animals should be dewormed three days before turning them out on pasture so that the worm eggs excreted in the faeces can fall outside the barn where the larvae cannot survive. In areas where the grass begins to dry, deworming the animals at that time, then followed up with another deworming six weeks later, will reduce the worm load below harmful levels. The hot dry weather significantly reduces the larvae population in the pasture, thus reducing the infection rate in the animals. It is also helpful to move animals to a clean pasture 24 to 48 hours after deworming, to keep the pasture clean. Young lambs/kids sent to pasture with their dams pick up worms that will grow to maturity in about a month. As the worms increase they cause anaemia and even death. You can prevent anaemia by deworming the lambs/kids at about 2 to 3 months of age. When rotating pastures, let the lambs/kids graze each clean pasture ahead of the ewes/does. Q. Suggest an economical parasite reduction mixture. An economical and popular mixture is 6 kg trace mineralized salt, 3 kg dicalcium phosphate and 1 kg phenothiazine. This low-level feeding of phenothiazine keeps worm eggs from developing properly. The killing of eggs and larvae cuts down on the source of parasite infection on the pasture. No immediate results will be seen, as it does not affect the eggs and larvae on the pasture. However, over a period of time there will be fewer worm larvae on the pasture to reinfect the animals. Q. What symptoms are commonly observed as a result of parasite infestation in small ruminants. One visible sign of parasite infestation is bottle jaw (swelling under the jaw). It is a sort warning that the animals have severe attack of worms. Other symptoms are diarrhoea (for some kind of worms) and anaemia (for most kinds of worms). Anaemia is indicated by the very pale colour of the inner lower eyelids and gums caused by intestinal worms sucking the animals blood. There are eight or more kinds of small stomach worms (round worms) that cause anaemia but not diarrhoea. The animals become listless, with pale mucous membranes and lose condition, wasting away and dying if they are not dewormed. The small brownish stomach worm ostertagia causes scours. It is so perfectly camouflaged against the walls of sheeps small intestine that it is difficult to spot in a postmortem. Other symptoms are accelerated breathing, coughing, and discharge from nose, bronchitis and pneumonia caused by lungworms. Liver flukes may cause bottle jaw, pot-belly etc. Q. In what different forms deworming drugs may be administered to small ruminants? Most infestations involve more than one kind of parasites, the broad-spectrum deworming drugs are recommended for general deworming. One of the several major broad-spectrum, low-toxicity vermifuges will take care of the most prevalent of the stomach parasites. For dosage and method of administration (as well as withdrawal days before slaughter) follow label directions. Deworming drugs are given as: boluses, these are sort of large sized pills, may be given by hand, by a bolus gun or with a capsule forceps; drenches, these are given by a drenching gun if the flock is of large size, for a small flock use a handy 2-ounce dose syringe; powders or granules, these are mixed with salt and dicalcium phosphate and offered to the animals free choice; premixes, these are given

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mixed in feed; paste, this can be smeared on the animals tongue; injection, be sure to follow label directions as to the site for injection, type of injection and the dosage as given for sheep/goat weight. Q. Give a list of the deworming drugs (for sheep and goats) that are in common use the world over. It cannot be a complete list since recent and new drugs keep on coming in the market, at the same time the use of certain drugs is abandoned in certain countries. Drugs under different brand names are also locally produced. The list given below includes such drugs that have been found safe, effective and easily available in the market: Tramisol (Levamisole): Effective against three species of stomach worms, six species of intestinal worms and a lung worm, safe for pregnant animals (after first 30 days), for older lambs/kids as well. Marketed as oblets (bigger pills), drench or injection. Thiabendazole (TBZ) (Omnizole R): For stomach, small and large intestine worms, sold as bolus, paste, drench or feed additive. Phenothiazine: Now not considered a standard treatment. However, pheno is excellent for continuous low-level use, mixed into your salt formula. Ivomec (Ivermectin): Sold as injection or drench, effective against stomach, small and large intestine and lung worms, blood-sucking lice and keds (ticks), not effective against tapeworms. Fenbenzadole (panacur, safegard): Safe and effective against stomach, small and large intestine worms, lungworms and tapeworms. Equipar (Oxibendazole): The same as Fenbenzadole but does not kill tapeworms. Telmin (Mebendazole): Effective against stomach, small and large intestine worms, some effect on tapeworms and liver flukes. Curatrem (Clorsulon): Excellent for developing and adult flukes, if liver much damaged then recovery not complete. Rumatel (Moratel tartret): Effective for small and large intestine worms as well as stomach worms. Bovatec (Lasalocid): For prevention of coccidiosis. Deccox (Decoquinate): Prevents coccidiosis, used in free-fed salt/mineral mixture.

Q. Write a note each on lungworm and tapeworm infestation in sheep/goats. Lungworms: These are prevalent in low-lying or wet pastures and live in air passages of small ruminants causing accelerated breathing, coughing and sometimes a discharge from the nose. The coughing can precipitate prolapse during pregnancy. The small lungworm (hair lungworm) can cause pneumonia and bronchitis. Good nutrition helps build up resistance to the worm. Keep the animals away from ponds and wet areas where snails can be found as several species of snails and slugs act as intermediate hosts for the lungworms. When an infected animal coughs, eggs are expelled and eaten from the grass by other animals. This problem needs consideration when buying sheep/goats from a farm or an area having low-lying pastures. Tramisol given once a year should control lungworms. Ivomec and Fenbenzadole are also effective. 7

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Tapeworms: The feeding head of the tapeworm injures the intestine and is thought to facilitate absorption of toxin involved in enterotoxaemia. Tapeworms are not usually the primary worm infestation in small ruminants, but since the passed tapeworm segments are large enough, their presence in droppings becomes alarming. A moderate level of tapeworms is said to be of little damage to adult animals but can seriously retard the growth of youngones. Fenbenzadole (Panacur, Safegard) is effective against tapeworms. Q. Write a note on each of the three: Nose bots, Liver flukes and Coccidiosis in small ruminants. Nose Bots: The nose bot, Oestrus ovis, is a fly in its mature form, dark grey about the size of a bee. The full grown larvae are thick yellowish white grubs about 2.5 cm with dark transverse bands and found primarily in the frontal sinuses of sheep. When deposited by the fly on the edge of the nostril, the grub is about 2 mm and gradually moves up the nasal passages. During fly season, sheep will put their heads to ground, stamp and run with heads down to avoid fly. They press their noses to the ground or against other sheep, as the flies attack them. This is more observed in the heat of the day and in hot summer. The head grubs cause irritation in nostrils, sinuses resulting in inflammation which causes a thin and then a thick secretion. The mucous membranes are affected and the secretions thicken, the sheep thus have difficult breathing and may sneeze frequently. They become run-down because of being so much annoyed by flies that they cannot graze in peace. Ivomec R has but a slow effect on nose bots, taking about thirty days before they are all dead, decamped and sneezed out. Liver Flukes: They require an intermediate host i.e. part of their life cycle is spent in another creature. In case of flukes it is snail or slug, found on wet marshy land. Ponds, ditches or swampy land provide the breeding place for the snails. Therefore, this kind of pasture is not suitable for small ruminants. If possible drain out wet areas where snails propagate or put fence around marshy parts. Snail-destroying chemicals can be used if these do not harm fish, other livestock or human beings. A mixture containing 1 kg copper sulphate with 4 kg of sand can give good control of flukes. About 350 g of this mixture may be applied twice a month per hectare of pasture. Liver flukes cause bottle jaw or pot-belly during early stages, followed by loss of condition, diarrhoea, further, weakness and death. It can be diagnosed by microscopic examination of faeces and from the liver of slaughtered small ruminants. Affected livers must be discarded. Mercks curatrem (clorsulon) kills developing flukes as well as adults and is especially useful for animals treated in early stages of infestation. Coccidiosis: Coccidia are microscopic protozoan parasites, present in most flocks without causing any serious problem. Overcrowding and contamination of food and water are the main sources of infection. Other factors are chilling, heat stress, transportation fatigue and sudden change in feed as well as interruption of feeding which predispose the young stock to an outbreak of coccidiosis, resulting in diarrhoea, then diarrhoea with straining, chronic dark green or bloody diarrhoea, loss of appetite and some deaths. Lambs/kids that recover are usually considered immune. A routine faecal examination showing evidence of this parasite will allow you to use appropriate drug at an early stage. Once coccidiosis is diagnosed (or be before as a preventive), Bovatec may be used as a feed additive. Antibiotics can be given to check any secondary bacterial infection in intestines damaged by coccida. Amprolium 1.25% can be prescribed and fed for 21 days during an attack. Meat fed to dogs and cats that associate with livestock should be

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previously cooked or frozen to render these parasites (in muscle tissue of cattle, sheep or goat) noninfectious. Q. Discuss worm resistance to drugs used for deworming. The problem of parasite control has somewhat been compounded by the development of resistance in selected worm species to some worm-control products. All populations of living things contain individuals that naturally possess a greater resistance to something than the average population. Possible dewormer resistance increases with the frequency of treatment because we keep killing off the susceptible worms and leaving the possible resistant ones to regenerate the population. Keep in mind that if you must deworm very frequently, you are increasing selection pressure on the worm population and resistance may become a problem sooner for you than for your neighbour who needs to deworm less often. The old recommendation to change dewormer drugs often to avoid developing resistance is wrong. It is now recommended to use the same vermifuge until you see resistance becoming a problem, then switch to another dewormer. If you must change a vermifuge, do not alternate with a dewormer of the same chemical family or class. Resistance usually develops on chemical class lines, not brand names. Read the fine print for the generic name or chemical class. The more effective a dewormer is on several different species (broad-spectrum), the less chance of selection for resistant strains. Do not underdose the dewormer, because natural resistance is rarely an all-or-none phenomenon; it is a dose-related thing. By underdosing you may allow a marginally resistant worm to survive and propagate offspring with greater natural resistance, when it might have been susceptible to the full dose. With a highly effective drug, the worm numbers become so depleted that they lack the genetic variability required for selection for resistance in a short time. To know for sure whether you have worm resistance to the drug you are using, you need egg counts. If egg counts are taken just before and then one week after administration of the correct dose, and the percentage decrease in the egg count is les than 80%, the presence of anthalmintic-resistant parasites must be strongly suspected. To avoid introducing resistant strains, you would need to treat all incoming new animals.

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EXTERNAL PARASITES
Among the external parasites are included ticks, wool maggots (fleeceworms), common scab mite, lice etc. Q. Are sheep ticks real ticks? Give a brief account of them and discuss measures for their eradication. No! Sheep tick is not a real tick rather it is a wingless parasitic fly, known as a sheep ked that passes its whole life cycle on the body of the sheep. It lays little brown pupae, which hatch into almost mature keds in about nineteen days. Ticks are bloodsuckers and roam all over the sheep, puncturing the skin to obtain their food. As a result firm dark nodules develop, damaging the sheep skin and thus reducing its value. These defects are called cockles by leather traders. The ticks produce such irritation that sheep rub and scratch and injure their wool and bite at themselves to relieve there suffering, sometimes becoming habitual wool chewers. From eating the wool they may get impacted rumens. Ticks reduce weight gain and cause anaemia. All this ultimately impairs the quality and yield of wool and meat. Ticks stain the wool with their faeces. Such wool is sometimes referred to as dingy and does not readily scour out. With systematic treatment ticks can be easily eradicated. The mature tick lays a single puparia a week and thus a total of about a dozen or so in her lifetime. The pupa shells are attached to the wool nearly 1 to 2 cm from the skin. Thus most of them are removed in shearing, making it easy to eliminate ticks by treating after shearing. The newly hatched ticks die within an hour unless they can suck blood from a sheep. The mature tick cannot survive more than two to four days away from the sheep. To be effective, all sheep must be treated for ticks at one time; otherwise the untreated ones will pass the ticks back to the treated. Examine a new lamb or sheep before turning it in with your own and treat it if you find even a single tick. Following are the methods commonly used for treating sheep to eliminate ticks from their bodies. Dip: This is a standard method used with large flocks. The sheep are run through large dipping vats full of sheep dipping liquid or through spraying vats, where they are given a high-powered spray from several sides at once. This is done usually ten days after shearing while the wool is still short and the shearing injuries have healed. For a small flock this method is not practicable. Their deticking requires small dipping vats or some other method such as spray or sprinkle may be used (details of dipping to be discussed elsewhere). Spray or Sprinkle: Low-pressure sprays are ideal for treating sheep when they have been sheared recently as stated under dip method. Sprinkling with insecticide solution in a garden sprinkler can, requires very little equipment. Injection: Ivomec (Ivermectin) dewormer is effective against most internal and external parasites including ticks. It is not effective against tapeworms, flukes or biting lice.

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Give a list of effective sheep ked control chemicals along with brief instructions for their use. Ectrin, Expar, Atroban: These are synthetic pyrethroids (a stable form of the garden insecticide made from the chrysanthemum). They are considered both safe and effective. Used for both ked and lice control as a pour-on or spray. No label withdrawal period prior to slaughter. Ivomec: This is effective against keds (ticks) and sucking lice. Consult label for withdrawal times. Co-Ral (Coumaphos): A systemic organophosphate. Used as a 0.6% spray or dip, or a 0.5% dust (1 to 2 ounces per sheep). Not to be used on lambs under three months of age. Diazinon: Used as a 0.5% spray or dip. Not to be used on lambs under one month age. Rotenone: It is the powdered root of a tropical plant and an insecticide used by organic gardeners. For dip use 8 ounces of the 5% wettable powder to 100 gallons of water (1 ounces in 20 gallon can). Mix it to a paste in a small amount of water and add it to the large quantity of water in the can stirring well. The addition of a small amount of liquid dishwashing detergent will make it more penetrating and effective. Safe for ewes and lambs. For dusting use 1.5% (garden type) dust about 2 ounces per sheep. The effect of Rotenone is not immediate. It takes a few hours to show its effect. Ticks no longer can bite and will die. Official regulations on chemicals can change from year to year, as new chemicals are approved, some old may be banned or tolerances change. The concerned agency may be consulted for a current list of such products. Q. Give a brief account of wool maggots (fleeceworms) and suggest measures to prevent them. Several types of blowflies lay maggot eggs and they all are about twice the size of houseflies. They appear in spring and then reproduce through hot weather, laying their eggs in masses at the edge of a wound or in manure-soiled fleeces. The eggs hatch in six to twelve hours and the larvae feed on the live flesh at the edge of the wound. They enlarge the wound and if not detected, can eventually kill the animal. Watch for moist fleece areas or any injury that may become infested. Notice if animals scratch excessively on fences, trees, and gateposts. This could be maggots or ticks. When you locate an infestation, clip the wool around it and spray it with any of the fly-strike aerosol sprays (or one of the sheep tick chemicals can substitute for fly repellent). If none of these is available, pick out all the maggots you can see and disinfect the wound. The animal should be kept under observation for a few days and may be treated again if needed. Shearing the sheep would make it easier to spot other infestations. Maggots often infest dog bites if your sheep are chased by dogs, check them often for unnoticed wounds and fly-strikes. The wool maggot or fleeceworm can be distinguished from the more dangerous screwworm. Wool maggots can move and crawl around, while the screwworms do not, since they are imbedded in the flesh. Prevention Measures :1) Keep rear ends of ewes regularly tagged, especially when droppings become loose. Deworm your sheep regularly. Urine also attracts blowflies if it soils heavy tags; 2) Treat all cuts or shearing injuries with fly repellents during hot weather, even insect bites invite flies; 3) Put fly repellent on castration sites on lambs in warm weather; 4) Possibly use fly traps or other means to cut down the number of flies in the barn; 5) Be especially vigilant during prolonged wet weather in summer. Warm and

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moist conditions more favourable for fly strike. If by chance whole of the flock has maggot problem, use Atroban or Expar- the sheep dip chemicals on all of them. Q. Write a note on each of the two, i) common scab mite and ii) lice. Common Scab Mite: Several kinds of parasitic mites produce scab in sheep. The Psoroptes ovis is the common scab mite, a little more than mm long, with four pairs of brownish legs and sharp pointed brownish mouthparts. The mites puncture the skin and live on the blood serum. The skin becomes inflamed, then scabby with a grey scaly crust. The wool falls out, leaving large bare areas. This may not be confused with the loss of wool that sometimes occurs along the backbone of some breeds of sheep when kept in areas of heavy rainfall. To determine whether mites are present, scrape the other edge of one of the scabs (mites seek the healthy skin at the edge of the lesions) and put the scrapings on a piece of black paper. In a warm room under bright light, examine the paper with a magnifying glass. The mites become more active when warm and are visible under the glass. Any infestation with common scab mite (often called mange mite) is very susceptible to Expar, Atroban or Ectrin. These are effective as a spray and can even be used on pregnant ewes. All sheep must be treated in one session since the mite is quite contagious from sheep to sheep. Infected premises should not be used for clean sheep for thirty days. Lice: These are probably second to ticks (keds) among the common ectoparasites affecting sheep and goats. One species of biting lice and several species of sucking lice affect small ruminants. The eggs are attached to the individual wool/hair fibres and hatch in one to two weeks into the nymph stage. After several molts which require another two to three weeks, the nymphs emerge as adults. The feeding lice (sucking) cause intense irritation and itching to the sheep/goats which results in restlessness, constant scratching and rubbing against walls, trees, fences, interrupted feeding, loss of weight and severe damage to wool/hair. A clear-cut sign of lice in the flock are hundreds of telltale tags of wools hanging from fences, trees etc. where the sheep have been rubbing. Lice are very susceptible to the commonly used insecticides but often two treatments are needed to kill any newly emerged nymphs (as the egg is a protected stage). Once removed from the flock, they will not return until you introduce new/more infested animals into the flock. If in doubt, you must treat any new animals prior to placing with your flock. The pyrethroid products such as Atroban, Ectrin, Expar, do an excellent job of ridding the flock of lice and are safe to use.

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MEDICATION
Q. From a flock of 80 sheep/goats, how would you detect a sick sheep/goat? Successful treatment of any sheep/goat illness requires detection as early as possible, before the animal is down. Gone are the days when it was said that a down sheep is a dead sheep, but the chance for recovery is much better if illness is diagnosed and treated before it has progressed. Prevention is always better than treatment and early treatment has better success than late. For early detection of a sick animal you must be familiar with its normal behaviour, even for each individual in the flock, to know when one is acting abnormally. Have some quick and easy way of catching the animal (such as a corral) when needed for its close examination. Signs of abnormality are loss of appetite, not eating as usual and standing away from the group when at rest; unusual discharge from nostrils, eyes or mouth. Be concerned if a sheep/goat is lying down most of the time when others are not; any weakness or staggering gait; unusually laboured or fast breathing; change in bowel movements (loose faeces or constipated); temperature over 104 degrees. Normal temperature of small ruminants (except in very hot weather) is in the range of 100.9 to 103.0F degrees (average 102.3 degrees). If it is necessary to have a urine sample, try to hold the sheeps/goats nostrils closed for a moment; this stress sometimes triggers urination. Q. In general, what may be the possible causes of illness of sheep/goats? Some of the common causes of illness are: Unsanitary housing, lack of exercise, moldy or spoiled feeds, poisonous plants, toxic substances improper diet (insufficient/ contaminated water and feed or overeating), parasites, injuries, infection from assisted lambing/kidding, bacterial infection from other sick sheep/goats, abrupt change of feed, stress due to severe weather, transportation, predators etc. and infection from newly purchased animals. Q. Give a list of common sources of germ transmission to sheep/goats. Water or feed contaminated by faeces from small ruminants or other animals, can transmit intestinal diseases and certain parasites. Respiratory disease may also be spread by nasal discharge into drinking water and feeding troughs. Manure accumulated in a lambing/kidding shed or around the feeding trough can intensify exposure to disease germs and coccidiosis; serve as breeding media for flies and other vermin. Dirty uncrotched wool on an ewe can infect the newborn. Feeding on bare ground greatly contributes to disease and parasite exposure. Wet muddy places predispose the sheep/goats to hoof diseases. Low-lying marshy areas predispose the sheep/goats to a number of parasitic diseases. Newly acquired animals can be carriers of many serious diseases such as foot rot and brucellosis as well as ticks and lice. Venereal transmission of disease at breeding time. Dirty hypodermic syringes and needles can cause injection site infections and abscesses and transmit certain infectious diseases.

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To meet emergencies in respect of small ruminants farm/in field, what medicines and equipment need to be on hand? It may be referred to as a First Aid Kit. It should at least include bloat medication (and trocar cannula for extreme emergency), cal-phos or any other preparation for milk fever, propylene glycol for pregnancy toxaemia, tincture iodine and other disinfectants, mineral oil for constipation, dextrose solution, antibiotics, uterine boluses and some sterile equipment (syringes, needles etc.). Of the antibiotics pen-strep (Penicillindihydrostreptomycin) (or any other recent one) will check many infections. For specific infections, other antibiotics are necessary. Penicillin and tetracycline are safe to use since their toxicity in sheep/goats is extremely low. These drugs are of use in pneumonia, infection after parturition and as a preventive against infection following cleaning and dressing of maggot infestation. These are of minor help for enterotoxaemia. Certain drugs labeled for buffalo/cattle can be used for small ruminants in an emergent situation. Such a drug can be administered at the same dose level on per kg body weight basis. On average, the dose for one buffalo/cow would suffice for five to six adult sheep/goats. However, with many drugs exact dosage is very important. Help of a competent veterinarian may preferably be sought. Q. Give a list of methods used for administering medicines, vaccines etc. Oral, by mouth such as boluses for deworming with bolus gun or capsule forceps. Oral, powder such as vitamins, placed well back on the tongue for treatment of an individual animal, or in feed or drinking water for general treatment of whole flock. Oral, liquid given as drench with syringe or in drinking water. Spray-on, such as insecticides for ticks. Pour-on, such as tincture of iodine on newborn navel, disinfectant on minor wounds. Subcutaneous, medication injected just under the skin. Intradermal, medication injected into the skin. Intramuscular, liquid such as antibiotics injected into heavy muscle. Pessaries, as uterine boluses to prevent infection after a difficult lambing/kidding. Intramammary, injection of fluid or ointment through the teat opening, as mastitis drugs. Intraperitoneal, injection of liquid through right flank into the abdominal cavity. Intraruminal, injection of fluid into the rumen, on the left side, as for bloat treatment when too late to give by mouth. Intranasal, spraying of vaccine into the nasal cavity. Intravenous, injection of fluid into a vein. Intraperitoneal, intraruminal and intravenous medication should preferably be given by a veterinarian or by an experienced person. Q. Give some details of administering drugs etc. by oral method. Boluses (small or large pills) meant for small ruminants will go down the throat easier if coated with mineral oil or cooking oil or mustard oil. Do not soak them otherwise they will disintegrate. The easiest way to hold the sheep/goat is to back it into a corner and straddle it, facing forward. Hold the bolus in a bolus applicator/balling gun (Figure 20) and eject it when you have the pill over the hump of the tongue. Capsule forceps can be used to deposit the bolus at the base of the tongue. However, forceps is more likely to damage the throat. Forceful jamming of the bolus too deep into the throat can cause the bolus to be deposited into the windpipe (trachea) with fatal results. Keep the mouth of the animal open by inserting your left thumb in the mouth in the space between the front teeth (incisors) and the molars, while gently inserting the bolus gun with the other hand. Do not release the animal until you are sure that the medication has been swallowed.

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Liquid medicines can be given with a dose syringe or a drenching gun or with a dose gun when there are large number of animals in a flock (Figure 21). The nozzle of the syringe should be about 12 to 15 cm long with a smoothly rounded tip that will not injure the sheep/goat. The head of the animal should be held in a level position, with the nose no higher than the eyes so that the liquid will not be forced into the lungs and cause pneumonia. The safest way is to trickle the liquid slowly while holding the animals head in the level position (Figure 22). Q. Give a detailed account of general information regarding the use of injections as a method for administering medicines to small ruminants. To avoid serious infections, maintenance of sterile procedures is a must. Use only clean and sterile syringes (boiled at least twenty minutes) and sharp sterile disposable needles. Boiling of needles again and again makes them dull. Disposable plastic syringes are the best. To fill a syringe with medicine, first clean the top of the vial with a disinfectant to remove any dirt. Shake the bottle to thoroughly mix the contents without causing undue bubbles. Hold the vial upside down, pull the syringe plunger back to approximately the volume of drug to be removed, insert the needle into the center of vial stopper and press the plunger forcing the air into the vial. Withdraw a greater volume of drug than needed and then express the excess drug back into the vial to remove air bubbles that may form in the syringe. If you are withdrawing doses for a number of animals and particularly if you wish to save the balance of the contents of medication vial, you can protect it from contamination by sanitizing the top of the vial with a disinfectant as stated above, then insert a sterile needle, which is to be left in place in the stopper of vial. Fill the syringe, leave the needle in the bottle and attach a separate needle to the syringe for vaccinating. For the next dose, detach the used needle, fill the syringe with the needle left in the vial, leaving again the needle in the bottle (vial) and reattach a new or disinfected needle for the injection. In this way you can protect your medicine from any contamination and can save the balance of the contents till its reuse. You cannot, however, save a live vaccine (such as Nasalgen). Inactivated vaccine such as Covexin-8 may be saved. Once the needle is filled with medication, do not let it touch anything, or it will no longer be sterile. Possibly have a helper hold the sheep/goat and then inject the medicine after sterilizing the site of injection with an alcohol swab well rubbed over the site. Simply touching the site with an alcohol swab is not sufficient. If at all possible, do not inject a wet animal for reasons of infection and contamination of injection site. Read the label carefully on each injectable medicine. Check the expiry date. Read the dosage and strictly follow it because overdosing of certain medicines could be harmful or even fatal. Protect drugs from freezing and from heat. Many antibiotics require refrigeration. Q. Write short notes on subcutaneous, intradermal and intramuscular injections. Subcutaneous Injection: It is often abbreviated as sub-cut; it denotes depositing medicine directly between the skin and the underlying muscle tissue. The medicine should be at body temperature, especially with youngones and can be given in the neck. A preferred site is in the loose hairless skin behind and below the armpits, over the chest wall. Do not inject into the armpit. Some vaccines are highly irritating and if injected into the maxillary space (armpit), could cause severe irritation and lameness. A dosage of

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more than 10 ml is best distributed among several sites instead of all at one place, especially so with lambs/kids. To inject, pinch up a fold of loose skin, insert the needle into the space under the skin, holding the needle parallel to the body surface. Rub the area afterward to distribute the medication and hasten its absorption. Do not make the injection near a joint or in areas having more fat under the skin. If you want to make sure that you are not in a vein, the plunger can be pulled out a bit before injecting. If it draws out some blood, try another spot. Medication for subcut should never be injected into a muscle. Intradermal Injection: Sometimes it is called as intracutaneous. This injection is made into the skin instead of under it and is rarely used. The inserted fine needle is so close to the surface that it can be seen through the outer layer of skin, in the same site as suggested for subcut injection. The medicine is injected slowly while drawing out the needle, distributing the dose along the needles course. Intramuscular Injection: Using this injection the medicine is deposited deep into a large muscle such as in the neck or heavy muscle of the thigh. An experienced person can demonstrate the proper site that will avoid both a nerve and the best cuts of meat. Fresh and sterile antibiotics and drugs are important, as are a sterile needle and sterile procedure to avoid risk of deep-seated infection. Use a new sharp disposable needle and syringe to avoid tissue damage. Sanitize the top of the vial stopper with alcohol before withdrawing the medicine into the syringe. Thrust the needle quickly into the muscle while a helper holds the animal still. Check that the needle is not in a blood vessel. It is usually advisable not to inject more than 10 ml into any one spot. Q. Write short notes on intramammary and intraperitoneal injections. Intramammary Injection: Infusion of liquids or ointments are sometimes administered into the teat for udder ailments such as mastitis. The nozzle of the tube of udder antibiotics is designed for buffalo/cattle and is difficult to use in sheep/goat, requiring care and patience. Cleanliness is important when infusing the udder. First milk out the affected side of the udder as completely as possible. Afterwards wash your hands and the udder thoroughly, then carefully disinfect the teats several times a few minutes apart. Dry the end of the teat(s) with a clean towel to avoid germs when the medicine is inserted. Remove the cap of the infusion and gently insert it into the teat canal, maintaining the sterile procedure. Squeeze the dose into the teat, then massage the dose upwards toward the base of the udder. Most udder infections can be cured by antibiotics but unsanitary infusion techniques could introduce molds and fungi that are not sensitive to the antibiotics, resulting in a further complicated situation. Intraperitoneal Injection: This should be done by a person who is familiar with anatomy of the animal and aseptic technique. Complications such as peritonitis are common after this procedure. One helper needs to hold the animal and straddle it just in front of the shoulders. Clip the wool from the right flank in the shallow triangular depression below the spine, between the last rib and the point of hip bone. Medication injected into the center of this depression goes into the peritoneal cavity. Scrub the injection area with soap, rinse dry and then disinfect the skin with alcohol. Medicine should be at the body temperature of sheep/goat. A sterile 25 ml or 50 ml syringe and a sterile 16-gauge needle are required. Disinfect the bottle stopper and complete the rest of the steps as stated earlier maintaining sterile procedure. Hold the needle perpendicular to the skin, pointed toward the center of the body. Inject quickly the full length of the needle

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and eject the medicine. If the needle does not insert easily, it may be clogged with a plug of tissue, or may not be in the right place. If so, withdraw the needle, replace it with a new one and try again. Rub the injection site with a disinfectant afterwards. Q. What are the antibiotics? Discuss briefly in a general way. Antibiotics is the general term for a group of products that either kill or seriously impair bacterial growth. They are effective against many bacterial diseases. Antibiotics are only effective when present in adequate concentration. Low concentration (below recommended levels) or discontinuation of treatment too soon may fail to kill the more resistant bacteria present in the infection. This could result in a relapse of the condition or more seriously a chronic infection, which could be difficult to treat due to bacterial resistance to the antibiotic. The availability of antibiotics should not encourage improper sanitary practices or treatment of diseases that can be prevented through proper management and vaccination. There is a concern that improper use of antibiotics can give rise to new strains of drugresistant bacteria that may pose a threat to both humans and animals. Care must be exercised to ensure that antibiotics as well as other drugs are properly used, but not overused. Mastitis and certain respiratory diseases are among the few examples in which there are no preventive vaccine substitutes for antibiotics. While management practices can minimize the occurrence of mastitis etc. antibiotics are needed once the infection is established. Certain antibiotic dosage can upset normal body functions. Some may sterilize the gut, making animals, susceptible to enteric upsets. Many times antibiotics are used when they are of no benefit whatsoever, as in case of a disease caused by viruses. When the exact cause of sickness is unknown, there is a temptation to give an injection, usually a broad-spectrum antibiotic, to see if it helps. Ideally, any illness should have an accurate diagnosis first. Q. What is meant by biologicals/vaccines? Explain in detail. Biologicals (vaccines, bacterins and toxoids) are intended solely for disease protection. They have very little, if any, effect in treating the disease. These immunizing agents are proteins called antigens that only stimulate the small ruminants immune system to produce protection against the particular disease. It needs to be understood that vaccination and immunization are not the same thing, because administration of the antigen by vaccination will result in immunization only if the sheeps/goats immune system is normal and functioning. Vaccination must be accomplished well ahead of the period in which disease exposure may occur, because it takes approximately one month for maximum immunity to develop. Very low levels of protection are observed at two to three weeks after vaccination and it can take up to forty-five days after the last dose of some vaccines for maximum protection. Immunizing agents fall into four groups and all are commonly called vaccines: Bacterins: Containing killed bacteria and/or fractions of the bacterial cell. Toxoids: Containing the inactivated toxins produced by bacteria, usually clostridial organisms such as causing tetanus and overeating disease. Vaccines: Derived from viral agents. Anti-serums: Often called serums or antitoxins, are derived from the serum of hyperimmune animals, one that has received multiple doses of vaccine to confer a high and specific antibody level against the particular disease. Q. Write short notes on vaccines, toxoids, bacterins and anti-serum.

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Vaccines: A vaccine is a modified live or killed biological preparation, which when injected into the animal (or instilled intranasally as nasalgen,), stimulates the animals immune system to build its own protective antibodies. Modified live vaccines (MLV) contain strains of virus that are incapable of causing the disease but still retain the immune-stimulating potential of the disease-causing strain. MLV vaccines (with few exceptions) produce greater and longer protection than the inactivated (killed) virus vaccines. It takes approximately two weeks for protection to appear and the immune response will maximize in about a month. Toxoids: These are solutions of inactivated toxins derived from bacteria that cause disease by producing toxins that enter blood stream and cause severe tissue or nerve damage (such as tetanus, blackleg). Since it is the toxin produced by bacteria and not the bacteria themselves that cause disease. Toxoids stimulate the animal to produce neutralizing antibodies against the toxin, thus protecting against their deadly effect. Bacterins: These are suspensions of bacteria grown in culture media and killed chemically or by heat. They are unable to produce disease and may be used without danger of spreading disease. The bacteria used in the production of various bacterins are highly antigenic strains isolated from animals that have succumbed to the particular disease. Bacterins are often suggested as an aid in establishing immunity to specific diseases. Most bacterins require a primary (priming) injection followed by a booster in one to four weeks. The actual protection is obtained following the booster injection. Bacterins do not confer long-lasting immunity. At the best maximum protection is usually for six months to a year between boosters. Anti-serum: Also called serum or antitoxin. By injecting an anti-serum, antibodies produced in another animal are borrowed to confer a temporary or passive immunity for a short period, often ten to twenty-one days. It is used to protect animals for a short period when disease is present in the flock and to treat infected animals as an aid to overcome disease. In a unique situation, anti-serum may be administered along with a vaccine to give immediate protection while the animal is developing its own active immunity. It is advisable to consult a competent veterinarian under such circumstances, because in some instances the hyperimmune serum will neutralize the vaccine. Store all immunizing supplies in a cool place, but do not allow them to freeze. Obtain vaccines from a reputable source, because if they are not properly stored or transported before you get them, they may be worthless. Some vaccines are applied by scratching the skin, some are subcut, others intramuscular and still others are sprays into the nasal cavity. You must follow the directions of the manufacturer regarding both the dosage and the manner of administration. Vaccination sites on sheep/goats and their youngones are the side of the breastbone i.e. lower chest wall behind the elbow or the side of neck. It is difficult to pinpoint that what vaccines are required by your flock because it depends on what part of the country you are, what diseases are prevalent there, presence of other flocks nearby, the climate, the type of operation, the purchase of new animals and the conditions under which the animals are being raised. Q. Name some of the most useful immunizing agents for small ruminants that are in use in New Zealand, Australia, Canada and USA. Nasalgen-IP (P13): To protect against certain types of pneumonia and respiratory diseases.

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Footvax: Foot rot vaccine. This product contains an oil adjuvant (immune enhancer) that can cause injection site swellings and small abscesses. Therefore be sure to inject high up on the side of the neck. Covexin-8: It immunizes against all the common clostridial diseases including tetanus. EAE-Vibrio combination: It protects against the two common disease caused abortions. Ovine Pili Shield: It is a new vaccine given to ewes to immunize lambs through the colostrum, against scours caused by E. coli bacteria. Selenium-Vitamin E: Selenium-E is not a vaccine but an injectable essential nutrient needed for protection of sheep/goats and youngones against white muscle disease and immune deficiency. It is mainly required in selenium deficient area. Too much of it is highly toxic. Q. Give schedule for vaccination of sheep/goats against various diseases. Tentative vaccination schedule Month Week Sheep Goats nd January 2 Enterotoxaemia Enterotoxaemia February Ist Anthrax Anthrax March Ist Sheep pox Goat pox April Ist FMD FMD May Ist Pleuropneumonia Pleuropneumonia June Ist Enterotoxaemia Enterotoxaemia July August September October November December * Optional. Q. (Overleaf) 2 Enterotoxaemia Enterotoxaemia Ist Anthrax Anthrax Ist Sheep pox Goat pox Ist FMD* FMD* Ist Pleuropneumonia Pleuropneumonia Ist Enterotoxaemia Enterotoxaemia Source: Booklet issued by Vet. Res. Institute, Lahore.
nd

What general instructions need consideration for use and dosage of vaccines? The vaccines are intended for prophylactic and not for curative purpose. The bottle should be thoroughly shaken before each injection to ensure a uniform suspension. The syringes, needles and other instruments to be used carefully sterilized before use. The bottles, ampoules, vials etc. must not be exposed to direct sunlight or heat. Shelf-life depends on proper storage. Protective immunity level can be achieved and maintained through adopting a planned and systematic schedule of vaccination. Live virus vaccines should not be demanded through ordinary post. It is preferable to collect them in ice from the institute through a special courier. Distilled water for reconstitution of vaccines must be sterilized and chilled. After reconstitution, the inoculum must be kept cool and used within 2 hours.

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Instructions given on the label must be strictly adhered to. Empty ampoules/vials and left-over inoculum should be properly disposed off. Q. What do you know about ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP)? Explain in detail. Any chronic ailment can result in thin sheep but OPP accounts for many of the persistently thin adult sheep (if nutrition and parasites have been eliminated as disease causes). OPP is a slow virus similar to AIDS in humans, taking about two years to show its symptoms. The virus slowly causes progressive lung damage. Ewes gradually lose stamina and body weight and have serious breathing problems ending in fatal pneumonia. While at present there is no cure and no vaccine against OPP, there are new tests that make disease control possible. It is necessary to have annual testing of all breeding animals (eliminating the infected ones) to ensure that no OPP problems occur and to be further sure you purchase only OPP-free breeding stock replacements. Since it is transmitted from ewe to lamb through milk, therefore, infected valuable breeding ewe could be isolated from the flock and her lamb taken immediately at birth and raised on colostrum-replacer and lamb milk-replacer. This is almost 100% effective. All animals that test OPP positive should be isolated from the rest of the flock, since transmission can result from close contact with infected animals mainly via respiratory secretions when animals are confined to crowded quarters. Once the signs of disease appear, the outcome is always fatal. Positive cases should be isolated and culled. At Cornell University, there is an Indirect Immunofluorescent Test (IIFT) for OPP. When buying initial flock and any replacement animals, the owner should be requested to provide proof that his flock has been tested for OPP. Q. What is meant by urolithiasis? Write down its main causes, symptoms and treatment. Urolithiasis simply means urinary calculi. The latter are stone like concretions in the urinary tract, which usually originate in the kidneys. Sheep and goats are susceptible to urinary calculi formation and serious losses can occur when breeding males develop this problem. Nutritional imbalances are generally considered the primary cause of stone formation. For example i) a high-potassium intake, ii) a high-phosphorus-low-calcium ratio; the C:P ratio should be about 2:1, iii) a high silica content in the ratio and iv) a deficiency of vitamin A may be a contributing factor. Symptoms commonly observed are: frequent attempts to urinate, dribbling or stoppage of the urine, pain and renal colic. Mostly males affected since females are able to pass the concretions. Bladder may rupture, with death following. Otherwise, uraemic poisoning may set in. When calculi develop, it is advisable to dispose off the affected animals, since treatments have limited success. The following preventive and curative measures are recommended. Feed salt at level equivalent to 4 % of total diet in order to induce more water consumption. Feed ammonium chloride at level of 7 g per head per day to reduce the alkalinity of the urine. Incorporate 20 % alfalfa in the ration. Administer muscle relaxants to help the passage of calculi from the bladder. As a last resort, surgically remove the calculi, however, males will become non-breeders after such an operation. Q. Give causes, symptoms and treatment of bloat in small ruminants. Bloat is an excessive accumulation of gas and/or foamy material in the rumen. Severe cases can be fatal in as little as two hours if not treated. Too much of almost any feed can cause bloat but over consumption of unchoped wet clover, leafy alfalfa, grain or orchard

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fruit etc. is the most common cause. When changed from sparse to lush pasture, animals may gorge themselves unless given a feeding of dry forage prior to turning out on the grazing area. The coarse feed is thought to stimulate the belching mechanism as well as keeping the green feed from making a compact mass. Some sheep/goats seem more prone to bloat than others, possibly due to a faulty belching mechanism. Enlargement of the rumen on the left flank is the major sign of bloat. Difficult breathing, grinding of teeth because of abdominal gas pain, sometimes profuse salivation and off feed are other symptoms. When the animal falls to the ground death usually follows probably from suffocation. If bloat is not so severe as to have caused a breathing problem, you can prevent further gas formation by giving two table spoons of baking soda in a cup of warm water, using a dose syringe. Be careful so that the mixture does not go into the lungs. Repeat the dosage in thirty minutes if necessary. You can place the sheep/goat in sitting position and massage the abdomen to encourage belching. May be the bloat is foamy type, for that one-half cup of vegetable oil (maize oil or mustard oil) is given by mouth if the animal is still able to breathe and swallow normally. One cm rubber tubing may be passed down the throat into the rumen to release gas, unless there is too much foam. If you are sure that the tube is not in the lungs, you can pour one-half cup vegetable oil into the tube with a funnel to break up the foam somewhat. In an emergency the rumen can be punctured by an experienced person, using a sterilized trocar and cannula to relieve both foam and gas and to treat to prevent infection. Q. What is meant by an abscess and how to treat it? An abscess is a lump or boil usually in the neck or shoulder region of goats. It grows until it bursts and a thick pus is exuded. Any animal with an abscess should be isolated. If the goat is wet, its milk should be boiled well before consuming it. If, however, the abscess is on the udder, the milk should be discarded. The lump will become the size of a tennis ball or even larger, and burst by itself or it can be lanced when it appears ripe. A small Xshaped cut will heal better than a straight cut and the incision should be made low on the abscess to facilitate drainage. Squeeze out the pus and burn the material. Isolation and strict sanitation are especially important during the period of drainage. If the abscess is caused by lymphadenitis, it will have cheese-like pus; if the pus is like mayonnaise it indicates pseudopeumonia. The wound should be treated with acryflavine or tincture of iodine. Some reports suggested that goat flocks vaccinated for corynebacteria became abscess free.

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HOOF CARE
Q. What are the various causes of lameness in small ruminants? Suggest preventive measures in this regard. The possible causes of lameness are: overgrown untrimmed hooves; wedges of mud or stone or other matter lodged in the cleft of the hoof; plugged toe gland (in sheep), squeeze to remove plug, then disinfect injury; sprain, nail puncture or thorn; abnormal foot development, may be a genetic defect, cull out; foot abscess; foot scald; true infectious hoof rot; vitamin deficiency, try ADE in food or injection. When you notice an animal limping, try to find out the reason. Notice which foot seems affected, then catch the animal and trim all four hooves if needed, doing the sore one last so as not to spread any possible infection. You can help prevent sheep/goats from becoming lame by: trimming all feet at least twice a year, hooves may need trimming more than twice a year when the wet weather is unduly prolonged, untrimmed hooves curl under on the sides and provide pockets for accumulation of moist mud and manure ideal for growth of foot disease germs; maintaining dry bedding area in winter; keeping animals away from low lying marshy pastures; changing location of feeding sites occasionally to prevent accumulation of manure and formation of muddy areas; and having footbath arrangement for use when needed. Q. What do you know about foot gland? Explain. Sheep have a deep gland between the two toes of each foot, with a small opening at the front and top of the hoof. It can be readily seen. Goats do not have these. The glands secretion is waxy and has a faint, strange odour, said to scent the grass and reinforce the herding instinct. If these glands are plugged with mud, the secretion is retained and the foot becomes lame. Squeeze the gland and sometimes a fairly large amount of waxy substance pours out. With this the animal gets better. You must have to get a clear idea of what a normal hoof looks like, only then you can spot a diseased condition. Mighty Mike Sheep Squeeze: Sheep enters squeeze and sides are squeezed together. It is then simple to turn sheep completely upside down. Feet can be restrained in stirrups for foot trimming. Adjustable from 45 kg animal to the largest adult ewe or ram. Q. Write notes on foot scald, foot abscess and foot rot. Food Scald: It is sometimes mistaken for foot rot. In scald the soft tissues above and between the toes are involved. There is inflamed tissue and moistness, sometimes open sores, often only one foot involved. It is caused by dampness, wet pasture, prolonged walking in mud or the abrasion due to foreign objects lodged between the toes. The soft tissue between and above the toes and heel become inflamed. This occurs primarily during wet winter and the condition sometimes improves without treatment in dry weather. It, however, lessens foot resistance to more serious conditions like foot abscess or foot rot and causes lame animals to eat poorly and not get enough exercise. Trim hooves and spray with antibacterial hoof spray. If no improvement, treat with footbath solution or ordinary hydrogen peroxide. Penicillin injections may be helpful. As prevention it is necessary to get rid of muddy places. Foot Abscess: Also called bumble foot. It is a true abscess and occurs within the hoof structure, usually affects only one foot. It is considered infectious, but not extremely contagious like foot rot. The infection causes formation of thick pus and as the internal pressure increases, the animal becomes more and more lame. Sometimes, there is a 24

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swelling above the hoof. It is caused by bacteria in manure and dirt, which enter through cuts or a wound, causing an infection of soft tissue and reddening of the tissue between the toes. This infection may become advanced if not treated and can move into the joints and then it is almost incurable. Because of abscess pregnant sheep/goats will fail to graze, slow about getting grain feeding, not enough exercise, which can bring on pregnancy toxaemia. Insufficient nutrition results into low birth weight of newborns and a little milk for them. The abscess may eventually break/burst and discharge pus or pressure is released by an incision (X-cross type). When it is opened or breaks, squeeze out the pus and treat with an antiseptic and may bandage the foot. An intramuscular injection of up to a million units of penicillin for three to five days may be given. Foot Rot: It is caused by bacteria (Bacillus nodosus). Clean animals become infected by walking over ground contaminated by infected animals within the last seven to ten days. These bacteria cannot survive on the ground much longer than seven days, but can survive indefinitely in the feet of infected sheep/goat. It spreads rapidly in warm moist weather. The foot rot organism is an anaerobe. This is why hoof trimming is an important part of foot rot treatment so that dead tissue is removed to allow oxygen to enter (to antagonize the survival of these bacteria). The availability of Footvax vaccine (in USA, Canada etc.), coupled with hoof paring and a hoof bath solutions makes both prevention and cure possible. Foot rot starts with a reddening of the skin between the claws of the hoof. The infection starts in the soft horny tissue between the hoof or on the ball of the heel then spreads to the inner hoof wall. By this time there is a strong unpleasant odour. As the disease progresses, the horny tissue of the claws becomes partly detached and the separation of the hoof wall from the underlying tissue lets the claw become misshapen and deformed. In severe infections, it is often more practical to dispose of the most seriously affected animals and concentrate treatment on the milder cases. Treatment consists of the following: remove as much part of the affected hoof as possible to expose the infected areas to the footbath. Disinfect knife after each hoof trimmed. Burn the hoof trimmings. Footbath treatment be given. Hold the animals on a dry yard for several hours after footbath treatment. Vaccinate with Footvax if available. May be imported for more valuable animals. Q. What is meant by footbath treatment? Give some footbath formulae for use with small ruminants. Footbath trough is a device containing preventive/curative solutions of various chemicals in which feet of sheep/goats are given bath to treat problems such as foot rot. If you run sheep/goats through a trough of plain water first, it keeps the footbath solution clean longer. Be sure that the animals have had water and are not thirsty so that they do not drink from the footbath. Feet should be trimmed before the footbath to allow better penetration. Disinfect knife between each hoof and each animal to avoid spread of germs. The footbath contains 10% zinc sulphate solution in which the animals are made to stand for about an hour on two occasions a week apart. Trim nonlimpers first, then put them in footbath first, now turn them into a clean grazing area. Next foot-bathe the limpers and keep them in dry area, treating them regularly every week or have them walk through the bath on the way to daily feeding. In conjunction with vaccination with Footvax, trimming and isolation of the infected animals from the clean group, total eradication of foot rot from treated flocks has been accomplished.

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There are various footbath formulae. Some have been abandoned because of being toxic and less effective e.g. copper sulphate has been widely used in the past. Formalin is also discontinued in general usage, being very irritating when inhaled as well as irritating to the skin and feet. Recent research has shown that 10% solution of zinc sulphate is highly effective as a footbath treatment. It is the least toxic and the most effective. It need not be changed frequently because it does not lose its strength from organic contamination. The addition of some liquid laundry detergent will make it more penetrating and aid in dissolving the powder in water. One kg zinc sulphate is dissolved in 2 gallons of water. Zinc sulphate dissolves slowly. Add half of it to 1 gallons of water and add one-half cup of liquid detergent, stirring slowly but constantly. The solution should be 5 cm deep in the trough. Do not rush the animals through the walk-through bath because they might splash the solution on their udders. If the number of animals is small, it may not be practical to build the footbath arrangement. You can use a small bucket made of heavy plastic with footbath mixture to a depth of 5 cm. For each animal, use it on the lame foot and also as a precaution on trimmed healthy feet. Apply the footbath solution to the hoof with a brush and then hold the infected foot in the plastic bucket containing the solution. If you are treating a front foot, hold up the other front foot, forcing the animal to stand on the foot that is in the bath. Afterwards keep the animal on a dry floor for about an hour before turning out for grazing. Repeat the bath in a week and may be once more if still limping. Q. Give below the list of preparations that are painted/sprayed onto hooves of sheep/goats just after trimming. When footbath facilities are not available, any one of the following preparations may serve the purpose. However, prior trimming is very important for the preparation to be effective. 10% zinc sulphate in water. 10% zinc sulphate in vinegar Two parts copper sulphate in one part pine tar 10% formalin in water. Penicillin in alcohol-5 million units of potassium penicillin G with 10 cc water, add to one pint of alcohol. Kopertox-this has long been one of the most effective of all topical applications for foot and minor wound problems. It is formulated with a vehicle that makes it stick to the tissue as well as fingers and everything else. Dry chemical treatment: Zinc sulphate 10% in lime can be spread on the ground around feeding troughs to reduce the spread of hoof rot. This is more of a preventive than a treatment of existing disease and is a convenient substitute for a footbath during very cold season. Q. Write a short on Footvax vaccine. It is a 10-strain whole cell vaccine containing all known serogroups of the foot rot bacteria. It is given subcut just below and behind the ear, along the side of neck. The timing of vaccination ideally be prior to the season of the greatest danger. To start with you vaccinate all animals (sheep/goats) on the premises with Footvax. Six weeks later all should receive a booster dose, followed by booster doses at four to twelve months intervals. All new animals brought into the flock should be vaccinated upon arrival. All sheep/goats should be inspected for their feet and animals affected with foot

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rot should be segregated and those infected should be closely trimmed. The entire group should have a footbath of zinc sulphate. This can be regularly a few days apart and at weekly intervals for those who appear to be clean. Severely infected animals may benefit from antibiotics. This vaccine is 85 to 90% effective in preventing foot rot and equally effective in curing cases (when combined with foot trimming and footbaths). Do not be alarmed if a bump appears on the injection site; it often disappears in a few weeks. Even a bump may show a small amount of exudates. Because of the possibility of a bump, it is not advisable to vaccinate sheep/goats just prior to a small ruminants show/fair. Q. Write a detailed note on hoof trimming in goats. Goats evolved with fast growing hooves to compensate for the wearing action of sand and rocks. Part of good grooming is to keep your goats hooves neatly trimmed. The hoof has a thin outer wall of keratin (finger nails made of the same material). The keratin layer surrounds the firm, fleshy cushion of the sole or frog. When the keratin grows beyond the frog, it folds over, collects manure and moisture and becomes subject to infections such as hoof rot. The hoof begins to twist. The goat cannot walk properly, feels pain and sometimes becomes permanently deformed. How often the hooves need trimming varies with each animal, the amount of exercise it gets, the type of areas it grazes on and the types of ground it is kept on. A properly trimmed hoof is flat on the bottom and has a boxy look. The keratin layer and frog are of even thickness, front to back and the toes are equal in length. The best way to learn what a proper hoof looks like is to examine the feet of a newborn kid. Hooves that have been softened by the moisture of rain or dewy grass are easier to trim. Have a sharp knife or garden pruning shears along with a rasp or file ready (Figure 23). Grasp one ankle and bend the hoof back, placing it over your knee for control. Scrape the accumulated dirt with the point of your trimming tool. Cut off long toes. Cut bent-over parts of the keratin layer parallel to the visible growth rings. When the outer hoof is even with the frog, make smooth the frogs white cushion by taking a tiny slice at a time. Cut from the heel toward the toe. Stop trimming when the white part shows the slightest signs of pink, since you are getting close to the foots blood supply. Work slowly and have good light so that you can see what you are doing. Flatten and finish

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the hoof with the rasp or file. Trim the hooves of a doe early in pregnancy and preferably do not do it again till after parturition. Be sure your bucks hooves are well trimmed prior to the breeding season. Q. Write a note on mortality in sheep.

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The estimated mortality for NWFP was 8% for over one year old and 18% for young stock under one year. Fifty to 80% of the deaths occurred in the first 3 months of life, 7 to 20% in second to fourth quarter of the first year and 2 to 30% after one year old. The major causes of death were gastro-enteritis (7 to 10%) and pneumonia (33 to 58%). In Punjab the estimated death rate was 10% for stock older than one year and 16% for stock under one year. An outbreak of enterotoxaemia caused 57% of the total deaths. Other causes of death were gastro-enteritis (13 to 29%) and pneumonia (29 to 50%). In Northern Areas estimated losses ranged from 5 to 10% over all age groups. The major causes of death were enterotoxaemia, sheep pox and liver fluke infestation. Enterotoxaemya was more prevalent in uphill pastures, while liver fluke on home pastures. Q. Why is the provision of first aid on small ruminant farm important? It is important to render such skilled assistance to the animals inflicted with injuries, fractures, poisoning, burns, scalds and minor obstetrical problems. The provision of first aid to affected animals will alleviate suffering, preserve life, promote recovery or prevent aggravation of the abnormal condition as well as to ensure peace and comfort of the animal during transportation to hospital, if need be. Q. What are the general principles of first aid? The person providing first aid must be trained and able to render the required skilled assistance to the inflicted animals. He should get a history of the case for his own guidance and record. Other important steps include: a) removal of the cause, b) arresting of severe haemorrhage, if any, c) provision of plenty of fresh air to the patient, d) provision of warmth to check fall in temperature and shock, e) provision of rest by changing the position of the animal into an easy posture, f) dressing of all skin injuries, g) keeping the animal still (especially when fractures occurred) by using a tranquilizer or by diverting its attention toward some feed and h) discrimination must be exercised whether to take the animal to the hospital or send for a veterinarian. Attending to Traumatic Conditions: Such conditions usually result from a physical injury due to fall, fight between animals or impact with stationary or moving object. The first thing to be done in all such cases is to arrest bleeding. Bleeding (haemorrhage) may occur from a cut artery, vein or capillaries. Bleeding from capillaries ceases soon after a clot has formed, but arterial and venous bleeding must be arrested in simple cases by keeping a pad in position (over the injury) by means of a bandage. In favourable cases, blood clotting will occur and the blood flow ceases. On limbs torniquet should be used. For this purpose a piece of rubber tubing (1 cm or so in diameter) is looped around the

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limb (6 to 8 cm above the wound) and the two ends tied with a knot. A stick is inserted into a loop and by twisting the loop is tightened. When sufficient pressure has build up, the stick should be secured in position with another bandage.

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Open Wounds: These are painful because the nerve endings are exposed and contact with soil or other contaminated material often results in an infected sore which amy be slow to heal. If there is not much of bleeding, the wound should be washed with potassium permanganate lotion, then swabbed dry and covered with a clean surgical gauze soaked in pyodine and bandage. Fractures: If the stock assistant is sufficiently experienced and if the fracture is simple, an attempt may be made to bring about the fragments of bone together and retain them in that position using a splint and bandage. In case it is a compound fracture and the animal is valuable, better wait for a competent vet. In the mean while the wound should be kept free from dirt etc. and the animal kept as quiet as possible and its attention distracted from the wound by offering feed of alluring nature. Similar line of action holds good for joint dislocations. Teat Injuries: Even the smallest abrasions or sores on teats should be treated promptly and carefully since these sites frequently become infected and the infection spreads up the teat canal resulting in mastitis. After cleaning the wound with pyodine, a dry dressing of a suitable antiseptic powder leads to early healing. Feet Injuries: The injured foot should be cleaned with cold water and bleeding arrested, if any. The sole should be examined after paring away all dung and dirt, for the cause of injury is often a picked up nail, a piece of glass or a stone or a piece of wood wedged in the cleft of the foot. The foot should be washed in warm antiseptic solution, dried and an antiseptic powder containing a bit of copper sulphate or zinc sulphate is dusted over the wound and a bandage applied. The foot should then be covered with a nylon sack. Eye Injuries: These are due to the presence of a piece of grit, chaff, awn or a seed in the eye. A drop or two of clean castor oil should be put in the affected eye. This reduces friction and eases the animal. If the eye or eyes are badly inflamed, they should be treated with suitable eye drops thrice a day and protected by blind folding loosely with a strip of cloth or housed under shade.

Likely causes of kid death Disease Causative Symptoms agent Coccidiosis P Diarrhoea, sometimes bloody. Sudden death may occur without diarrhoea. Normally in housed goats. Colibacillosis B Dry mouth. Stomach full of gas. Fever. Quick death unless treated. Responds well to antibiotics. Colostrum M Dry mouth. Fever. Severe weakness. Most deprivation die. Enterotoxaemia B Sudden depression. Drunken appearance. 31

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Lies on side when close to death, paddling legs. May have watery diarrhoea. Internal parasites P Sudden death. May have swelling under chin, anaemia and weakness. PM reveals parasites in intestines, esp. Haemonchus contortus in abomasums. Suffocation No physical signs of disease. Can occur if many kids and adults are kept together, esp. in cold climates. Malnutrition M Weakness, no stomach fill. Check dam for milk and kid for access to dam. Key: P = parasitic; B = bacterial; V = viral; M = metabolic. Likely causes of diarrhoea and loss of condition (adults) Disease Acidosis Causative Symptoms agent M Full stomach, watery contents. Diarrhoea (watery, bad smell). Very weak. No rumen movement. Recent dietary change. M Full stomach with gas or froth. Distension on left side behind ribs. Laboured breathing. P Acute diarrhoea, often with blood. Severe straining. B Full stomach. Fever. Sudden death is common. P May have swelling under jaw, anaemia. Weakness, weight loss. May die before signs of diarrhoea.

Bloat

Coccidiosis Enterotoxaemia Internal parasites

Likely causes of respiratory problems and fever Disease Causative Symptoms agent Anthrax B Bloody nasal discharge and bleeding from body openings. Death within 24-48 hours. Contagious V Nasal discharge. Rasping sound from caprine lungs. Fever. Death in most cases, pleuropneumonia sometimes 24 hours after first signs. (CCPP) Lungworm P Breathing difficulties, coughing leading to pneumonia. Melioidosis B Symptoms vague. Coughing, weakness, respiratory distress. Sometimes thick yellow nasal discharge. Sometimes lameness. Death after 1-8 weeks.

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PART- III Pneumonia B,V,P

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Rapid, laboured movement of ribs with rasping sound. Grunting, groaning and grinding of teeth from pain. High fever, nasal and eye discharge. Pimples appear after 24 hours, forming itchy scabs after one week. Death may occur.

Goat pox

Likely causes of skin diseases and swellings Disease Causative Symptoms agent Caseous B Small lumps under the skin, located at lymphadenitis lymph nodes, developing into large abscesses. Usually in adults. Chronic form shows wasting. Streptothricosis B Large spots commonly on face, ears and legs, exuding clear serum. Spots may merge into large scabs, causing hair to stand erect. Goat pox V Fever. Nasal discharge. Spots appear after 24 hours on mucous membranes inside and outside body. Spot becomes itchy scab. Mange P Sarcoptic mange shows rough, hard, itchy, wrinkled skin on back of legs and between front and rear legs, gradually spreading to mouth. Demodectic or follicle mange causes small hard itchy lumps all over body. Orf V Thickened areas around mouth, on gums and teats. Often affects kids. Ringworn F Roughly circular areas of missing hair, leaving rough, scaly skin. Warts V Growths appear on the skin, starting small but sometimes growing and spreading to affect a large area. May affect any area, including udder and teats. Key: F = fungus. Likely causes of poor condition, anaemia and pale mucous membranes Disease Causative Symptoms agent Anaplasmosis P Poor condition and severe anaemia. Babesiosis P Bloody diarrhoea and dark red urine. Poor appetite, listless with fever. Most recover, but some die, showing nervous symptoms including paddling. Coccidiosis P Acute bloody diarrhoea. Weak. Severe

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION straining. Good appetite, but poor body condition. Sometimes diarrhoea. In severe cases, swelling under jaw (bottle jaw). Weak or damaged teeth. Poor body condition, poor appetite. Chronic weight loss. Swollen lymph nodes.

Internal parasites

Teeth problems Trypanosomiasis

P P

Likely causes of lameness Disease Causative Symptoms agent Akabane disease V Kids born with rigid joints, often blind as well. Caprine arthritis V Young kids show weakness in hindlegs and encephalitis finally cannot rise. Death usually follows. In adults, swollen joints develop slowly (2 years). Difficulties in walking. Contagious B Hot, painful, swollen joints that may rupture agalactia as an abscess. Foot and mouth V Small blisters between claws of feet, causing lameness. Foot rot B Lameness in one or more foot. Affected foot appears ragged and rotten, with bad smell. Often occurs in wet season, or in dirty conditions. Mastitis B Does with inflamed udder may show a straddling walk. Melioidosis B Joints, testicles and lymph nodes sometimes swollen. Mineral M Kids born with deformed joints because of deficiencies calcium: phosphorus imbalance or deficiency. Navel ill B Inflamed navel and hot painful joints in kid. Ticks P Tick attachment between claws of feet. Inflammation of skin at site of attachment. Physical injury Likely causes of nervous diseases Disease Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) Copper deficiency Causative Symptoms agent V In addition to lameness, often head tremors, blindness, jerky movement of eyeballs and circling. M Muscle tremors and nodding or shaking of head.

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PART- III Enterotoxaemia B

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Star gazing, convulsions, teeth grinding, pitiful cry of pain. Paddling movements and throwing back head just before death. Circling movement. Convulsion, twitching eyelids. Depression. Facial paralysis, resulting in drooping eyelids and ears. Circling and head pressing. Sometimes staggering, jerky movement, or paralysis, with swollen joints. Convulsions may occur in kids when close to death. Enlarged navel stump is a critical symptom. Inability to stand, poor balance during late gestation. Staring eyes, eating unusual objects, confusion, drooling saliva, strange bleat. Only in adults. Uncoordinated limbs, especially hind legs, high-stepping forelegs. Salivation. Rocking-horse straight-legged stance. Usually 2 weeks after wound.

Heartwater Listeriosis

R B

Melioidosis Navel ill

B B

Pregnancy toxaemia Rabies Scrapie V V

Tetanus Key: R = rickettsia.

Likely causes of female and male infertility Disease Brucellosis Intersex Metritis Causative Symptoms agent B Swollen testicles (orchitis), causing infertility in buck. H Mixture of male and female reproductive organs. B Dark, sticky, smelly discharge after giving birth indicates metritis. If left untreated, may develop into chronic problem and infertility. Physical damage to penis or testicles may result in male infertility. H Sterility. Small, hard tumour at top of unusually small testes can eventually be felt. P Inflammation/degeneration of testes.

Physical damage Sperm granulomas

Trypanosomiasis Key: H = hereditary

Likely causes of abortion

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Causative Symptoms agent Brucellosis B Abortion in last 50 days of the 150-day gestation. Possibly swollen joints. Chlamydial abortion B Abortion in last 50 days of gestation. High proportion of flock will abort. Foot and mouth V Abortion at any time of gestation, early in disease course of disease. Sores on tongue, in mouth and between claws of feet. Listeriosis B Abortion in last 70 days of gestation. May have drooping ears and eyelids. Tongue may hang out. Fever, depression and nervous symptoms. Malnutrition M Abortion at any time during gestation, but especially in last 50 days if short of energy. Poisoning M Abortion at any time of gestation, as sideeffect of poisoning. Salmonellosis B Abortion in last 50 days of gestation. Fever, no appetite, diarrhoea. Shock and stress Abortion at any time during gestation, usually 2 to 4 days after shock or stress. Toxoplasmosis P Abortion in last 50 days of gestation. Rare. Trypanosomiasis P Abortion during acute disease. Likely causes of udder diseases Disease Causative Symptoms agent Mastitis B Heat, pain and swelling of udder. May become bright red. Udder black and cold if gangrenous. Orf V Small, scabby, painful sores on udder. Doe will not allow kid to suckle. Physical damage Physical damage such as tears, tick damage, thorn damage can make udder sore and affect milk production. Can lead to infection. Warts V Small warts may grow on teat and persist for several months. Q. Discuss the importance of post-mortem (after death) examination in small ruminants. If a sheep/goat dies it is helpful to carry out a simple post-mortem examination to try to find out the cause of death. This may be important in identifying infectious diseases and preventing their spread to other animals in the flock. It is useful if extension staff are able to carry out a simple post-mortem examination and learn how to record systematically 36

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what is seen. In order to carryout an effective post-mortem, it is important that the size, colour, and texture of normal organs are known, so that any abnormalities can be observed and recorded. Visits to a slaughterhouse will enable you to become quickly familiar with the appearance of the organs of normal sheep/goats. Q. How to proceed while conducting a post-mortem examination? First find a convenient site away from the owners house/farm and other livestock and in a place where the dead sheep/goat can subsequently be burned or buried at a depth of at least one meter. (Note: If the body is stiff, swollen or bloated, do not open it, because too long a period has elapsed after death to be able to determine the cause of death. Do not bother to carry out a post-mortem on a dead body that died more than 12 hours before, because the internal organs will have already started to decompose. Observe the dead sheep/goat, if there are any dark bloody discharges from the mouth, nose or anus, then do not open it, as it may have died of anthrax. It is a very dangerous disease. If the body is opened, the whole surrounding area may become contaminated. Touch the body to check for any gas under the skin. Does it crackle under the skin? If yes, it might be clostridial infection such as malignant oedema. Check the body for any external abnormalities. Check for ticks. How severe is the infestation? Take samples of ticks. Check all legs for foot rot and wounds). Never perform a post-mortem near any water supply or close to grazing areas because of risks of contamination. Dig a small ditch beside the carcass, into which organs and fluids can be placed. Ideally, post-mortem examination should be carried out wearing rubber gloves or thin plastic bags can be used to cover your hands. If not available, check your hands for any cuts or bruises. If you have any cuts, do not perform a post-mortem. Get someone else to open the carcass and examine the organs while you watch. Obtain a detailed case history from the owner/attendant of the animal. This combined with an examination of the outside of the carcass, will direct your attention to the organs most likely to be involved in this case. There should be someone to record the findings of the post-mortem as you describe them. Lay the body on its back or side and cut the skin in a line along the center of the abdomen and chest. Remove the reproductive organs (testicles or udder). Pull the skin back. Bend back top foreleg and hindleg. Open the body by cutting the ribs along the line of the back bone and cutting the ribs along the chest and removing the rib cage. Tip the body up and look at the fluids. Are they bloody or yellowish? Do there seem to be a lot of fluids? If yes, suspect enterotoxaemia. Remove the whole digestive tract without opening it, by tying both the top and bottom ends of the tract with string or tie the intestine in a knot. Keep the tract for examination later on including liver and spleen. Check the heart for fluids inside the outer membrane of the heart. If there are lots of fluids then heart water might be the cause of death. Cut the top of the trachea and remove it with the lungs and keep them for later. Look for the kidneys, which will be in some fat at the back of the abdominal cavity. Extract them from the fat, remove and keep them. Check the bladder. Open and observe the colour and quantity of urine. Check inside the bladder for any haemorrhage, dots of blood or lines of blood. If yes, suspect poisoning. Look for spleen attached to the rumen close to the liver. Check the length and edge of the spleen. Is sharp or blunt? A normal spleen is firm, with sharp edges. Feel the consistency. If the spleen is enlarged and soft with a blunt edge, then the cause of death possibly is anaplasmosis. If the spleen is very swollen, suspect trypanosomiasis.

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Check the liver for size and consistency: hard, springy like dough or fragile. Cut across the length in 2 to 3 places and press. If liver flukes are present, dark-coloured flukes will pop out. Run a knife blade on the surface of the liver to feel for any spots of dead (necrosed) tissue. If there are greyish/yellow areas, these may be the migratory tracts of liver fluke. If the liver and spleen are very enlarged and if the gall bladder is distended with thick dark green bile, then suspect babesiosis. If it is a kid and the liver is pale and yellow with grey patches, or if it is an adult and the liver is red/brown with dead patches, then suspect Rift valley fever (prevalent in certain African countries). To confirm, check intestines for haemorrhages. It is a dangerous disease and can infect people. Examine the lungs for consistency. Palpate each lung for hardness, nodules and cysts. Open the trachea and continue cutting into the lung. Check for foam, worms and blood. Adult worms in the bronchi indicate lungworms. Cut a small piece of lung and put it in a cup of water. If the lung is normal, it will float; if diseased, it will usually sink. Cut across the length of the lung, press and see if there is any foam. If there is much straw-coloured fluid, then suspect contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). If there is clear fluid and the lower part of the lung is red/purple, then suspect pasteurellosis. Examine the kidneys: The kidney will normally start to putrefy 12 to 24 hours after death. However, if the kidney putrefies within six hours after death, suspect enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney). Next check the digestive tract. First observe the whole tract for any dark patches. Small Intestine: If there is a dark patch, open in that area. If it appears normal, open randomly. Cut open and remove the contents into a container. Cut along the length and check for any attached worms. Check the inside wall for any blood lines. If they are present, suspect enterotoxaemia. Check the contents for any worms. In some cases worms may not be seen with naked eye. Watch for a wave-like motion in the contents of the small intestines, indicating the presence of parasites. If the contents of the small intestines, indicate the presence of parasites and the contents are bloody and nodules are present on the intestinal surface, suspect coccidiosis. Large Intestine: If the large intestine is filled with liquid faeces and there was evidence of severe dehydration, suspect colibacillosis. If there are obvious haemorrhages, particularly in the caecum and colon and enlarged internal lymph nodes, then suspect Nairobi sheep disease. Rumen: Cut the rumen along its greatest curve. Remove the contents. Look for worms attached to the wall (small red oval-shaped worms when full of blood). They indicate Paramphistomum and are not important. Check the inside wall; if it rubs off easily, then acidosis might be the cause of death. Check contents for foreign materials (plastic bags, metal objects etc.); for smell (a bear-like fermenting smell indicates acidosis); for appearance (if frothy, suspect bloat). Check the contents of the reticulum for foreign material such as nails, wires etc. Also check the contents of the omasum for foreign material. Abomasum: Put contents into a container and wash the flaps of the wall into the container. Look at the wall for blood spots, blood lines or blood. Look for small white worms with a red spiral pattern attached to the wall. These are probably Haemonchus contortus. If you can see many worms, then there is a major worm problem. After the post-mortem, the body should not be eaten, but ideally should be deeply buried or burned. Q. Write a very brief note on taking samples during a post-mortem. 38

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If you have access to a good animal diagnostic laboratory; any organ found not to be normal, should be preserved as a sample. It should be properly sealed and labeled. When taking samples, always take samples of both the affected part and a normal part of the organ. Samples should be preserved in 5% formalin or frozen. If this is not possible, they can be preserved in a strong saline solution. They should reach a laboratory within 12 hours. Along with a copy of the post-mortem examination record be sent to the laboratory. These should either be dispatched in a container with a fixative such as 10% formalin, or should first be preserved for two days. Pieces of tissue should be cut to 10 to 15 mm size to allow proper penetration of fixative. For toxicological examination the contents of the stomach and intestines and portions of liver and kidneys may be sent without delay, each in separate containers. Q. What types of samples need to be dispatched for laboratory tests to have the disease diagnosed? In such cases it is advisable to: contact the laboratory before samples are dispatched or have a constant liaison with the lab.; know what kind of tests are routinely performed at the lab.; send the samples without delay; and send brief details of the case as well as of the samples. The following types of samples may be dispatched. Whole blood mixed with an anticoagulant such as EDTA (1 to 10 mg/ml), heparin (0.1 to 0.2 mg/ml), sodium citrate (2 to 4 mg per ml) or potassium oxalate (2 mg/ml). Whole blood in glucose broth for bacteriological examination. Blood smears on microscopic slides fixed in alcohol. Serum or plasma for biochemical estimations and serological tests. Urine should be dispatched without adding preservatives. Other body fluids including cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid and fluid from thoracic and abdominal cavities should be collected aseptically and dispatched in sterile bottles with preservative. Faeces may be dispatched in plastic or metallic containers. Skin scrapings may be sent in sealed tubes or small bottles without preservative. Samples for bacteriological examination including body fluids, pus, faeces, tissues and swabs may be dispatched, preferably with enrichment medium. Tissue samples from live or dead animals may be sent for histological examination. The sample should include normal as well as diseased tissue.

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION

RANGE SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION


Q. What proportion of total area of Pakistan is rangeland? Of 79.61 million hectares area of Pakistan, 57.09 million hectares constitute rangeland area. The Balochistan province has the largest proportion, being 32.43 m hectares, while the NWFP has the smallest. The provinces of Punjab (9.70 m hectares) and Sindh (9.28 m hectares) have almost the same magnitude of rangeland. Q. What type of lands have been termed as rangelands? Under the conditions of this country, rangelands include all categories of land that are not under forest or cultivation, especially those that sustain grazing or browsing of animals. However, wastelands characterized by precipitation too low or too erratic to support forestry or permanent cultivation are also included. Of course, a considerable area classified as rangeland is not fit for grazing because it includes mountain peaks, steep rocks, shifting sand dunes, marshes and swamps e.g. of the 31.6 m hectares of rangelands in Quetta, Kalat and Makran division of Balochistan, only 12.1 m hectares are fit for grazing. Q. Discuss the general importance of rangelands. Range areas are used mostly by pastoralists since livestock grazing is the biggest land use in the country. These areas not only yield forage for grazing but often fuel, some building material, medicinal and food plants as well. They serve as a production base for livestock, which yield meat and milk for human consumption and products such as hides, skins, wool, hair, bones and manure. In addition, rangelands in the mountains and plateaus of the western and north-western parts of the country are also watersheds for a number of big dams and reservoirs in the Indus basin. Properly managed and vegetated rangelands help in checking soil erosion and production of good quality water from these watersheds. Rangelands also support a large population of the remaining stock of wildlife, which are a genetic resource, a potential source of additional animal protein and, in some areas, a tourist attraction worth millions of rupees per annum. Q. Write a note on the contribution of rangelands to sheep and goat production. Estimated sheep and goat population of Pakistan is over 75m in 2002. Rangelands in the country hardly provide 50 % of the total feed requirement for sheep and goats. Overall these areas provide 13 % of the total feed consumed by animals as indicated by the FAO/IBRD (1974) livestock survey. Based on the estimated population of sheep as given above, the requirements of total digestible nutrients (TDN) were 4.98 million tons, of which 1.68 million tons were being provided by rangelands. The TDN requirements for goats were assessed as 7.8 million tons, whereas only 1.91 million tons were being met from rangelands. At 60 % utilization rate, the current annual forage production from rangelands is about 15.30 million tons of dry matter, TDN 7.65 million tons and DP (digestible protein) 0.69 million tons.

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Q. Discuss the forage production from rangelands of the country. No reliable data in this respect are available. Estimates given by various authors/workers are not consistent. About 85 % of rangelands in Pakistan are in semi-arid or arid regions, receiving less than 300 mm rainfall annually. Because of heavy overgrazing and misuse in the past, these rangelands are producing at only 50 % of their production capacity and in some areas even less than that. The production of DM and TDN per hectare of range area varies between the following limits: Annual rainfall (mm) 125-200 225-300 325-400 425-60 >600 DM (kg/ha) 90 225 561 898 1348 TDN (kg/ha) 36 90 225 359 539

The carrying capacity of rangelands in Pakistan has been estimated to be 4.306 million animal units (AU), based on one unit being equivalent to the feed requirement of a mature cow and a suckling calf: i) ii) 48.19 million ha of range area at = 2.974 million AU an average of 16.19 ha/AU/year 8.90 million ha at an average = 1.332 million AU of 6.681 ha/AU/year _____________________________________________________ Total = 4.306 million AU _____________________________________________________

The total number of AU actually feeding on rangeland is much more than the carrying capacity. Most probably the rangelands are presently stocked with thrice the number of animals that they can support, because the grazing animals are not evenly distributed over the entire area. There are vast areas, which are not grazed due to being inaccessible, lack of water, extreme climate and similar other reasons. Q. Give estimates of forage production per hectare for rangelands in Pakistan. Generally, ranges in Pakistan are in fair to very poor condition, although there are a few exceptions. The results of a few limited studies on forage production in some range types are reported in Table 13.

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PART- III Table 13.

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Estimates of forage production for Pakistan rangelands Place Air-dry weight (kg/ha) 168 20 176 193 112

Rangeland type

Tropical plains (sandy) Cholistan South-western rangelands Quetta, Kalat Tropical maritime Kohistan Tropical plains (non-sandy) DG Khan Semi-arid/subtropical (subhumid) Pothowar Q. How to choose a range supplement? There is no one best and most practical range supplement for any or all conditions. Many different feeds may be, and are, used; among them, i) ranch or locally produced hay, ii) possibly alfalfa pellets or cubes, and iii) protein blocks. Sheep/goats on range grass may be supplemented according to the formula given in Table 14. Of course, the supplements in Table 14 may be modified in keeping with availability and cost of feeds, and yet meet known deficiencies. For example, if phosphorus is the only deficiency, it may be corrected by feeding a phosphorus supplement free-choice. Formula for range sheep/goats supplement Recommended level of protein (%) High Medium Low Cottonseed meal, 41% 62.5 32.0 0 Soybean meal, 41% 10.0 10.0 0 Barley, 41% 0.0 33.0 67.0 Corn 5.0 10.0 15.0 Alfalfa meal, minimum 17% 12.5 6.0 5.0 Molasses 5.0 5.0 10.0 Dicalcium phosphate 4.0 3.0 2.0 Salt 1.0 1.0 1.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Composition Moisture free M.F M.F. (M.F.) Crude protein (%) 36.5 26.4 12.0 Digestible protein (%) 29.6 21.4 9.1 M. Energy (Mcal/lb) 1.1 1.2 1.4 Phosphorus (%) 1.7 1.3 0.8 Carotene (mg/lb) 10.0 5.0 4.1 Rate of feeding (lb/day) 0.25-0.5 0.25-0.5 0.25-0.5 Source: Ensminger and Parker (1986). In choosing a supplement for range sheep/goats, the following requisites need to be met: i) It should supply all the nutrients needed that are missing in the forage. This necessitates the following three steps: a) Determining the approximate composition of the grazing animals diet. b) Determining the nutritive requirements of sheep/goats by consulting the nutritive requirement tables. c) Computing the deficiencies (subtract a from b above). Table 14. Feed

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It should be fed in such a way that each animal has access to it. It should be fed in a form that is convenient and practical from the standpoint of the feeder. Q. How to determine the rate and time of supplemental feeding of sheep/goats on ranges? Discuss briefly. The rate and time of supplemental feeding is determined by the reason for feeding supplements. These are fed for two primary purposes: i) to balance diets by adding small quantities of a nutrient such as protein, a mineral, or a vitamin and ii) to provide nutrients during short-term emergencies, for example during long rainy spells or at certain hilly places when forage is covered with snow. Successful managers develop grazing plans that minimize the need for supplements yet provide the proper supplement at the proper time and in proper amounts. The normal range of supplementation for sheep/goats is 110 to 225 g per head per day. Rates above 225 g approach a level that will result in reduced intake of range forage. However, when range forage is so short as to require supplementation in excess of 225 g/head/day, consideration should be given to moving the animal either into a drylot or to a better grazing area. Q. What animal species other than sheep and goats can thrive on rangelands? Farm animals such as cattle, camels, horses and donkeys can be considered as range animals although they are not as important range animals as sheep and goats are. Dairy goats should certainly perform better when stall fed. However, except by individual owners who raise dairy goats for domestic use of their milk, the rest of the milch goats are treated just as other mutton animals. Beef cattle especially thrive much better on rangeland since stall feeding will make beef production an uneconomical enterprise. In addition, several wildlife species make their living from rangelands. The following is the percentage of farm animal populations grazing on rangelands: Cattle 5, camels 40, sheep 60, goats 60, horses 20 and donkeys 40. Q. What is meant by grazing systems? A grazing system is the realization of principles of vegetation management through planned utilization of vegetation by livestock for the benefit of both vegetation and livestock. A number of grazing systems are in use. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages; none is perfect. However, success of a system depends on many factors such as climate and physiography of the area, type and condition of vegetation, grazing pressure and kind of animals. A guiding rule in this respect is that the number of animals that can be allowed to graze on one square km area is the maximum number that land will support during a poor season.

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Give a list of various grazing systems employed for proper vegetation management and briefly describe any two of these. Unplanned grazing has evident damaging effects on range vegetation as well as range livestock. To get rid of these damaging effects, a number of planned grazing systems have been evolved over the years. Main objectives of these systems are: i) to provide a period of rest to the vegetation to restore its vigour, ii) to allow seed production, iii) to attain uniform utilization and iv) to have more productive range sheep and goats. Namely, various grazing systems are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Continuous grazing system Rotational grazing system Deferred grazing systems Rest grazing systems Best block grazing system

Two grazing systems are briefly described below. Rotational Grazing System: This system is based on rotation of grazing period over the entire range area, which is divided into a number of units/blocks. The animals are allowed to graze in one unit for some specified period. They are then shifted to the next unit/block for the next similar period and so on. Vegetation of each unit gets a period of rest throughout the year except during the specified grazing period. The periods of grazing and rest are fixed for each unit. The vegetation of some units/blocks may have a more favourable period of rest than of others. The system is more useful in areas where climate is favourable for plant growth as well as for grazing during most of the year. This grazing system promotes forage vigour by avoiding repeated and continuous grazing of one block year after year. It provides rest for recovery and promotes uniform grazing. Also, it lends more control on vegetation composition. However, it is expensive due to high cost of fencing and water development and is profitable only on rather good rangelands. Best block Grazing System: Under this system grazing is always allowed in the best unit till 50 % utilization of vegetation is achieved. This is followed by the next best unit and so on. This system is an improved version of natural system of grazing where, however, condition of 50 % utilization does not exist; livestock generally vacate an area and get on to the next best after having consumed well over 50 % of the available forage. It is a system more workable for vast dry areas. It appears to have some similarity to nomadic grazing. Q. Discuss briefly the deferred grazing system. This system involves the following two types: i) Deferred Continuous Grazing System: According to this system the entire range is opened to grazing throughout the grazing season. The condition of range vegetation is continuously kept under observation. Wherever, the vegetation appears poor and thin, that area is protected from grazing till seed setting is over. Grazing is generally delayed for 2 to 3 consecutive years in order to ensure establishment of vegetation through natural reseeding.

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ii) Deferred Rotational Grazing System: This system has the flexibility of shifting the grazing period of any unit which is in need of protection for reseeding, till seed setting/seed maturity is over. Grazing is delayed in any particular unit for 1 to 3 consecutive years so that newly reseeded plants are able to get deep and extensive root system established. Q. Discuss the merits and demerits of both types of deferred grazing systems. Merits: These promote forage vigour by avoiding repeated grazing of one unit/block at early growing season year after year. These promote natural reseeding in each block by delaying grazing until after seed production. Deferred rotational grazing (DRG) promotes uniform utilization. Unpalatable species are also consumed. DRG permits more control on vegetation composition. Also, natural reseeding is promoted in each block turn by turn. Winter gazing is provided under both types of deferred grazing systems. Demerits: Quality of forage is deteriorated in deferred units. These are not suitable for a mixture of grasses and low growing legumes since the latter are suppressed. DRG is expensive due to high cost of fencing, salt provision and water development. It is a complex system and requires sound knowledge of plant and animal ecology. It is more suitable for more productive rangelands. Q. Tabulate below animal units that can be used for interconversion into equivalents of various farm animal species. Cow 1.0 animal unit Mule 1.0 animal unit Buffalo 1.5 animal unit Sheep 0.2 animal unit Yearling 0.6 animal unit Goat 0.3 animal unit Camel 1.7 animal unit Horse 1.3 animal unit Bull 1.5 animal unit Donkey 0.6 animal unit Q. Give a list of indigenous and exotic grasses that have been reported to perform well in various range ecological zones of Pakistan. Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass), Bothriochloa pertusa or Hurricane grass (palwan), Cenchrus ciliaris (dhaman or buffelgrass), Chloris gayana (rhodesgrass), Cynodon dactylon (khabbal, bermudagrass), Dichanthium annulatum (hindigrass, Delhigrass or murgha), Elymus junceus (Russian wildrye), Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass), Lolium perenne (English ryegrass, perennial ryegrass), Panicum antidotale (bluepanic) and Pennisetum purpureum (elephantgrass or napiergrass) (Bajra-napier hybrid). Q. Give a list of indigenous and exotic fodder trees and shrubs that have shown promising results in various range areas of Pakistan. Acacia modesta (phulai), Acacia nilotica (babul, kikar), Acacia senegal (khor), Acacia tortilis (Jangli babul), Artocarpus integrifolia (kathal), Bauhinia variegata (kachnar), Celtis australis (tagho, kharik) Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Ficus religiosa (pippal), Grewia optiva (grewia, dhaman, bihul), Leucaena leucocephala (ipil-ipil), Morus alba (mulberry, tut), Oleaferruginea (kau), Populus spp. (poplar), Prosopis juliflora (Mesquite), Prosopis cineraria (jand, kandi), Quercus leucotrichophora (banoak), Robinia pseudoacacia (ain-ul-asal, black locust), Salvadora oleoides (Wan, piloo), Sesbania sesban (sesban, jantar), Tamarix aphylla (frash, ghaz), and Zizyphus mauritiana (ber).

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Q. Give a list of forage legumes commonly used for feeding of livestock. Medicago sativa (Lucerne, alfalfa, queen of forages), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Trifolium repens (white clover) and Vicia sativa. Q. Discuss the grazing systems in the northern mountains. Three major grazing systems are practised here that are of course not consistent with scientific concept of use i.e. according to the potential of range. Nomadic grazing of livestock is dictated by seasonal climatic conditions and seasonal forage availability. Nomadic flocks of sheep and goats start ascending during March along metalled roads in the Kaghan, Indus Kohistan and Neelam valleys. They spend April in subtropical and temperate forest grazing areas below 2000 m. Regrowth in Alpine pastures occurs in May soon after the snow melts. In alpine scrub forests sufficient browse from shrubs is available. The alpine vegetation growth in June can support livestock. The latter remain in this area till early October when low temperatures retard plant growth. The flocks then start descending towards plains or low valleys. October and early November are spent in the forest areas between 2000 and 3000 m. During winter, livestock remain in Pothowar scrub ranges, on Shamlats, abandoned cultivated lands or in areas along water channels, roadsides, grazing grounds and agricultural fields having stubbles. The herders pay nominal grazing fee of Rs. 5.00 to Rs. 7.00 per sheep/goat for the season to the Syed families of Kaghan or the Khans of Indus Kohistan who control the use of alpine pastures. In addition, a yearling (sheep/goat) is offered for every 100 ewes/does as payment in kind. The provincial Forest Department also charges a nominal fee for livestock grazing in the forest areas. This, however, is done without taking into account the condition of range vegetation. Thus, overstocking has seriously damaged the range forage. Semi-Nomadic Grazing: This involves the movements of sheep and goats from settlements within conifer forests to the alpine pastures. For example, the animals from Gujal villages in upper Hunza migrate to the Khunjerab alpine pastures. This type of grazing is common in Northern Areas and in Chitral alpine pastures. Women look after the flocks and spend the summer in the alpine areas. Men maintain food supplies by travelling back and forth. Winter season is spent around permanent settlements. Local Grazing: Sheep and goats graze between cultivated lands or in adjoining forests throughout the year. Shamlats or communal ownership areas are heavily overgrazed. Q. Write a note on grazing patterns in the desert ranges. Sheep and goat grazing practices in Thal, Cholistan, Kohistan and Tharparkar desert areas are not much different. Private flocks are allowed to graze state-owned rangelands in exchange of nominal grazing fees. The breeders who migrate from Kohistan and Thar purchase acacia trees and feed their flocks on the leaves and pods. This also is practised in Thal. In Kohistan and Thar, grazing in cotton fields is also sold after picking is over. Prices are negotiable. About 95 % of the Cholistani breeders constitute the second group of migrants. In some cases grazing is free in lieu of the manure, which the flocks deposit in the fields during the night. In others payment in cash or kind is made. Obviously, such nominal grazing fees encourage overgrazing resulting in deterioration of the range. A lack of adequate stock water leads the sheep and goats to concentrate around rainfed water ponds, thus further discouraging uniform utilization of ranges. During the winter or droughts, small ruminants as well as other livestock move to irrigated areas but these areas also lack adequate feed. Most of the camel population stays

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in the desert and obtain water by feeding on succulent shrubs. Greater Cholistan has better grazing grounds but a lack of watering points and inadequate communication, results in improper utilization. The Tharparkar and Kohistan ranges are grazed by sheep and goats as well as cattle and camels. Most of the population is migratory. In the early winter, people leave their villages in search of better grazing and migrate into irrigated areas. In the early monsoon season when forage is abundant, they return to villages and leave their animals to graze during July-November. Q. Describe the grazing patterns in Balochistan and Sulaiman mountain ranges. The south-western desert ranges are grazed by local livestock including small ruminants. These animals move within the valleys. The central and northern parts of Balochistan have a centuries-old system of nomadic grazing with the following three components: i) Spring summer nomadic transhumance, ii) Winter nomadic transhumance and iii) Year-round sedentary nomadic grazing. Spring-Summer Nomadic Transhumance: In this pattern, 56 % of the sheep, 63 % of the goats, 70 % of the camel population, a few cattle and 70 % of total households migrate between the highlands and the lowlands (Sibi and Kachhi plainsthe winter grazing ground). In winter, the livestock move to the irrigated Sibi and Kachhi plains where they stay for about 4 to 6 months, depending upon the rainfall in the highland region, which governs their return. Sorghum is the main crop in the Sibi and Kachhi plains. The stock owners rent land under this crop. Most of the grain, the stem and stubble are used to feed the migrant livestock. With the beginning of the spring (in March), the livestock return to the highland areas where they move about for 6 to 8 months (March-October) on rangelands. Livestock are moved by trucks or on hoof through Bolan pass. Winter Nomadic Transhumance: In this pattern, 20 % of the sheep, 10 % of the goats and a few camels of the Pawindas come from Afghanistan at the start of winter in October. The number of animals, however, fluctuates every year, depending on the rainfall. Scarcity of forage during winter coupled with low temperatures force them to leave their country in search of forage. They stay in the area for nearly 4 months and go back on the onset of spring in March. During their stay in the area, they mainly depend on tree leaves, stubbles, roughages from fruits and vegetables and partly on range forage. The Pawindas stop only where there is a spring or some other source of water. Sedentary Nomadic Grazing: In this pattern, 24 % of the sheep and 27 % of the goats remain in the area throughout the year. They depend either on forage from the ranges or from the cropland. In winter, they receive silage made from wheat, barley, lucerne and Alhagi camelorum. Because of disturbances in Afghanistan, Pawindas do not return to their homeland even in summer months, thus increasing the grazing pressure on summer highland ranges, causing rangeland to deteriorate. Several protected forests in Balochsistan have disappeared due to illegal cutting of trees and shrubs and grazing by Afghan refugees and Pawindas. The grazing patterns in Sulaiman mountains are similar to those in Balochistan ranges. Q. What is meant by transhument system of grazing? This means alternative pastures, which indicates that in some sheep/goat producing areas, prevalent conditions compel owners of animals to move away from the home locality for

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a time. Seldom do total populations migrate from a certain area in one season however. For example, in the Hazara division of NWFP, the regular movement of flocks to highland pastures has been observed in spring each year and then their return to the plains of Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat districts in autumn. This movement included not just flocks and their shepherds but also families, children and even poultry. Being comparatively less cold they graze their flocks in the valleys during winter and move to the upper hill pastures at the onset of spring. The flocks and families return to the valleys by the end of autumn by which time pastures are exhausted. Similar exercise is also undertaken by owners of Cholistan flocks and most of the Balochistan flocks. Q. How do ranges differ from cultivated pastures? From the standpoint of vegetation and utilization by livestock, ranges differ from cultivated pastures as follows: i) They are less productive: Generally, their productive capacity is low since they are largely made up of the residue remaining after the usable agricultural lands have been taken up. Also, plant growth on rangelands frequently is limited by low and undependable rainfall, short growing seasons, shallow or rocky soil, alkali or salt accumulations, steep topography etc. Under such conditions, forage plants are usually resistant to grazing damage. ii) They progress more to less palatable plants: Range vegetation consists of a mixture of native and introduced plants, varying in palatability, nutritive value and productive ability. Grazing animals select the most palatable plants first. Thus, unless careful management is practised, the best plants are crowded out through grazing injuries and competition from ungrazed low-value plants. Continued poor management can result in good forage plants being almost completely replaced by low value, annual, weedy or shrubby vegetation, or left denuded and subject to severe erosion. iii) When depleted, they are more difficult to restore: Once a range becomes depleted, it is a slow process to rebuilding it. Plough and drilling are impracticable on most rangelands; thus, very often the only feasible way of restoring a range to good condition is to stock it conservatively and manage it well. iv) They often serve multiple uses: In addition to grazing, rangelands often have other uses e.g. water production, timber production, mineral production, wildlife production and recreation (camping, hiking, picnicking). Q. What features of sheep/goats can help them to thrive well on ranges? Over the decades, hardy migratory flocks have developed in range areas of the country. The two requisites of prime importance possessed by the range sheep/goats are a gregarious (or flocking) instinct and a rugged constitution. A large and variable area of Pakistan is embraced by rangelands, thus making for differences in adaptation within its boundaries. These differences are primarily due to vegetative variations that result from differences in moisture, soil and altitude. Q. Give the merits of fenced ranges. i) It is claimed that less labour is required. ii) It is said that over a period of year, the fences cost less than herders. iii) The carrying capacity of the range is increased. iv) The fences afford some protection against predatory animals. v) The sheep/goats thrive better because they can scatter out more in grazing and they are not required to walk long distances in bedding down, in securing water and in keeping them from other flocks. Q. What do you think is the proper size of range sheep/goat flocks?

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In general, the size of a flock (band) is determined by the number of sheep/goats that can be efficiently handled by one person. This, however, will vary according to (i) the season of the year, (ii) the topography of the country, (iii) type of vegetation and (iv) the condition of ewes/does, whether they are dry, lambing/kidding, or suckling. The flocks may be large when on the winter range than at other seasons; large when in a lush-plainstype country than in a broken or mountainous country or where the vegetation is sparse; and large when the band is composed of dry ewes/does than when lambing/kidding-out or suckling. It is worth while to mention that the care given by the herder greatly affects (i) the quantity and quality of lambs/kids and wool produced, (ii) the losses suffered from accidents, predatory animals and disease and (iii) to some extent, the status of the range vegetation. Range flocks, under the existing conditions, may vary between 200 to 300 head of sheep and/or goats. Q. Discuss the duties of skillful shepherds (herders) on ranges. Their day begins as soon as sheep/goats leave the bed ground. They need to keep a sharp lookout for predatory animals and guiding their flocks in the proper direction where they are to feed and rest for the day. After 3 to 4 hours morning grazing, the flocks may shade up during the heat of the day. The animals resume foraging about mid-afternoon and will graze till about sunset. The herders prevent their animals from mixing with other flocks and from straying or trespassing. They have to encourage open grazing and use dogs a very minimum. They are required to change bedding and feeding grounds frequently to obtain fatter sheep/goats and more wool. Select the bedding ground for the night at a suitable time during the day; about of an hectare in size, relatively open and fairly high. The selected bedding area be away from a ravine or canal to avoid damages to any wandering animals. As the animals settle down at the bed ground, the herders should determine if their flocks are intact. The general contentment and appearance of the flocks and the presence of certain easily recognized, odd-looking individuals known as markers, counters, or spotters in the flock indicates that the flock is intact. At night, if the herders find that one or two of the markers are missing, they may well conclude that several sheep have strayed for which a diligent search should be made to bring them back into the fold. The herders must watch over their flocks by night. Good herders keep to a minimum the losses from poisonous plants. Grazing in areas heavily infested with poisonous plants must be avoided. Avoid long drives followed by rapid filling in areas where poisonous plants are present. Herders must also know the location of water and see that flocks get water at such interval as necessary. In cool weather and when sheep/goats are grazing succulent forage, water on every other day may be sufficient. However, when it is hot and the forage is dry, flocks will thrive best if watered daily. Herders must also provide their bands with an adequate supply of salt. When the feed is green and succulent, more salt is required than when the forage is dry. Little or no salt is required in areas where the soils are alkaline. The welfare of the flocks and the profit derived therefrom are greatly dependent upon the skill and diligence of herders. Thus, many stockmen believe it would pay owners to place their herders (shepherds) on an incentive basis, giving them a bonus for lamb/kid and wool production above and over a pre-estimated average.

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Devise a calendar of important operations concerning care and management of sheep/goats on ranges. Much of the diversity that exists between range sheep/goat production and farm sheep/goat production, arises from differences in severity of weather (winter), in fenced versus open ranges, in availability of seasonal ranges and in the relative emphasis on meat and wool production. Despite variations in management and timing caused by differences in environment and/or objectives, however, sheep/goats remain the same physiologically. This means that the basic principles of breeding, feeding, health, disease prevention and marketing of animals and wool remain the same regardless of the system of production. Q. How many sheep/goats can be kept per hectare of rangeland? A number of factors are involved in deciding this question. These include: type of soil (clay, sand, rock etc.), plant species (grass, weeds, woody plants), rainfall or irrigation, climate, fertility of soil, lay of land (plane, rolling, steep hills, marsh), whether lambs/kids or ewes/does with youngones or dry ewes/does and whether pasture can be rotated. Small ruminants do not do as well when pasture is overstocked. The older animals suffer the most. Their poor teeth make it harder for them to chomp on overgrazed pasture, and with short grass they obtain less feed per bite. Even the teeth of younger ewes/does suffer from having to harvest the short grass, for with it they are getting a certain amount of dirt and sand. Some reports suggest six sheep/goats to an hectare of good pasture, with some hay and grain in winter and two to three to an hectare of poor pasture, again with supplemental feed in winter. Thus much depends upon the condition of pasture. It is advisable to keep too few for the first year and see how they fair. On large farms, it has been determined that 150 small ruminants will thrive better on twenty hectares provided there are arrangements for partitioning and rotation. Q. What are the benefits of pasture rotation? Describe in detail. The technique of pasture rotation is simply to divide the pasture into smaller units with temporary light fencing or electric fence so that each smaller pasture is grazed completely in 10 to 14 days. The sheep/goats will graze this pasture more evenly and has less tendency to pick and choose as they would in larger pastures. When the area has been grazed, the animals are moved to a fresh pasture unit. If you have three or four small fields, the vegetation will receive several weeks of rest between grazings, which will allow time for many worm larvae to die of exposure and old age. Alternating pasture/range gives the plants a chance to recover, and gets more actual growth out of the same amount of space. Many grasses will not reach their maximum vigour and growth when more than half of their surface is removed. This weakened grass does not make efficient use of soil moisture and nutrients and does not provide maximum livestock feed. Pasture rotation serves to maximize the number of sheep/goats that a given area of forage will support. An area close to the barn becomes almost nude, whereas the farthest reaches of the range are undergrazed and thus become overgrown. Small ruminants by nature would prefer not to feed continually in the same place. They like a fresh pasture that has not been recently walked on. If with ample vegetation they seem choosy and walk around with their noses to the grass but not eating as much, it is time for a pasture change. There they will have fresh grass and thus will eat better. Because of the added expense and labour, rotation fences are often neglected.

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Nevertheless, these have established advantages and should be resorted to. If you rotate your pastures and prevent excessive overgrazing, this will not only feed your animals, but will also protect the soil from erosion by wind or water. If you have only sheep, while rotating pastures, do not let the grass grow too tall before you turn the sheep in, since they will trample more of the grass and will not eat it as well as they would shorter grass. Q. Do sheep and goats make a good combination grazing together? Yes! they do. Range areas/natural pastures have a variety of vegetation growing there. While sheep like to eat from 10 to 20 cm from the ground, goats like to eat from about 25 cm to as high as they can reach and are great bush and weed clearers (Figure 24). Sheep are grazers, while goats are mainly browsers under field and range conditions. Thus you can run sheep and goats together in a grazing area. Goats can stand on their hind legs for long periods. They find it difficult to eat directly off the ground, normally bending down on their knees to do so. They have a very mobile upper lip and tongue, allowing them to consume leaves between thorns.

Can leaves of perennial grass be repeatedly removed by animals without injuring the plants? Perennial grass stores food in its roots after it has made the seasons main growth. The grass uses these reserves to survive while dormant, to make the first spring growth and to start new growth after its leaves are closely grazed. Its ability to recover quickly after grazing makes grass valuable for forage production, but it is a sort of self-deception to think that leaves can be repeatedly removed without injury. If repeatedly done, the plant keeps drawing on food stored in the roots to grow new leaves until the supply is exhausted and the grass dies. Q. Discuss fencing in relation to raising of small ruminants. Give details. Very briefly though the importance of fencing the grazing area for purposes of rotation has already been indicated. No doubt the economic conditions of a very large majority of small ruminant flock owners of this country do not allow them to undertake such exercises that involve additional expense. However, it is our considered opinion that an all round change has become evident. Soon the people would realize that whatever is utilimately beneficial for them, must some how be adopted. The life of any fence depends much on how hard the animals worry it and how long the posts, especially the end posts hold up. They should be massive and solid, for if they start rotting and the sheep/goats rub on them or put their heads through the fence and strain to reach greener grass on the other side, that would bring your fence down. The use of steel posts can save a lot of labour in digging and tamping dirt around posts. It is even more time and labour saver when you are fencing through a wooded area where there are roots and stumps. Driving a slender metal post is easier than digging a hole. Galvanized steel posts have the longest life, followed by posts brush-painted with metallic zinc. Old angleiron or T-iron rails often found in a salvage yard, make good posts. Some of these already have holes in them, if not, you may want to drill some holes to fasten the fence. Discarded pipe from machine or repair shops is sometimes much cheaper than steel posts. It should be at least 4 cm in diameter and 7 cm for corner posts. End posts of 10 cm diameter can be filled with concrete. Cement concrete can be poured around the steel posts.

Q.

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What may be the proper height of the steel posts and the depth of setting them? Line posts 2 meter high are usually set meter in the ground. End, corner and brace posts are set one meter deep and gateposts are set 1 meter deep. End posts and gateposts are initially 3 meter high. Mechanical diggers are easier to use than shovels and there is less earth to put back into the hole. In heavy soil or clay, oil the posthole digger so that clay does not stick to it. Keep a bucket of waste crankcase oil where you are digging and dip the digger frequently into it. Posts should be aligned with the rest of the fence posts while being tamped. A fence is no stronger than its end posts and braces. The brace wire has its ends spliced together and is tightened by twisting it with a strong stick or rod. Leave the rod in place so that you can adjust it as necessary.

Q. Do you think that sheep and goats exhibit similar behaviour when fenced? In some respects their behaviour has a natural similarity, but experience of goat keepers clearly indicates that fencing is more difficult with goats than with any other farm animal. Goats will jump over, crawl under, stand and/or lean against and in any other way they can think of to circumvent any boundary that is not strictly goat-proof. They can slip through openings you would not believe, especially the Teddy goats. Thus a fence that works well with sheep may not be equally good for goats. As a matter of fact, for homesteaders that are keeping three, four or five sheep or goats, which are being fed properly in the barn, there is no need for fencing. For them a small, sunny exercise yard is sufficient. Q. What type of wire fencing is more practicable for sheep/goats? For those who can afford, woven wire fencing is the most practical fence at least for the bottom half. Stock fence is somewhat less expensive, but fencing any sizeable area means a large investment. In countries having well developed small ruminant population, stock fence comes in different weights, styles and heights. All the heights come in a choice of stays that are either 30 cm or 15 cm. While 15-cm stays will stop more dogs and such other animals, the sheep do not get their heads stuck in 30-cm stays. Goats with horns, however, will put their heads through the fence and then be unable to get free. Woven wire is usually sold in 100-meter rolls, having different weights. The weight depends on the gauge of the wire. A height of one meter can be handled with ease. Build up above that with barbed wires. Place the first wire 3 cm above the top of the woven wire. Also, string barbed wire about 2.5 cm below the bottom of the woven wire, to discourage dogs. A third wire half-way between the top and bottom of woven wire will help reinforce the fence by discouraging the sheep from rubbing on it or putting their heads through. Woven wire can be stretched only from one anchored post to another, not through all the length at one time. Q. Can electric fencing be used with small ruminants? It is, of course, being used in several western countries as well as in this country. However, here certain Govt. livestock farms are using electric fencing as a temporary fence. For this purpose they have portable flexible electric fencing. There are several types of portable electric fencing. Most are made of polywire, often called electroplastic. These are light, flexible and carry a charge well. One well known brand of portable fence is Electronet, made in heights of 22, 33 and 42 inches. Fence experts in New Zealand

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consider that six wires, with alternative live and earth wires are the most effective for sheep. As of now it appears rather too early to think of the use of electric fencing keeping in view the disorganized state of sheep and goat raising in this country. If at all some body comes up to use it, there might be more risks than expected returns. Unless some laws and regulations are made by the electric power suppliers and L & DD Department and training courses are arranged in this connection, it is not advisable and most probably not feasible because of the ever increasing charges of electricity. No doubt it is the earnest desire of the authors that those involved in sheep/goat raising should be able to adopt the modern practices so as to enhance productivity of their animals and as a consequence enhance their profits.

Q.

Define pasture and name its various classes.

The term pasture is of Latin origin, from the word pastus, meaning an area of land on which there is a growth of forage that animals may graze. Broadly speaking, pastures may be classified as either i) seeded pastures, or ii) native pastures. Although no sharp line of demarcation exists between the two groups, seeded pastures include those, which either receive more than approximately 500 mm of rainfall annually or are irrigated. The native pastures include those range pastures, which receive less than 500 mm of rainfall annually. Their vegetative cover, known as native plants, consists of adapted plants developed by natural selection that have existed in the area for many years and that were not intentionally introduced. Pastures may be further classified as i) permanent pastures, ii) semipermanent or rotation pastures and iii) temporary and supplemental pastures. Q. What are the various classes of pasture plants. Give the definition of each class. i) Grass: Botanically, any plant of the family Gramineae. In grassland agriculture, grass refers to the forage species of Gramineae when either grown alone or with a legume. ii) Legume: Plants such as alfalfa and the clovers, that obtain nitrogen through bacteria that live in their roots are known as legumes. The nitrogen fixation aspect of legumes will be of increasing interest as energy sources become more scarce and costly. iii) Browse: The edible parts of woody vegetation such as leaves, stems and twigs from bushes. iv) Forbs: Nongrasslike range herbs which animals eat. Forbs are generally called weeds by western livestock producers. Q. Write a detailed note on pasture areas of Pakistan. Of the total geographic area of Pakistan of about 80 million hectares (ha), nearly 22 million ha is under crop and the balance is pasture (Table 15). Table 15. Grazing areas of Pakistan (%)

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PART- III NWF P 84 49 77 Punjab Sindh Balochista n 98

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Azad Kashmir 86 Northern areas 98

Source: Land Utilization Statistics of Pakistan.

Because of the nature of nomadic grazing, it is not possible to isolate pasture types used in this system from those of the home and transhument grazing systems. Furthermore, although the respective aims of household and sedentary systems are fattening and breeding, pastures used by these animals are common to the two systems. Throughout the four provinces, flocks are taken out in the morning and brought back to the holdings by sunset. This procedure has long been in existence in canal irrigated and rain fed areas by landowning and landless breeders of all provinces except the Agencies, Tribal areas, Malakand, Hazara and part of D.I. Khan divisions of NWFP, Cholistan and parts of D.G. Khan division of Punjab, Kohistan and Thar tracts of Sindh, Quetta, Sibi and Kalat divisions of Balochistan, Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas. Some transhument pastures are available in each province. The word transhument means alternative pastures, which indicate that in some livestock producing areas conditions exist which, compel owners of animals to move away from the home locality temporarily. Seldom do total populations migrate from a district in one season, however. Breeders from certain areas of NWFP, Punjab and Sindh migrate to cultivated areas in adjacent districts/divisions, because of lack of grazing and water. In Sindh province with the onset of feed and water shortages, flocks move from the Thar and Kohistan region to

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the neighbouring canal-irrigated districts. Flock owners of Balochistan who own land and produce crops generally do not migrate as they have supplementary feed or grazing for the winter months. Breeders who do not own land migrate in winter to the warmer districts of Sibi division to graze stubbles and move back to alpine pastures at the beginning of summer. Q. Give estimates of carrying capacity of various grazing areas in different provinces and excluded areas in Pakistan. In NWFP, in alpine and moist temperate northern hills, Hazara and Malakand division, Gilgit agency and Northern Areas, the average carrying capacity of a well managed range is around 5 ha per five sheep. In subtropical south western hills (D.I. Khan, Kohat and Bannu of well managed areas) is 7 to 10 ha per 5 sheep. In subtropical south eastern plateau (Peshawar, Mardan, upper Indus plains of D.I. Khan), the carrying capacity under good management is 3 to 5 ha per five sheep. The carrying capacity for four identifiable ranges i.e. the Pothowar range (Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Pabbi hills of Gujrat, Mianwali and Sarghodha (Salt range), Thal tract (Part of Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Sargodha and Jhang districts), Cholistan desert, Dera Ghazi Khan range (area between Indus river and base of Suleman hills, respectively) is: well managed areas 2 ha, moderate sites 7 ha and depleted sites 56 ha per five sheep; 7 ha/five sheep, properly managed and reseeded areas 40 ha per five sheep and 5 to 7 ha for every five sheep in protected, reseeded and watered areas.

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The province of Balochistan has five extensive range areas. The north western range (Quetta, Pashin, Loralai and Zhob) has a carrying capacity of about 7 ha per five adult sheep; the Pat range (Sibi) can carry at the rate of 20 ha/five sheep; the ChaghiKharan range is with a carrying capacity of five sheep/40 ha; carrying capacity varies from 40 to 50 ha/five sheep in the central range (Kalat, northern Mekran and Lasbela), the carrying capacity is 10 to 15 ha per five sheep. The carrying capacity in Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas is around 5 ha/five sheep. Q. Under the existing conditions how long distances are covered in search of feed by sedentary and transhument flocks. The sedentary flocks grazing road verges, water channels and stubbles after harvest, cotton crops after picking and acacia leaves cover 5 to 8 km daily. The transhument flocks cover distances varying from 30 to 300 km both ways. After traversing each 25 to 30 km they halt for a day or two, then they move on. Depending on the length of the distance and the weather conditions, it might take 40 to 50 days to reach the destination. Q. What type of migration hazards are met with both ways while moving the flocks long distances? The most commonly expected hazards are threats to the safety and health of flocks and families and shortages of food and water. The migrants move in groups of closely related families and remain vigilant with their watch dogs. Sporadic cases of theft have been reported. Some mortality is reported from exhaustion, snake bite, predators and plant poisoning. Occasional cases of abortion, sheep pox, contagious pustular dermatitis and mange are also reported, along with warble infection

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in goat flocks, lice and internal worm infestations, haemoglobinuria and some mineral deficiencies. Belongings are transported on the backs of donkey, horses, mules and even camels. In some areas losses from predators may rise to 4 to 5%. In case of intense cold an additional loss of about 10% may occur. Temporary housing facilities exist on summer pastures. Q. Are there any fees charged for grazing small ruminants on state or private lands? Grazing charges vary from area to area. At places these are charged in cash while at others both cash and kind payments are required. Mostly these charges are Rs. 4 to 5 per adult sheep/goat per season or Rs. 2.00 per month for summer grazing. In addition, in certain areas a yearling is offered for every 100 ewes/does as payment in kind. In some cases, around Cholistan grazing is free in lieu of the manure, which the flocks deposit in the fields during the night. Sometimes the breeders purchase acacia trees and feed their flocks on the leaves and pods. Grazing in cotton fields is also sold after picking is over. In Northern Areas the charges for full season are Rs. 2 for small ruminants and Rs. 6 for large ruminants. However, prices at places are negotiable. Q. Discuss the distribution of sheep and ownership patterns in Pakistan. The Punjab has by far the largest proportion of sheep (48%), followed by Balochistan (24%), NWFP (16%), Sindh (9%), the Northern Areas (2%) and Azad Kashmir (1%). Nationally 70% sheep are owned by farm households and 30% by non-farm households. Regarding the number of sheep 62% belong to farm households, whereas 38% to nonfarm households. Most flocks are mixed with goats, regardless of the nature of the tract or the use to which they are put. However, flocks of all sheep or all goats are also common in both the plains and hills. In the mountains, sheep flocks are gradually replaced by goat flocks as higher altitudes are reached, because of the goats ability to climb and browse on steep slopes. This limitation in sheep is more pronounced in case of fat-tailed sheep. Fat tail prevents them climbing to difficult heights. There are nearly 32000 flocks in whole of the country, with 6% in NWFP, 43% in Punjab, 13% in Sindh, 22% in Balochistan and 16% in Northern Areas and Azad

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Kashmir. Flock size varies widely from less than 5 to over 200. Fifty percent flocks have one to fifteen sheep, while another 30% have 16 to 75 sheep per flock. The high number of flocks of over 200 animals and low number of small flocks in Balochistan indicate that sheep production is the major livelihood for more families in this province than in any other. Q. What production systems are used for raising small ruminants in Pakistan? In Pakistan, almost all small ruminants are raised under extensive system of production. High cost of production, illiteracy of sheep and goat farmers and almost non-existent livestock extension services keep the farmers from adopting the intensive system of small ruminant production. Q. Under extensive production system, what management systems are in vogue in the country? The prevailing management systems in this country are described as nomadic, household and sedentary and transhument. The frequency of these systems in each province is presented in Table 16. Nomadic Flocks: According to a rough assessment, the population of nomads in Pakistan is around 1 million, of which about 15% are herdsmen. The family size on average is 7.5. The distribution of nomadic sheep for each province is given in Table 17. Although exact figures regarding goats are not available, the pattern of their distribution, with minor variations, probably would be the same. Table 16. Distribution of production/management systems by province (%) NWFP Punjab Sindh Balochistan Pakista n

Producti on system
Nomadic 50 Household 17 Sedentary Transhument 33 Source: Mackintosh (1993). 26 18 9 47 44 12 7 37 73 3 3 21

44 12 6 38

Table 17. Nomadic sheep population as percent of population of each province NWFP Punjab Sindh Balochistan Pakistan 2.5 0.63 2.39 1.45 1.38 Source: Mackintosh (1993). Household and Sedentary Flocks: Since the management of household and sedentary flocks is essentially the same, taking them to grazing in the morning and bringing them back in the evening in the same locality throughout the year, they can be grouped under one management system. This system covers the sheep population of the area classified as home pastures. These flocks are found in settled areas of NWFP, most of the Punjab except Cholistan and parts of D.G. Khan, Sindh except Thar and Kohistan tracts and Balochistan except Lasbela district and Mekran division.

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Transhument Flocks: This system is prevalent in the Tribal Areas, Agencies, D.I. Khan, Hazara and Malakand divisions of NWFP, Parts of D.G. Khan and Cholistan in Punjab, Thar and Kohistan in Sindh, Quetta, Sibi and Kalat divisions of Balochistan and throughout Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas. In hilly areas of NWFP except D.I. Khan division, parts of D. G. Khan in Punjab and Balochistan excluding Sibi, flocks move in during summers and move out with the onset of winter due to shortage of feed and low environmental temperatures. In D. I. Khan division of NWFP, Cholistan of the Punjab, Kohistan and Thar of Sindh and Sibi division of Balochistan, migration is partly because of high temperature and partly due to the shortage of feed and water. On overall basis, 47% of total sheep population is managed under household and sedentary system, while 52% is the transhument sheep population and the rest nearly 1% categorized as nomadic sheep. Q. Discuss breeding sheep/goats on the range.

The general principles of breeding sheep/goats as discussed elsewhere in this book are applicable to the farm and range flocks alike. Thus only those differences peculiar to range will be discussed herein. The primary requisites of range rams/bucks are that they be large and have utility value. They should be of acceptable meat conformation, possess good bone and ruggedness, have a strong constitution and stand on sturdy feet and legs. Except during breeding season, range rams/bucks are usually kept separate from the rest of the flock. Usually the rams/bucks are transported from farm headquarters to the area where ewe/doe flock happens to be at the time of the desired breeding season. Stud animals on the range are given supplemental feed during the period immediately preceding and during the breeding season. The general practice is to arrange at breeding time 3 rams/bucks for each 100 ewes/does. In determining the proper number of males to use, practical operators give consideration to the age, vigour, breed and method of handling. Regardless of the season, it is important that the entire flock be bred in the shortest possible period of

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time, preferably with the bulk of lambing/kidding to take place within 3 weeks and not extending beyond the period of 6 weeks. This is advisable because 1) extra labour and feed must be provided for the lambing/kidding season, and 2) the youngones of a uniform age can be more easily managed until marketed. The chief concern is to make certain that water is available and to provide such supplemental feed as may be necessary. Some sheep/goat raisers provide some sort of shelter for stormy weather and to protect from scorching sun, but for the most part range animals secure ample protection through such natural windbreaks as are afforded by the topography and shrubs except, however, when lambing/kidding is due in severe weather, shelter should be helpful. Some sort of lambing/kidding shed or tent may be used as a temporary structure. The common supplemental feeds used on the winter range when grasses and shrubs are sparse include hay, linseed or maize oil cake. It has been reported that proper winter-feeding lessens mortality and results in better grown lamb/kid and wool production. Because of sparse vegetation, the animals travel great distances for feed. Under these conditions, one to eight hectares are required to maintain one sheep/goat for the winter months. The lambing/kidding season on the range is the most important of all operations, largely determining the profit or loss derived from the enterprise. For success, there must be large, healthy lamb/kid crop, with ownership by the mothers. Spring Operations: The spring operations are the most numerous and important of any season. These include 1) tagging, 2) lambing/kidding, 3) castrating, 4) migrating to the spring range, 5) shearing of sheep, 6) dipping, utilizing the spring range. Most of these processes have already been discussed elsewhere in this book.

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What considerations are important for proper range management?

Good range management may be achieved if an inventory or analysis is made of the forage resources and all contributory factors. Consideration should be given to proper stocking rate, and safe degree of use, season of use, kind of livestock, condition and trend of forage, stability of soil, system of use, improvements needed etc. Q. Write a detailed note on stocking rate.

Successful long-term operation of rangeland lies in making; 1) a reliable determination of the land that is suitable or adaptable to grazing use over a long period of time, 2) a realistic estimate of grazing capacity of this land, and 3) a flexible stocking rate, followed by a) application of proper stocking intensity, and b) frequent observations to determine the effect of stocking rate upon changes in condition of the forage cover. Too light stocking wastes forage, while too heavy stocking results in a change of forage plant cover from an abundance of valuable forage plants to an abundance of worthless plants. Stocking should either be adjusted to forage yield each year, and within season or be set at constant rate that will assure a sustained yield of most valuable forage plants. Constant stocking at about 25% below average capacity will usually achieve the later. Animals do not graze uniformly over a range unit. Certain areas are more attractive to them, while others may go practically unused. For the purpose of determining grazing capacity, the key areasthose rather extensive parts of the range, which are most heavily grazedmust be given greatest consideration. If preferred or key areas are maintained in good condition, the whole unit will generally remain in good condition. Conversely, if key areas are allowed to deteriorate, the grazing capacity of the whole unit will be endangered. If the best plants are being destroyed and soil movement is observed, the

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numbers of animals or season of use should be reduced. Conversely, if excessive forage remains at the end of grazing season, the numbers should be slowly increased until a balance is struck. Q. Discuss season of range use in relation to successful management of a range unit. A prime requisite of successful management for both sheep and goats is that there be as nearly yearround grazing as possible and that both the animals and the range thrive. Some pertinent points in determining the proper season of use of the range follow: a) Elevation: Generally speaking, vegetative development is delayed 10 to 15 days by each 305m increase in elevation. Also, severe storms occur frequently at higher altitudes than at lower locations. b) Availability of water: Certain desert areas are so poorly watered that only the rainfall makes their use practical. c) Early forage washy: Early spring forage is extremely washy and may be incapable of supporting stock. Spring grazing should be delayed until the plants are developed enough to meet the nutritive needs of animals. d) Poisonous plants: Most poisonous plants are very early growers and cause the greatest damage when animals start grazing too early. These losses are usually negligible if sheep/goats are detained until the best forage plants have made suitable growth. e) Winter range should be saved: if stock are allowed to remain on winter ranges too long after spring growth begins; the next winters feed will be reduced, because the forage produced on these ranges grows mainly during the spring and early summer. Q. Is there any relationship between the type of range and activity of goats? Yes, there does exist such a relationship since the type of range governs the activity of goats. For example, goats range on sparsely vegetative grassland and on mountainous transhumance (seasonal movement) pasture and must travel long distances daily for grazing and watering, whereas slightly less activity is required by goats that graze semiarid rangeland, pasture or slightly hilly land. Q. Can we enhance utilization of range vegetation by combining several types of livestock for grazing? Since goats characteristically travel large areas, eating the available browse (shrubs and woody plants), they have been routinely used to control brush on ranges. Woody plants can be cut to leave a stump about one meter high and the sprouts will provide additional feed. In order to maximize the production potential of range areas, producers often place goats in areas where other types of livestock are being grazed. Goats preferentially consume a certain amount of browse. Cattle prefer grasses, while sheep readily consume forbs (weeds) in rangelands. By combining several types of livestock, the producer can utilize these three types of plants and increase the gain per unit of land as well as manage the vegetative make-up of the land.

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Are available browse and forages sufficient to satisfy nutritive needs of goats that are raised on ranges? Available forages and browse will satisfy many of the nutritive needs of goats raised on ranges, but for maximum performance, it is advisable to provide supplemental feed when range conditions become adverse. Twenty percent protein range blocks/cubes are a popular supplement. Also, 110 to 450 g of supplement per head per day consisting of sorghum 82%, cottonseed meal 14%, urea 2%, dicalcium phosphate 2% and vitamin A supplement to provide 500 IU of vitamin A per kg of feed, is adequate in the winter or during dry periods when green feed is scarce. This supplement will provide 20 % crude protein. Q. Discuss the nutritive requirements of Pak-Angora goat kids being raised on rangeland. Pak-Angora goat kids gaining roughly 70 to 100 g daily, having medium activity and producing nearly 2 kg mohair per year has the following requirements for protein and energy: Protein Energy (g/day) (Mcal DE/day) Maintenance (medium activity) 55 1.77 Growth 28 0.88 Mohair 9 0.07 ______________________________________ Total 92 2.72 ______________________________________ Goat producers, should, however, adopt recommendations to fit their particular operations. Q. Discuss briefly the feeding of does on range. On good range in the spring, mature dry does will consume enough feed to satisfy all their nutrient demands except salt and phosphorus. During lactation, they may need 0.25 to 0.35 kg of a supplement. The total ration, supplement plus range grass, will usually run about 11 to 12 % protein. During summer (when there is no rainfall) and early fall, the quality of range feed is reduced and a higher protein supplement should be provided at the rate of 0.45 kg for each 10 to 20 does. Some trace minearalised salt may also be included. Immature does and those not fully developed should be provided 0.45 kg of supplement for each 5 does. If the range is particularly poor, as usually is the case here, double the amount of supplement my be given. In late fall and winter, ranges tend to be at their lowest nutritive value. Poor ranges require supplemental feeding at levels of 0.45 kg for each 3 to 5 mature does and 0.45 kg for each 1 to 3 yearling or underdeveloped does. These supplements should take care of the needs of late pregnancy and of lactation. Does with more than two kids should be given 25 to 50 % more of the supplement during lactation than is recommended for does with singles or twins. Does which have a history of giving birth to more than one kid should be fed at a high rate of supplementation at least 3 weeks before expected kidding. Additional supplementation of 110 to 150 g of grain or range protein blocks/cubes should be fed to does 10 to 15 days prior to turning the bucks in for the breeding season. This practice (called flushing) improves conception

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rate by having does in a positive nutrient balance during breeding. When flushing is practised, feed should be increased gradually and likewise, at the end of the breeding season, the feed allowance should be reduced gradually so as to avoid upsetting the animals appetite and digestive tract. Q. Give concrete suggestions for feeding yearling and replacement does on rangeland. Yearling range goats fit into one of the two categories: i) those retained for the breeding herd, or ii) those, which are being prepared for market. Replacement does and bucks should be fed rations that allow for growth. Those which are being prepared for market should be fed so as to put on more flesh, since goats tend to be leaner than most meat animals. These animals should be given adequate protein, minerals and vitamin A. Playfulness is a sign of good health and vigour. When fed properly, they will be large enough to breed at 14 to 15 months age without interfering with their continued growth to mature size. Angora/Pak-Angora wethers may be kept for several years for mohair production, hence they are rarely fed for meat production. Supplemental ration for goats being prepared for market needs to be increased gradually. If kids are to be marketed at weaning (4 to 5 months age, it is unnecessary to castrate them. However, if they are retained until yearlings, they may be castrated at about 9 to 10 months of age. Both wethers and dry does do well without supplemental feed unless the range is poor. Wethers can graze higher on brush and more vigorously than does, thus reducing the available browse for does that have a more critical need for nutrients. On poor range, supplementation is needed at the rate of 450 g of available grains/commercial feed for each 5 animals. The amount may be increased during winter. In addition, they should have access to berseem hay. Q. Write a note on free grazing of goats. Different systems are appropriate in different situations and circumstances. Although a system that allows goats freedom to browse or graze requires least effort and cost, it is also the least desirable if improved levels of production are to be achieved. Goats that are allowed to wander use a lot of energy in finding feed. They will only perform well if there is a high density of feed. When grazing free, goats as well as sheep are more vulnerable to predators and this loss may well make even productive system unviable. It is virtually impossible to operate a controlled or selective breeding if goats wander freely as females will be accessible to any males that are in the neighbourhood. Q. What do you understand by controlled grazing in goats? Many of the problems mentioned in the note on free grazing are eliminated if the goats are confined by a fence. However, this is only possible if a good supply of feed is available either as a sown crop or as carried forage. Also, goats are very good at getting out of fences and therefore, these have to be of a high standard which may make this system too expensive. If goats are kept within fences it is important that the land is rested to break up internal parasite cycles. Ideally, land should be left free of goats or sheep for one year to remove the risk of reinfection. This may be achieved by alternating with other crops. (It may be possible to restrict goats access to the sown crops, allowing them onto a fresh part or strip each day. This is often called strip grazing). This method ensures that they eat up all or most of the forage material before they move on to the next strip. If given free access they may well trample down some forage when trying to reach the most

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palatable parts. Goats often refuse to eat trampled material particularly if it has become soiled. Strip grazing, where the goats are given access to a new strip of feed each day, is only possible if a good barrier system can be devised. If available, electrified fences are the best but it may be possible to erect a temporary barrier out of local material such as thorny bushes. An alternative would be to divide a grazing area into small paddocks using permanent fences. Each paddock would be used for just a few days until all forage material is used and then given rest. All of these controlled situations require quite a high standard of fencing or barrier and this may be a problem if suitable materials are not available locally. The expense of fencing may mean that such systems would not be viable even though an improvement in productivity would almost certainly be the result. Q. What are the advantages and disadvantages of zero-grazing system as used for milch goats? With this system the goats are not given any access to growing crops or forage in the feed at all. They are kept in sheds and/or yards and all feed is carried to them. This system helps achieve the best control over the goats with respect to what they eat, their breeding, health and security. However, it does involve a lot more labour and therefore, this system is only viable if labour is plentiful and inexpensive. A good shed for housing the goats is required but as long as timber or bamboo is available locally, this should not be too expensive and if well built should last a long time. If ready-made roofs and beams are comparatively cheaper, those may be used. With this system the goats may be housed all the time, they may have access to a yard where they can exercise and be fed or they may be housed for part of the year such as during monsoon and be taken out to graze freely at other times. If the cheap labour and a suitable shed is available, the most productive system is where milch goats are continuously housed or yarded and all feed is brought to them. Q. What is meant by rangeland improvements? Indicate what major kinds of improvements need to be effected on rangelands in Pakistan. Rangeland improvements are man-made changes, which improve and facilitate range management. The need for range improvements is determined after a careful analysis of the problems of the range and whether the solutions are economically feasible. Major kinds of range improvement are: i) Water development; ii) Grass reseeding (natural and artificial seeding); iii) Planting of fodder trees and shrubs; iv) Fencing. Water Development: In addition to meat the requirements of small ruminants for water, this is an effective tool for ensuring the proper distribution of animals in parts of the range areas which remain unutilized due to lack of drinking water. Carefully planned development of watering points is essential since in overgrazed areas they can lead to further deterioration of the range. Water development must fit into an overall range management plan. Springs: Spring development has been successfully carried out in the Maslakh range area of Balochistan where seeps or small springs have been improved. Water is collected in a concrete tank and carried through pipes and channels to various points within range area. This type of water development is common in mountain areas. Tobas: A toba or dugout is another type of water development in Pakistan in desert plains, particularly in Cholistan. Tobas depend on rain for water supply and are filled

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from water drained from collecting area. They are dug in a lowlying area. The depth of a toba should be 3 to 4 meter since water from tobas less than 3 meter is lost quickly through evaporation. Tobas have sliding sides so that livestock can have access to water. They need desilting after 3 to 4 years. Small Dams: Small dams and streams collect and store more water than tobas. A number of them have been constructed in the hilly and mountainous areas but sometimes they do not prove successful because of a lack of adequate spillways. They need regular desilting otherwise their water storage capacity is greatly reduced. Wells: In most range areas the dependable and common source of livestock water is wells. Water from the well is drawn manually or by animal power. Wells may be shallow (4 to 5 meter) along the river beds and channels but in plains some wells are as deep as 50 meter. Windmills: A few windmills have been installed in the range areas of Balochistan and Sindh to lift water from open surface wells. However, the problem of lack of mechanical skills still exists in distant areas. Grass Reseeding: Emphasis has been placed on improvement of ranges through artificial reseeding in this country. It has been established that, if at suitable sites the four principles of using adapted grasses such as eliminating competition, covering seed to the proper depth and planting and sowing at the accurate time, are observed, reseeding can be done successfully. Lasiurus sindicus and Cenchrus ciliaris have been successfully used for reseeding in desert ranges of Thal and to a limited extent in an area in Sindh, on a total area of 15,000 ha. Improvement of rangeland by reseeding is a quick and effective technique for the revegetation of depleted areas, but careful planning is required to make range reseeding. Before attempting range reseeding the following questions should be answered: In reseeding necessary? Will the land produce enough forage to justify investment? What are the chances of establishing a stand of grass? Can the newlyplanted area be managed properly? Trees and Shrubs: One of the main causes of depletion of ranges in Pakistan is the practice of cutting and uprooting trees and shrubs for use as fuel by the rural population because wood is the principal source of energy available. Efforts have been made to select multipurpose trees and shrubs, which could be used for providing fodders for animals and fuel wood for domestic cooking and heating. Fencing: Fences are generally not erected in the open ranges in Pakistan as flocks of sheep/goats are usually accompanied by herders. Brush fences are often used to make sheep/goat pens and corrals are made using branches and twigs of thorny trees such as Acacia and Zizyphus. Fencing can be effective in dividing range areas into paddocks to ensure controlled grazing but the cost is usually prohibitive. Fencing is also impracticable because of the pattern of ownership of range areas, which are either owned by communities or by the government and used as free and open areas by nomads and groups of individuals with traditional grazing rights. Q. Give appropriate suggestions to improve the availability of range forage for small and large ruminants and to give a fair deal to range livestock producers. a) Technical Changes: Federal research institutes should be strengthened by the induction of more experts and the allocation of sufficient funds to help the provincial

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range technicians carry out survey of soil vegetation and classification of the rangeland resources. Each province and institute should carefully assess its need for trained persons and the provincial and federal governments should finance their training to obtain postgraduate degrees in range livestock management from local and foreign universities. Under no circumstances should the services of the these trained persons be utilized outside their areas of specialised training. The research programmes of the pertinent organizations should include: i) Classification of rangelands according to their conditions and trends; ii) Determination of the grazing potential of the rangelands; iii) Studies in grazing management with particular reference to the ecological effects of stocking rate, combination of animals of different feeding habits and rest periods. iv) Testing of grazing systems suitable for various kinds of livestock. v) Testing of suitable species and techniques for dune stabilization. vi) Raising cultivated fodder crops with water in arid regions for the integration of grazing with supplementary feed supplies and the creation of fodder banks. A research project be undertaken to demonstrate livestock handling and management of rangelands and farmlands consistent with the socioeconomic constraints. Range improvement and management technology should be disseminated through extension, with focus on private grazing lands. Livestock cooperatives to coordinate development and use of private range areas, agricultural lands and adjoining government rangelands should be established. This will facilitate marketing, supplementary feeding, credit and health cover for animals. b) Institutional Changes: Broadbased range management departments should be created in the provinces with a mandate for planning, developing and managing all government and privatelyowned rangelands. Experts or technicians of the following specialties should be employed to carry out these range activities: i) Plant science and range management, ii) Livestock management and breeding, iii) Animal nutrition, iv) Fodder production and pasture agronomy, v) Ecnomics and marketing, vi) Extension and cooperatives. A comprehensive national range policy should be formulated, emphasizing the importance of rangelands and proper range livestock management in the national economy. An expert committee of economists, livestock production and range scientists and administrators should examine the costs of production of mutton, goat meat, beef, wool and other products in different regions. They should take into account the real cost of grazing, supplementary feeding, handling and management, with the anticipated increase in production under proper management. The committee could recommend a rational price structure and other measures to afford relief to livestock owners. A

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rangeland livestock industry can flourish only on the basis of fair income proportionate to other commodities and services a livestock owner has to pay for. Q. What is a poisonous plant? A poisonous plant is one, which as a whole or a part (e.g. flowers, seeds or roots) thereof, under all or certain circumstances, when taken or brought in contact with an organism will exert a harmful effect or cause immediate death due to the presence of known or unknown chemical substances in it. There are nearly 700 species listed in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent alone. Some are found in every tropical area, while others occur only in restricted areas. Q. Under what circumstances animals commonly eat toxic plants? In most instances, animals do not happily eat toxic plants, especially goats. Because of the nature of goats eating habits, poisoning from plants is rare. She takes a bit of this and a taste of that and will seldom eat enough of one poisonous plant to do much damage. When however, proper feed is not available and the animals are hungry, they may eat anything at hand. If they lack sufficient water for an extended period, this can cause them to reduce their feed intake. Then, when they suddenly get ample water, their appetites increase greatly and they may devour almost anything that they can get. You can see how important it is to have water and to feed at regular times, in needed quantities. Overgrazing of rangelands, which means shortage of grass and vegetation, can cause sheep/goats to eat plants that they would otherwise avoid. Better to keep fewer animals, well fed and healthy, than to keep more than your pasture and pocket can sustain. Q. What substances other than plants may have poisonous effects on small ruminants? Under a mixed farming programme and where other farm animals such as buffalo and cattle are also being raised, there certainly is the need to keep various items at the farm. Of these, some if ingested, may prove toxic for small ruminants. Some buffalo-cattle mineral-protein blocks contain lethal levels of copper for sheep/goats. Some mixed rations intended for large ruminants may also have copper and should not be used for sheep/goats. Commercial fertilizer often has a high nitrate content and in the rumen of sheep/goats is converted to nitrite, causing death. Be careful not to spill any fertilizer where small ruminants may eat it. Store the bags away from these animals. Their nibbling on empty bags may be risky. Symptoms are weakness, rapid open-mouth breathing and convulsions. Immediately give one-cup vinegar per animal as a drench. Get help from your local veterinarian. Salt is required for health. When deprived for some time, then allowed free access, small ruminants may ingest large quantities, causing salt poisoning. Symptoms are trembling and leg weakness, great thirst and nervous symptoms. For treatment let the animal have access to plenty of fresh water. Protect and keep the animals away from the following to avoid toxic effects. Waste motor oil, disposed off carelessly. Old crankcase oil (has high lead content). Old radiator coolant or antifreeze (sweet and attractive to animals). Orchard spray dripped onto grass. Weed spray (some have a salty taste). Most sheep dips. Old pesticide or herbicide containers, filled with rainwater.

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Old auto batteries (sheep/goats like the salty lead oxide taste). Q. List important factors, which affect the prevalence of animal poisoning by plants. i) Season of year: Some plants grow well in one season and are dormant in others. They may be highly toxic at an early stage of new growth. ii) Climate: Generally, high humidity and temperature favour the growth of poisonous plants and development of poisonous principle in them. However, similar conditions favour the growth of palatable forage and thus reduce the chances of animals ingesting the poisonous plants. iii) Accessibility: Many highly toxic plants seldom if ever cause poisoning because they are not readily accessible to livestock. iv) Palatability: It is a relative term. Animals on a satisfactory plane of nutrition will not eat poisonous plants. However, during drought they may graze on such plants. Some highly toxic plants are never consumed because of their unpalatability due to bitterness, presence of spines, woodiness of the plant, presence of a repulsive aromatic smell, or the ability to cause blistering, or a rash around the mouth of the animal that accidentally ingested the plant. v) Species and age of animal: Some animal species are tolerant of some poisonous plants while others are susceptible. Horses are usually more susceptible but sheep and goats are somewhat tolerant to some of the toxic plant species. Young animals are usually more susceptible. vi) Familiarity: Animals may become familiar with a poisonous plant through past association and thus may avoid consuming it again. Nevertheless, it is not an established rule. vii) Part of the plant which is toxic: Many plants are toxic in all their parts. Some only in one or two parts, for example the seeds or the flowers or the roots. Obviously if the seeds are toxic, animals will be affected only when seeds are present and this is again related to season. If only roots are toxic then cattle, sheep, goats and horses are unlikely to be poisoned. viii) Parasitic fungi: Poisonous fungi can invade and render toxic a plant which is itself harmless. Two of the better known ones are Aspergillus flavus and Claviceps spp. which attach themselves to grasses and render them toxic. ix) Variability of toxic principle: Many plants which make a perfectly good forage, become toxic under certain conditions of climate, soil type etc. These under conditions of good growth followed by rapid wilt, produce large quantities of hydrocyanic acid and thus become toxic. Some highly toxic plants when dried and treated in some way, are rendered harmless. x) Soil type: The type of soil has a marked influence on the toxicity or otherwise of plants which grow on it, for example high selenium soils may be very clearly marked by the selenium accumulators growing on them. Q. Discuss characteristic symptoms of plant poisoning in animals. Generally the effect of the poison is on more than one body system, but occasionally only one may be clearly affected. Nervous poisons are probably most commonly seen. Overstimulation such as caused by Datura and strychnos, may be followed by paralysis and finally death. Irritant poisons produce skin blistering or dermatitis such as caused by Euphorbia with milky fluid, which they secrete. Other irritants are plant hairs and spikes

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which cause acute haemorrhagic gastroenteritis such as caused by many species of Araceae. Muscular poisons mostly cardiac glycosides, similar to digitalis, directly affect the muscles and cause convulsions and paralysis. Plants containing cardiac glycosides for example urginea (squill) and strophanthus (West African arrow poison) belong to this group. Blood poisons affect the red cells or the haemoglobin or plasma, causing jaundice, anaemia, cyanosis and petechiation of mucous membranes. Examples are Ricinus (castor oil), Manihot (cassava) etc. Photosensitization affects animals ingesting plants containing substances, which after circulating in the blood stream and passing thus to the unpigmented cutaneous tissue are acted upon by sunlight in such a way as to cause damage to the skin. An example is Lantana. Cyanogenic glycosides owe their toxicity to the production of hydrocyanic acid by enzymes. This action occurs with some well-known forage plants under certain conditions of climate. Examples are Sudan grass (Sorghum halepense) and couch grass (Cynodon dactylon). Q. What measures would you suggest to prevent losses from poisonous plants? i) Know the poisonous plants common to that area. By identifying the poisonous plants common to the area, it will be possible: a) To avoid areas heavily infested with poisonous plants. b) To eradicate the poisonous plants effectively by mechanical or chemical means. c) To know what first aid to apply where a veterinarian is not readily available. d) To allow grazing by such animal species only that is not harmed by the particular poisonous plant(s). e) To shift the grazing season to a part of the year when the plant is not dangerous since some plants are poisonous only at certain season of the year. ii) Knowledge of symptoms that generally indicate plant poisoning, makes it possible to take early action. iii) Provide supplemental feed during droughts and after plants become mature. iv) Avoid turning out very hungry animals where there are poisonous plants. v) Remove animals from infested areas when plant poisoning becomes known. vi) Treat promptly affected animals. Rapid and proper treatment may save such animals. Check with your local agricultural officer/forest officer, as to what plants in your particular area are poisonous. With any new grazing area, walk around it and note any unusual or unfamiliar plants. Find out what these are and if toxic, these should possibly be eradicated before turning out animals there. In case you are unable to identify the plants, you can send several fresh whole plants, wrapping them in several layers of newspaper, to the nearby agricultural college/research institute to identify them and advise as to their being toxic or not. Q. Name some of the common poisonous plants found in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Lantana: The most common being Lantana camara, a shrub; affected animals show severe jaundice and photosensitization generally in the form of severe dermatitis, especially in light coloured areas. If large quantities are consumed, death from haemorrhagic gastroenteritis may occur.

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Ratti seeds (Abrus precatorius): It is a leguminous climber with red and black seeds, which are highly toxic; a toxalbumin called abrin causes blood poisoning, main indications being violent purging, high temperature, shivering, incoordination and paralysis. Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis): Another blood poisoning plant. In untreated state, seeds are toxic after obtaining oil from castor seeds, the remaining castor cakes, being rich in toxic principle called ricin. Affected animals show profuse watery diarrhoea, convulsions, dullness, incoordination of gait and animals may die in convulsions. Nuxvomica (Strychnos nuxvomica): Within 10 to 30 minutes of ingestion, the animal will undergo convulsions as many as 10 to 12 with an interval of 10 to 15 minutes; spasms of the respiratory muscles may also follow. During these convulsions, the animal dies. Solanines (Family Solanaceae): Members of this family are the thorn apples, Datura spp., Solanum spp.-including the potato S. tuberosum itself. Various species of the genera Duboisia, Nicotiana and Cestrum also belong to this group. The symptoms vary greatly in animal depending on the plant ingested; generally, these are dullness and depression followed by muscular tremors, paralysis, low temperature, slow pulse and respiration, recumbency and death. Caustic weed-Euphorbia spp.: Plants of this genus are characterized by the latex, a milky fluid which exudes from the foliage when it is cut or broken. The latex is eaten by grazing animal. There is some evidence that a cyanogenetic glycoside may be present in some species in addition to the irritant latex. At least one of them causes oedema of the head and neck of sheep. Oleander-Nerium oleander, N. indicum: Commonly known as lovers poison. Leaves are highly toxic. Characteristic symptoms are vomiting, convulsions, diarrhoea and colic. Necropsy reveals acute gastroenteritis. Q. Discuss treatment of animals suffering from plant poisoning. Mostly plant poisoned animals are not discovered in sufficient time to prevent loss. Thus prevention is considered better than treatment. Two important principles need to be kept in mind. i) Removal of the residual poison from the digestive tract or body surface. ii) use of chemical and physiological antidotes to the poison that has been absorbed. Other supporting treatment such as fluid therapy in dehydration due to diarrhoea, sedatives in excitement, stimulants in case of CNS depression comes later. Given below are some of the routine curative measures against poisoning by certain plants or their by-products: Nuxvomica/strychnine : i) Sedation of the animals with chlorpromazine hydrochloride or chloral hydrate or barbiturate anaesthetics. ii) Tannic acid orally to precipitate the alkaloid. No specific treatment except that i) infested grain should be withdrawn and ii) vasodilator drugs be used. i) Calcium hydroxide (15% of ration) is an effective antidote. ii) Liquid paraffin in milk. i) Keep the animal in dark place.

Ergot

Oak

: : :

Lantana

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION ii) Give purgative. iii) Give glucose saline and liver tonic. i) Butyl alcohol (bone marrow stimulant) 1.0 g in combination with antibiotics sub-cutaneous. ii) Thiamine hydrochloride. i) Mostly symptomatic treatment.

Braken fern

ii) Infested grain should be withdrawn and treated with ammonia. Mouldy sweet clover : i) Stop feeding of damaged sweet clover hay. : ii) Give vitamin K20 mg intravenously. Linseed cake : It can be detoxidated by soaking in water and then boiling for 10 minutes to eliminate the hydrocyanic acid. Cottonseed cake : Cooking of cake or the addition of 1% calcium hydroxide or 0.1% ferrous sulphate for detoxication. Q. Discuss nutrient deficiencies of range forage. Due to lack of feed, hunger is the most common deficiency on the range. There may particularly be a shortage of energy during droughts late in the season or early in spring when grass is washy. Under such energy-deficient conditions, sheep/goats lose weight and condition and young ones fail to grow, also reproduction is adversely affected. Mature, weathered native range grass is almost always deficient in protein-being as low as 3 % or less. Protein-leaching losses due to rains may be more than 30 to 50 %. Phosphorus deficiencies are rather common among range sheep/goats. Of the vitamins, A is most likely to be deficient in range forage, because dry bleached range grass is very low in carotene, the precursor of vitamin A. Q. Give a detailed account of diagnosing and treating sheep/goat poisoning. If is often difficult to make a definite diagnosis of an animal poisoning. Clinical signs are not usually specific and all signs are not always seen in every poisoned animal. The recommended procedure for making a diagnosis of the cause of poisoning follows: i) Check on the accessibility of a poisonous substance. ii) Study the clinical sings. This may be difficult, especially with possible combinations of toxins or infectious agents. iii) Possibly use a few test animals in a feeding trial. iv) Make a pathological examination of the animals internal organs and tissues. v) Chemically analyze the feed, water and animal tissues for the presence of suspected toxin, because many analytical methods are quite specific. vi) Use a specific antidote (where available) for the suspected poison. If it alleviates the clinical signs, it gives evidence of the cause. The treatment of the poisoned animals is based on the following general principles:

: Aflatoxicosis (Toxin of : Aspergillus spp., through intake of contaminated grain, groundnuts etc. :

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i) ii) iii)

Preventing injury and controlling convulsions with a sedative, usually a barbiturate. Relieving pain by use of chemical analgesics. Removing or neutralizing the poison by: a) Using a gastric lavage with activated charcoal for absorbing toxins in the stomach. b) Using cathartics to help faecal elimination of unabsorbed toxins. c) Using diuretics to help urinary elimination of absorbed toxins. d) Washing off any surface poison. e) Possibly performing a rumenotomy for physical removal of unabsorbed toxins. f) Using a specific antidote, if available. Maintaining the vital signs of respiratory, circulatory and renal functions by physical or chemical resuscitation, fluid theraphy etc. Observing the animal for further treatment needs, because the toxin may continue to be absorbed from the skin, gut, or respiratory system of the animal. A national animal poison center needs to be established which should remain open 24 hours a day and every day of the week with a hotline phone number. It should be staffed with trained toxicologists who can answer questions about known or suspected cases of poisoning or chemical contaminations involving any species of animals. Such centers are already working in several countries. Give suggestions for improvement of sheep and goat production in the country.

iv) v)

vi)

Q.

Most of the management practices pertaining to sheep mentioned above, with minor exceptions, are applicable to goats as well. General Suggestions for Improvement in Sheep/Goat Production.

Possibly flocks of adequate size of important breeds of all small ruminants be brought at the research stations of various provinces and agricultural universities to study their performance levels under intensive management system. Such data should be more reliable and helpful for future selection and breeding programmes. The identification of superior rams /bucks on the basis of their performance in various situations should be encouraged.

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION High mortality in suckling lambs/kids is one of the major causes of overall poor productivity in Pakistan. This problem needs to be investigated to improve the preventive measures and management systems. Studies based on the selection of more prolific sheep/goats and their breeding with rams/bucks from multiple births and their impact on rural flocks should be carried out to improve the number of lambs/kids weaned per ewe/doe bred. Studies should be carried out to determine the optimum level of sheep and goat population in the country under the existing conditions and resources of feed availability for them. Continued increase in the numbers of underfed animals with much lower production than the possessed potential, is not something, which can be boasted of. Absence of a real sheep and goat extension service at provincial level deprives the farmers of their rights to get the much needed advice that can lead to improved productivity of small ruminants and help improve the returns to the farmers. Recently installed district governments are in a much better position to tackle such problems in consultation with district officers responsible for livestock development, including sheep and goat improvement. Special allocations need to be made for sheep and goat development since this activity has a rural orientation and it pertains more to the landless and marginal farmers who are leading a life clearly below poverty line. The existing so called extension service wing of provincial Livestock and Dairy Development Departments needs to be strengthened by engaging manpower especially trained in livestock production. The introduction of a system of washing sheep before shearing and removing their fleeces completely and without injuring with the help of trained shearers and improved shearing machines, at proper sites. Maintenance of up-to-date statistics of sheep and goats, wool, milk, meat, skins and by-products by an appropriate agency, preferably at the federal level. Establishing a firm policy on the production of comparatively fine wools in selected hilly areas in the north western parts and carpet wools in the rest of the country. Regulation of wool trade through measures such as the introduction of standardized market charges and practices, provision of marketing facilities in important wool markets and improvement in the methods of transport and storage of wool. Provision of credit facilities to sheep and goat producers for better feeding of lambs/kids and goat producers under Khushhal Pakistan Programme. Studies should be undertaken to determine the causes and remedies for colouration in wools, particularly yellowness of the autumn clip. Studies need to be undertaken to determine the useful effects, if any, of so far crossbreeding work in sheep and goats in the country and what exotic germplasm can be beneficial to enhance wool, meat and milk production from sheep and /or goats. Research on the performance of crossbred sheep flocks produced with exotic blood needs to be conducted. 74

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Determining the wool characteristics that are most important in evaluating carpet quality with a view to increasing the production of fleeces that exhibit these characteristics. A coordinated national breeding programme for the improvement of sheep and goat meat breeds and dairy goat breeds. Studies to determine the influence of methods of transport, distance and time in transit on the injuries to animals and losses in liveweight, carcass yield and meat quality during transport to slaughter. Studies to suggest improvements in the present sheep/goat marketing systems. Studies to determine the most economical age for slaughter of young sheep and goats. Improvement of existing rangelands, pastures and utilization of agroindustrial wastes and by-products for the formulation of nutritionally balanced and economical rations. Establishment of a meat research and technology institute.

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HOUSING AND HANDLING FACILITIES


Q. Why good handling and working facilities are important for small ruminants? Good husbandry, instincts and training show the producers that proper handling and management result in comfortable, contended and productive sheep/goats. Experienced producers soon recognize that well designed working facilities and buildings reduce the work and physical exertion required to provide the necessary care for small ruminants. Stress on both the sheep/goats and the caretaker is reduced. Management jobs such as health care are scheduled and performed in a more timely and routine manner when good facilities are available, rather than being avoided or ignored due to lack of proper handling facilities such as corrals and chutes. Carrying out the various management jobs is possible in a more humane manner with less risk of injury to the animals and the caretaker. Finally, in case of sheep, the wool is maintained in a cleaner, more valuable condition. Each of these items is important, because a primary objective of proper sheep/goats handling and well designed facilities is to increase the productivity and profit from the sheep/goat operation. Q. For ideal/modern housing and handling of small ruminants what facilities are needed? What constitutes adequate housing and handling facilities? If it is a small-sized flock, it can be managed even without elaborate facilities. For large flocks, more permanent facilities should be considered. First, think about what sheep/goat management jobs need to be done on your farm or ranch. Make a list of these jobs. Beside each job note what time(s) of the year it is done and the number of animals handled at each time. This list will help you determine the facilities you need for your management system. For example some people control external parasites by dipping their animals, others by spraying. Each of these techniques requires different types of facilities. Further, the number of animals to be handled at any one time determines the dimensions of pens/sheds/paddocks and chutes. If holding pens are too large, you will waste time and energy chasing sheep/goats. If too small, you will waste time and energy moving sheep/goats from pen to pen. Allow about 1m per animal for holding pens. When completed your list might look like this: Task Holding Sorting Deworming Vaccination Weighing Foot trimming Facility required Gathering pen and forcing pen Narrow sorting chute, sort gate, at least two holding pens to sort into 1m wide chute or small pen 1m wide chute or small pen Weigh crate in chute Small pen

Add or delete items from the list according to your situation. During the planning process, keep in mind a few basic principles. To work effectively, your facility should enable you to gather and hold sheep/goats in a gathering pen, move them into a forcing pen, which will in turn allow you to force them into the treatment and sorting area, and then out into sort pens. To successfully get sheep/goats to flow through pens with minimum effort and stress on both you and the animals, basic principles of sheep/goat behaviour and handling need to be understood. Q. Discuss small ruminant behaviour in relation to their handling. Small ruminants (sheep/goats) have wide-angle vision and they can see behind themselves without turning their heads. An average sheep/goat has a visual field of 270 degrees. They depend heavily on their vision. Lighting conditions in a small ruminant handling facility can either improve or impede their movement. To prevent them from being spooked by distractions outside handling facilities, solid fences should be used in chutes and crowd pens.

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Small ruminants have a tendency to move toward light. Loading them at night will be easier if the producer places lights inside the truck. The lights should illuminate the truck and not glare into the animals eyes. For unloading at night, a single lamp should be turned on at the end of the alley so that they can see where they are going. In roofed sheep/goat-handling, spotlights can be used to attract sheep/goats into the sorting or drenching chute. The lamps must not shine into the eyes of approaching animals. Sheep/goats will balk if bright light glares into their eyes. Sometimes it is difficult to persuade sheep to enter an enclosed area such as a shearing shed. Installing skylights in the roof to provide natural lighting will facilitate handling. Sharp and harsh contrasts of light and dark in handling facilities can cause small ruminants to balk. Illumination should be even and diffused. A single shadow that falls across a sorting chute or loading ramp can cause balking. The lead animal will balk and refuse to cross the shadow. Balking also can be caused by a small bright spot of sunlight coming in through a hole in a roof. Patching the roof may solve the problem. Small ruminants rather most of the ruminant animals balk at shadows, probably due to poor depth perception, since they can perceive depth while they are standing with their heads down. They have difficulty seeing depth when they are moving with their heads up. They balk at shadows because they have to stop and put their heads down to determine the difference between a shadow or a hole in the ground. The worst situation is when half of the floor of the chute is shaded and the other half is in sunlight. Noise: Excessive noise is highly stressful. Small ruminants are more sensitive to high frequency noise than people. All handling procedures should be conducted quietly. Yelling, noise and confusion excite animals and cause stress. Rattles may be used to move them. Flight Zone: All sheep/goats maintain a minimum zone of security (comfort). If this zone (area) is penetrated by a dog or person, movement away or flight by the animal is likely to occur. The size of flight zone varies depending on the tameness or wildness of the animal. When sheep/goats are being handled in a confined area, pileups can occur if their flight zone is deeply penetrated. That is why dogs should not be used inside crowding pen. Dogs are recommended in open areas, having enough room to move away. Sheep/goats will often refuse to move if they can see people up ahead. Q. Discuss the pattern of movement of small ruminants. Small ruminants have a strong instinct to follow the leader and this behaviour can be utilized to make handling easier. They must be able to see a pathway of escape and they should be able to see other sheep/goats moving down the pathway or chute in front of them. When the animals are being sorted, they should be able to see previously sorted animals through the end of the sorting chute. Sheep/goats will balk if a chute appears to be a dead end. It is easy and practical to train sheep/goats to lead the flock. Feed is used to reward the lead small ruminants. Sheep/goats will move more easily through a chute or corral if they have used the route before. If one animal balks, the tendency seems to spread to the next animal in line. When they are clam, a small stimulus such as a rustling branch can be used to move them. If they become agitated, they will not respond to this stimulus. Balky, vocal and uncooperative sheep/goats tend to move to the back of the flock as they are moved through the corrals. Sheep/goats will move more readily into the wind and more readily uphill than down. Rough handling and grabbing sheep/goats by the wool/hair will increase costly bruises in market animals. Bruised meat should not be used for human food. Dogs should be well trained and used in areas where sheep/goats have room to move away. Noisemakers and rattles are useful for moving small ruminants but excessive noise should be avoided. Q. What are the salient effects of previous experiences and stressful handling of small ruminants? Small ruminants may remember bad experiences for up to 12 months. Sheep/goats that have had previous experiences with gentle handling will be quieter, easier to handle and less stressed in

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future handling. According to a recent study, animals that were turned upside down in a squeeze chute are more reluctant to enter the same area a year later. When they are first introduced to a new person or a new handling facility, their initial experiences should be pleasant. If the initial experience is painful, they will take longer to recover from it. Reducing handling stresses will improve productivity. Isolation, handling and transportation stress can lower disease resistance, conception rates and weight gains. Dogs should not be allowed to bite sheep/goats because it produces a hormonal stress response. Handling small ruminants with dogs and repeated sorting and transporting 11 to 20 days after breeding can cause significant early embryonic losses. Individual animal isolation is also extremely stressful. In fact, handling animals properly will reduce stress on both the sheep/goats and the handler. Q. What principles of natural behaviour of sheep should be considered in designing handling facilities? These are, that: sheep move toward other sheep and follow one another; sheep prefer to move uphill and toward open spaces; sheep will move away from building; sheep move better around slight corners or curves where they cannot see what lies ahead; sheep will move away from things which frighten them; sheep have legs and can move themselves around. Sheep do all these things by instinct. Basically, a sheep working facility must enable sheep to be gathered and held, treated in groups or individually and then held again in groups. Success or failure in getting sheep to move through the pens and chutes with a minimum effort for both the sheep and producer is related to basic principles that should be considered at the design stage of the facility. Q. Discuss farm layout and infrastructure for a flock of sheep/goats. It is important to make a plan of the land available for the farm, in order to plan its overall layout. Consider what infrastructure is required and how best to arrange it for easy management of the flock. Is all the infrastructure needed immediately, or can it be developed over time? The infrastructure on a large goat farm might include the following features.

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Building: housing for breeding males, housing for does, kidding pens, kid boxes, milking parlour and milk handling area, isolation pens for sick goats, postmortem/slaughter room, office/recording room with lockable drug cupboard, feed and equipment store and a shed for hay storage. Possibly experimental pens, including feeding-trial pens. Water troughs, dip bath/spraying area, handling pens, weighing equipment and pens, burial pit, manure pit, exercise yards and fencing (if affordable). It is important to consider the function of the house to be constructed. If the goats will be housed only at night, the house design can be more simple and they can be housed in the groups in which they are herded for grazing during the day. Will they be housed all the time and will feed be cut and carried to them? If so, they will need more space, an exercise yard, good feed racks etc. The main house will be constructed keeping these requirements in view. Three suggested house layouts are shown in Figures 25,26,27, 27a,27b,27c. Lambing/Kidding Pens: Lambing/kidding pens should be provided for ewes/does and newborn lambs/kids. These pens are usually 1.5m square and are made by placing together two hinged hurdles, which are then set against the walls of the sheep/goat barn. Provision of a lamb/kind creep makes it possible to feed some concentrates to lambs/kids in a separate enclosure away from the dams. A lamb/kid creep is an enclosure with openings large enough for lambs/kids to enter, but small enough to keep out adult sheep/goats. Shades: Providing any type of shade (including tree shade) adequate enough to protect sheep/goats from the hot sun is among the more important and widely used devices for improving the environment of small ruminants in hot climates. The most appropriate is to provide 0.4 to 0.6 m of shade per animal, at least 2.0 to 2.5m high, located with a north-south placement because the sun can get underneath them to dry out the manure and urine and are open all around so as to permit maximum air movement. Space Requirements of Buildings: Average space requirements of buildings for sheep and goats are presented in Table 18. Storage Space Requirements for Feed and Bedding: The space requirements for feed storage for sheep and for goats vary widely and the amount of feed to be stored depends primarily upon: 1) length of range season, 2) method of feeding and management, 3) kind of feed, 4) climate, and 5) proportion of feeds produced on the farm or ranch in comparison to the proportion purchased.

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Normally, the storage capacity should be sufficient to handle all concentrate feed, silage grown on the farm and to hold purchased supplies. Forage and bedding may or may not be stored under cover. Dried forage and straw including paddy straw are frequently stacked in the fields. Mostly mud plaster cover or a cheap cover of polythene sheet may be used for protection. Other forms of low-cost storage include temporary grain bins, open-wall shed for dry forage and tomb-shaped thatched bins for straw.

Table 18.
Class of goat/sheep

Space requirements of building for sheep and goats


Building floor space per animal Lot space (dirt) per head Feeder space

Height at throat Does Young kids Bucks Dry ewes Ewes with 1.5 2.0 m lambs Stud rams 2.0 3.5 m 7.0 m 30 cm per head 25 40 cm 2.5 4.0 m 40-50 cm per head 25 40 cm 1.2 1.6 m 0.7 1.0 m 2.0 3.5 m 1.2 1.6 m 2.0 3.5 m 1.8 2.8 m 6.0 m 2.0 3.0 m 40-50 cm per head 22-30 cm per head 30 cm per head 40-45 cm per head 25 40 cm 20 30 cm 25 40 cm 25 40 cm

Ventilation: Goats are very susceptible to respiratory diseases and must therefore have good ventilation. To maintain fresh air in the house and to eliminate contaminated air, the house must be designed to allow air to circulate. This is achieved when hot air rises and escapes from the house, ideally through the roof, which in turn draws fresh air into the house through side openings. Any smell of ammonia in the house indicates poor ventilation and an unhealthy environment. In most conditions the housing needs walls on three sides, however, where it gets very cold and windy during winter, the animals need to be protected from cold. The roof should

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be waterproof and should either have air vents or have ventilation in the center of the roof (Figure 28). Floor: The main types of floor to consider are earth or concrete. The use of wooden slats (Figure 29) seems impossible under the circumstances. They each have advantages and disadvantages. A concrete floor is easy to clean, but, without bedding, is a cold hard surface and therefore not always desirable. An earth floor is often adequate, provided it is well drained. It should be swept clean every day and more dirt/sand put down at regular intervals. Milking Shed: The milking shed should be a quiet, calm, easily cleaned environment, where it is easy to milk. When goats are milked by hand, it is the easiest if they are raised on a platform with a small feed rack (Figures 30,31). Simple wooden platforms are quite adequate. Isolation Pens: It is a good practice to have a few isolation pens where sick goats can be kept apart from the rest of the flock to avoid cross infection. Ideally, the pen should be quite separate from the main goat house and grazing areas, to avoid any chance of air-borne infections. Isolation pens should be made from such materials that are easy to clean and disinfect after the recovery or death of the sick animal(s). Sheep/goats do not require expensive or elaborate buildings and equipment, but dairy goats should preferably be provided proper housing. On the contrary, it pays well to plan and construct such buildings and equipment that will promote sheep/goat health and conserve feed and labour. The shelter should of such a nature as to protect the flock from becoming soaked with rain. Until lambing/kidding time, a shelter open to south on well drained ground may be satisfactory. Open-yard Feeding: Open-yard feeding is often used by large operators who feed thousands of lambs. In this system, equipment costs are kept to a minimum. The facility merely consists of an enclosed and well-drained yard which may or may not have the feed bunks and natural or constructed windbreak. If because of inclement weather, shelter in the form of sheds is provided, it may be termed as shelter feeding. The sheds may have slotted floors. Slotted floors are floors with slots (of varying sizes) through which faeces and urine pass to a storage area immediately below. Salt or Mineral Boxes: When minerals (salt and other needed minerals) or salt mixtures are provided on grazing area, the container should be so constructed to protect the materials from rain. Watering Facilities: Sheep/goats will consume from 4 to 11.5 litres of water per head daily, with variations according to size of animal, season, type of feed offered, physiological status of

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animal and temperature of water. When on pastures or ranges, sheep/goats drink water from reservoirs, springs, lakes and streams. For animals in confinement, water be piped to tanks, tubs or troughs. The main essentials of water containers are: adequate size or number for the flock, ease of cleaning, and convenience to animals. It is preferable that water containers be some distance from feeders, otherwise animals will carry feed in their mouths and foul the water. Cutting Chute: A cutting chute is easily made. It is inexpensive and extremely useful for sorting sheep/goats. By means of one dodge gate, the flock may be sorted into two lots. With additional gates, more sorts may be made. Dodge gates should swing from one side of the chute to the other to permit cutting into separate pens. Post-mortem/Slaughter Room: A simple post-mortem/slaughter room is useful; it should be constructed next to the isolation pens. Ideally, it should have a concrete floor, side bench for postmortem examinations, drainage system and soak away, water and a central hook to lift carcasses for butchering. Burial Pit: A deep pit should be dug, far away from the flock, where infected carcasses can be disposed. Carcasses should either be burnt or deeply buried and covered with soil and thorny bushes so that wild animals can be prevented from gaining access to the carcass and spreading infected material. Dip Bath: In situations where large numbers of goats need to be regularly dipped to control external parasites, a cement dip should be built away from the rest of the farm and should have a soak away drain or septic tank to dispose off the waste dip-wash, without contaminating adjacent pasture and water sources (Figure 32). Ideally, it should be constructed close enough to a source of water to allow the easy filling of the trough. However, if the water source is a well, be careful not to contaminate the well water itself with dip-wash. Footbaths: Footbaths are used for preventing and treating foot rot and foot scald. Also, these are useful to eliminate the possibility of carrying any contamination into the animal pens. The purpose is to hold the small ruminants feet in contact with an appropriate chemical (zinc sulphate, copper sulphate or formalin) long enough to kill the infecting organisms. Since sheep/goats dislike entering and standing in water, it is thus not an easy procedure. The baths themselves can be of any size or shape but most are made to fit inside the entrance or gate of a handling pen, a treatment chute or a sorting chute. The depth of the walls varies from 6 to 8 inches and the length according to the animals to be treated and the time desired for them to stand in the bath. The ideal bath would be removable, durable, inexpensive, unaffected by chemicals, provides secure footing for the animal. Permanent footbaths can be constructed from concrete; its floor should be rough. Portable footbaths can be made from fibreglass. Its surface is very slippery and thus tends to excite the sheep/goats into excessive splashing and confusion. Handling Setups: Nearly all effective and efficient modern sheep/goat handling setups include gathering pen where animals first enter and are held, wherefrom they are moved into crowding pen by cutting smaller number of sheep/goats from the main flock and squeezing them into much smaller crowding pen. Therefrom walking single file they can be forced into treatment chute(s) for deworming, vaccinating or may be sorted and moved into holding pens where they may be pregnancy tested, dipped or separated for mating, branding, culling, foot trimming, weighing or for sale. Gathering pen has multiple uses. It is also used for feeding and watering throughout the year. The shape of gathering pen is important. Sharp corners should be avoided as the animals especially sheep tend to huddle in them instead of moving on. The pen width for farm flocks should not exceed 5 meters, so that the shepherd can reach any animal in the pen while using a

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crook. Floor space measuring 1.75 to 2.0 square meter per ewe/doe should be allowed and 1.0 to 1.25 square meter for per grown lamb/kid. The gathering pen should be so located as to allow easy movement of sheep/goats from outlying pastures or lots into the gathering pen. For very small flocks the forcing pen and the gathering pen are one and the same. Office and Stores: A simple office, close to sheep/goat house makes many jobs easier. The office can serve as a focal point on the farm, where records, reference books and valuable equipment are kept. It is handy to have a store near the office where bulky supplies and equipment such as feed and tools can be stored securely. It is an important management practice to keep good records of the stocks of materials in the store, so that they can be replenished in time and to devise an effective method of controlling their use. It is good to have a few simple visual displays about the farm in the office such as number of stock by age/sex/breed for students and visitors. Lists of ewes/does due to lamb/kid can also be displayed, so that they can be checked regularly. Lamb/Kid Boxes: Lambs/kids do not have a functioning rumen and do not generate much heat to keep themselves warm. Young lambs/kids are very susceptible to draughts and cold and must be kept warm, but also well ventilated. In winter temperatures can fall considerably at night and lambs/kids will need help to keep warm. To avoid such problems and keep lambs/kids warm, dry and safe, it is best to construct a lamb/kid box of some sort. The box should be constructed from wood or bamboo. Ideally, it should have some suitable bedding such as straw or dry grass. Other traditional methods can be used such as a large up-turned basket. Feed Racks: Goat farmers have tried for years to design the perfect goat-feeding rack. Everyone has a particular design and different materials available. Feed racks can be made from wood or metal (Figure 33). Tree branches will do nearly as well, provided that they are smooth. The height of the rack will depend on the height of the goats. It should be high enough for them to have to reach up and pull the feed down. The width between the bars will vary according to the sort of feed being fed. The rack may be free-standing or attached to a wall for support. Ideally, a tray would be underneath, to catch smaller bits of feed that fall through and prevent them from being soiled. Allow enough space for all the goats; a width of about 45 cm per animal is adequate. Feed Troughs: These are simple wooden structures of various lengths, raised off the ground and are adequate to feed dry supplements. If feed is offered wet, the container should be waterproof. If individual animals are fed (as in a small flock), an old oil drum well cleaned and neatly cut in half or a plastic bucket may be used. Allow about 45 cm per sheep/goat. If there is not sufficient trough space, feed the animals in batches, to ensure that all have equal chance to feed. A wooden guard-beam may be fixed over the length of the trough so that animals do not jump into the trough and soil the feed (Figure 34). Weighing Crate: Farms that need to weigh several hundred sheep/goats regularly will need a weighing crate with suitable handling pens, to save workers time and grazing time. A swing gate at the end of pen can help in sorting sheep/goats on the basis of weight. This might be useful in selection programmes or on fattening farms that sell when a target weight has been reached. Q. What general factors need considerations in deciding about the layout and location of a sheep/goat farm? Selecting the best site for sheep/goat handling and working facilities is not always easy, and a number of items should be considered. Generally speaking, the site for a sheep/goat working facility should be convenient for access both the sheep/goats and the shepherd and preferably near water and electricity. It should be free draining and possibly sheltered. The site in question should be centrally located on the farm or ranch to avoid long drives for the sheep/goats. This will, however, depend on a number of other considerations such as: Topography of the site and land Drainage Shelter and/or shade

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Water and feed supply Accessibility to electricity Economics or cost factor Q. Is accessibility to roads an important consideration while selecting a site for a modern large sheep/goats farm? Any well-designed and well-sited working facility for sheep/goats should always be accessible to vehicles, especially trucks, to transport animals to the market place or to seasonal or permanent pastures not close to the working unit. Associated with the accessibility to either paved or unpaved road is the need to have an adequate loading and unloading chute and holding pens. Q. What type of floors in sheep/goat housing are advisable? Pen or shed floors can be of beaten earth, stones or gravel and should be raised a little above the surrounding ground if drainage is good. All housing needs to be well drained and easily cleaned. Concrete is a good but expensive type of floor. It provides effective floor surface as well as excellent footing for the animals if the floor is left rough to avoid slipping. The floor, which is commonly of rammed earth, must be kept dry. Bedding can be made up of dried straw or wood shavings if cost effective. A raised floor for goats made of wooden slats is an alternative (certainly not affordable under our conditions). These slats should be narrow enough to avoid younger goats getting trapped therein. Q. What factors may affect small ruminant housing design? Effect on house design

Consider Purpose Permanent housing Night housing Permanent ram/buck pens Lambing/kidding pens Site Land ownership

Pen (1.5 m/animal + exercise yard, feed racks, water troughs. Pen (1.0 to 1.5 m/animal). 3m/ram or buck + exercise yard 3m/ewe or doe

Climate

Prevailing wind direction Drainage Rainfall Temperature Humidity Materials Availability Cost Durability

If ownership is permanent, build a more permanent structure. If site is on a short-term lease, build cheaper structure. If hot climate, site the structure away from sun to reduce daytime temperatures. If cool climate, house should face the sun to dry inside during day. If wind is cool, site housing sheltered from it. Build on well-drained site or raise floor of house. Heavy rainfall requires good roof. High temperature requires good ventilation, achieved through roof design and low walls. High humidity requires good ventilation.

Locally available materials are usually cheap, future repairs will be easier. Projected length of service. If long life required, use more durable material.

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Labour Skilled, locally available craftsmen

A more sophisticated construction.

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DAIRY GOATS
Q. How many breeds of goats found in Pakistan may be termed as dairy goats? Among more than two and a half dozen goat breeds found in Pakistan, hardly nine may be termed as dairy goats. Even those do not have a match with the real dairy goats such as Alpine, Nubian, Saanen, recognized worldwide. Q. Write a note on world distribution of dairy goats. Asia leads in number of goats, whereas Europe leads in milk production per goat. About 80% of goats milk in Asia is produced in Bangladesh, China, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. In Africa, Algeria, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia and Sudan produce about 70% of the goats milk. Mexico and Brazil produce most of the goats milk in North and South America, respectively. In descending order of goat population, Asia is followed by Africa, South America, Europe and North America. Q. What factors need consideration in establishing a dairy goat flock? Whatever the reason for establishing a flock, there are a variety of factors to keep in mind such as selection of breed, number of animals, uniformity, health, age, soundness of udder, price etc. Selection of Breed: Several factors should be considered in the selection of a dairy goat breed: personal preference, purpose of dairy goat enterprise and popularity of a breed in a locality. The latter makes it much easier to secure replacement stock and to have good bucks available for breeding purposes. The quality of the individual animals available must be kept in mind. Number of Animals: The beginner can acquire valuable practical experience with a few goats without subjecting a large flock to the possible hazards that frequently accompany inexperience. Ultimately the size of the flock is determined by facilities and capital available. Uniformity: Goats raised for breeding purposes should have uniformity of colour, type and other characteristics of the breed as well as those points which apply to all breeds. These points include: comparatively straight top, wide chest, large heart girth, plenty of feed capacity, rugged muzzle, straight legs, standing solid on the hoofs, good bone, loose and pliable coat, proper udder and teat placement, shape and texture in females and masculinity and ruggedness in bucks. Health: All does selected should be in a thrifty, vigorous condition. They should have every appearance of a life of usefulness and evidence of being good milkers and being able to raise strong, healthy kids. Animals showing dark blue skins, paleness or lack of colouring in the lining of the nose and eyelids, listlessness or a lack of vigour should be regarded with suspicion and avoided. Age: Age of the animals is a matter of preference and possibly economics. Some individuals may find it advantageous to buy aged, proven does past their prime, then use them as foundation breeders. Others wishing a small initial investment may buy doe kids. Although raising kids to maturity and production means a considerable investment in time and feed. However, invaluable experience will be gained. Soundness of Udder: In selecting does one should give particular attention to the udders and teats. Each udder should show plenty of capacity and be well held up to the body by the suspension ligament so that it will not become injured by hitting stones or other objects in the pasture or around the pen/barn. The low-slung udder is called pendulous 90

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udder and is very undesirable. To the touch, the udder should be pliable and soft, not hard and meaty. Hard lumps in the udder or teats should be discounted in judging or selection. The teats on the udder should be large enough to be easily milked. The dairy goat udder should be balanced in shape, with teats hanging the same length. The teats should be uniformly placed on the udder and slightly tilted forward. After a milking, the udder should look as if collapsed. Price: Generally, grades are less expensive than purebreds, but there are good and poor grades just as there are good and poor purebreds. Purebred milkers and purebred doelings may be the most expensive, depending upon their genetic capability. Most of the factors discussed above concerning goats, are equally applicable to sheep with minor variations. Q. What criteria or bases are used in selecting animals for establishing a sheep flock or a dairy goats flock? Establishing a new flock or improving an old one involves four bases of selection such as: 1) selection based on type or individuality, 2) selection based on pedigree, 3) selection based on show-ring winnings and 4) selection based on production records. Q. Discuss the role of selection in effecting flock improvement. Once the flock has been established, improvement can be obtained only through constant, rigid culling and careful selection of replacements-both ewes/does and lambs/kids. Such procedure makes the flock more profitable from the standpoint of quality and quantity of wool, meat and milk production and affords a means of accomplishing genetic gain in the next generation. Individual animal identification and production records are requisite to effective culling and selection. Also, those traits that are most heritable should be considered. In the majority of the flocks, selection and culling should be based on the following: quantity and quality of wool, meat yield in case of sheep and milk, butter fat and protein yield per lactation, milking behaviour, fertility and prolificacy, conformation and vigour and freedom from abnormality and defects. Q Discuss milk production by goats. In temperate zone, pure dairy goats are more common and serve specific markets such as those for soft cheeses. In UK and France, a small number of commercially run dairy goat units exist modeled on cattle enterprises. These are highly specialized units, managed intensively and demand high standards of management to be successful. If liquid milk is produced for sale, a cold chain may be required to enable the milk to be marketed in a fresh and hygienic state. A cold chain is a distribution system that transfers the milk from producers to buyers whilst keeping the milk cool and clean. Like buffaloes and cows, goats vary greatly in their producing ability, but excellent producers are those producing 1350 to 2000 litres per lactation. In countries like ours, goats produce milk in relatively small amounts (on average 0.4 to 1.5 litres per day) and is consumed as fresh liquid. In smallholder situations, either some goats may be kept to supply milk for the home with kids being sold or consumed, or alternately milk production is shared between nannys kids and the family. Yet it is an important food for many subsistence farmers. When produced by healthy animals in sanitary surroundings, goats milk is highly nutritious and healthful human food. It is usually pure white. The primary difference between goats milk and cows milk is the relative size of the fat globules and the consistency of the curd. Goats milk has smaller size of the fat globules and a softer curd. It is said that it

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has characteristics that make it beneficial to people who are allergic to buffalo or cows milk or who suffer from skin condition like eczema. Q Write a note on lactation in goats. Lactation is the secretion of milk or the time during which a goat produces milk. Lactation period in most of the indigenous breeds varies from 120 to 170 days, while lactation length in dairy goats of temperate regions is 200 to 350 days. A normal termination of lactation is considered to be 305 days. The lactation curve for milk produced by goats is relatively flat. It peaks at 8 to 10 weeks from kidding, whilst the buffalo or cow peaks at about 6 to 8 weeks. The curve then gradually flattens off (figure 36). After peaking milk production declines steadily at about 10% monthly in high producing goats, whereas it declines faster in low producing animals. Lactation is governed by a variety of factors including hormones from the anterior and posterior pituitaries, the thyroid, the adrenals, the placenta and the ovaries. For their size, goats have a higher relative yield than buffalo or cattle. This is partly because of the goats relatively larger udder size and volume. The udder of a goat is a greater proportion of the total weight of the animal and contains a higher total quantity of secretary tissue than buffaloes or cows. Goats also have a higher metabolic rate related to body size. This leads to a greater daily intake of feed and higher production of milk per unit of body weight (the net efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance and milk production is 70%). Q. Give a list of the factors that affect milk yield in goats and discuss briefly each of them. Body Size and Weight: There is a positive relationship between body weight and milk yield. Larger does produce more milk. They can eat more roughage than smaller ones and may be more efficient at converting poor quality feed into milk than smaller. Bigger nannies are said to store fat in the body before kidding which can be used to boost yield at the start of lactation. Research, however, indicates that only about 10% of the variation in milk yield can be accounted for by body weight. Age: Age affects milk yield, but is closely tied to body weight. Age accounts for much of the increase in body weight. Peak yield is reached when the doe is between 4 and 7 years of age. Does that kid earlier in life tend to have a lower yield in their first lactation than those that kid after they are two years old. Goats that start milk production later in life are, however, likely to have lower lifetime milk yield than earlier kidders. Dairy goats in temperate countries normally undergo first kidding at two years or older, while many goats in tropics/sub tropics kid before they are two years old. Udder Size and Shape: A weak udder attachment is considered a major defect, but udder volume, unless meaty, is highly correlated with milk yield. Bigger udders have a higher production capacity, but such udders may be more prone to physical damage while grazing. Growth: There is a tendency for late maturing animals, with a flat growth curve, to be more productive. Litter Size: Mammary growth is regulated by the number of kids bornthe more kids, the greater the mammary growth during pregnancy. Does with twins or triplets will produce a higher total yield than those with singles but as this milk is shared, single kids will drink more and grow more quickly than twins or triplets.

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Nutrition: No goat will fulfil its optimum milk yield unless it is properly fed and provided with adequate clean drinking water during its lactation. Depending on the fat content of milk, goats require 5 to 6 MJ of ME daily per litre of milk produced. The protein content of the diet is normally between 9 and 10%. In hot arid conditions, lack of water is a major constraint to milk yield. The mammary gland needs glucose to form lactose, which in turn largely controls the movement of water in milk. A reduction in feed quickly lowers the milk yield, since there is very little glucose stored in the body. Season and Temperature: The season of kidding influences milk yield to some extent. Exposure of goats to cold reduces milk secretion. One study showed that the milk yield at 0.5C was about 30% below that obtained from goats in an environmental temperature of 20C. Disease: Disease lowers milk production, with the degree of the effect determined by the kind and severity of the disease. Q. Describe the process of ejection and withdrawal of milk in goat. The basic milk producing unit of the udder is a very small bulb-shaped structure with a hollow center called the alveolus, lined with a single layer of epithelial cells which are responsible for secreting milk. Their functions are three fold:1) remove nutrients from the blood, 2) transform these nutrients into milk and 3) discharge the milk into the lumen. Each alveolus is surrounded by a network of capillaries from which nutrients are extracted and by a specialized type of muscle cell, called the myoepithelial cell, which is sensitive to the effects of the hormone exytocin from the posterior pituitary. When oxytocin is secreted into the blood, it stimulates contraction of these muscle cells, thereupon initiating milk ejection. Groups of alveoli empty into a duct thereupon forming a functional unit called a lobule. Several lobules empty into another duct system forming a larger unit called a lobe. The ducts of lobes empty into what is referred to as a galactophore, which, in turn, empties into the gland cistern. The alveolus is in effect, a milk factory. It has the ability to take nutrients from the blood and transform them into one of natures most perfect food. Galactopoiesis is the term used to describe the biosynthesis of milk. The ducts of the udder provide a storage area for milk and a means of transporting it to the outside. No milk secretion, per se, occurs within ducts. The cells lining the cisterns and duct systems consist of two layers of epithelium. Myoepithelial cells are arranged in a longitudinal organization allowing the ducts to shorten and increase the diameter to facilitate the flow of milk. Milk secretion is regulated primarily through hormonal mechanisms. However, milk letdown is initiated largely through neural mechanisms. In the udder, there is a network of afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerves. Receptors in the udder are sensitive to touch, temperature and pain. During the preparation for milking, the washing and cleaning of the udder stimulates these receptors and the process of milk ejection is initiated. Motor nerves transmit impulses from the brain and regulate blood flow and smooth muscle activity around the ducts and in the teat sphincter. When the goat is startled or subjected to pain or any sort of stress, the hormone epinephrine is released, which causes the constriction of blood vessels. Thus milk ejection is slowed and production depressed. Such stress can be caused by unusual disturbance from people, dogs or traffic. Some goats are very loath to allow themselves to

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be milked. The presence of the kid may partially overcome this problem by assisting the milker in obtaining all of the milk from the udder. Q. Write a note on the composition of goats milk and compare it with those of sheep, cow and human milk. Goats milk is a healthful and nutritious food. It is whiter than cows milk because it contains no carotene, which causes fat to have various degrees of yellow colouration. Butter made from goats milk is also white. The composition of goats milk is similar to cows milk and varies both within and between goat breeds. Also, the composition varies depending on milk yield, stage of lactation and level and quality of feeding. There are noticeable differences between the compositions of milk of various species (Table 19). Q. Write a note on the process of let-down of milk in goat. When the udder (especially the teats) is stimulated by a kid or a milker, 1) impulses are conducted along the nerves to the posterior pituitary at the base of the goats brain, 2) the posterior pituitary stores and releases the hormone oxytocin into the blood stream, 3) the blood transports oxytocin back to the udder, and 4) the oxytocin causes the smooth muscle like cells surrounding each alveolus to contract, thereby forcing the milk out of them into the large ducts and cisterns of the udder. The milk is then ejected through each teat into the bucket (Figure 35). Table 19. W ate r (% ) Average composition of goat, sheep, cow and human milk Fo Pro F Car Cal Ph Ir Vit Thi Ribo Ni od tein at bo- ciu os- o ami ami flavi ac n n ph n n A m ene (g) s hyd in (g rate (mg oru ( (IU) (mg (mg) ( rgy ) m s ) ) s (g) (K m (m g) cal g) g) ) 106 .0 158 .0 151 .0 14. 0 0. 05 0. 10 0. 05 0. 02 185. 0 147. 0 138. 0 240. 0 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.36 0.17 0.04 0. 30 0. 42 0. 08 0. 20

Vi ta mi n B1
2

Go 87. 67. 3.3 4. 4.6 129. at 5 0 0 0 Sh 80. 10 6.0 7. 5.4 193. eep 7 8.0 0 0 Co 87. 66. 3.3 3. 4.7 117. w 2 0 7 0 Hu 88. 69. 1.0 4. 6.9 33.0 m3 1 4 an Source: Ensminger and Parker (1986).

(m cg) 0.0 7 0.7 1 0.3 6 0.0 4

Q. Give the number of teats in buffalo, cow, camel, mare, goat and sheep. The number of teats normally are: buffalo 4, cow 4, camel 4, mare 2, goat 2 and sheep 2. Q. Write down the composition of goats colostrum. Percentage Total solids 20.0 Fat 4.5

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Protein 10.1 Lactose 4.5 20.0 Ash 0.9 Moisture 80.0 Source: Steele (1996). Q. Describe the milking routine for goats in vogue in Pakistan. Milking twice daily is normal in commercial dairy units as well as in goats raised for domestic purposes. Once daily is also practised with low-producing animals. Most goats are easily milked by hand, a process that will often take only 5 to 6 minutes, including washing and drying the udder. A regular milking routine should be followed such as that given below, preferably every 12 hours. They should be milked from the side, on a raised platform by hand because milking equipment is very expensive and requires a lot of cleaning to maintain good hygiene. It can be justified only where large numbers of goats are milked and where labour costs are high. Their udders and teats should be washed and dried thoroughly with clean towels. Use a clean bucket to collect milk. The bucket should be scalded before use. Hold one teat in each hand. Avoid pulling or stretching the teats or using vigorous up and down movement of the arms or hands. Milking should begin within 1 to 2 minutes after the udders have been washed. Eject the milk from each teat by closing the finger against the teat and squeeze the teat between it and your thumb. Progressively close the first, second, third and little finger until the whole hand is closed on the teat. In this way the milk in the teat is progressively pushed down and squirted into the bucket. The first stream of milk from each teat should be discarded into a strip cup to check for signs of mastitis. Both teats may be milked at the same time but it is an easier rhythm to alternate left hand, right hand to eject milk. After the milking it is advisable to dip each teat in dairy teat dip or a solution of 4 parts Clorox and 1 part water, since teat dips have proven successful in the reduction and prevention of mastitis. The milk should be filtered and cooled immediately to 7C. Q. Discuss the benefits of a raised milking platform or a milking stand for goats. It can be tiring to milk more than one or two goats when they are standing at ground level. A simple stand that raises the goat up some 40 to 60 cm will allow the milker to sit on a stool during milking and thus reduce fatigue to the milker caused by stooping. Goats can be trained to stand on this type of milking stand or can be restrained by the head. Feeding them during milking will also persuade them to stand still. Q. What are the major sources of off-flavours in milk? Recommend measures for the prevention of such flavours. Most seasoned dairy goat producers recommend that bucks should not be kept in the same building where milking does are kept, as they impart an off-flavour to the milk. Other factors influencing milk flavour and their causes and prevention are: Feed and Weed: Many feeds and weeds produce off-flavours in goats milk such as wild onion, garlic, turnips, berseem and certain silages. The surest way is not to give any feed of unknown content especially green chop forages within 2 hours of milking. Usually concentrate feeds can be fed while does are being milked without affecting the flavour of the milk. Oxidized: These are sometimes described as cardboard flavours. Some causes are (a) metallic contamination from copper and iron which may be alleviated by using stainless

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steel, and (b) exposure to daylight. Feeding vitamin E to milking animals will reduce or eliminate oxidized flavours. Rancid: This flavour is caused by a breakdown of the butterfat, which releases strongflavoured acids. This action is caused by the enzyme lipase, which is present in all milk. The primary causes of rancid milk are (a) goats well-advanced in lactation, (b)excessive agitation of milk and (c) slow cooing with foaming. Barney: This flavour is caused by dirty barns/housing, poor ventilation, unclean milking, and unclean goats, all of which can be alleviated. Salty: This flavour, which masks the slightly sweet flavour of milk, is caused by mastitis or certain individual goats. Milk from mastitic goats should not be marketed. Malty: This flavour is primarily due to a high bacterial count. The remedy is to keep bacteria out of milk as far as possible and to prevent growth of those that do get into it. Clean and cold milk will practically eliminate malty flavour. High-acid Sour Milk: This is due to a very high bacterial count. Milk should simply be cooled as rapidly as possible from 32C temperature of milk pail to near 0C. Unnatural off-flavours: These refer to flavours that come from medicinal agents and disinfectants. Such off-flavours can be controlled by (a) handling medicines and disinfectants so that the flavours or odours from them will not get into the milk (b) using chemical sanitizers only in the concentrations indicated by the directions. Milk from drug-treated goats should not be marketed for at least 72 hours after the last treatment. For good-tasting milk, the dairy producer should keep it clean; keep it from contact with air and light for long hours; keep it cold; feed silage etc. after a milking; use good quality feed; and not include milk from problem goats and not keep bucks in the same building where in-milk does are kept. Properly produced and handled goats milk does not have any stronger flavour than good buffalos/cows milk. Q. Is goats milk marketed in Pakistan like that of buffalo and cow milk? Subsistence farmers do not generally record yields since the individual production of milk on subsistence farms is small but the value of this food product to the family involved is immense. Only a small proportion of goats milk finds its way onto the market locally that too mixed with buffalo/cow milk. To market goats milk to city consumers requires a large, continuous supply. Because most goats milk comes from flocks with small numbers of goats, this would mean a well organized collection system. Government or a cooperative could provide such a service. Goats milk can be successfully frozen in polythene bags or in waxed cartons and will defrost without loss of nutritional attributes and still retain its composition and good appearance. Q. Apart from liquid milk in what other forms goats milk is used in various countries? Goats milk is made into a variety of products that include butter, ghee and yoghurt. In some countries such as Greece and France, there is significant production of cheese and butter. In France, prices of goat milk are sufficiently high to allow large-scale cheese making and the marketing of such products to customers prepared to pay more for goat milk products. Yoghurt is produced by fermenting milk with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. This acidifies the milk and stops normal bacteria developing. Preferably pasteurized/boiled milk then cooled to 40-45C is used. A small amount of yoghurt from the previous batch, called starter is added to the milk. Commercially available starter

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cultures can also be used. Yoghurt is a very popular food item in several countries of the world. Lassi made from yoghurt by adding water and salt/sugar to it, is a commonly used beverage in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Butter is made from goat milk in countries such as Iraq, Iran. It is very white in colour and is produced by churning the cream from the milk. Ghee is very popular in IndoPakistan and Middle East where it is used as a source of concentrated fat in a variety of ways. It will keep for long periods and is produced by boiling the butter or cream to remove the water. Cheese made from goat milk is produced in many countries particularly around the Mediterranean coastline. Fresh, soft or hard cheeses are all made to meet consumer tastes and local tradition. They can be made from whole or skimmed milk. Fresh or lactic cheeses are eaten the next day whilst soft cheese is unpressed and consumed later. Hard cheeses are produced in the same way as soft cheeses but are then placed in moulds and are pressed to force out more water. Q. Name two important diseases that can be transmitted through milk to other animals and possibly humans. Milk is an ideal medium in which many disease organisms will grow and may then be transmitted to other animals and humans. It is therefore, extremely important to keep it as clear of bacteria as possible. Some diseases are very dangerous to humans. Two examples include tuberculosis and brucellosis, also known as undulant fever, which can cause sterility. Adequate heat treatment (pasteurization or boiling) of the milk will kill such bacteria. Q. Write a note on supply, utilization and demand of sheep milk in Pakistan. Sheep milk as such is consumed in rural areas and is also used in the form of crude cottage cheese and ghee. However, because it is available in only small quantities and is mainly consumed by the shepherds themselves, there is only a small marketable surplus and compared to milk from buffaloes and cows; it has little commercial importance in urban areas. The annual production of sheep milk in Pakistan is estimated as 31000 tons valued at Rs. 403 million. About 10 to 15% of this production is lost in mishandling and by leaving ewes unmilked, thus the annual supply available for consumption as fluid milk is approximately 27125 tons. Since lambing continues throughout the year, milk is available in all seasons, but supplies are higher in the winter months as a result of good growth of vegetation following monsoon rains. Sheep milk hardly accounts for about 0.5% of the total national supply of milk; the proportion of total production in different areas of the country is Balochistan 25%, NWFP 20%, Punjab 40%, Sindh 10% and other areas 5%. An ewe generally produces 0.5 to 1.0 litre milk per day, but may be 1.0 to 2.5 litres per day in the case of Damani, Kooka and Lohi breeds of sheep, showing thereby potential for further increase through improved management and nutrition and reduced mortality and disease. Utilization and Demand: Sheep flock owners, particularly those leading nomadic or semi-nomadic life, need milk as part of their routine diet as well as to supplement their income through sales. Cottage cheese and ghee from sheep milk, either pure or mixed with milk from goats and cows, are sold in Northern Areas, Multan Division, Cholistan tract and the Tharparkar area. In some parts of Tharparkar, graziers depend solely on milk from their herds and flocks for fluids. A liking for sheep milk and its use for cheese and ghee making can be attributed to its fat content which averages 5 to 6% and is higher than

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that of milk from cows or goats, though lower than that of buffalo milk. The mean fat content of milk in sheep breeds such as Damani is as high as 6.8%. Some sheep owners prefer sheep milk to that of goats because of the flavour often found in milk from village goat flocks. Q. Suggest practical measures to enhance production of milk from milch type sheep/goats. Since the annual per capita consumption of milk of all kinds is low in Pakistan, efforts to increase milk supplies should include the production of sheep and goat milk. Supplies of sheep/goat milk should be increased by improving sheep and goat husbandry, selective breeding, minimizing losses of milk and protecting sheep/goats against common diseases. This could be made possible by extending developmental activities to remote sheep and goat raising areas, and conducting research on production-oriented problems, including sheep/goat management in hostile areas such as cold Northern Areas and the hot areas of Cholistan and Tharparkar deserts, prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases, regeneration of pastures in both hilly and plain areas and provision of financial aid and incentives to flock owners.

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MEAT
Define meat. Indicate which farm animals provide the bulk of meat in this country. Meat is defined as animal tissues, which are suitable for use as food, including all processed products prepared from such tissues. In practice this definition is restricted to a few dozen of the 3000 mammalian species, but it is widened to include as well the musculature, organs such as liver, kidney, brains and other edible tissues. The bulk of the meat consumed in Pakistan is derived from sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, camel and poultry. Considerable quantity of fish meat is also consumed. Rabbit, hare and deer flesh too is liked and consumed by some people. Q. What are the important categories of meat? Red meat is flesh of domestic animals such as sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo and camel. Strictly speaking the term beef refers to the meat obtained from cattle. However, the buffalo and camel being also large ruminants, their meat is arbitrarily named as beef. Poultry and fish meat constitutes white meat. Game meat consists of the flesh of wild birds and animals, which are not domesticated. Poultry meat is flesh of domestic birds, including chicken, turkey, ducks and geese. Marine and fresh water foods are the flesh of aquatic organisms mostly fish, lobsters, crabs and prawns. Q. Write a note on the importance of meat. Meat is an important constituent of the human diet as it is nutritious, palatable, satisfying and always in season. It is a rich source of proteins containing essential amino acids in suitable proportions and in a digestible form. A number of minerals and B vitamins are also present which make it an important food for children and invalids. Although the per capita availability of meat in Pakistan has improved from 8.8 kg in 1971 to about 19 kg in 2002, yet it is well below the minimum standard of WHO, which is 28 kg of meat per head per annum. The average per capita consumption of meat in Argentina is 110 kg and in Australia is 120 kg and so is it in several other countries. The requirement of animal protein for a standard human diet is 30 g per head per day, but at present the availability of animal protein in Pakistan is 20.2 g, indicating a shortage of about 33%. In early eighties, hardly 37 % of the total requirement was available which by mid nineties has risen to about 57 %. However, in Pakistan, proteins, especially those of animal origin are evidently still in short supply. Adversely affected by the population explosion, this shortage may assume acute proportion. With increasing population, rising standards of living, industrialization and change in dietary habits, the demand for meat is ought to increase. The problem of animal protein deficiency, especially in low-income groups of population is already very acute. Mortality rate in children tends to rise when their protein intake is low. Severe protein deficiency and inadequate intake of animal proteins in infants appear to adversely affect the brain cells and central nervous system and can cause permanent mental retardation. Meat also has profound effect on stature, height and general health of an individual. This situation is alarming and priority should be given to programmes for increasing the production of foods of animal origin. Q. Discuss the present position and potential of meat production from sheep and goats in Pakistan. Q.

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Meat production in Pakistan is a secondary farm enterprise and its potential has not yet been fully exploited. The present methods used in livestock farming, marketing, slaughter, processing and sale of meat, result in large losses of by-products and the supply of poor quality and unhygienic meat to consumers and the yield of meat is also very low. The total meat production from livestock was 2.01 m. tons in 2001, of which 0.66 m. tons was sheep and goat meat, forming 33.3% of the total production. Of 0.66 m. tons sheep and goat meat, 0.219 m. tons was derived from sheep, while the rest 0.447 m. tons was goat meat. The average carcass yield of sheep is 12.5 kg, and goat 11.5 kg, about half of those reported from countries having established meat industry. Such a low yield of meat is partly because of the majority of sheep and goat flocks are still handled as scavengers, the raising of animals specifically for slaughter is not practised, and the meat production potential is largely ignored. There has been little research work into the development of mutton or beef breeds, and generally the potential of the existing breeds is not realized as they are reared under conditions of inadequate feeding and poor management. At present the lambs and kids are slaughtered at low body weights and in lean condition. Fattening of these animals for 60 to 100 days could add 5 to 6 kg weight per carcass and would also improve the quality of meat. This practice would help to increase the meat supply by 95000 tons yearly. It is planned to increase total meat production to 3.0 m. tons per annum by the year 2008 with annual growth rates of 4.2, 6.0 and 6.5 % for beef, mutton (sheep and goat meat) and poultry. These increases in meat production are possible if short term measures of fattening old and very young animals are adopted; permanent gains could come from better genetic make-up, improved nutrition of breeding stock and meat animals and improved health services. To attain higher production of meat, potential constraints such as lack of improved pastures and high quality feed, absence of suitable technology, lack of production incentives, and disorganized marketing of livestock and meat need to be removed. Under improved conditions as suggested above in this paragraph, Pakistan should be able to benefit from the considerable potential for the production of high quality meat for local and, in the long term, for foreign markets. Q. Why is goat meat preferred over mutton? Goat meat production and consumption has an important place in the economy of Asian and African countries. Mounting increase in the population of goats than sheep speaks itself of the popularity of goats and the liking for their meat in Pakistan. Goat meat has an edge over mutton since the number of goats slaughtered for meat far exceeds the number of sheep slaughtered for similar purpose. Goats contribute a large part of the worlds need for high quality protein. In south western United States, goat meat is considered superior over mutton for sausage manufacture. It has been reported that in Botswana goats play a much more important role in the meat industry as compared to sheep. In India where beef is a taboo with many communities, goat meat is highly preferred. Goats are preferred by many people for sacrificial slaughter on the Muslim festival of Eid-ul-Azha. Teddy goats appear to have made a considerable contribution in making the goat meat more popular than mutton. It has been found by various workers that small animals take relatively short time to reach maturity. This finding favours Teddy goat to be a preferred animal for meat production. However, for sacrificial slaughter on Eid-ul-Azha, male goats of large-sized breeds such as Beetal, are considered the prized animals even though

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they may cost the people twice to thrice as much. A worker from Turkey reported that goat meat is produced cheaper than other meats. Goats browse tree leaves and convert poor quality roughage into an important source of useful animal protein. The preference for goat appears to have eroded the dairy potential of Pakistani goats, since the fastest growing males are slaughtered for meat purposes and mostly poor animals are retained for breeding purposes. Careful selection and utilization of breeding males can largely alleviate this problem. There are, however, several countries where mutton is equally acceptable and at places mutton is preferred over goat meat. Thus variations in individual likings, availability and getting used to a certain food item by people of a certain area/country is a sort of natural pheomenon. Q. Are our sheep and goat breeds suitable for meat production? With few exceptions, most of the sheep and goat breeds in Pakistan (as also of Asia and Africa) are predominantly meat breeds, which have been improved little by conscious efforts of breeders. Most of them still have slow growth rate and low feed conversion efficiency. There are few scientific studies to determine growth and fattening propensities of these breeds under different conditions of management and feeding, ranging from poor pasturage to intensive system utilizing fodder and concentrates. Few reliable data are available on the daily weight gain, food conversion efficiency and carcass yield of various sheep and goat breeds. Q. What factors, in general, affect meat production efficiency? Efficiency of meat production is influenced by many factors such as relative fertility, liveweight, conformation of breeds, birth weight and growth rate. Liveweight and growth rates of given breeds are the most important indicators of meat production potential. The variations in size and weight of different breeds and individuals in a breed, indicate the possibilities of selection of breeding stock for meat production. Better feeding and management can greatly improve the growth rate and meat production potential of the existing stock. The introduction and extension of simple management techniques such as castration, could well improve the already valuable animals as meat producers. Q. Do you think external linear measurements can be helpful in the assessment of sheep and goats liveweights? External linear measurements of live meat producing animals have attracted attention as possible predictors of liveweight. High correlations have been reported between certain measured parameters i.e. heart girth X liveweight, heart girth X carcass weight and body weight X carcass weight. It was reported from Thailand that chest circumference could be a useful predictor of liveweight and carcass weight in Thai native goats. An Indian worker observed that heart girth was the best indicator of liveweight of goats ( = 0.340.86 in male and 0.26-0.80 in female at 12 months age). Q. What do you understand by growth and development in sheep and goats? As an animal grows it increases in weight until mature size is reached. This is called growth and refers to an increase in skeletal size and body weight. A knowledge of animal growth is necessary to improve the efficiency of feed conversion in livestock as the increase in size will, within limits, determine the quality of meat. During growth the animal also changes in composition and shape and its various faculties become fully functional; this is called development. The shape may give some indication of potential meat quality, and consequently its value per unit weight. Q. Discuss prenatal growth in small ruminants and the factors that influence it.

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The growth that takes place before birth is called prenatal growth; this is with reference to foetus. The growth and development of lambs and kids both prior to and subsequent to birth are important factors since they influence the return, which the farmer will obtain from the sale of his lambs/kids. Prenatal growth involves a series of changes starting from the single cell zygote and resulting in an animal suitable for the external environment after birth. It is influenced by factors such as heredity, size and age of dam, maternal nutrition and environmental conditions. The ultimate size of the foetus is determined by its own genotype and those of its dam and littermates, but species, breed and strain differences in foetal size are also well known. To achieve higher birth weights, level of feeding during pregnancy and choice of breed are important considerations. Poor maternal nutrition may increase neonatal mortality or lead to retarded prenatal growth of lambs/kids. Thus, post-natal growth may be slow because of a low birth weight associated with a poor maternal milk supply. Q. Discuss post-natal growth in small ruminants and the factors that influence it. The breed of sheep/goats, milking capacity of the dam, birth weight, plane of nutrition and management are the main considerations that influence post-natal growth of small ruminants. Under ideal conditions the relationship between liveweight and age can be represented by a sigmoid curve and is similar in all species. Initially, there is a short phase when liveweight increases little with increasing age, followed by a phase of rapid growth during the latter stages of which the growth of muscles, bones and vital organs begins tapering off and fattening begins to accelerate in meat animals. As an animal approaches maturity, a retardation of growth occurs and finally stops as mature size is reached. The basic principle of lamb/kid production is to utilize the period of rapid growth to maximum advantage and slaughter should take place before or just at the point where growth rate begins to decline. This point represents optimum slaughter weight. At this stage, the cumulative TDN required to produce a unit liveweight of salable meat were minimum. While growing from juvenile to mature stage, the animals change shape, but the proportions of various joints change little during post-natal growth. Thus the high-priced muscles in the loin and hindquarters, as a proportion of total muscle in the carcass, remain almost unchanged. Q. What do you know about the pattern of growth of muscle, bone and fat in small ruminants? Discuss the importance of such a pattern for the producer. The major changes in growth and development take place rapidly early in life but the rate of change gradually diminishes. The muscle, bone and fat have an orderly pattern of growth in three distinct but overlapping phases. Early in the life of sheep/goats, bone growth proceeds relatively faster than the muscle and fat deposition but then slows down and muscle growth proceeds at a faster rate. When the muscle growth is in turn slowing down, fat growth takes over. The importance of these different rates of growth is that the farmer/producer is capable of bringing about marked and desirable changes in the composition of his animal by choosing the appropriate time for slaughter. It should be noted that the energy cost of depositing fat is much higher than for muscle. The sheep and goat breeds found in Pakistan are slow maturing, reaching slaughter age at advanced ages, whereas in developed countries, the required slaughter weight is attained at a very young age. Thus the cost of meat production from sheep/goats, at the present

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level of performance, is very high in Pakistan and there is an urgent need to evaluate both local and exotic breeds and their crosses. Q. Why is better growth rate of sheep/goats important to the farmer/producer? Growth of the sheep/goats is of concern to the farmer/producer because of the time that may elapse and the feed he must provide before he can derive any income in return. Thus better growth rate would bring him more and rapid return. Q. Do you think that breed, plane of nutrition and management practices influence the growth rate and mature weight of goats? If so, give some examples. Yes, the growth rate and weight of mature goats varies under the influence of above given factors. The doe kids of Toggenburg breed reached 50 % of their mature body weights within the first 4 to 5 months following birth. The doe kids of Saanen breed attained 50 % of their mature weight in about 8 months. The average gain in weights per day ranged from 43 to 51 g in Beetal kids. It was reported that mean daily gain of male Alpine kids receiving milk replacer can reach 250 g during the first month. The mean gain, however, tended to decrease when the liveweight exceeded 16 kg at slaughter. It was found from another study that kids receiving high-high level of nutrition attained 15 kg liveweight in 26 weeks, while the low-low kids required 48 weeks to attain the same weight. It was observed that kids of Barbari and Jamnapari breeds grew fast and produced more edible meat when given 100 % and 125 % of the TDN. Another study indicated that browsing group of goats showed 64 % higher growth rate than stall fed group. It was reported that after the point of inflexion of the growth curve, gain in weight of kids takes place at a lower rate. However, weight gain alone is not a suitable criterion of response to different feeding regimes since the chemical composition of the gained tissue may not be identical in all animals. Q. Discuss biological efficiency of various breeds of goats with reference to meat production, giving concrete examples. It was reported that Barbari goats required 5.1 to 5.7 kg TDN/kg gain in body weight, while Jamnapari goats required 5.9 to 7.9 kg TDN/kg gain. It was found by Indian workers that in Alpine X Beetal goats, the TDN required per kg gain in body weight was 8.44, 7.89 and 14.14 kg in three groups fed 100, 120 and 140 % of the requirements of Morrisons standard for sheep. The corresponding values of DM/kg gain were 10.85, 9.28 and 14.43 kg. Another report showed that the DM consumed by Assam hill goats per kg gain was 12.01 kg and 21.44 kg at 8 and 12 months of age respectively. Q. What is meant by carcass? The carcass represents that portion of the animal, which is left after the removal of the head, skin, feet, and viscera except the kidney and kidney fat. One of the important factors in increasing meat production is the method of measuring carcass traits as the aim is to obtain maximum weight gain in the form of a carcass of high quality. Q. What factors are generally considered important for the evaluation of a carcass? Such factors, regardless of species, are dressing percentage, carcass weight, conformation and composition. Q. Write a note on dressing percentage and carcass weight of small ruminants.

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Dressing percentage is the weight of the carcass expressed as a percentage of liveweight. This figure depends on a number of factors, including breed, sex, stage of maturity, degree of finish and contents of the digestive tract. Liveweight is affected by the weight of the digestive tract and its contents and to standardize the recording of liveweight, a 12 hours fast period pre-slaughter is recommended. Also, when an animal is slaughtered there is an initial loss by evaporation and therefore dressing percentage should also be standardized. Hot carcass weight (immediately after slaughter) is the best estimate, but for commercial purposes, cold carcass weight (24 hours post-mortem) is more useful. Carcass shrinkage varies with different classes of livestock and the loss is influenced by storage conditions. In most slaughterhouses where carcasses are weighed hot, a deduction of about 2 % is usually made, but under adverse conditions this figure is easily exceeded. Carcass weight is important since the aim in meat production is to obtain maximum gain in the form of carcass. To achieve this there should be rapid growth leading to a heavy carcass at a young age. Approximate percentage composition of selected small ruminant boneless meat Tissue Chemical composition Energy Lean Fat Water Protein Fat Ash Kcal/kg 79 21 63 17 19 1 2470 Sheep meat1 Goat meat2 85 15 66 17 16 1 2100 Source: 1. USDA. 2. R.R. Mishra and D.S. Chawala (1976). Annual Report, National Dairy Res. Inst., Karnal, India. On average, meat contains 17 % protein, 20 % fat, 1 % minerals and 62 % moisture. Another source gives goat meat composition as protein, fat, minerals and moisture 21.1, 3.6, 1.1 and 74.2% respectively. Calcium and phosphorus contents are 12 mg/100 g and 193 mg/100 g in goat meat. Q. Write down the chemical composition of typical adult mammalian muscle after rigor mortis. In a broad sense the composition of meat can be approximated to 75 % water, 19 % protein (myofibrillar 11.5%, sarcoplasmic 5.5%, connective tissue and organelle 2.9%), lipid 2.5 % (neutral lipid, phospholipids, fatty acids, fat-soluble substances), carbohydrate 1.2 % (lactic acid, glucose-6-phosphate, glycogen, glucose and traces of other glycolytic intermediates), miscellaneous soluble non-protein substances 2.3 % (nitrogenous 1.65%, inorganic 0.65%), and vitamins (various fat and water-soluble vitamins in minute quantities). Q. Discuss dressing percentage for sheep and goats by giving specific examples for both the species. The dressing percentage for commercial sheep is generally about 50 %, for a lean animal 40% and a very fat animal may yield up to 60 %. Indian workers have shown average dressing percentage as 57 at 6 months, 49 at 9 months and 48 at 18 months in the Mandya breed, while in Nellore breed, the dressing percentage was 56 at 6 months and 51 at 15 months. It was reported that dressing percentage of Barbari goat is higher than that of Jamnapari. Dressing percentage (DP) of Jamnapari kids was more at 9 months than at 6 months age. DP tends to decrease with increasing liveweight because of greater volume of visceral mass (forestomach and intestine). Higher plane of nutrition results in increased DP. It

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was reported that DP in Sudan Desert goats increased from 40.4 to 54.1 % as a result of fattening for 80 days. The DP of Thai Native goat was 45.9 %. The proportion of edible product was 43.06%. The following correlation was found between dressed carcass weight on liveweight (1) and total dressed meat on liveweight (2). Y = -1.0979 0.5396 X (1) Y = -1.0128 0.5568 X (2) No difference was reported in the dressed meat obtained at 9 months from castrated and non-castrated animals. Another worker observed that males have higher DP than females in non-descript Indian goats. A high DP alone may not suffice, therefore, information concerning growth rate as well as carcass weight and composition be also kept in view. Lack of reliable data concerning DP in respect of Pakistani breeds of small ruminants points out the need to take up such studies since these are important to determine gain in weight and DP at different ages. The DP of castrated Teddy male goats raised at LPRI, Bahadarnagar (Okara) was reported as 39.15, 49.76 and 48.96 at 7, 10 and 14 months of age respectively. This study further showed that total edible and commercially valuable proportions were the highest at 10 months, being 14.64 and 4.13 % more as compared to that at 7 and 14 months respectively. Q. Describe the grading system for slaughter sheep/goats and their carcasses. Grading systems differ from country to country. Various groups of slaughter sheep/goats in Pakistan are defined as follows: ram/buckuncastrated male; wethermale castrated prior to development of the secondary sex characteristics; ewe/doemature female; lamb/kidimmature sheep/goat that has not cut its first pair of permanent incisor teeth; yearlinga sheep/goat usually between one and two years of age that has cut its first pair of incisor teeth but has not cut the second pair; sheep/goatusually more than 24 months of age that has cut its second pair of permanent incisor teeth. Sheep/goat carcasses are generally graded on the basis of age, conformation, finish and appearance and grouped into lamb/kid, yearling or mutton/goat meat on the basis of evidence of maturity present in the carcass. There is need for a more realistic carcass grading system, which should reflect the quality of carcasses for cutability, red meat content and eating quality. In Australia, sheep meats are now categorized according to dentition, sex, fatness and weight. The absence of a suitable carcass grading system and an appropriate marketing system for livestock and their products is a major hindrance to the development of the meat industry in Pakistan. Grading in slaughterhouses should be undertaken by qualified graders and a carcass grading system suitable for local markets based on age, sex, carcass weight, fat thickness and perhaps length should be developed. Such a carcass grading system should benefit all sectors of the meat industry. Producers would benefit from the increased demand from local and foreign markets and incentives for higher payments for better livestock, meat traders and retailers would benefit from the efficient handling of well-classified units and thus by increased turnover and consumers would benefit by being able to select the quality of meat they want. Q. Discuss the merit of carcass conformation (shape) in evaluating carcass quality. It has been reported that carcasses with better conformation have less meat and more fat than carcasses with poor conformation and therefore, it is claimed that conformation

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probably is of little use in evaluating carcass quality. However, in the trade, carcass conformation is considered to be an important parameter of carcass quality. The importance of conformation does not appear to be based on yield of edible meat so much as judgments of age and nutritional history, which affect quality and composition. As the animal grows, its body trunk becomes a larger proportion of the whole, as compared to the head and legs. The body itself becomes thicker and deeper and the loin area becomes better developed, as compared with the neck and chest region. The roundness and smoothness of the body and joints that develop as the animal grows, are largely a reflection of the laying down of fat, particularly subcutaneous fat, and not of muscular development. Q. Discuss the use of carcass measurements as indicators of carcass quality. A variety of length and area measurements (linear measurements) have been proposed and investigated as indicators of carcass quality. Mostly these have not been shown to have much value for assessing the lean or fat content of the carcass. Some of these are: a) Measurement of longissimus dorsi (eye) muscle. The loin is one of the most expensive carcass cuts and consumers prefer loins that possess a large L. dorsi cross-sectional area which accounts for 25 % of the points allocated in one of the scoring systems. In this system the circumference of the cut surface of the L. dorsi (eye) muscle and of the fat around it between the 12th and 13th ribs of the right side of each carcass is traced, and the traced area of the muscle is then measured with a planometer. Measurements are also made of the length and depth of the muscle and depth of subcutaneous fat over the muscle. b) Carcass length It may be measured from the anterior edge of the pubic symphysis to the anterior edge of the first rib close to the vertebra for the calculation of gross fleshing index. This is an objective measure sometimes used in carcass grading. c) Leg length It may be measured from the distal level of the tibia to the bottom of the aitch (rump bone. d) Measurements of fat depth in the carcass Fat depth in the carcass either measured by calipers at the 12th rib of a carcass cut transversely, or by subjective measures of fat cover, has been shown to be the most useful of the simple measurements in predicting carcass quality. Q. Discuss the importance of carcass composition in relation to carcass evaluation. The principal tissues in the carcass are muscle, fat and bone. Muscle is the most important constituent of meat. The weight of muscular tissue ranges from 46 to 65 % of the carcass weight in small ruminants. Carcasses of young animals contain a relatively high proportion of bone and a low proportion of fat, while those of old animals contain a lower proportion of bone and higher proportion of fat. The conformation and composition of the animal can, however, be changed by the plane of nutrition on which it is reared. A high plane of nutrition hastens development, while a low plane delays it. Fat is located in specific fat cells supported by connective tissue in depots throughout the body. It is also deposited within the muscles as intramuscular fat. Fat-soluble flavours are retained in the fat and it therefore, influences the final flavour of meat. However, the

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production of overfat carcasses requiring the trimming of excess fat is uneconomical and inefficient as the synthesis of fat requires more nutrients than does the synthesis of protein. Bone is a non-edible portion of the carcass. It is of interest in carcass appraisal and grading, however, because a fairly accurate estimate of animal age can be made from the appearance of the bone. Q. Write a note on meat cutting and retail cuts. In Pakistan, little consideration has been given to methods of cutting carcasses into valuable and less valuable joints. However, a standardized cutting method and nomenclature for wholesale and retail cuts are essential pre-requisites for good merchandising and proper utilization of meat. Sheep and goat carcasses are usually received whole at the retail shop and the retailer breaks down the carcass into retail or consumer cuts. Cuts differ in composition and tenderness. The more tender cuts come from the loin, rump and rib areas which contain muscles used for support, while cuts from the leg muscles used for locomotion are less tender. The value of meat depends to a great extent on the appearance and shape of these cuts and the variety of cuts made depends on the weight, type and grade of the carcass. Mutton and goat meat cuts are the legs, loin, flank, kidney and kidney fat, shoulder, ribs, shank and breast. Yield-wise the major cuts are leg (39%), shoulder (26%), breast (10%), ribs (9%) and loin (7%). Q. What constraints are hindering the development of meat industry in Pakistan? The meat industry of the country is highly neglected and disorganized and probably as yet is even below the primitive stage of development. Some of the important constraints are: i) No planned breeding programmes for improvement of sheep and goat breeds for meat production. ii) Denuded range areas, a lack of improved pastures and high yielding fodder varieties. iii) Poor standards of production and management of small ruminants and veterinary services for the control of clinical and sub-clinical diseases. iv) Non-existence of a strong extension service is resulting in no linkage between farmer/producer and the livestock production agent. v) A lack of economic incentives and price control based on quality, grade, cuts and cost of production. vi) Unsatisfactory transportation and marketing of livestock and their carcasses. vii) Poor pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, dressing, cutting and hygienic practices in slaughterhouses and meat shops. viii) Utter lack of modern facilities in slaughterhouses for efficient utilization of byproducts. ix) The absence of quality control and carcass grading systems and obsolete methods of carcass handling and meat merchandising. x) An acute shortage of manpower well trained in production and management of small ruminants and meat technology. There is also shortage of trained workers at sub-professional level.

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What measures would you suggest to effect improvement in meat industry of Pakistan? i) To provide baseline data for the meat industry, information in respect of meat production capabilities and economic traits such as growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, muscle characteristics and meat quality of different indigenous sheep and goat meat breeds, needs to be gathered. ii) A coordinated well-thought out national breeding programme for the improvement of meat breeds of sheep and goats must be effectively implemented. iii) The most economical age for slaughter of sheep/goats on different planes of nutrition needs to be determined. iv) Development of improved pastures, improvement of existing rangelands and utilization of agro-industrial wastes and by-products for the formulation of balanced and economical rations. v) Modern production and management practices, disease and parasite control measures leading to reduced mortalities and improved growth rates, need to be effectively introduced through livestock production extension system. vi) Development of meat marketing infrastructure. vii) Improvement of existing and building of new slaughterhouses with facilities for processing by-products. viii) Establishment of a meat research institute and a school for meat technologists. ix) Introduction of a course on meat technology in agricultural universities. x) Price controls based on production costs and the quality and grades of different types of meat produced. Q. Discuss in detail true hydration water and free water content of muscle. Muscle contains mainly water and proteins with a variable amount of fat, small quantities of glycogen, minerals and non-protein nitrogen. In addition, it has small quantities of free amino acids particularly glycine, glutamic acid and histidine. Of the total about 75 % water content of muscle, nearly 4.5 % is bound as true hydration water and the rest is present as free water. The structural proteins are mainly responsible for the binding of hydration water and the immobilization of free water. The amount of free water immobilized within the muscle is influenced by the spatial molecular structure of the muscle filaments. The content of bound water is a measure of the water-holding capacity, which is influenced by post-mortem changes in muscle and is believed to have a close relationship with meat quality. Q. Describe in detail the major fractions of muscle proteins. Muscle contains about 18 % proteins, which can be grouped into three major fractions on the basis of their solubility. Sarcoplasmic Proteins: This fraction comprises approximately 30 % of the total muscle proteins and consists of about fifty components including myoglobin and various phosphokinases. These are soluble in water or dilute salt solution. Myofibrillar Proteins: These are the main proteins responsible for the filamentous organization of muscle and directly participate in the contraction and relaxation process. The fraction comprises about 60 % of the total muscle protein and its main constituents are myosin, tropomyosin and actin. Actin and myosin form a complex called actomyosin which is the main structural component responsible for relaxation and contraction in the muscles of live animals. These proteins are soluble in concentrated salt solutions.

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Stroma Proteins: These proteins exist in connective tissue, the vascular system, nerve tissue and the material of the interstitial space. The elements composing connective tissue of muscle are mainly collagen, reticulin and elastin fibres. Collagen has a higher amount of hydroxyproline than any other common protein and is converted into water-soluble gelatin on boiling in water. The reticulin resembles collagen in most aspects but does not become gelatin on boiling in water, while elastin contains chromophoric residues which confer its yellow colour and fluorescence and is extremely stable to heat. Elastin contains 1.6 % hydroxyproline, a few amino acids and has a higher amount of valine (18%) than collagen. Q. What is meant by marbling? Marbling or intramuscular fat is embedded in the connective tissue between muscle bundles. Its proportion in muscle varies with the nature and fat status of the animal. It contains a considerable amount of phospholipids, unsaponifiable substances such as cholesterol, glycolipids and small quantities of the fat soluble vitamins A,D,E and K. Q. Name various non-protein substances found in muscle. There are 3.5 % non-protein nitrogenous substances in muscle, creatine (0.55%) and free amino acids (0.35%) being the main ones. Glycogen (0.10%), lactic acid (0.90%) and glucose-6-phosphate are the principal carbohydrate derivatives in muscle. The ash of muscle consists mainly of phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, copper and zinc, whose presence helps to maintain fluid balance in the living animal and provides for better water-holding capacity of meat in the carcass. Some metals serve as co-factors for muscle enzymes. Iron, because of its incorporation in the myoglobin and haemoglobin molecule, is extremely important in meat pigmentation and animal respiration. Q. On what basis muscle is classified as red or white? It is classified so on the basis of histological and biochemical studies. Red muscle has a majority of narrow, myoglobin-rich fibres and white muscle has a majority of broad, myoglobin-poor fibres. Red muscle is capable of activity for long periods of time without rest due to its relatively high concentration of myoglobin, while white muscle is active for short and quick bursts. Because of its low myoglobin and respiratory enzyme concentration, frequent periods of rest and respiration are necessary. Q. Discuss the major biochemical events that are associated with the physiological activity of muscle. The major biochemical events associated with the physiological activity of muscle are the interactions of phosphate components with the contractile filaments of actin and myosin. The energy needed for the contraction process comes from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), while a continuous supply of ATP is provided directly by resynthesis from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by the efficient process of oxidative phosphorylation or by the less efficient anaerobic glycolytic cycle. The enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation are located in the mitochondria. Q. What events are associated with muscle activity after slaughter of an animal? After slaughter of an animal, muscles become anaerobic and resynthesis of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation stops. For a short time, however, the supply of ATP is maintained by the breakdown of creatine, which serves to phosphorylate ADP to ATP. Muscle also attempts to maintain the level of ATP through the anaerobic glycolytic cycle by converting the glycogen to lactic acid and phosphorylating ADP to ATP. Consequent

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to lactic acid production, acidity of muscle goes on increasing until all the glycogen reserves are utilized or until a pH of about 5.3 is reached, when all the enzymes affecting the breakdown of glycogen become inactivated. The final pH attained whether through lack of glycogen, inactivation of glycolytic enzymes, or because glycogen is inaccessible to attack and is referred to as the ultimate pH. Q. What is meant by rigor mortis? Explain that rigor mortis is a complex phenomenon. At the time of slaughter muscles are soft and pliable. Following slaughter, the most obvious change that occurs is hardening of the muscles and also loss of transparency and elasticity. This change is referred to as rigor mortisthe stiffness of death. It is characterized by the muscles contracting and hardening, becoming dull due to loss of transparency and the joints becoming stiff and immovable. Rigor starts when the animal is killed and at temperatures of 15C or more, proceeds rapidly and can be complete within 10 to 12 hours of death. However, if carcasses are refrigerated at 5 to 7C, rigor may take 24 hours or longer. After rigor mortis the muscles slowly relax once more. The muscle may not be contracting at the moment of slaughter but nevertheless energy is required to prevent the spontaneous breakdown of the muscle cells. The most immediate change caused by bleeding is the loss of oxygen carried by circulating blood and one of the results of this is that ATP is no longer produced and that already present in the muscles is gradually reduced in amount. As it disappears completely, myosin and actin combine to form actomyosin which causes the muscles to contract and become stiff and firm. Relaxation of the contracted muscle is caused by an unknown factor (MarshBendall factor), which pumps the cations out of the system thus reversing the sequence of events and resulting in an extended muscle. Q. What factors may influence the development of rigor mortis? The development of rigor mortis is influenced not only by atmospheric temperature but also by the state of animal before slaughter. When an animal is suffering from a fever or is not rested before slaughter, the contractions of rigor may be slight and the onset may be rapid and may pass off quickly, as for example in hunted animals. Any factor which reduces the concentration of glycogen in muscle immediately before death will reduce the time and course of rigor. Q. With reference to rigor mortis, what type of meat we commonly eat in Pakistan. Much of the meat eaten in Pakistan is fully contracted or in perfect rigor mortis since it is consumed about 10 to 16 hours after slaughter. If meat is cooked after 24 to 30 hours after slaughter, it will be less tough because the muscles will have started to relax and the cross-linkages between the actin and myosin will be breaking down. With refrigeration (as practised in most of the western countries), this improvement in tenderness will continue for a week in the case of small ruminants and two weeks in case of beef. This is called the ripening or conditioning period and usually the carcass is left for this period in a cool place at about 5 to 7C. The rate and extent of the ripening of meat depends on temperature and in general, a higher temperature will produce a given degree of tenderness in a considerably shorter time than will a lower temperature. Conditioning or ageing of post-rigor meat is due to the breakdown of the connective tissue and the myofibrillar proteins by enzymes present in meat. The rate and extent of tenderizing thus

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varies between species as the rate decreases with lower temperatures and the extent increases with the length of storage time. Q. Define meat quality and what may be the ultimate test for it? Meat quality can be defined as that combination of physical and chemical characteristics which results in maximum desirability of appearance and palatability of meat. The ultimate test of the value of meat is its acceptability to the consumer. Q. What factors might influence the appearance and eating quality of meat? The factors which influence the appearance of meat include colour of lean, colour of fat, while those which contribute to the eating quality are tenderness, juiciness and flavour. Colour: Discriminating consumers generally have an idea of the optimum colour of meat for different species of animals and age classification within the species. The colour of mutton is purplish-red and that of beef is generally cherry-red. The colour of fresh meat depends mainly on the physico-chemical state and concentration of myoglobin in the muscle, but this varies between and even within muscles. It is also associated with the ultimate pH of meat; meat with a high pH is usually darker than normal. Consumers, in general, discriminate against yellow-coloured fat, preferring a creamy-white colour. These days most consumers prefer eating joints, which are not excessively fat. Tenderness: Although mutton/goat meat, when properly processed and cooked, is usually good in this respect; tenderness and freedom from stringiness are of prime importance. This mostly depends upon the treatment of the animal before slaughter and of the carcass after slaughter. Stress at slaughter leads to a watery lean with a consequent loss of moisture in the carcass when it is hung. The length of time the meat is left hanging and the method of freezing (if practised), through an effect called cold shortening, can affect the tenderness. There is some evidence that tenderness of meat is reasonably heritable as are fat content and lean content. Tenderness has been divided into three organoleptic components i.e. initial ease of penetration, ease of fragmentation of muscle fibres and the amount of residue left after chewing a piece of meat. The degree of tenderness can also be related to three categories of proteins in muscle, those of connective tissue, of the myofibril and of sarcoplasm. Juiciness: Meat that is dry when cooked is not desirable. Maltreatment of the animal before slaughter causing stress or exhaustion can lead to excessive moisture loss. The sensation of juiciness of cooked meat is due to the liberation of meat juices during the process of chewing. These are liberated in two stages and consequently two effects can be noted. Firstly, there is rapid release of fluid which gives the impression of initial wetness and secondly, after further chewing, there is a slow release of fluid which gives the impression of sustained juiciness. The principal sources of juiciness in meat are the intramuscular lipids and water, especially the bound water. Certain flavours also stimulate extra salivation, which may give the impression of extra juiciness. Flavour: It is an important component of meat quality, which involves the sensations of odour, taste and texture. True meaty flavour develops only on cooking. Thirty-one amino acid containing compounds were found in the water extracts of mutton and beef, when these extracts were heated, a meaty aroma developed and large amounts of these components were lost. The fat content of meat, while contributing to juiciness, also influences flavour. The flavour of each species resides in the fatty tissues. In some parts of the world there is some consumer resistance to the odour of mutton when cooking as

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also there is some aversion to the goat odour emanating from the meat of entire male goat. Q. Briefly discuss the yield of usable meat. For any meat type of small ruminants, the yield of usable meat shows a sharp increase as weight increases. This is partly a reflection of the increased dressing percentage and partly a reflection of decreased bone content. It was shown that well fed sheep when slaughtered at 9 weeks and 41 weeks age having liveweights 27.8 and 81.7 kg respectively, the yield of usable meat from them was 40 and 54 %. It may be stated that the larger the portion of meat that can be cut from a carcass, the better. Small carcasses, whatever else their merit, tend to give chops and joints that do not compare favourabley in size with meat from larger carcasses. Another aspect is that many of costs of handling and processing sheep/goat carcasses are related to the carcass as a unit, thus increasing the costs per unit of meat for small carcasses. Q. Write a note on growth rate of various breeds of sheep and goats in Pakistan. Planned studies on growth rate of sheep and goats have not been undertaken. However, some information can be derived from the liveweight data on several breeds from state farms. In local sheep, the growth rate varied from a low of 99 to a high of 180 g per day in males and 100 to 164 g per day in females. Per day growth rate in various important breeds of sheep has been recorded in male and female animals as: Lohi 155 and 145 g; Kachhi 136 and 123; Thalli 137 and 123 g; Kajli 180 and 164 g; Sipli 99 and 100 g; imported Awassi 200 and 182 g. Awassi crossbred with Lohi (213 and 188 g) and Kachhi (193 and 181 g) also showed higher growth rate. Corresponding figures for goats are as follows: Beetal 264 and 230; Hairy 207 and 164; Nachi 135 and 136; Dera Din Panah 135 and 132; Teddy 80 and 77; Angora 260 and 208 g per day. The best growth rate is in Beetal with 264 and 230 g per day in males and females, respectively. As expected the lowest growth rate is in Teddy goats. It may be mentioned that the growth rates given above have been derived from liveweight data between birth and weaning (120 days). The growth rate declines after a certain age and on attaining a certain body weight. These might vary to some extent in various breeds of sheep and goats. It has been reported that under optimal conditions, the highest rate of growth in lamb, occurs between 1 to 5 months. Q. Discuss fattening performance and feed efficiency of sheep and goats. It has been reported that besides the effect of genotype, other variables such as the type of ration, forage-concentrate ratio, level of digestible energy, initial body weight and environmental temperature influence the fattening performance of sheep and goats. Highly significant correlation between dry matter intake and body weight gain has been observed. Using regression analysis daily body weight gains of 75 to 176 g were predicted with daily dry matter intakes of 0.95 to 2.20 kg. The level of crude fibre content in the ration is significantly correlated to liveweight gain and feed efficiency. Both of these parameters improve with decrease in crude fibre content. For example, the weight gain per day was 86 g and the feed efficiency 7.3 when crude fibre content was 35%. But with a crude fibre content of 10%, the weight gain increased to 167 g and feed efficiency 6.3.

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Another example shows the effect of initial body weight on daily weight gain and feed efficiency. When the initial body weight was 10 kg, the daily weight gain was 115 g and feed efficiency was 8.9. However, when initial weight increased to 30 kg, the daily weight gain increased to 140 g, but the feed efficiency declined to 11.3. Comparing the fattening performance of sheep and goats, highly significant differences were reported in favour of sheep. In terms of daily weight gain and feed efficiency (feed conversion ratio), sheep performed significantly better than goats, especially under intensive feeding systems. Q. Describe the growth and development of various body components such as anatomical and chemical components. Important changes that occur in general in the main components of small ruminants body as it grows are as follows: A) Anatomical components i) Brain and nervous tissue: The proportion of this component falls progressively as growth proceeds e.g. in well fed animals, the brain as a proportion of liveweight fell from about 1.6 % at birth to 0.1 % at 41 weeks of age. ii) Other essential organs: Other organs such as the heart and liver also form a lower proportion of the adult than of the youngone at birth. The heart and liver respectively fell from 0.7 and 2.0 % of liveweight at birth to 0.3 and 1.2 % at 41 weeks. iii) Bones: The skeleton as a whole is an early maturing component of the body; the proportion fell from 17.3 % at birth to 5.9 % of the liveweight at 41 weeks of age. Individual bones vary in their rate of development. For example the skull bones are relatively earlier maturing than the whole skeleton, whereas the ribs are later maturing. iv) Muscle: The proportion of muscle as a whole, in the body, shows less change as the small ruminants grow. The proportion fell from 27 % at birth to 24 % at 41 weeks age. Within the total, however, individual muscles show large differences in earliness of maturity; the head and neck muscles are relatively early maturing compared with the total muscle mass, whereas the loin muscles are later maturing. v) Fat: The adipose tissue depots of the sheep/goats body are later maturing than the body as a whole. For example the high plane lambs showed only 3.7 % total fat (including kidney fat) at birth compared with 31 % of the liveweight at 41 weeks. Subcutaneous fat depots are later maturing, whereas intramuscular deposits and kidney fat develop earlier than the fat as a whole. B) Chemical Components i) Water: The water content of the body falls as the animal matures. This is a reflection of the increased proportion of fat to lean, fatty tissue being associated with little water, whereas lean muscle contains a high water content. ii) Ash content: The ash content as a measure of the total mineral content of the body falls as the animal grows; this is to be expected because the mineral content is largely associated with the skeleton. iii) Crude protein: On a dry matter basis, there is an appreciable fall in the crude protein of small ruminants body and carcass when comparing the animals at birth with older sheep/goats. This shows a substantial increase in fat. It is the association of the crude protein with a relatively high proportion of water in

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muscle tissue that accounts for the much smaller decline of muscle proportion as carcass weight increases. iv) Fat content: The fat content as estimated from ether extracted samples of carcasses, shows a marked increase as the animal grows. Expressed on a dry matter basis, the increase in fat content is more marked and about 60 % of the dry carcass is fat. It was reported that body fat percentage was higher in sheep of all age groups (8.9 to 45.2%) compared to goats of similar ages and fattening stages (5.5 to 29.7%). Another report indicated that fat content in various age groups of Malawi goats was 6.43 % (4-8 months), 12.01 % (9-14 months) and 11.30 % (1524 months). Q. Give a list of the factors that might influence the pattern of growth and development in small ruminants. Genetic influences or genotype, age, size and nutritional state of the dam, sex of offspring, length of gestation period, number of young born, climate and disease control are the important factors that influence the growth and development in small ruminants. Q. How would genetics and breeding affect the growth and development of sheep/goats? There are differences in quality characteristics of different breeds of sheep as well as goats when compared at the same carcass weight i.e. in proportion of muscle, fat and bone carcass yield and dressing percentage. Under the same conditions of feeding, various breeds can be broadly ranked according to rate of growth and earliness of maturity. Where mature size and rate of growth tend to increase, earliness of maturity tends to decrease. The rate of growth and earliness of maturity are closely associated with the mature size of the breed. Early maturing breeds tend to lay down fat at a relatively young age and yield a higher dressing percentage than the late maturing breeds. Generally early maturing breeds have smaller mature size than late maturing breeds. Genetic and environmental factors are closely interrelated and favourable environmental conditions are necessary for the full expression of individual genetic capacity. The selection of sheep/goats for improved performance is practicable on the basis of heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, post-weaning growth and feed utilization efficiency. Some reports indicate that breeding has little or no effect on the palatability of lamb meat, while others showed differences in tenderness among breeds of lambs. Crosses between fine wool and medium wool breeds gave lambs with the most tender rib chops. Information regarding the carcass composition and meat quality of different breeds of local sheep/goats is not available. Detailed studies should be undertaken to compare different breeds for growth rate, retail cuts, carcass composition and meat quality to identify those breeds which are efficient in feed utilization and produce good quality carcasses at young ages. Q. Discuss that sex does influence growth and development of sheep/goats. It has been clearly shown that entire males have distinct advantages in weight gain over castrated males, which in turn gain weight faster than females and the differences in size between the sexes result in differences in the development of body proportions. Thus the carcasses of male animals have a lower proportion of fat and a higher proportion of lean meat than those of female animals of similar slaughter weight. In some European countries, a premium price is paid for quality meat from entire males, who are said to

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have a higher proportion of lean meat, better growth rate and feed conversion. In Pakistan, castration is performed in a limited way and not all the surplus males are subjected to it. The rearing of entire males has been shown to be an efficient and simple way of increasing meat production and it could also help to avoid the problem of tissue residues associated with the use of certain types of growth promotants such as steroid hormones in castrate males. It is probable that in the future in many countries, meat from entire males will be used more commonly, despite a few problems associated with managing these animals and a traditional bias against this type of meat, especially from bucks. Management problem may be overcome by the use of induced cryptorchidism and partial castration. These techniques render the animal sterile without suppressing the endocrine function of the testes, but the results have not been entirely satisfactory. Q. What is the use of induced cryptorchidism and how do we perform it? This is a simple method to render the ram/buck sterile but it avoids the penalties of castration. This method entails squeezing the testes into the abdominal cavity shortly after birth and sealing the neck of the scrotum with a rubber ring to prevent their descent. The scrotum and the ring eventually drop off and the intact testes are retained in the abdominal cavity. Normal sperm development is inhibited by the high temperature within the abdomen and the male animal, although similar in most respects to an entire ram/buck, yet has been rendered sterile. Q. Discuss the role of sex hormones in growth and development of small ruminants. Sex differences in growth and development are a result of the operation of the sex hormones, steroids released from the gonads, which influence a number of the animals complex physiological systems. Sex hormones are also responsible for the so called secondary sexual characteristics. The ewe/doe differs from the ram/buck in that it has a slower rate of growth, a more early maturing carcass and reaches a lower mature size, due to the effect of estrogen in restricting the growth of the long bones of the body. Castration or removal of the testes of the ram/buck leads to a reduced growth rate, particularly to a restriction of muscle growth, giving an earlier maturing and fatter carcass with reduced feed conversion efficiency. When administered in appropriate doses, some natural or synthetic hormones can lead to substantial growth promotion, particularly in the castrate, associated with increased muscle growth and the leaner carcass of a later maturing animal. The male hormones, or androgens act as anabolic steroids, promoting muscle growth in most species. Two synthetic compounds, diethylstilboestrol and hexoestrol have much the same action as natural estrogens in promoting growth in ruminants. These have substantial effects on the growth and carcass quality, particularly of wether lambs but no consistent economic benefit has been widely established for their use nor is their mode of action completely understood. Q. Write a note on the effects of plane of nutrition on the pattern of growth and development in sheep/goats. The plane of nutrition is the most important factor affecting the growth and body composition of meat animals. A high plane of nutrition has the effect of decreasing the time scale of the phases of growth so that animals enter the fattening phase of growth at

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an early age and a low plane has the opposite effect, thus influencing the conformation and composition of animals even if they are of the same breed and weight. Several studies have subsequently shown that the carcass is far less affected by underfeeding than was once thought, particularly the fat-free body components. The amount of fat and the distribution of fat in the body can be adversely affected by feed restriction during growth, but no significant effect can be demonstrated on bone: muscle ratio, in carcasses compared at the same total fat-free weight. Fasting meat animals for a long period results in nutritional stress, leading to a lower grade of carcass as all cuts with the exception of neck are significantly reduced in weight, causing a considerable loss in meat production. However, it has been shown that underfed young lambs given a high plane of nutrition for an adequate period of compensatory growth, produced meat of the same quality as conventionally grown lambs. Inadequate feeding of animals is one of the main constraints to increasing meat production in Pakistan. Research into the nutritional requirements of different species of small ruminants is urgently needed, together with evaluation of the available feedstuffs. Q. In what different ways the quality and quantity of meat is affected by the age of the slaughtered sheep/goats? As an animal increases in weight from birth to maturity, the muscle fibres increase in size until their maximum growth capacity is achieved. There is a close relationship between the diameter of muscle fibres and total musculature of the animal. Irrespective of breed and sex, the chemical composition of muscle varies with age. With increasing age, there is an increase in intramuscular fat, myoglobin content, total and sarcoplasmic proteins and a decrease in stroma and water content in the L. dorsi muscle. The muscles from older animals have been shown to contain less connective tissue than those of young, while the muscles of young animals may contain more reticulin and a higher concentration of salt-soluble collagen. The collagen from older animals is more highly cross-linked than collagen from young animals. The age of the animal also affects the ultimate pH of carcass muscle, which decreased from 5.61 for 6 months old calves to 5.46 for 18 months old cattle. With increasing age, muscle tissues darken in colour, a factor which is sometimes discriminated against by the consumer. Pale colour of muscle tissues of very young animals may be equally disliked by consumers, although the colour changes due to age are related to an increase in myoglobin contents of muscle. Young animals yield more tender meat than older animals. Increased toughness due to increasing age may be related to the changes in the composition of connective tissue. Meat from older animals also has more flavour than that from younger ones, which may be due to myoglobin concentration, but the latedeveloping characteristic of marbling of the animal tissue is also responsible to some extent. In this country, slaughtered animals are either very young or very old. The yield and quality of meat is poor and research is needed to establish a point during the growth cycle of small ruminants where maximum muscle development, minimum fat deposition and high quality of meat can be obtained for the least cost. Q. Discuss that whether climatic conditions affect the growth rate, body composition and performance of small ruminants?

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Environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the growth rate, body temperature and performance of animals. The optimum temperature for meat animals is 15 to 30C, but for the most part temperatures below this range have less effect on the overall productivity and efficiency of meat animals than temperatures above it. In temperate areas, small ruminants are generally of moderate size and compact conformation, with short legs and mostly thick wool/hair coat, whereas in tropical areas, sheep/goats, in general, have long bodies, legs, ears and tail and have a coat of short wool/hair. In arid areas some breeds of sheep have an enlarged fatty tail which serves as an energy reserve and its location does not impede heat loss, as it would if spread over the body surface as subcutaneous fat. Climatic conditions in Pakistan are extreme with very hot summers and very cold winters and thus there is need to provide shade in summer and shelter in the winter. Do you think disease control in small ruminants can help enhance meat production from them? Disease control is an important factor in the success of any livestock enterprise and so is it with meat production from small ruminants that can be infected with parasites, bacteria, fungi and viruses. Diseased conditions of animals can affect their productivity by reducing weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Due to important factors such as poor management, malnutrition, denuded ranges, parasite problems, the average weight of dressed carcasses of sheep/goats is considerably less than the average in other countries. However, reliable data indicating annual losses in production of meat due to disease in Pakistan are not available. Parasitic control measures adopted in other countries have shown a clear advantage in carcass weight and thus an efficient and practical deworming schedule for livestock needs to be developed in Pakistan. Farms in this country are small and most producers are not aware of the benefits of drenching at the appropriate time and this may be one of the factors resulting in considerable loss of weight gain in the animals. An effective programme is needed for the treatment of animals against clinical and sub-clinical diseases and farmers should be trained in methods of drenching and other husbandry practices for which a real extension service wing in the Dept. of Livestock and Dairy Development in each province should be organized and manned with those especially trained in livestock production management. Q. Discuss various technological factors influencing the quality and quantity of meat. Pre-slaughter Handling: The production of high quality meat starts with the live animal on the farm. However, it can be greatly affected by the transport of animals to the point of slaughter. During this time they are usually deprived of feed and for some of the time of water as well and they are often transported over a considerable distance. During transportation they may also suffer from bruising and even suffocation resulting in death. Unimportant losses in liveweight consist of dung, urine and body secretions, but losses of carcass tissues are of considerable importance. It was found that the loss of carcass weight was a linear function of fasting time for up to four days of fasting, occurring at a rate of 1.5 % of the animal carcass weight per day. The animals lose weight between the time they are mustered to be selected for slaughter till the time they are slaughtered at an abattoir. Q.

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Rough handling of animals during transit and the immediate pre-slaughter period can adversely affect meat quality since stress can cause high ultimate pH in muscles, darkcutting carcasses, pale, soft, exudates (PSE) or dry, firm, dark (DFD) meat and blood splash. Main stress on livestock is due to the loading and unloading periods and the duration of the journey rather than to the distance travelled. No information, however, is available in Pakistan on the effects of the methods of transportation, distance and time in transit, and seasonal variation in weight loss and meat quality. Ante-mortem inspection should be carried out in order to segregate sick or suspected animals thus protecting the other animals and workers against any contagious diseases. In Pakistan the Slaughter House Act requires ante-mortem inspection but this mostly occurs in a loose manner only in recognized slaughterhouses, whereas many animals are slaughtered in unauthorized premises and rural areas. Ante-mortem inspection of animals for slaughter should be strictly enforced to ensure that the handling of sheep/goats is done as quietly and humanely as possible. Slaughter Procedures: In Pakistan, as in most Islamic countries, animals are slaughtered without prior stunning. However, to minimize cruelty and pre-slaughter struggling, it is considered compulsory in many countries to stun or render the animal unconscious before bleeding. Methods used include electrical stunning, hammer stunning, carbon dioxide anaesthesia etc. Electrical stunning consists of passing an electric current of 7.5 to 8 volts through the brain for at least 7 seconds; bleeding should commence within 5 seconds of stunning otherwise blood splash may occur in the meat. In carbon dioxide stunning, animals are passed through an atmosphere of carbon dioxide and air. Slaughtering techniques have a definite effect on carcass and meat quality. Whatever method is used, the purpose is to remove as much blood as possible from the carcass since it can cause unpleasant appearance and is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms, but how much effectively bleeding is done, only about 50 % of the blood is removed. After stunning the small ruminants, bleeding is done by making an incision in the jugular furrow close to the head and severing the carotid artery. At the same time the head is jerked back to rupture the spinal cord at the base of the skull to stop the reflex muscular action. This method is mostly practised in western countries. According to Islamic method of slaughter, a transverse cut is made around the neck cutting both carotid arteries and jugular veins with the simultaneous severing of parasympathetic nerves. This has been shown to result in quick and a well-bled carcass. Jews also use this method. Thorough bleeding may also depend on whether the animal is lying on the floor when the neck vessels are severed. Some quarters claim that better bleeding is obtained by cutting the main blood vessels in front of sternum of hoisted animals rather than in animals lying on the floor. Following bleeding, carcasses are dressed to separate the feet, skin, excess fat, viscera and offals. In modern slaughterhouses, after stunning and bleeding, animals are dressed on the line system where they are shackled by the hind legs and lifted to an overhead rail before being skinned. This system appears more hygienic and efficient than the system where carcasses are dressed on the floor of the slaughterhouse. The latter system is mostly in vogue in this country. Q. Write a note on slaughtering facilities in Pakistan. Slaughterhouses and slaughtering facilities in Pakistan are mostly obsolete, unsanitary and poorly managed, resulting in poor marketable products. At present there are over 300

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recognized slaughterhouses in the country, having the daily capacity to slaughter about 50,000 large and 25,000 small animals. Most of the slaughterhouses lack basic facilities such as potable water, electricity and efficient sewerage systems and adequate modern facilities for mechanical slaughtering, inspection, grading, refrigeration and transportation of carcasses. Facilities also lack for the efficient utilization of by-products and wastes such as blood, bones, bile, hooves, horns, pancreas and other glands. Workers are not well-trained and there is a considerable loss of by-products and damage to hides and skins resulting from improper slaughtering. The situation is rather disappointing in rural areas where generally there is one butcher in each sizeable village and animals are usually slaughtered under a tree. For efficient meat production and marketing, the establishment of modern slaughterhouses is a must, where animals are properly handled and slaughtered and byproducts are collected hygienically and properly processed. Meat (if) processed in the slaughterhouses should be kept in adjacent cold storage or chilling rooms to maintain its quality as the major meat quality problems at this stage are of hygiene. Contamination of the carcass is often a hazard since caked dirt and droppings on the coats of sheep/goats can be brushed on to the carcass being dressed. Existing slaughterhouses should be remodeled and equipment for sterilization and disinfection should be provided. New slaughterhouses should be established and hygienic methods of slaughter, dressing, cleaning and disinfection need to be developed. Q. What effects the use of specific nutrient supplements, growth promotants etc. in animal feed, might have on meat produced from small ruminants? The recent use of animal manure as a source of organic nitrogen in feedstuffs can lead to tainting of meat if used in concentrations which are too high. Vaccines and medicines can also have serious consequences in the production of meat from livestock. The illegal presence of drug residues in meat or in edible offals has become a problem for the meat industry in many parts of the world and as a result many countries have programmes to detect and control these residues. The withdrawal period must be observed in order to prevent the presence of residues in meat, which may be harmful to human health. Chemicals such as turpentine, ammonia and linseed oil cause tainting of meat and thus may lead to rejection of the whole carcass. It is inadvisable to use volatile chemicals when there is a possibility that an animal may have to be slaughtered soon afterwards. There are reports that the use of pesticides may cause abnormal odour in meat. The effect of dieldrin on crops fed to livestock has been reported to cause tainting of meat, apart from undesirable contamination. A number of off-flavours are detected in the meat of sheep when these graze certain pastures (such as lurcerne, rape, green oats and perennial ryegrass) for some weeks before slaughter. The effects are more noticeable at certain times of the year and at certain stages of growth of the plants. From time to time, phenolic substances, used in dipping sheep, have been detected in the meat at the time of consumption. The effect of nitrite resulting from microbiological reduction of nitrate used in curing meat is very serious for infants since foetal haemoglobin is particularly susceptible to oxidation until they are three months old and the enzyme systems capable of reducing metmyoglobin back to myoglobin are often deficient in the very young.

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More recent awareness that nitrite can react with secondary and tertiary amines to produce carcinogenic nitrosamines, has led to a further reduction in the permitted level of residual nitrite to 200 ppm in cured meat which at present is not much in use in Pakistan. When meat products are smoked, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including carcinogenic substances such as 3,4-benzpyrene, may precipitate on to surfaces, but it is only when fat falls on to hot cinders during charcoal grilling of meat that the levels become significant. Various hormones are administered to enhance the growth of animals. Some of these, such as hexoestrol, are believed to be carcinogenic. Synthetic estrogens have thus been prohibited in a number of countries. It seems unlikely, however, that residues of these would be present at significant levels in meats. Moreover, it has been calculated that it would be necessary to consume 200 tons of beef liver or 200 tons of lean meat from cattle implanted with diethylstilboestrol to obtain the amount of estrogen administered in a single birth control pill. It was reported that meat could be the vehicle for various mycotoxins produced by moulds. These could be acquired when animals ate contaminated feeds. Alfatoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. are believed to be carcinogenic to man. The places where mechanically recovered meat is used, high concentration of heavy metals such as lead, barium, and strontium in bones could be hazardous. The use of pesticides in agriculture, especially those which are persistent, such as the organochlorine group, could lead to their deposition in the tissues of animals grazing treated pastures or feeds. Various surveys of pesticide residues in meat indicated that withdrawal period must be observed before the slaughter of such animals is planned. Q. Write a detailed note on meat-eating and health hazards. A vigorous controversy continues about the effects on health of long-term consumption of meat, since it has been alleged to be associated with the development of carcinoma, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. There is some evidence that increased consumption of meat, with concomitant alterations in other dietary constituents, and increased gut transit time, may play a role in the development of carcinoma of large intestine. Increased proportion of anaerobic organisms such as bactericides in the intestine produce 7-a-dehydroxylase, which converts cholic acid to the suspected carcinogen, deoxycholate. Insofar as meat consumption tends to reflect affluence, the impression that cancer of the bowel is more prevalent in richer societies may appear logical: conversely, cancer of the stomach appears to be more prevalent among the less affluent. The balance of present opinion, however, indicates that meat consumption as such is not a factor in carcinogenesis. On the other hand, in that meat could be the repository of extraneous carcinogens (residues of benzypyrenes from smoking operations, anabolic hormones) it could constitute a hazard, as could any other food so contaminated. Since the intake of the saturated fatty acids, lauric, myristic and palmitic, raises plasma levels of cholesterol and these are found in high concentration in animal fats, an association between this phenomenon and meat consumption might be anticipated. It has been suggested therefore, that a high ratio of unsaturated: saturated fatty acids in the diet would be desirable since this might lower the individuals susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases, in general, and to coronary heart disease and cerebral vascular disease, in particular. However, it is now acknowledged that any relationship between

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cardiovascular diseases, the consumption of fats and blood cholesterol is complex. There are indications that, whereas cholesterol itself may be benign, its oxides may be toxic; that, whereas the feeding of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been reported to lower the incidence of cardiovascular conditions, it has been related to increased deaths from carcinoma. Tissue damage caused by peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be responsible. A connection between a high intake of salt and hypertension has long been recognized. Except cured meats, fresh meat per se is a minor source of dietary salt, thus may not cause hypertension unless extraordinarily large quantities are consumed as a routine. Although diets rich in protein (including meat) elevate serum levels of uric acid and thus restriction in their consumption may be advised in certain circumstances. Their reported association with gout is not clear as the condition is now thought to be hereditary. Since meat is an important source of essential amino acids, it is desirable to refer briefly to some disturbances of protein metabolism which constitute pathological conditions such as disorders of digestive enzymes (e.g. cystic fibrosis of the pancreas) and faulty mechanisms of intestinal amino acid transport (e.g. cystiurea leading to faulty absorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids and malabsorption of tryptophan). There are also certain genetically determined conditions in which the intermediary metabolism of one or several amino acids is defective. Amongst the more positive attributes of meat is its ability not only to supply ironand that from meat is it absorbed 3 to 5 times more readily than iron from plant foods, but also to enhance the absorption of iron from non-meat sources which are concomitantly consumed. The concept that meat may cause carcinoma, cardiovascular or other diseases in the otherwise healthy individual is far from being proven, the evidence being contradictory and the idea biologically unlikely. It is evident that we know too little, as yet, about the biochemical requirements of the individual human consumer to accept generalizations against meat-eating. It is a universal truth that excessive consumption of any thing could be harmful. This should be equally applicable to excessive consumption of meat. Therefore, in view of prevailing fear, consumption of red meat, especially beef, may be restricted to moderate levels. The American Heart Association (AHA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommended that no more than 30% of the calories in the human diet come from fats. The average person in USA obtains approximately 37% of his calories from fats. Nevertheless, todays liking for lean meat fits well into the AHA recommended diet and more extensive acceptance should reduce that figure (Romans et al., 1994). Other Sheep and Goat Products Q. Besides meat, milk and wool/hair, mohair, what other sheep and goat products are of economic importance in Pakistan? Discuss any one of these. Other sheep and goat products of economic importance in this country are body fat, skins, casings, bones, offals and voidings. Body Fat: The fatty tissue obtained from various parts of sheep and goats consists of abdominal fats such as kidney fat, omentum and mesenteric fat and subcutaneous or back fat. Fat collected from dead animals is used in the manufacture of inedible products such as glycerine, washing soaps, lubricants and animal feeds.

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The annual production of fat from sheep and goats is estimated at 70000 tons including 11600 tons from dead animals. Since fat is not collected for rendering from about 10 % of slaughtered and 80 % of dead sheep and goats, the quantity wasted is approximately 16000 tons per year, thus consumption is nearly 54000 tons per annum. Fat collected from slaughtered animals is used as a cooking medium, as a base in pharmaceuticals and in bakery products, while inedible fats are largely used for making detergents such as milled soap, flakes and washing powder and products such as glyerine, nitroglycerine, explosives and lubricants. Portions of fat, white tissue, skin and bones are used in the preparation of products such as gelatin and glue. There is unlimited demand for both edible and inedible products obtained from body fat by a growing population and rising consumption of commercial products. Carcasses of large animals, in particular, can help meet increasing demand for fat since 5 to 6 times more fat can be obtained from large carcasses than those from sheep and goats. The production, collection, processing and consumption of body fat throughout Pakistan should be surveyed to delineate measures aimed at increased collection and improved marketing. Fat should be removed from animals dying of harmless and noncommunicable diseases for conversion into non-edible commercial products. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of body fat should be investigated to determine its most economic uses and as a basis for grading and standardizing edible and inedible fats. Q. What do we do with sheep and goat skins? Do these have any economic significance? Skins are valuable and important source of raw material for local leather industry. They also constitute one of the major items of Pakistans export trade. Estimated production of skins during 2002 is 39 million. Their value has been estimated at Rs. 6450 million. Lamb/kid skins fetch better prices than the others. Considerable care is required to be taken when the skin is removed from the carcass after slaughter. The preparation and drying of skin is an art by itself and calls for a certain amount of skill. Nearly 80 to 90 % of the skins produced are from slaughtered animals and the rest may be from fallen animals. To make them value added, the export of raw skins is discouraged. Recent reports indicate that about 15% of the skins are damaged because of flaying cuts and another 6 to 8 % are spoiled due to defective curing. A considerable number of pieces are also spoiled due to manage, mites and other skin diseases. Q. What is meant by pelts? Discuss their categories, value and quality. Pelts here denote lamb/kid skins. These are valued worldwide because of their many fine features. Enhancement of pelt quality can help improve producers returns. Lamb/kid skins generally can be classified into two categories according to end use such as wooled skins (shearling) and pulled (wool free) skins. Wooled skins, if unblemished and kedfree can be used to make very fine coats, footware and other accessories. Similarly, pulled wool skins, if ked-free and undamaged are typically manufactured into fine leather goods such as garments, purses and accessories. The value and quality of pelts may be improved by observing the following practices. It is possible for a producer or a group of producers to receive a premium based upon a comprehensive pelt quality improvement programme. Genetic enhancement of wool quality is an important part of sheep pelt quality improvement. Management for improved pelt quality should include the following:

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i) Where branding is necessary, use scourable paint brands and avoid excessively heavy applications or use alternative sheep /goat identification methods such as ear tags, tattooing etc. ii) Avoid shearing and vaccination scars. Vaccinate high on the neck. iii) Possibly avoid grazing sheep where they have access to burs, plant seeds or vegetable matter such as wild oats, spear grass that might get matted in the wool or irritate sheeps skin. iv) Avoid holding sheep/goats in muddy areas. v) Do not pour feed or allow dry forage to drop over the sheeps backs. vi) Use non-staining drenching medications. vii) Control keds and ticks.

Q.

How to effect ked control?

Keds (Melophagus ovinus), called sheep ticks by many, are parasites of sheep only and cannot live for any great length of time if separated from them. They feed on the sheep by repeatedly puncturing the skin, causing a series of firm, dark nodules that develop in the dermal layer, seriously damaging the skins by causing defect known to the pelt industry as cockle and result in a rashlike bloch or blemish in the skin. Cockle does not accept dye to the same degree as surrounding areas and the finished leather is discoloured by these blotches. Keds are mostly prevalent in the temperate parts of the world. Their numbers increase during the fall and winter and then decline during the warm months. Keds are transferred to young lambs in the spring to start the cycle again. It has been reported that ked infestations cost producers about 8 % lower lamb weaning weights and 7 % lower fleece weight. The entire flock should be treated at shearing time. Insecticides used as a dip are both effective and not very costly. Any new arrivals introduced into the flocks should be so treated. Q. Write a note on sheep pelts. The sheep pelt (skin) is by far the most valuable product of sheep slaughtering. Pelts are handled in one of two ways: either (a) fresh or (b) salted, with the manner of handling determined by the distance from the plant/factory where wool is processed. Sheep skins (pelts) with short wool, 0.75 in. (about 20 mm) or less in length are usually tanned with the wool on and are used for coats, robes, rugs, slippers etc. Pelts with longer wool are sent to the pullery. The pulling process consists of applying a depilatory solution (made of sodium sulphide, slaked lime and water to the skin side of the pelt and then pulling the wool loose from the skin after the chemical action has loosened the hold on the fibres. Pelts are sorted into different grades, based primarily on length and quality of wool as determined by breeding, nutrition, climatic conditions and whether previously clipped and if so, the lapse of time since last clipping. The grades and groups of pelts are as follows: a) Shearlings and Fall Clips: These are the pelts from sheep that have been shorn and the fleece has not grown out sufficiently to be classed as wool pelts. Fleece measurement is taken at the shortest place on the pelt. b) Wool Pelts: These come either from (1) sheep that have been shorn in spring and a new coat of wool has grown out again or (2) spring lambs that have never been shorn. c) Miscellaneous Pelts: These include the groups shown in each of the two preceding grades, but they are burry or seedy. Q. Write a note on goat skin.

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The skin of the goat is a very valuable by-product if properly prepared and preserved. It can be worth 10 to 15% of the total value of the animal. Tanning skins and manufacturing leather products from them can increase the value of skins by four to five times. The main types of leather made from goat skins are kid leather, semi-chrome leather, fullchrome suede garments etc. Western leatherware manufacturers prize high quality goat skin for making gloves, leather jackets, handbags, wallets and diplomas. Thicker, coarser skins are made into shoes. Pakistan has developed its own leather industry. Some breeds such as Red Sokoto in Nigeria and Black Bengal in India, are well known for the quality of their skins. The value of any skin is reduced when care is not taken during the slaughter and curing process. Some skins are damaged when the animal suffers from disease or physical damage and this will reduce their value. Any form of indiscriminate branding on such parts of the body as flank, which scars it, considerably reduces the value of the skin in the market. It is better to brand below the shoulder and stifle as these areas will not be part of the cured skin. Scratches from barbed wires and wounds also reduce the value of skin. Q. Suggest appropriate practical measures for skinning and curing of sheep/goat skins. The skin is best removed from the freshly slaughtered sheep/goat using a round-ended knife. The traditional point-ended knife is liable to cause tears in the skin, which reduces its value. The knife is used to slit open the skin but it is better to pull the skin from the carcass by hand to avoid any damage. Removal is easier if the carcass is hung from its back legs and still warm. Skin should be cut as shown in (Figure 37), where the animal is initially lying with its back to the skinner. If skins can reach a tannery within one day, no treatment will be required to preserve them. However, in many situations it may not be possible. Thus if the skin is to be preserved, processing must begin immediately after slaughter. The cheapest and simplest method of curing is air drying. This must be done in a well ventilated situation away from rain and direct sunlight. The direct heat of the sun will cause any fat on the skin to melt or turn rancid. The skin should be suspended and stretched. If the skins are dried on the ground, the underside gets very humid and the quality of the skin is reduced. Air drying will take between 10 and 14 days. Skins can be suspended on frames or in rings of bamboo and hung appropriately somewhere. Salt may be used to help preservation although it requires much labour. The salt is applied to the fleshy side of the skin and rubbed in at a rate of 30 to 40% of the weight of the skin. The salt removes water from the skin and stops bacterial growth that will cause rotting. Sodium fluoride can also be added to the salt to restrict bacterial growth. When salting, a number of skins are usually stacked one on top of the other on a wooden pallett

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fleshy side up to allow excess brine to flow away. The pile of skins is left for 7 to 10 days then restacked with the topmost skins at the bottom. This will encourage maximum impregnation of salt through all the skins. In the hot tropics, salt is best applied without water. Damaged skins, cut into strips, can be made into a very good rope. Fish oil or animal grease, but not engine oil, will help soften the rope if rubbed in well. A good quality well cured goat skin will weigh between 1.5 to 3.0 kg. Q. Discuss that skins of small ruminants are considered an important byproduct of mutton industry. Sheep and goat skins are an important part of mutton industry in Pakistan. They are used for various purposes in semi-processed or processed form. Nearly half of the skins available for home consumption, are tanned to produce leather for footwear and 30 % for garments, handbags, cushions and decorative household articles, while 20 % are used for making caps, bellows, prayer mats etc. In addition to an increased demand for shoes, there has been witnessed a steep rise in the demand for garments and particularly there is a large export demand for Pakistani leather and leather goods made from skins as well as hides. The value of exported leather/leather goods during recent years, ranks fifth on the countrys list of exportable commodities. The production of small ruminant skins for 2002 in Pakistan is estimated to be 39 million pieces, divided between sheep and goats in the ratio of 1:2. Nearly 84 % of the total production is obtained from slaughtered animals and the remainder, termed dead or fallen skins, from dead animals. The number of skins from dead animals is small because sheep and goats injured in accidents or suffering from ordinary ailments are often slaughtered for meat. Nearly 2 % of fallen skins are lost because animals dying of serious diseases are not flayed, or carcasses are thrown away to carrion eaters for want of flayers. Of the remainder, 25 % are badly damaged as a result of faulty flaying, defective curing or storage and skin injuries caused by parasites and organisms during the life of the animals, leaving 29 million pieces of skins of good quality for the market. Since all damage to skins depreciates their value, there is a recurring loss of millions of rupees per year. Flaying of carcasses is defective in as many as 15 % cases and curing of skins in as many as 10%, resulting in defects such as marks and cuts on the visceral surface, remnants of muscular tissue on the skin and putrefying patches, resulting in production of poor quality leather with marks, holes, discolouration and a spongy texture. The defects in curing particularly occur with sub-optimal dressing of salt and other curing agents. Skins are marketed as green, dry-salted, wet-salted, or pickled and sorted into wooled and dewoolled pieces. These are sold according to size (extra large, large, medium and small). Long-distance transport of dry-salted skins is often in bales of 500 pieces and of wet-salted ones in casks of 100 pieces. Since the export of raw skins is banned and the entire production of sheep and goat skins is used in the country. Leather garments, shoes and other goods are exported overseas in large quantities, however. Q. What measures you would suggest to produce skins of better quality? i) The extension service of the Departments of Livestock and Dairy Development in various provinces of Pakistan should launch a campaign to train the butchers and flayers to ensure minimum injury to skins by employing effective methods of flaying and curing skins of all carcasses that are free from dangerous diseases.

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Infestation of sheep and goats with parasites and infectious organisms must be reduced. ii) Facilities should be provided for communicating improved technology, training and licensing of butchers and flayers and devising effective methods of preservation and storage of skins. Skins should be sold under regulated market act. iii) Appropriate methods of appraising raw, cured and tanned skins should be devised and disseminated. iv) Cottage industries should be encouraged to produce fancy goods from sheep/goat skins, by fostering research on effective methods of processing and using skins and by placing these industries on a cooperative management. v) Characteristics of skins that affect their suitability for different purposes should be identified and these related to differences between breeds and regions, and methods of skinning and preparation. Q. Write a note on lambskin production in Pakistan. In northern hilly areas of Pakistan, fur and fancy skins have been used as caps, garments, bedding and prayer rugs since prehistoric times. Lambskins are used for making highclass goods such as caps, fur coats and hand gloves. No precise data indicating the production of lambskins in Pakistan are available but estimates based on trade enquiries place their annual production at 0.5 to 0.6 million pieces valued at Rs. 80 to 100 million. These skins are mostly obtained from sheep thriving along the north-western hilly belt, Multan division and areas around Khairpur, Sukhar and Larkana. They are obtained by slaughtering lambs within three days of birth or by slaughtering pregnant ewes near lambing and removing the skin of the foetus. Lambskins are cured, dried and mounted by fur merchants and taxidermists in conventional ways, leaving ample room for improvement in this, especially for assuring a long life and attractive appearance. About 20 % of fur skins show sings of defective flaying and curing, involving a price depreciation of about 50 %. Approximately this loss amounts to Rs. 10 to 12 million per annum. This loss, however, could be minimized by coaching flayers and curers in the proper skills of handling furs. Export of lambskins not allowed unless these have been graded under Pakmark and accompanied by a certificate of quality. To effect further development in this respect, a national survey needs to be conducted on the production and marketing of lambskins to point out flaws in the systems of production and sale along with suitable remedies. Upgrading of sheep in suitable localities of the north-western belt to produce fine Karakul pelts should be done as has been undertaken at Khairewala (Punjab). Also, production, preservation and utilization should be organized by providing technical know-how to small-scale industries and cooperatives. Marketing of lambskins should be brought under regulated market act. Q. Discuss briefly the supply and utilization of gut and casings in Pakistan. The production of gut is estimated to be 39 million pieces, on the basis of estimates for slaughtered and dead skins, including those from dead sheep and goats. Nearly 8.2 million pieces remain uncollected, either because the animals died of dangerous diseases or because flayers are not available. Furthermore, about 15 % pieces are damaged while flaying and eviscerating the carcasses and represent an almost total loss. Monetary loss from this damage is particularly high in case of dead animals and in the event of solitary

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slaughterings on festive occasions such as Eid-ul-Azha, when several unskilled so called butchers offer their services to people to slaughter their animals at comparatively low charges. Over 150 tons of casings are exported annually. Gut is used mainly as casings for sausages (about 80%), while prepared gut is used in the preparation of goods such as tennis rackets, musical instruments and spinning wheels (15 %), and a small quantity is used as catgut (5 %) in surgery. Gut for casings comes from slaughtered animals and has various sizes based on the minimum diameter of a piece. The usual length of a piece from a sheep/goat brought to the market varies from 18 to 28 meters. Casings meant for export are washed, cured with brine, and cut into lengths of 1.5 to 2.0 meters. Casings meant for export have to be graded under Pakmark. Casings and gut meant for home consumption as well as prepared gut, are not graded. There is, however, a lot of room for improvement in production and export of gut and casings. The collection of gut from carcasses free from communicable diseases should be enhanced by publicizing their utility, establishing gut collection depots in suitable localities, and improving the methods of preservation. Stockowners, butchers and gut dealers should be acquainted through short courses with flaying, preservation and packing for different uses. The present market should be surveyed to determine the more profitable end uses for gut of different kinds, commercial uses to which gut can be put if unsuitable for use as casings and prepared gut and appropriate technology for possible use of fresh and preserved intestines as human food in suitable forms. Q. Discuss the collection, utilization and economic importance of sheep and goat bones. The estimated production of bones from sheep and goats per year is 45000 tons and 67000 tons, respectively, this figure is based on an average availability of bones of about 3.0 kg per animal slaughtered or dead. Bones from sheep and goats are not collected in all cases and nearly one-half of the total production of bones is lost every year. Seasonal and annual variations in collection are not significant. Collections continue coming to markets throughout the year except a minor decline in collections during the monsoon months owing to disruption of communications. Collection from rural areas are sold at nearby markets by the collectors. After collection, bones are usually exposed to the sun and rain until they are clean and dry since washing is rarely practised. Seasoned bones fetch 25 to 35 % more than greasy or unseasoned bones and clean bones from restaurants and butcher shops are priced at 10 to 25 % more than those from fallen carcasses. All types of bones are collected, seasoned and marketed in mixed lots in primary markets. However, in secondary and tertiary markets, especially those catering to the export demand, bones, horns and hoofs are crushed and sold separately. The usual forms into which bones are converted include bone grist, bone meal, sinews, horn meal and hoof meal. Bones, horns and hooves are valuable raw material and are used for the preparation of a number of commercial goods and products including animal feeds, fertilizers, gelatine, glue, glycerine and lubricating oils. Bones are also used for clarifying sugar and knuckles (long bones) are used for fancy goods such as jewellery, buttons, knife handles, toys and other decorative household articles. The value of sheep and goat bones, collected even at the current low level, is estimated to be Rs. 115 million per year. The use of bone and horn in cottage industries is rising. The

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exports of crushed bones and bone meal are also rising. The export of these products from all animals is roughly over 20000 tons, valued at about Rs. 45 million per year. Q. Give an estimate of annual production of blood obtained from sheep and goat slaughter. What different uses blood may be put to in Pakistan? The annual production of blood from sheep and goats slaughtered is estimated to be 50000 tons, but as blood is collected only from animals slaughtered in large slaughterhouses, the aggregate amount of collections is small, not more than 40 %. In these slaughterhouses, blood is collected in containers placed under the neck of the animals being slaughtered, or by sweeping blood from drains with pieces of flesh, excreta and dust. Preservatives and anticoagulants are not generally used and it is bulked and dried in the sun or by heating in open pens without purification. Dried blood is converted into blood meal and used in the preparation of livestock and poultry feeds as well as fertililizers and small quantities are exported. It can be used for preparing a number of industrial products such as pharmaceuticals, adhesives for plywood, insecticide sprays and textile dyes. The municipalities and corporations owning large slaughterhouses, auction the blood to manufacturers or exporters. Thus there is no set price for such collections, particularly when the auctions include sweeps of blood and other carcass parts. Methods should be devised for proper collection and preservation of blood from major slaughterhouses and to set up industries to utilize blood in the vicinity of large abattoirs. Efforts should be made to reduce unwarranted wastage of blood and to ensure its conversion into useful products since blood is a rich source of proteins of high biological value and essential amino acids. The average yield of blood per animal varies from 1.5 to 2.0 litres in small ruminants and from 10.0 to 13.5 litres in large ruminants. If the carcasses are left hanging, more blood may be obtained. However, in this country no separate bleeding compartments and special bleeding rails are available in slaughterhouses. Thus the amount of blood wasted is more than the amount collected from slaughtered animals.

Name some important glands that can be obtained from slaughtered animals and may serve as a source of certain pharmaceutical products. Hormones such as insulin, thyroxine and testosterone can be extracted from the pancreas, thyroid and testicles, respectively, but in practice these glands are either eaten as meat or thrown away and the pharmaceuticals imported. Some common products in demand are insulin for diabetics, progesterone for preventing abortion, thyroid extracts for goiter, adrenocarticotrophic hormones from the pituitary, cholesterol from the spinal cord, rennet from stomach and heparin from the liver and lungs for use as an anticoagulant. In view of the loss of glands from sheep and goats as well as other livestock slaughtered for meat, it is advisable to investigate the production, collection and utilization of animal glands, so that plans for the development of local production of glandular extracts can be initiated. Q. Discuss that excreta of sheep/goats is a valuable by-product. In intensive livestock units or where sheep/goats are collected together at night, it is possible to collect the animal droppings or manure for use or sale as a fertilizer or fuel source. Sheep/goat manure makes a very good fertilizer. Under pastoral system in vogue here, sheep/goat flocks may seasonally graze crop stubbles, indirectly returning valuable

Q.

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nutrients to the soil. Sheep/goat keepers earn payment for keeping their animals on ground that the landowner wishes to be fertilized. The dung and urine that the animals deposit there, is an integral part of the cropping system. The quantity and quality of manure depends on the quantity and quality of the diet consumed. As a rough guide, a sheep/goat is likely to produce 1 to 2% of its weight as dry matter (DM) of manure per day. Therefore, a 40 kg sheep/goat might produce 400 to 800 g DM manure per day, depending on the feed intake and digestibility of the diet. With minor variations the composition of sheep/goat manure is: moisture 40 to 60%, nitrogen 1 to 3%, phosphorus 0.2 to 0.8%, potassium 0.4 to 0.8%. The quantity and quality of manure that can actually be collected and used will vary according to the system in which sheep/goats are kept. Urine is particularly rich in nitrogen and potassium. Wet goat wastes are approximately 66% solid waste and 33% urine Q. What is meant by composting the manure? Give details of composting procedure. The droppings can be mixed with forage residues, soil or urine to rot before use. If fresh manure is put directly on crops, it may cause scorching resulting in plants shrivelling or turning brown. Removing manure from livestock areas is a good practice in any event since it stops parasite and bacteria build-ups. Composting the manure will improve its quality as a plant food. Traditionally, manure is left as a heap above ground level to allow bacteria to break down the products in the heat. In dry conditions, this method may not succeed as the top of the heap quickly dries out and bacteria are unable to perform the breakdown process because they do this best in warm moist condition. An alternate method in the arid conditions is the pit sandwich procedure. In this process, as shown in (Figure 38), the manure is put into pits alternately with layers of straw (forage residue). The depth of each straw layer is usually twice the depth of each layer of manure. Each layer is watered (sprinkled) as it is put in and 2 to 3 kg of urea fertilizer or urine is poured on. This acts as a starter to encourage the bacterial breakdown process. The layering of the pit continues until it is full when it is sealed off with 15 cm of the soil dug from the pit. Pits should be filled and sealed over in as short a time as possible and then left for 6 to 8 weeks for all the contents to rot down. The size of the pit depends upon the quantity of manure produced per day. However, it should be deep enough to retain moisture without being too deep so that it is below the water table. After 6 to 8 weeks period the compost should be sampled and is ready to use when it is moist but crumbly in the hand. In very arid conditions it may be necessary to soak the pit occasionally from above to aid the decomposition process. The pit is emptied in one go and the contents allowed to stand for a short period to dry. It will be relatively odour free. In some countries composted manure fetches a good price. Q. Besides the milk, meat, wool/hair, skin and manure, what other salable byproducts the sheep/goat carcass yields? Fat used in soap manufacture and animal feeds Meat, bone and blood meal used as an animal protein feed and as a fertilizer when dry Horns and hooves used in handicrafts Gelatine used as food The guts used as sausage skins

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Edible by-productsliver, lungs, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, stomach, testicles and tongue. The amount of edible by-products from a sheep/goat varies between cultures. In S.E. Asia the total edible proportion of a carcass varies between 50 to 60% because many byproducts are considered delicacy items. Q. Discuss the potential of our goat breeds for meat production Most of the existing goat breeds in Pakistan can be termed as meat breeds. They have been called so because they are not good dairy breeds otherwise they do not really possess the cherished characteristics of meat animals. They have been improved little by conscious efforts of breeders. Again most of them still have slow growth rate and low feed conversion efficiency. There are few scientific studies to determine their growth and fattening capabilities under different conditions of management and feeding, ranging from poor pasturage to intensive system utilizing fodder and concentrates. Q. Suggest a few practicable measures to effect increase in meat production from small ruminants in Pakistan. The increase in meat production is possible if short term measures of fattening old and very young animals are adopted. Permanent gains could come from a coordinated national breeding programme for the improvement of small ruminant meat breeds; improved husbandry practices, disease and parasite control measures leading to reduced mortalities and better growth rates, better genetic make-up, improved nutrition of the breeding stock and meat animals potential constraints such as lack of improved pastures and high quality feed, lack of production incentives, absence of suitable technology and disorganized marketing of livestock and meat need to be removed. Prices should be based on production costs and the quality and grades of different types of meat. Manpower well trained in animal production can properly cater the needs of different facets of the meat industry. Q. What points need to be considered before formulating a balanced ration for sheep/ goats? The following points should be considered: i) Availability and cost of different feed ingredients; ii) Composition of feeds under consideration, feed composition tables or average analyses should be considered only as guides because of wide variation in composition of feedstuffs; iii) Moisture content of feeds; iv) Soil analysis of the area wherefrom feed ingredients have originated will help in estimating the mineral composition of soil and its effect on plant composition; and v) Nutrient allowances should be known for the particular class of sheep / goat for which a ration is to be formulated. A satisfactory ration should be palatable and digestible, economical and adequate in protein content, but not higher than is required. It should contain adequate vitamins and minerals to meet the requirements of the rumen microbes and the animal itself, without mineral imbalances. Q. What are the prospects of fattening small ruminant surplus stock meant for sale?

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As people become richer, they are able to afford more animal protein in their diet. Farmers/producers who have access to urban markets may be able to take advantage of these markets and fatten surplus stock for sale and slaughter on religious occasions such as Eid-ul-Azha, when prices rise. Farmers may fatten stock, which they have reared themselves or buy young males for fattening and sale. Some reports indicate that it is probably not economical to spend money on concentrate feeds for indigenous breeds that are unable to respond to the high level of feeding. It is doubtful whether a large scale feedlot system with intensive feeding of batches of lambs/kids for slaughter, would be profitable with indigenous breeds of sheep/goats. However, the less intensive fattening of surplus stock on low- value feeds is an option for farmers who have access to comparatively cheaper agricultural by-products or high quality forages. A more intensive fattening system might be appropriate using crosses of indigenous breeds with suitable temperate breeds. If the farmer is going to spend money on purchased feed supplements, it is important to know if the supplementation really does result in a cash profit. This can be calculated by using a partial budget. The following information is needed to calculate the profit/loss of a small change; Cost Benefit Extra cost + reduced returns Extra returns + reduced costs = Total costs = Total gain Total gain total costs = Profit/loss The age of fastest growth is between weaning (3 to 4 months) and acquiring the first pair of permanent incisors at 13 to 14 months. It is probably not economical in most circumstances to feed the animals very intensively for about 10 months after weaning. The semi-intensive fattening after weaning, using high-quality forages or crop byproducts, might be profitable. Q. Write a note on comparative growth rates of sheep and goats. Despite the high prolificacy of some breeds of meat goats, their growth rate is low, rather considerably lower than that of sheep. For example in USA under ideal conditions goats grow 150 to 230g per day, while sheep grow 300 to 400 g per day on a similar ration (Figure 39). Low growth rates also lead to poor feed conversion. It may be due to limited genetic potential and poor nutritional conditions. However, through genetic improvement and proper feeding, increased growth rate may be obtained which should help improve feed conversion. Under our conditions growth rate of both of these species is low. Growth rates of young goats can vary from 20 to 180g daily although they are generally considered to grow more slowly than lambs. Mostly growth rates are likely to be at the lower end of this range. A report indicated that average daily gain in weight was 43 to 51g in Beetal kids. Male kids grow faster than females while females get fatter on a similar diet. Higher preference for goat meat appears to have eroded the dairy potential of local goats since the fastest growing males are slaughtered for meat and only poor animals remain there for breeding purposes. Q. What factors, in general, influence growth rate in small ruminants? The rate of growth of a small ruminant depends mainly on the amount and quality of feed available and the health of the animal but is also influenced by its genetic make-up and its sex. In most of the situations, small ruminants in Pakistan receive a diet that is poor in quality and insufficient in quantity. Because of these factors, they tend to grow very

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slowly. In addition, the rate of growth is reduced by diseases, infection and parasite burdens. Environmental conditions also affect growth. The combination of high humidity and high temperatures, for example, reduces growth by depressing appetite and thus feed intake. Lack of access to water can also affect growth through stress. This is less of a problem in goats than sheep, but in very high temperature conditions or where animals are in poor physical condition it can be an important constraint. On a good diet large breeds will grow much faster than small ones. When the diet is very poor, this potential of larger breed is not fulfilled and they have little advantage over smaller breeds. During dry season lack of forage restricts actual daily growth or causes animals to lose weight. This may also happen during the high humidity situation. Once animals return to better feeding or better environmental conditions they grow and recover weight at a much faster rate than one would expect from the quality and amount of feed given. This is known as compensatory growth (Figure 40). Q. Briefly describe an ideal meat type conformation of sheep/goats and an ideal fleece type conformation of sheep. For the meat type breeds, this ideal means plenty of size and growthiness; heavy musclingespecially in the leg and loin; blocky appearance straight, widely set legs, low-set body (not leggy); in case of sheep a fleece of acceptable weight and quality. If purebred, the animals should show the characteristics of the breed represented. Ram/buck should show boldness and masculinity and ewes/does should be feminine. When the production of wool is the main source of income, weight and quality of fleece are of the utmost importance. The fibres should be long, preferably fine and of good crimp; the fleece should be dense, clean and bright. Animals with fleeces having coloured fibres and those that tend to be hairy, loose or open should be rejected. Wool type sheep are more angular with less muscling throughout. Q. Describe the characteristics of goat carcass. The goal of raising meat goats is to obtain edible, salable carcasses. The meat of the young kid is referred to as Cabrito and is regarded as a delicacy for the barbecue trade in some countries while the meat of mature goat is sought in other countries including Pakistan. Whatever the age, goat and kid carcasses are typically thin, shallow, becoming thicker and compact as the carcass weight increases. The kid carcass looks rather scrawny. Furthermore, a common feature of goat carcasses is their thin fat cover. Compared to sheep, there is a lack of subcutaneous fat cover on the goat carcass, especially over the loins. Body fat percentage was higher in sheep of all age groups (8.9 to 45.2%), compared to goats of similar ages and fattening stages (5.5 to 29.7%). This lack of fat is seen by some as an advantage with current market and consumer trends. The body fat of goats is concentrated in the visceral and intermuscular areas. It can be clearly seen from the Table 20 that goat carcasses are more lean but also have more bone than lamb carcasses. Dressing percentage is influenced by nutritional status and diet. Reports show dressing percentages ranging from 37 to 55%, which generally is lower than those of sheep. If entire male kids are to be slaughtered older than 4 to 6 months of age, particularly if this means during the mating season, it is likely that the meat will be tainted. Table 20. Species A comparison of lamb and kid carcasses Muscl Bone Sub-cut Intermuscul

Kidney

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION ar fat 17 14.3 17.0 fat 4.1 8.1 4.6

21 kg lamb carcass 21 kg kid carcass (dairy breed) 20.5 kg kid carcass (Angora x British Saanen) Source: Mowlem (1992).

12 15.4 14.6

12.5

Q. What do you understand by Chevon? Discuss briefly. Chevon is the trade name for goat meat comparable to beef, mutton. The name Chevon was contrived from the French word Chevre for goat and to on from the word mutton. Nevertheless, the name Chevon is occasionally used and one should be aware that it refers to goat meat. Q. Compare the nutritive value of Chevon, mutton and beef. Table 21 shows the nutritive value of chevon (goat meat) compared to mutton and beef. In general, goat meat is similar to mutton and beef, but it contains less fat and food energy while it has more moisture and somewhat higher contents of calcium. Goat meat is also a good source of phosphorus, zinc, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. Meat and animal products are the only major food sources of vitamin B12. Table 21. Meat Nutritive value of chevon, mutton and beef Weight Moisture (g) (%) Fat (g) Calcium (mg) 11.0 10.0 10.0 Iron (mg) 2.2 1.2 3.1

Food Protein energy (g) (Kcal) Chevon 100 71 165.0 18.7 Mutton 100 61 263.0 16.5 Beef 100 48 340.0 23.6 Source: Ensminger and Parker (1986).

9.4 21.3 27.3

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Q. What is wool? It is the natural clothing of sheep and is one of the two important products obtained from sheep-wool and meat. Sheep raisers obtain about 15 to 20% of their total cash income from wool and the rest from sheep and lambs. The natural function of wool is to protect and conserve the warmth of the animals body. A covering of hair or feathers performs a thermoregulatory function for warm-blooded animals, to protect them from heat or cold. As wool fibres are poor conductors of heat, they serve to prevent any abnormal loss of heat from the body. Q. Discuss important qualities of wool. Although certain other fibres may equal or excel in one or several qualities but no textile fibre seems to match the total virtues possessed by wool. i) Wool is porous and can absorb as much as 18% of its own weight in moisture without even feeling much damp. ii) Wool is a superior insulator. It is as effective a protection from tropical heat and sun as it is against the gale-driving storms of winter. iii) Wool is light. iv) Wool is very elastic. Because of the resilience, wool garments resist wrinkling, stretching or sagging during wear. v) Dyestuffs are less likely to fade and are faster on wool. vi) Wool is durable. vii) Wool is strong. Diameter for diameter, a wool fibre is stronger than many other textile fibres. viii) Wool is almost nonflammable. It will stop burning almost as soon as it is taken away from a flame. ix) Wool can be felted easily. Q. Enlist below important uses of wool in Pakistan. About 66.5 % of the wool consumed in Pakistan is carpet wool and 33.5 % is apparel wool. The greater part of the carpet wool is used in the manufacture of carpets, floor coverings, winter uniforms for army, police, for a part of railway employees, for manufacturing country type blankets, knit boots and heavy, full socks. A small quantity of apparel wool produced in the country is mixed with some imported wool and is consumed in the spinning of woolen and worsted yarn which is used in the production of suiting, dress fabrics, coatings, blanketing, knit goods including sweaters, hosiery, gloves etc. Q. Write a note on the structure of a wool fibre. Wool is the natural protective covering of sheep. It differs from other animal fibres by having a serrated surface; a crimpy, wavy appearance; an excellent degree of elasticity, and an internal structure composed of numerous minute cells. In contrast, hair has a comparatively smooth surface, lacks in crimp or waviness and will not stretch. Wool is similar in origin and general chemical composition to the various other skin tissues found in animals such as horns, nails and hoofs. From the standpoint of microscopic structure, wool fibres consist of two distinct cell layers and some fibres have a third layer. The outside cell layer is called epidermis; the one underneath is called cortex. The third layer is medulla (Figures 41,42). Epidermis: It is the outside or surface layer of the fibre, made up of flat, irregular horny cells or scales, overlapping one on the top of the other, much like the scales of a fish, with the free end projecting outward and upward toward the tip of the fibre to present a serrated appearance. Fine wool has more serrations per centimeter. They run from 235/cm in low grade wools to 1180/cm in the finest of Merino wools. The epidermal cells impart felting qualities to wool.

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Cortex: This cell layer constitutes the principal body of the wool fibre. It lies immediately below the epidermis. It is made up of long, flattened, more or less twisted, spindle like cells. The cortical cells impart strength and elasticity to the fibre. Medulla: Most medium and coarse wools possess a third cell layer known as the medulla, which usually is absent in fine wools. Where present, it is the innermost layer. These cells, often like a honeycomb, may occur throughout the length of the fibre or only in certain areas. Wool fibres containing medulla are not desirable. Such fibres are generally coarse, uneven in diameter and harsh to touch. Q. Briefly discuss the chemical composition of wool. Chemically, wool is chiefly the protein keratin, which is also the primary constituent of hair, nails, hoofs, horns and feathers. Keratin is composed of amino acids. It is noted for its high content of sulphur containing amino acid cystine. A typical chemical breakdown of wool is as follows: carbon 50%, oxygen 22 to 25%, nitrogen 16 to 17%, hydrogen 7% and sulphur 3 to 4%. Q. What are the important characteristics of wool that are of interest to both the producer and the manufacturer? Discuss briefly. These are: 1) grease, 2) length, 3) density, 4) diameter and 5) variations in wool from different body areas (such as fineness, length, density and yield). Grease: Grease refers to all the impurities found in unscoured wool, including the yolk, suint and soluble foreign matter but not the vegetable matter. Shrinkage of fleeces varies widely, with many factors affecting it. On average, grease wool shrinks about 50 %. The commercial value of a clip of wool is largely determined by the amount of clean wool fibre that it yields. In the raw state, grease wool contains the following types of impurities: i) Natural Impurities: These result from the glandular secretions and include the yolk and the suint. The yolk is a mixture of a number of materials; the principal one is cholesterol, which protects the fibre against the detrimental action of the weather. When scoured out and purified, as lanolin, the yolk is used in making ointments, cosmetics, leather dressings and rust preventives. Suint is mixed with the yolk, but it can be readily dissolved out by water. It mainly consists of potassium salts of various fatty acids and smaller amounts of sulphates, phosphates and nitrogenous materials. Suint results from sweating and it appears to be the source of the distinctive odour associated with sheep. ii) Acquired Impurities: These are picked up by the animal and include dust, sand, vegetable materials consisting of straw, burs, twigs and grasses and dung. iii) Applied Impurities: These include such identifying substances as tars and paints and the residues of dips and sprays. Length: Together with quality, length constitutes the principal basis of classification and grading in buying and selling wool and it largely determines the use to which wool will be put. In judging sheep, fibre length is based on an appraisal of the annual growth, as determined by parting the fleece at three body areasthe shoulder, side and britch. Fibre length varies from 3 to 50 cm. Density: It is often defined as the number of fibres per unit area of skin. Density of wool varies in different breeds, body areas and individuals. Estimates for the number of wool fibres per animal vary from a low of about 16 million to a high of 120 million. Coarsewool breeds have low fibre density while breeds such as Merino have high density. Fleece density is an attribute in determining fleece weight. By grasping the wool on the

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side to feel its fullness and compactness and by parting the fleece to examine the apparent closeness of the fibres, one can determine fleece density in judging. Diameter: The fineness of wool is important because the character of the yarns and fabrics produced is determined to a great extent by the variations in the diameter of fibre. Wool sorting is based on fineness of fibre. In the trade, the wool expert is able to estimate the fineness by visual inspection and handling. Under microscope, the shape or contour of fibres varies greatly. Fibres are irregular and possess varying degrees of ovality and ellipticity. In judging sheep, the number of crimps is usually accepted as an index of fineness. The diameter of wool fibres varies anywhere from 18 to 50 microns and the number of crimps 2 to 14 per cm. Variations on Different Body Areas: There are wide differences between breeds and individuals in such wool characters as fineness, length, density and yield. Based on investigations, it appears possible to reduce the wool character distribution of body areas to a common pattern, with rankings of each character from most desirable to least desirable. Thus the head wool is the finest, whereas the britch wool is the coarsest. The britch wool is the longest and the head wool is the shortest. From density standpoint, the head wool ranks at the top while from yield standpoint, it is the lowest. Q. What type of wool is mainly produced in Pakistan? Coarse or carpet type wool is mainly produced in Pakistan, since this country does not have real fine wool producing sheep breeds, except a few including the crossbreds, which yield comparatively fine wool. However, the fineness of such wool has no match with those of Merino, Rambouillet or Corriedale. Q. How much wool and hair are annually produced in Pakistan? Wool: 39.5 thousand tons (2002) Hair: 19.3 thousand tons (2002) Q. What is the utility of wools produced in this country? One major single utility of Pakistan wool is in the manufacture of hand-knotted carpets. Other important uses are the manufacture of coarse warm clothing as provided for uniforms to army, police and railway officials as well as to night guards of other departments. Blankets of various types are manufactured as cottage industry using handand power looms. A part of the wool which is considered comparatively fine is mixed with the imported fine wool, and is used in the manufacture of fine woolen cloth for domestic use as well as export to other countries.

Q. What are the important uses of hair produced in Pakistan? Mixed with carpet wool, hair are used for the manufacture of rough and tough type country blankets, namnahs for putting under horse and camel saddles, for making floor and prayer mats as well as ropes for use in animal and crop agriculture. Q. Give an estimated figure of foreign exchange (converted into Rs.) earned from the export of carpets during the last two years as well as name the countries which are the main importers of Pakistan carpets. Rs. 16.0 billion (2001) Rs. 15.0 billion (2000)

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Main importers of carpets from Pakistan are: UK, Germany, France USA, Malaysia and Brunei. Q. What are the main factors that determine wool type? Heredity is the main factor that determines the wool type, but its quality and strength depend on the health and nutrition of the sheep during each year of fleece growth. One serious illness or a period of poor nutrition can cause tender, brittle wool and a weak portion in every fibre of the whole fleece. Q. What does wool grading mean? Indicate various measures of wool grading. It is a system of classifying wool, based mainly on its fineness. This process, more or less, has relation to industrial and manufacturing uses of wool. The finer the wool, the more valuable it is. One method of designating the grade of wool is the spinning count, which originally meant that one pound of wool of a particular designation would spin that many hanks of wool, a hank being 560 yards. Thus 70s would spin 70 hanks and 60s would spin 60 hanks. The count system usually went only as fine as 80s, but German Saxony Merino has been known to grade 90s, where one ounce of the single fibres laid end to end would stretch 100 km. Count is always expressed in even numbers. Another way is the blood system of grading the fineness of wool, which originally indicated what fraction of the blood of the sheep was from Merino breed, which produced the wool of finest diameter. This term no longer relates actually to Merino or part-Merino blood, but qualifies the degree of fibre diameter. The micron system is an industrially accurate measurement of the average diameter of wool fibre, a micron being one thousandth of a millimeter. The coarser the wool, the higher the number of microns. To illustrate the comparative placing of the three systems of wool grading, a table showing the relationship of the blood, count and micron systems is given below. Examples are approximate and as expected there are variations within most breeds.

Grades based on blood Fine blood 3/8 blood

Count system approximations 64s,70,80s 60s,62s 56s,58s

Micron system approximation s 19-20 or less 22-24 25-28

Examples

blood

48s,50s

29-31

Merino Rambouillet Rambouillet Romeldale Corriedale Southdown Suffolk Oxford Dorset Romney

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION 32-33 34-39 Romney Oxford Leicester Lincoln Cotswold

Q. What is meant by lumpy wool? A chronic skin infection, mycotic dermatitis, damages the wool, which becomes matted and hard to shear. Such wool is named as lumpy wool. This disease also predisposes sheep to fleeceworms (maggots). A well nourished sheep with a dense fleece is not so prone to this infection. Injections of pen-strep and a dipping or spraying with 0.2% solution of zinc sulphate are useful in checking the spread of the infection. Q. Why is proper shearing of wool so important to the sheep producer? Since wool is one of the important products obtained from sheep. If its shearing is not done in a proper way at a proper time, it would mean wastage of wool and a loss to the producer who already seems to be making no big gains from sheep business. Wool shearing should only be done by experienced persons so that wastage of wool and wounds to the sheep may be avoided. Most of the people involved in shearing wool in this country are illiterate. They have learnt this art from their elders and are completely ignorant of the technicalities. It appears very appropriate to suggest to the Dept. of Livestock and Dairy Development, Punjab as well as other provinces to advise all such Farm Superintendents where sheep are maintained, to arrange one day sheep shearing schools every year for those who are already in shearing business. They should be properly trained in using hand and electric shears. Sheep owners may also participate. As an incentive they may be paid Rs. 50/- per head per day. This effort eventually will result into obtaining better shorn wool and would fetch more money to the producer. Q. How is shearing done? Shearing may be done by electric shears or hand shears. In this country, mostly hand shears are used. Hand shears are an inexpensive way to start with. No electricity is needed, shearing can be done any place. These are easy and quick to sharpen with just a hand stone. These are light weight and thus easy to carry with. Here shearing is done twice a year, first in March and then in September. The trick in shearing is not just the pattern of the shearing strokes, which lessens the time involved in completing the shearing, but is the immobilizing of the sheep by the various holds that give the sheep no leverage to struggle. A helpless sheep is a very quiet sheep. This cannot be done by the use of force alone, since forcible holding will make the sheep struggle more. The person shearing the wool may like to use a shearing belt to lessen the strain on his back. The belt should be wider in the middle part which fits well across the shearers back. Various steps have been given below to properly complete shearing along with illustrations showing the various holds on sheep, often by use of the shearers foot or knee (Figure 47): 1. Slip left thumb into sheeps mouth, back of the incisor teeth and place other hand on 2. Bend sheeps head sharply over her right shoulder and swing sheep toward you.

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PART- III sheeps right hip. Lower sheep to the ground as you step back. From this position you can lower her flat on the ground or set her on her rump for foot trimming. Sheep is on her left side. Trim top of head, then hold one ear and shear cheek and side of the neck as for as the shoulder, into the opening you made at the brisket. With sheep in this position and with you holding her head as shown, shear down the left side. With only a minor shift in the position of the sheep, you can now shear the back flank. From this position the sheep is shorn along her backbone and a few centimeters beyond, if possible. Half the shearing is done. The shearers feet are so close to the sheeps belly that she cannot get up. Shearer holds sheep with left hand under her chin and around her neck and shears the right shoulder. Shifting his position, he shears farther down the side and the rump. He again moves his position and holding up the rear leg, he shears the right side of crotch.

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION

3.

4.

Start by shearing brisket and up into left shoulder area. One knee behind sheeps back, other foot in front. Place sheep on her rump, resting against your legs. Shear down the shoulder while she is in this position.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Hold her left front leg up toward her neck and from this position shear her side and belly.

9.

11.

10. By pressing down on the back flank, the leg will be straightened, making it easier to shear. 12. By holding up the left leg it is possible to trim the area around the crotch. 14. Holding one ear, you start down the right side of the neck. Do not hold the ear tightly enough to hurt her. 16. Sheep is pulled up against the shearer to expose her right side so that he can shear it. 18. Shifting his position he finishes the right flank and shears the sheeps rear end. 20. The sheep is back on her feet after complete shearing of wool.

13.

15.

17.

19.

Q.

Give some helpful suggestions in connection with wool shearing. Shear as early as weather permits. Shearing injuries will then heal before fly season. Ewes can be sheared before lambing (but carefully and gently), removing dirty wool tags the lamb might suck on. Sheep should be given a bath a week before shearing so that dirt, sand etc. are washed out. Never shear when the wool is wet or damp. It is very hard to dry it enough to sack or store. Damp wool is combustible and can also mildew.

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION Hold the sheep in a pen in the afternoon prior to shearing, so that they are not full of feed when sheared. Remove dung tags and do not tie them with the fleece. Shearing should be done on a clean tarpauline, shaken out after each sheep. Shear fleece in one piece, but do not trim legs or hooves onto the fleece. Avoid making second-cuts i.e. going twice over the same place. This practice reduces the fibre length and such wool gets very low price. Roll fleece properly and tie with paper twine. If selling to hand spinners, pack unrolled fleece gently in a clean paper bag, one fleece to a bag, or lay it out into a large shallow box. You can shake out much of the dust, vegetable matter and second cuts before bagging to make the fleece more valuable. Skirting the fleece (removing a strip about 7 cm wide from the edges of the shorn fleece) is proper. Black sheep and those having coloured spots should be shorn last of all white animals. Solid black animals be shorn separate from those having spots of different colours on their body. Do not contaminate white fleece with dark snips or vice versa. Put the rolled fleece in nylon bags and not in jute bags and label the bags according to contents. If you have to wait for something for better market rates, store the fleeces in a dry room, a bit elevated from the floor.

Q. State very briefly that how would you roll the fleece? Generally acceptable method of rolling the wool is to spread out the fleece skin side down and fold side edges in toward the middle. Then fold neck edge in toward the center. Last, start rolling from tail-end of fleece and make a compact roll. Using paper twine, tie around one direction, cross the twine and tie around the other direction and knot securely. Put the rolled fleece in a nylon bag and label it accordingly. Q. How would you test for a sound staple? Weak staple can be caused by illness, poor feeding during later part of pregnancy, feeds deficient in protein, vitamins and minerals and is called as tender wool. To test for soundness, stretch a small tuft of wool between both hands. Strum it with the index finger of one hand. A sound staple will give a faint, dull, twanging sound and will not tear or break. Q. Write a short note on sheep coats. Sheep coats are also called sheep blankets, covers or sometimes as rugs. No doubt sheep coats are not in vogue in Pakistan but countries such as Australia, New Zealand and partly in USA, where sheep industry is well advanced, these have been found instrumental in keeping the fleece clean, 13 to 27% longer staple length of wool, and increased body weight even under harsh range conditions. The use of coats also makes shearing much easier, partly because the fleece is cleaner. In areas of severe winter, the sheep can conserve energy. Cost seems the main factor in making sheep coats less than practical. Cotton coats were not durable around barbed wire or bush pasture. Sturdy nylon-based coats were more durable, but had the disadvantage of making the sheep sweat during warm weather. Woven polyethylene sheep coats were found most 143

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practicable during large-scale tests in Australia. Being woven, they allowed the wool to breathe, so hot weather was no problem. Because they partially protect wool from rain, the coats minimize fleece rot and skin disease. Coats are put on sheep right after shearing. When using these coats for young growing sheep of a long-wooled breed, check the fit after six or eight months to be sure that the coat is not becoming tight. Elastic rather than fabric loops are better for this reason, although elastic does have a shorter use-life and will need replacing annually. Q. What production and handling practices can result in marketing a higher quality wool? Protect on-the-back fleeces from straw, trash and burs. Remove tags from time to time, but none should be present at shearing time. Avoid using any branding fluid if possible. Consider using coloured plastic ear tags. Use proven scourable products according to the directions on the label. Never use cotton, jute, sisal string or wire. Use paper twine. To pack wool properly, use new wool bags, preferably paper lined. Avoid used grain and feed bags. Pack the different kinds of woolewe, ram, yearling, burry/seedy, black and floor sweepings separately and mark each bag so as to identify its contents. Never use paint to mark bags. Keep bags off the ground and store under shelter. When transporting wool, clean trucks be employed. Keep bags dry. Q. Write a brief note on recent shearing innovations. High shearing costs and the scarcity of proper sheep shearers have spurred interest in finding an easier and less costly way of removing the fleece from sheep. Three experimental approaches, appear promising: 1) chemical shearing, 2) laser beam shearing and 3) computerized shears. Chemical Shearing: This approach still needs to be declared as a safe shearing technique. It involves the use of the chemical cyclophosphamide (CPA). When the CPA pill is given to sheep orally (with a balling gun), it temporarily stops cell growth, constricts the fibre at the skinline and causes it to break. From 7 to 12 days after administering the drug, sheep may be sheared with the bare hands. They can be stripped naked without nicks, second cuts or shearing skill. So far no harmful side effects have been reported from the use of CPA, including its use on pregnant ewes. However, some problems may not allow its wide scale use. i) The necessity of handling sheep twice, when administering the pill and when defleecing 7 to 12 days later, especially with large flocks. ii) The susceptibility of bald sheep to sunburn or cold. iii) The loss of wool by the animals rubbing on posts and brush. iv) The variability of different body areas in response to the chemical; the wool on the back, shoulders and sides is removed rather easily, whereas that around the face and legs comes off with difficulty. v) Variations between animals in the time interval required from dosing to defleecing. Laser Beam Shearing: A group of Australians headed by a former sheep shearer developed this technique. The laser actually severs the wool by burning. They are working on it so that it will selectively cut only wool. It is being so designed so that it will automatically switch off when the beam strikes tissues or any other material differing in density from wool. Computerized Shears: This is a mechanical hand, guided by a computer. The computer first creates a contour drawing-a computer map of the sheeps body. An experimental version at an Australian University shears a sheep in 3 minutes. Q. Give a list of requisites of wool and describe very briefly each of these.

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Good wool possesses character, purity and strength of fibre, good condition, cleanliness, low shrinkage, no excessive grease, uniformity and a bright white colour. These requisites apply to all wools regardless of class or grade. Character: Character in wool is an inherent characteristic. It is judged largely by the crimp, which is the waviness in wool. Fine wool of good character may have 10 to 12 crimps per centimeter, while a similar wool, lacking in character, would have only about 6 or less crimps per centimeter. Coarse wool may have only two or less crimps per centimeter, whereas poor wool would be practically straight. Colour, feel and general make up of fleece also enter into character of wool. Purity: A fleece is pure if it is only true white fibres. Some sheep breeds produce black or grey fibres. Wool of this type cannot be used for white fabrics. It must be dyed a dark colour. Kemp is another type of fibre that affects the purity. It is malformed, chalky white and very brittle. It is very wasteful in manufacturing and shows up as a defect in the fabric because it does not take dyestuff. Some wools are off-colour in that they have yellowish cast. They do not scour out white. Strength of Fibre: Strength of wool varies greatly from fine wool to coarse. Good wool has approximately the same strength throughout its length. Defective wool has one or more weak places along its length. If the weak spot is pronounced, the fibre will not stand the strain of manufacturing on the worsted system, but can be used only to make woolens. Some of the common causes of weak or tender wool are: illness of sheep, radical changes in feed and nutritional. Condition: When used in connection with grease wool, it refers to the amount of grease, sand, dirt and other solubles present in the wool. A wool that has high shrinkage is said to be heavily conditioned. Hence, the amount or percentage of condition is an important factor when determining the grease wool value. Grease wool requiring a minimum of effort to remove impurities brings the highest price. Farmers and ranchers can do much to lessen the amount of straw, chaff, grain and other vegetable matter found in wool. Shrinkage: It is the weight of impurities lost in the wool scouring. The result is usually expressed as a percentage of the grease weight. An example of fleece shrinkage is as follows: 4.5 kg grease wool before scouring 2.4 kg clean wool after scouring 2.1 kg loss in wool scouring. It is = 47% shrinkage and represents 53% yield of clean wool. A wool buyer must possess the ability to examine grease wool and to estimate its shrinkage. Shrinkage consists of: i) the natural impuritiesyolk and suint, ii) acquired impurities such as tags, sand, dirt, vegetable matter etc., and iii) added impurities such as paints. Oil or Grease in the Fleece: Wool is bathed with a greasy substance during the growth of the fibre. This natural grease protects the fibres during growth and prevents adjacent fibres from becoming cotted or felted on the sheeps body. Wool grease in its natural form is called degras, which is really a wax. It is refined and marketed under the name of lanolin. Wool grease is not soluble in cold or warm water. It is generally removed from wool by emulsifying it with soap, water and alkali. It is soluble in naphtha. Too much

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wool grease, as in case of some heavy-conditioned ram fleeces, is not desirable because of the high shrinkage. Wool also possesses suint. The grease, suint and other impurities are commonly referred to as the yolk. Evenness of Fibre and Uniformity: It is desirable to have wool as even and regular as possible. Wool of many kinds is found on one sheep. The finest wool is found on the head and shoulders and the coarsest on the britch. An even fleece is easier and quicker to sort than an uneven fleece. Uniformity is the result of good breeding and good management. Colour: Colour is an important consideration in evaluating wool for manufacturing purposes. The whiter the wool, the greater its value. Very little, if any, farm wool is true white. It usually has a yellowish tinge. The presence of pronounced yellow wool (called canary-stained) is objectionable because the colour does not come out in the scouring. Hence, such wool cannot be used for white yarn. Except for a trained person it is difficult to spot a fleece containing only a few black fibres mixed among the white fibres. Such fleeces are discounted and sell at the same price as black wool. It is advisable for owners to examine their sheep carefully for patches of blacks, grey or brown wool and to consider it when they are culling their flocks. Urine or manure-stained wool is another type of off-coloured wool. Wool with this defect should be separated out by the sorter. Q. Discuss the types and uses of wool. Four major types of wool are recognized in the industry here and abroad. i) Fine Wool: Fine wool from the Merino and other fine-woolled breeds is the most expensive of all types and is produced largely in New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, USA etc. These wools usually have a fineness of 25m or less, while the average length is about 100 mm. These wools are soft and have superior spinning qualities. These are used in fine worsted and woolen cloth such as suitings, flannels. ii) Medium and Crossbred Wools: Wools from crossbreds such as Corriedale developed from crosses between long wool and fine wool breeds have diameters ranging from 22 to 30m and staple lengths upto 150 mm. The fibres have a high crimp content giving the wool characteristics such as spongy, springy or crisp to handle. These wools are used for suits, coats and tweeds of medium quality. Also used in hosiery and knitted goods of medium quality. Their high crimp content provides bulk and greater resistance to felting. iii) Long Wools: Wools obtained from some sheep breeds are extra long, usually above 150 mm with a fibre diameter of 35 to 40m. These wools are usually characterized by their luster. Foreign breeds such as Lincoln and Leicester are considered as long wool breeds. Long wools are generally employed for the production of plain cloths, tweeds, surges, overcoats, blankets and felts. iv) Coarse or Carpet Wools: Coarse wools from Pakistan, China, India and most parts of Asia and Africa are known as carpet wools. These wools are in fact a mixture of longer heavy fibres (the outer-coat) and fine true wool (the under-coat). The average fineness is from 30 to 45m, while the average length varies from 50 to 200 mm and depends whether shearing is done once or twice a year. Three different types of fibres have been recognized in carpet wools. True wool fibres comprise the under-coat and are the finest having no medulla. Heterotypical fibres are medullated in varying degrees, some are fully medullated and form the outer-coat of the fleece, while others with partial medullation are intermediate between true and medullated fibres. Kemps are fibres shed

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by the follicles and lie loose in the fleece as they are short, brittle, opaque and can be easily distinguished, especially under a microscope. Most breeds in Pakistan are of the carpet wool type. The proportions of the different fibre types in these breeds are given in Table 22.

Table 22. Breed

Types of fibre in Pakistan breeds of sheep (%) Heterotypic fibre 23.7 16.4 40.0 30.2 35.4 22.8 17.5 20.4 21.4 22.0 28.3 22.2 18.4 27.6 15.0 20.0 31.8 17.5 20.3 Medullated fibre 6.3 12.8 6.4 17.9 11.3 19.8 5.2 10.6 4.5 1.5 17.5 13.5 9.6 15.2 7.1 8.4 10.8 6.1 6.8 Kemp fibre 1.1 11.4 2.0 3.6 4.0 0.8 0.6 5.7 1.1 0.6 9.0 4.2 0.6 3.7 7.2 0.8 5.2 5.2 2.8

True wool fibre Balochi 68.9 Bibrik 59.4 Buchi 51.6 Cholistani 48.3 Damani 49.3 Dumbi 56.6 Harnai 76.7 Hashtnagri 63.3 Kaghani 73.0 Kail 75.9 Kajli 45.2 Kooka 60.0 Latti 71.4 Lohi 53.5 Michni 70.7 Rakhshani 70.8 Thalli 52.2 Tirahi 71.0 Waziri 70.1 Source: Naqvi (1982).

As the name indicates, these wools find use in carpets and other types of floor covering. The properties that make them desirable for carpet production include resilience, resistance to abrasion and soiling, bulk and resistance to matting and crushing. Pakistan produces ideal types of carpet wool and this has enabled the country to become one of the major producers and exporters of hand-knotted carpets. Q. Write a detailed note on shearing of sheep. Seasons of Shearing: In Pakistan, sheep are generally shorn in spring (March) and autumn (September). Shearing is earliest in Sindh, then in Punjab and later in Balochistan, NWFP and adjacent areas. About 45% of the clip is produced in spring and 55% in autumn as a result of the good grazing available during the preceding monsoon

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months. The spring wools are white and the autumn wools yellow, which is attributed to the combined effects of moisture and sun on the fleece during the rainy summer months. In major wool producing countries such as Australia, sheep are shorn only once a year to ensure a long staple for apparel wools and for economy of labour. In Pakistan, where the bulk of production comprises carpet wools, fibres of sufficient length for making carpets (50 to 75 mm) grow in about six months and labour costs are comparatively low. Washing of Sheep: The number of flock-owners who wash their sheep before shearing is very small and usually confined to organized farms or localities where water supply is plentiful. However, washing of sheep before shearing is desirable since fleeces from washed sheep sell at a premium price. Sheep when washed should be allowed to dry well before shearing. If washing is not possible, sheep should be kept off fresh pastures for at least one to two days before shearing and fed in paddocks/barns where available. Unwashed wools with coloured tufts fetch low prices owing to low yields and difficulties in decolourizing and dyeing for particular end uses. As far as possible, colour marking for identification and decoration should be avoided and methods like earmarking should be adapted. When unavoidable, scourable dyes should be used and the fleeces washed or marketed in separate lots. Methods of Shearing: Shearing may be done either with hand-held shears or shearing machines. Mostly hand-held shears are used which have 20 to 30 cm long blades that often have pointed tips, which may cause injuries to the skin of sheep. The use of shearing machines is gradually becoming popular. Shearing is generally entrusted to professional shearers, but may be done by flock owners themselves. One shearer may shear 40 to 50 sheep daily. On average about 30 to 40g of wool remains on the body of a sheep after hand shearing. This results in an annual loss of approximately one million kg of wool. However, while shearing should be uniform and close to skin, some cover is necessary to protect the sheep from sunburn or chilling. The ultimate character, utility and price of wool depend on the skill with which it is shorn, sorted and cleaned before sale. Wools need to be sorted into like groups from the beginning. Grading wool has regularized the export trade but the overall objective of improvements in wool marketing can be achieved only when modern sheep-shearing centers are established in wool producing areas to obtain properly classed wool, of uniform quality, in easily marketable lots. Some of these shearing centers could be developed into organized wool markets and used for extension services. Q. Write a note on pulled wool. Pulled wool is obtained from the skins of slaughtered or dead animals by hide and skin merchants in their curing yards as well as during the process of leather production in tanneries. In the former case, wool is removed after salting or soaking skins in brine to loosen the wool fibres from their follicles by scraping with wooden blades. In the latter case, wool is removed from skins after coating lime paste on the flesh side and piling them up overnight folded to ensure heat production and salt action to loosen the fibres. Limed wool is also obtained from skins immersed in lime water for 1 to 2 weeks, after which skins are placed over a slanting beam with wool side up and the fibres removed by scraping with a blunt knife. Removing fibres with chemicals like sodium sulphide is not popular, mainly because cheap manual labour is available. All types of pulled wools are washed thoroughly with water and then dried for sale. Pulled wool fetches low price because of their poor quality resulting from short fibres, fibre damage and the presence of

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traces of chemicals. This affects the spinning and dyeing of wools and restricts their ultimate uses. Q. Discuss in detail the sorting and bulking of wool. In Pakistan, fleeces are generally not sorted into different quality categories at shearing, nor they are grouped into body wool, skirtings and coloured wools except by some flock owners. After shearing fleeces are bulked together and sold to itinerant traders or stored. The present system for the collection and disposal of fleeces has several flaws: haphazard mixing of all types of fleece makes sorting and classification of wools according to the end-users needs difficult and expensive; haulage of wool in bags or in loose condition is cumbersome, time consuming and expensive; at each stage the wool becomes more contaminated with dirt; variation in size of gunny bags for transporting wool act as a trade barrier; and wool trading is unorganized which ultimately leads to poor returns for producers and high prices for consumers. Thus there is need to introduce a system of preliminary sorting of fleeces into body wool, skirtings and coloured wools at shearing and where possible, transport as hand-pressed bales. Q. Explain the process of final sorting and cleaning. Wools assembled by merchants are heaped into different lots, often according to their burr content, colour and sometimes fineness. Visible extraneous matter such as stones, straw, leaves and droppings is removed by hand, while excessive burrs are clipped away with a pair of scissors or beaten out on cemented platforms or stone slabs with bamboo sticks or pairs of flat iron tongs. After picking and sorting, wools are washed in cement tanks or scrubbed with water on concrete floors and the washed wool is squeezed and dried on mats or cement floors under the sun. To remove traces of extraneous matter and obtain homogenous blends, the dried lots are either caned with long, thin bamboo sticks or passed through willowing machines. To prepare specific types or blends, merchants mix more than one lot type of wool before caning and willowing operations. In the final stage, beaten or willowed wools are passed over large sieves with 125 mm mesh to remove extraneous matter and undesirable tufts and the clean wool is then sold to local buyers after packing in gunny bags or hydraulically-pressed bales. The usual weight of a bag is 100 to 120 kg and of a pressed bale 145 to 190 kg. If a consignment of wool is intended for export, it is cleaned, graded and packed under the supervision of Wool Grading Inspector of the Federal Department of Agricultural and Livestock Marketing and Grading. All export wool mist be graded under Pakmark. A certificate of quality is then issued by the Government Wool Test House at Karachi. Q. Write a note on wool production in Pakistan. The estimated production of wool in Pakistan during 2002 is 39.5 thousand tons of greasy or 23.5 thousand tons of clean wool, valued at Rs. 715 million, based on an average yield of 1.8 kg greasy wool per adult sheep and 1.1 kg per lamb (28% of the sheep population) and clean fibre content of greasy wool of 60%. Of the total, 5% is lost during shearing, handling and transportation. While most estimates of wool production are based on the number of sheep and their annual yield, some are based on wool marketed or consumed. Variations in different estimates of production reflect a paucity of reliable statistics.According to the 1996 census (Livestock Census Organization, GOP, 1996), the proportions of sheep in different provinces are Punjab 26.1%, Sindh 15.7%, NWFP 11.9% and Balochistan 46.1%. Average annual production of wool per sheep, 1.1 to 1.8

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kg, is low compared to 4.5 to 13.6 kg in countries such as Australia, Newzealand, and USA. Thus there is considerable scope for improvement. Furthermore, the amount of wool produced by individual shepherds is low, mainly because of the small size of their flocks (Table 23), which causes difficulties in the collection of fleeces. Table 23. Size of sheep flocks in Pakistan Size of flock Average No. of sheep Percentage of total (number of sheep) per household sheep population 1-5 2.4 11.7 6-15 9.3 16.4 16-30 22.1 18.5 31-50 39.3 15.1 51-75 60.9 9.9 76-100 87.2 6.0 101-150 121.7 6.8 151-200 173.7 5.0 Above 200 314.4 10.6 Source: Mackintosh (1993). Pakistan wools are ideally suited to the production of carpets and rugs and are marketed as such in Pakistan as well as overseas, even though one-third of the supply comprises relatively fine wools suitable for the production of medium quality apparel. This is due to the practice of collecting and marketing wools in different trade varieties with a territorial nomenclature and no uniformity of fibre characteristics in any one of them. However, Pakmark grades are now replacing the trade varieties for export. About 80% of the local production is shorn wool and the remainder pulled wools. Table 24 shows the annual production of greasy wool in Pakistan. White, yellow and coloured wools account for about 39, 48 and 13% of the total clip. Compared with the number of sheep in 1976, nearly 20% increase took place on overall basis as found from 1996 census of livestock. However, province wise breakdown showed that there was about 20% decrease in sheep numbers in Punjab, about 45% increase in Sindh, 22% decrease in NWFP, while almost 50% increase was noticed in sheep numbers in Balochistan. Since 1996 till 2002, no noticeable change seems to have taken place in sheep numbers in Pakistan. Table 24. The annual production of greasy wool in Pakistan Year Quantity (000 tons) 1996 38.1 1997 38.3 1998 38.5 1999 38.7 2000 38.9 2001 39.2 Source: Livestock Division, GOP (2001). Q. Discuss imports and exports of wool with reference to Pakistan. Imports of wool during 2000 totaled 4.4 thousand tons, valued at Rs. 465 million and comprised fine and crossbred wools from Australia, New Zealand and Europe. Imported wools are used mainly to manufacture worsted or woolen apparel, shawls and knit-wear and to a small extent for the production of fine carpets such as Wilton, with or without 150

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blending with local wools. About one thousand tons of wool valued at nearly Rs. 60 million is also imported annually in a semi-processed state as tops and yarns for the same purpose. Exports of raw wool during 2000 totaled two thousand tons valued at Rs. 109.8 million. These carpet wools were sent to countries such as UK, Iran and Australia for manufacturing carpets and other woolen goods often after blending with wool or synthetic fibres. Figures for the annual imports and exports of wool are given in Table 25 and show that the import of fine wool markedly increased in 2000 compared to the last three years, mainly due to an increase in demand for locally-made fine fabrics. Exports are gradually declining because homegrown wools are being increasingly used for the production of hand-knotted and machine-made carpets and rugs, but occasionally may rise abruptly owing to increased international demand. Table 25. Annual imports and exports of wool into/from Pakistan Year Imports (000 tons) Exports (000 tons) 1996 3.8 9.1 1997 2.6 10.8 1998 2.6 5.2 1999 2.5 2.7 2000 4.4 2.0 Q. Look at the table given below and enlist the factors used to determine the net available supply of wool in Pakistan. Table 26. Net available supply of wool in Pakistan (2000) Quantity (000 tons) Item Coarse Fine wool** Total wool* Greasy Clean Production 26.0 12.9 38.9 23.3 Imports 4.4 4.4 4.2 Exports 2.0 2.0 1.7 (consigned as carpet wool) Net available supply a) 24.0 17.3 41.3 25.80 b) 1.0 1.0 0.98 (imported as tops and yarns) Total (a+b) 24.0 18.3 42.3 26.78 + Determined according to Mackintosh (1993). * Below 48s or above 34 m in diameter. ** Lamb wool plus 15% of comparatively fine wool from adult sheep. Q. Discuss the status of present consumption of wool in Pakistan. The paucity of reliable statistics is a serious problem in dealing with present consumption trends. For example, data on the national consumption of wool in cottage industries are not available. Manufacturing industries do not always report their production or consumption and records of the quality of wool and its products do not exist for the import-export trade. An estimated figure indicates that Pakistan annually consumes 26.78 thousand tons of clean wool, 47.7% as hand-knotted carpets, 28.5% as machine-made blankets and 11.9% as shawls. Machine-made carpets and woolen cloth use small quantities of wool (10.7%) and knitwear even less (1.2%). 151

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Hand-knotted carpets are made all over the country, in a variety of colours, patterns with floral, geometrical or pictorial designs such as Bokhara, Kashan and Kandhar. Woollen carpets rank high among the countrys list of exportable products earning Rs. 16 billion in 2001. These exports could be further boosted if more attention was paid to producing superior quality products and export-oriented designs with good appearance and finish, but to attain these objective facilities such as training programmes and export incentives would have to be provided. The machine-made carpet industry is mostly concentrated in and around Karachi, Lahore and Quaidabad with the bulk of production consisting of Axminster and Wilton carpets, though a small quantity of other types like tufted and bonded carpets is also being manufactured. The annual export of machine-made carpets is worth Rs. 120 million. Both hand-knotted and machine-made carpets are manufactured from local wool and only a small quantity of imported fine wool is used for blending to produce the special types of carpets with fine yarn and a certain amount of shine demanded by some buyers. Q. Name the major industries/products that use a large part of the wool produced in Pakistan or imported from abroad. Hand-knotted carpets, machine-made carpets, machine-made fabrics, machine-made knitwear, machine-made blankets and shawls and cottage industry articles such as blankets, lois, upholstery, twines, decorative domestic goods, yarn and felted wool for namdas (namnahs) are the main items manufactured from wool. Fine quality apparels are manufactured from fine imported wools and medium quality fabrics from blends of imported and local wools. The common varieties of machine-made cloth are serge, flannel, coating and tweed, made in woolen mills. Local cloth like patti, a kind of tweed, is made in cottage industries using local wools or after blending with camel hair, in areas of Swat, Bannu, Hazara and Loralai. Mills generally demand wools 64s to 72s for fine quality, 48s to 58s for medium quality and 40s to 48s for coarse products, but some of the relatively fine wools from north-western part of the country are suitable for use in medium quality apparel. Knitwear and hosiery yarns are manufactured from tops of 48s to 64s quality wool and are used for the manufacture of hosiery goods such as pullovers, socks and gloves as well as knitting wool. Blankets are made mostly from local wools and to a lesser extent after blending with fine and crossbred imported wools. Those made by cottage industries are usually coarse and unfinished but those from mills are of medium or fine quality and are popular with the wealthy people and institutions such as hospitals and defence forces. Cottage industries making blankets exist in all sheep raising areas, while mills are located in towns and cities such as Bannu, Harnai, Lahore and Karachi. Like blankets, light blankets, lois and shawls are manufactured by cottage industries as well as mills from local wools or blends of local wools with imported wools or synthetic fibres. Though a wide range of wools is utilized for making blankets, those of 40s to 58s are popular, although for superior quality blankets, lois, and shawls, still finer counts are preferred. Woolen articles prepared by cottage industries include carpets, tweeds, blankets, lois, shawls, namnah (felted wool mats) and a variety of domestic goods such as druggets, upholstery, hand bags, produce bags and shoes. For some articles wool is blended with goat hair, camel hair and other fibres, thus wools of all types and qualities are used. The consumption of wool in both cottage industries and mills is reasonably steady but it is brisk during the pre-winter and winter months. The consumption of wool and woolen

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goods during the last decade has risen by 10 to 15% per annum but wool production is not commensurate with demand, thus the gap between the supply and demand of textile including carpets, has been filled with other natural or synthetic fiber such as cotton, acrylic or polypropylene. Q. What factors are responsible for enhanced consumption in relation to supply of wool in Pakistan? Pakistans wool requirements will remain above the annual wool clip and imports of fine wools to the extent of 15 to 20% will continue in the near future due to slow growth rate of wool production and increased rate of consumption. Factors possibly responsible for this are: increasing human population, increased per capita income, international popularity of Pakistans carpets particularly hand-made ones, improved sheep husbandry operation to increase wool, meat, skins and a greater awareness of the need to develop home grown wool industries rather than encouraging the use of inferior quality and hazard-prone synthetic fibres for the present import of fine quality wools is inevitable because Pakistan does not produce fine wools like Merino, whereas relatively fine wools produced in hilly areas such as Harnai and Pahari and those from lambs are not sorted and marketed as such . Also, sheep producing wools have not yet been improved to yield fibres with desirable characteristics such as uniformity of diameter, freedom from kemp and reduction in medullary contents. It is advisable to concentrate on developing some industries such as carpets, rugs, shawls and decorative articles primarily for export purposes. Q. What characteristics of wool fibres help determine their suitability for manufacturing of various products? There are a number of characteristics of wool fibres which help determine their suitability for manufacturing purposes and their behaviour during scoring, spinning, weaving and other processes. For good quality woven or knitted fabrics, fibre diameter, vegetable matter, length, strength and colour are most important with additional contributions from resistance to compression or bulk and fibre diameter distribution. For coarse wool, especially those used in carpets are modern design, fibre diameter, medullation, length, bulk and colour are most important. Q. Write a note on luster in wool. The scales of the wool fibre reflect light and produce luster or sheen in its appearance. Three types of luster are distinguished: silver luster such as in fine and crimpy Merino wools; silk luster in long stapled and longwooled English breeds; glass luster in straight, smooth and coarse hair like mohair. Lustrous wools are valued because of their ability to dye bright and give a good finish to the final product. These are generally obtained from sheep reared under good conditions of nutrition and management. Pakistan wools have a dull luster, indicating a need for better management practices. Q. Write a note on staple length. Staple refers to the length of the fibre, but in a more restricted sense it is used for a lock of wool in the fleece. Staple length is the length of a staple from tip to base. It varies considerably according to the breed and environment. The usual staple length of Pakistan wools is 50 to 75 mm, though it varies from 25 mm for the Bibrik and Thali breeds to 175 mm for the Khorasan and Kaghani breeds, while fibres on the head and legs are only 12 to 75 mm long. Wools of 50 to 75 mm length are considered of good quality for use without combing in the woolen system, while those with longer staple are preferred for

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use after combing in the worsted system. For carpet wool a staple length of about 100 mm is preferred. Staple length of Pakistan breeds of sheep along with certain other fibre characteristics are given in Table 27. Table 27. Breeds Fibre characteristics of Pakistan breeds of sheep Staple length Fibre diameter Spinning count (mm) (m) Balkhi 83 45.1 <36s Balochi 73 30.7 50s Bibrik 52 43.5 <36s Buchi 59 36.3 44s Cholistani 70 46.6 36s Damani 50 43.3 36s Dumbi 60 38.5 40s Harnai 70 31.5 50s Hashtnagri 64 35.0 44s Kaghani 42 32.5 50s Kail 50 33.7 46s Kajli 52 37.1 40s Kooka 50 41.1 <36s Latti 84 35.3 44s Lohi 52 40.2 36s Michni 54 30.7 50s Rakhshani 48 30.9 50s Thalli 53 37.7 40s Tirahi 61 34.5 44s Waziri 65 35.0 44s Source: Mackintosh (1993). Q. Write short notes on kemp and med fibre in wool. Kemp: Kemp is the coarsest fibre grown by sheep. Kemp consists of chalky-white fibres with a hairy and brittle structure, shed from the skin follicles and found mixed with the wool fibres. They are short with tapering ends and large diameters (110 to 140m), resist impregnation with dyes and have very poor spinning and weaving capabilities. Some of the breeds such as Harnai and Bahawalpuri are almost free of kemp, while most others show kemp content of 1 to 2% and a few such as Bibrik and Sindhi contain 3 to 4%. These fibres can be reduced by planned breeding and improved management practices. Kemp is undesirable as a fibre grown by fine and medium wool sheep and should be genetically selected against, unless it is an important characteristic of the sheep being bred. Medullated Fibre: Med fibre (hair or heterotype ) are medullated and tend to be finer than kemp fibres. They tend to be longer than true wool fibres and generally lack crimp. While medullated fibres are undesirable in apparel wools because dyeing produces a leathery effect and spinning is retarded, but they are an asset in carpet wools especially when they are of the heterotypical type i.e. the fibre is partially medullated which aids in the production of a strong and springy product. There is a need to find the optimum

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content of heterotypical fibres and amount of medullation for the production of ideal types of carpets. Q. Write a note on bulk and resilience of wool. For carpet wools in particular, good bulking characteristics are essential. Such wools must resist the compressive forces applied during wear and also recover their bulk when the compressive forces are removed (resilience). Bulk and resistance to compression vary greatly depending on the level of crimp in the fibres. Straight fibres give low values; while curly ones may have bulk or resilience values two to three times greater. Resilience does not vary greatly and all wools have good recovery property. The term springiness relates to resistance to compression rather than resilience. Similarly, the elastic properties of wool fibres are very constant and variations in this respect are mostly due to thin or tender regions in the fibres and not associated with fine structure of the wool protein. Pakistani wools show good bulk properties and some are very springy, for example the Punjab superior, Bahawalpuri and Harnai varieties. Bulk and resistance to compression may also be of importance in fine fabrics where they influence such factors as thickness, mechanical and comfort properties Q. Write a short note on felting ability of Pakistani wools. The felting ability of wool fibres emanates from the specific structure of their scales. As the scales overlap each other and have all projected ends on one side, the free fibres always move in the direction of their roots and such movements cause a close interlocking of fibres. All wools possess this property although the rate of felting varies greatly. Wools of high crimp content do not felt rapidly whereas straight fibres do. Fleeces composed of very straight fibres often felt, or become cotted, on the sheeps back. No other fibre characteristics have much influence, although length has a significant effect on the felting of yarns of higher twist. Crimpy wools resist felting but are difficult to process, producing more waste in carding, more noil in combing, and, in addition, they have to be spun at lower speeds. However, they produce finished cloth of better quality in terms of comfort and performance. The distribution of coloured fibres in Pakistan sheep breeds Colour of wool (percent of fibres) Breeds White Grey Black Balkhi 22.0 78.0 Balochi 90.0 8.0 2.0 Bibrik 100.0 Buchi 99.4 0.2 0.4 Cholistani 95.1 1.8 3.1 Damani 97.2 2.8 Dumbi 99.6 0.4 Harnai 94.3 5.7 Hashtnagri 87.1 12.9 Kaghani 9.6 70.6 19.8 Kail 88.2 3.3 8.5 Kajli 100.0 Kooka 94.4 5.6 Latti 99.5 0.5

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION 0.4 0.2 6.8 0.4 0.6

Q. Discuss the processes involved in market preparation of wool. The preparation of wool for market begins at the time it is removed from the sheep and ends at the time of its sale. The preparation covers bulking, sorting, cleaning, washing and grading of wool in commercial lots. The preparation starts when the fleeces reach secondary and tertiary markets in towns and cities where wholesale merchants and commission agents assemble wool for preparation and distribution to the ultimate buyers or consumers. The most favoured practice is to export after scouring as this ensures yields of 90 to 100% and saves the unnecessary payment on dirt and grease. Market preparation also includes the preparation of small samples of wool for publicity as well as labeling lots and their samples meant for buyers. Exportable bales are always marked with stencils, indicating the origin of the produce, the name of the exporting company and the grade of the wool in the bale. Bales for local sale may or may not be labeled. Grading: Except for classification into customary trade varieties, grading of wool for local sales is not undertaken but all wools meant for export are graded according to Pakmark specifications. No consignment of wool can be exported unless it has been cleaned and graded, and is accompanied by a certificate of quality. Under this system, wool merchants having wool baling facilities register themselves with the Wool Grading Scheme of the Central government and become entitled to receive official guidance and assistance. There are Wool Grading Centres in Lahore, Multan, Bahawalpur and Karachi. The local wool grading inspector visits the premises of the authorized wool merchants and supervises the cleaning, sorting, grading and pressing of wool. These consignments are then sent to Karachi, while a report on the wool is sent to the Wool Test House, Karachi. Here core-bored samples are taken and tested to determine the Pakmark grades which are then marked on the individual bales, and each consignment is issued a certificate of quality bearing the description of fibres. Since the introduction of the Wool Grading Scheme more than 50 years back, the preparation of wool for market has improved markedly. The clean fibre content of wool, which averaged 35% prior to the introduction of this scheme, has risen to an average of 85% and vegetable matter has fallen to an average of 2%. Pakmark grading has regulated the export trade of wool. Karachi Wool Test House has provided a laboratory testing service for the benefit of merchants and mills, who assess the quality, utility and price of their wools on the basis of laboratory results and it initiated research on wool fibre characteristics in Pakistan for the first time. Q. Give a brief description of factors affecting wool prices. i) The most important factor determining the price of wool is its yield. The clean content of wool in primary, secondary and tertiary markets is 50 to 60%, 60 to 70% and 75 to 85% or higher for scoured wool and prices received are in the same proportion. The prevailing market rates for wool in local sales are normally quoted for a yield of 80% and

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in foreign sales for a yield of 100%. Yield is assessed visually and manually except in export and some local sales in which it is determined in the laboratory. Occasionally, merchants wash wool with soap and dry it to estimate its approximate yield. ii) Since wool is hygroscopic it absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and gains weight depending on factors such as atmospheric humidity and temperature, exposed surface area of the lot and wind type. This is reported as percentage moisture content or as regain expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the dried sample. Under ordinary conditions Pakistan wools contain 10 to 15% moisture. Price discounts for moist (more than 10 to 15% moisture) lots are 16 to 25% or more. The Wool Test House at Karachi has fixed Pakistans standard regain at 13.64%. iii) Vegetable matter reduces the yield of clean wool but the price discount is much higher than suggested by the decrease in yield. It is because the vegetable matter remains in the scoured wool and has to be removed during carding and combing and small thin broken up portions may even survive processing and produce a fault in the final fabric. Export of wools containing more than 5% vegetable matter is disallowed. iv) The presence of grease in wool lowers its yield and the price falls proportionately. Pakistan wools contains 1 to 2% grease with a minimum of 0.1% in Sindhi and maximum of 11% in Kandhari varieties. v) The price of wool varies with its quality in terms of the fibre characteristics discussed earlier. For example, the prices of white, pale yellow, yellow and coloured wools are often in the ratio of 100, 85 and 55. For staple length, the prices fall by 5 to 10% below a length of 50 mm and by 20 to 25% or more below a length of 25 mm. Likewise, the price variation for fibre fineness in Pak Superior, Pak Medium and Pak Coarse grades is approximately 100, 95 and 92%. A premium of up to about 5% is paid for soft and springy wools, but other characteristics are usually not considered in determining the price of local wools because precise information about them is still lacking. Q. Do you think locality, international factors and season affect wool prices? Discuss. Prices of wool are at the lowest level in villages, intermediate in small towns and highest in big cities owing to yield variations and costs of handling and transport at different places. The main international factors affecting prices are variation in banking rates and currency revaluations in importing countries and trade booms and recessions. International prices also fluctuate in accordance with the quality of raw and finished goods, for example a deterioration in the general quality of exportable wool would cause lower prices and vice versa. It, however, appears that the prices of wool do not fluctuate widely from month to month. A fall of 14% below the annual average during SeptemberOctober results from the increased supply of the autumn clip, while a rise of 16% during May-June is due to the end of spring clip sales. Q. What units of sale of wool and basis of quotation are in vogue in this country? In primary markets the unit of sale of wool is a maund of 40 kg and its denominations or a fleece, and the price is quoted per maund or per fleece. The weight of a maund in remote areas is often taken to be 41 to 42 kg although the prices of wool paid to the shepherds do not vary proportionately. In secondary markets the unit of sale is a maund of 40 kg. In tertiary markets the unit of sale and basis of price quotation for local sales is

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also a maund, but it is a kilogram for international sales. To ensure a healthy trade, standard weights should be popularized in all markets, especially in remote rural areas. Q. Write a note on market intelligence. Producers of wool and village merchants obtain market news on wool either from itinerant traders visiting rural areas or through personal visits to nearby markets, while town merchants, commission agents and exporters establish contacts with local and foreign dealers. Information on wool markets and prices is published periodically by a few newspapers and bulletins on monthly and annual prices are issued by the government and autonomous organizations such as the Dept. of Agricultural and Livestock Products and Grading, the Central Statistical Office, Radio and TV and banks. However, the prices are often compiled and issued long after the reporting period is over and are not of direct interest to the producers or the trade. Information on wool other than prices, for example the commencement of sheep-shearing operations, market arrivals, dispatches of wool, specific requirements of local mills and the state of international wool trade is not compiled and disseminated by any agency. The assurance of increased returns to shepherds by extension activities such as training of shepherds to assess the quality of their clips, enforcing the use of standard weights and measures in rural areas and instituting market intelligence services of help to the producers, traders and consumers of wool are still lacking. Q. Discuss the producers share under the present system of wool marketing. To derive the full benefits from the production and consumption of wool, it must exchange hands under a system of marketing that ensures adequate returns to all engaged in the trade. Presently it is not so and it can be attributed largely to the unorganized channels of assembling and distribution of wool with poor returns to producers and high prices for consumers. The worst affected is the shepherd / producer who being illiterate and ignorant of market conditions, suffers the most and his share of the price paid by the ultimate consumer is small. This is borne out by the average figures for the price of wool obtained through market investigations. Producers share of consumers price : 45% Preparation expenses : 12% Market charge : 8% Transport charge : 10% Intermediaries profit : 25% To enhance the producers share in the price of his wool he should be trained to assess the quality of his produce, to estimate its clean fibre content and to make use of market intelligence services on wool. The number of unnecessary intermediaries in the wool trade should be reduced and market charges and practices should be standardized under marketing legislation. Q. Name and discuss the agencies involved and the methods used in the assembly and distribution of wool in Pakistan. Such agencies include producers/shepherds, village merchants, village itinerant traders, wholesale merchants and exporters. The village merchants usually deal in a variety of agricultural and nonagriculture provisions including wool. The itinerant merchants, who may also act agents of the wholesale merchants, collect wool from the shepherds or village merchants in sheep raising areas and deal mostly in wool. The wholesale

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merchants and exporters, who may also work as commission agents, operate in towns and cities and deal exclusively in wool, although some of them may transact business in allied products such as goat hair, hides and skins. Merchants acting as commission agents sell one partys collections to another or buy wool themselves for sale to the mills and foreign buyers and many lots of wool change hands among several merchants before reaching the wholesalers specializing in export. Transactions in rural areas among the producers, village merchants and itinerant traders are usually negotiated directly without assistance of wool brokers. In secondary markets, the sellers and buyers conclude business directly when they are well known to each other and through the brokers when a mutual confidence in dealings does not exist. In tertiary markets most of the transactions among wholesalers and exporters are concluded through the agency of brokers who appraise the quality of wool in salable lots and negotiate price. The brokers are not licensed. Q. What are the different types of markets where wool marketing is carried out? The primary markets or sale centers for wool are located in villages and small towns. These may be permanent such as village merchants shops or temporary such as sheep shearing sites or Hatas and Melas which are periodical markets. The secondary markets, locally called Mandis, are situated in towns and cities. These comprise shops with or without wool godowns and cleaning yards and are held daily to transact business in raw as well as prepared wools. Being located in towns and cities such as Shikarpur, Bahawalnagar, Jhang, Peshawar and Loralai, they usually possess marketing facilities. These markets number a little over a dozen and this number is too small to cover the wool trade spread all over the country. Tertiary markets include terminal markets in big cities such as Karachi and Lahore where from wool is exported abroad and consist of a number of business offices, godowns and cleaning yards for wool. They possess all marketing facilities. The godowns and cleaning yards in most markets could be improved by moisture-and vermin-proof construction, cemented premises for cleaning and drying wool, sewerage disposal system and general sanitation. Q. What kind of market charges are levied on wool? i) Commission is paid by sellers or buyers or both to commission agents for the services they provide for the sale of wool assembled at their premises. ii) Brokerage is paid to the brokers arranging sales, by sellers or buyers or both according to the prevalent custom in a market. iii) In some markets a market fee is charged by the owners for the provision of marketing facilities, but in practice very little of these funds are spent for the purpose. iv) Octroi or terminal tax was used to be charged by local bodies when wool entered their jurisdiction for sale or consumption. Presently, however, octroi charges are no more there. v) Miscellaneous expenses such as weighing charges, deductions for extra wool allowed by sellers to commission agents in lieu of boarding and lodging facilities and other charges such as collections towards a charitable fund, contributions for constructing a public utility and correspondence charges are again paid by sellers or buyers according to market conventions. Variations in different charges are a serious hurdle to straight forward trading. Regulation of the wool trade through measures such as the introduction of standardized

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market charges and practices, provision of marketing facilities in important wool markets including the establishment of new markets in needy areas, and improvement in the methods of transport and storage of wool. vi) There is another set of expenses incurred on the export of wool. These include baling charges and a grading or testing fee paid on consignments intended for export. These expenses are incurred by the merchants who grade, bale and export them. The charges for pressing wool vary with the density of wool in bales and place and time of pressing, which at present range from Rs. 120 to Rs. 150 per bale. The grading or testing fee presently charged by the government Wool Test House at Karachi is Rs. 0.50 per kg of exportable wool, irrespective of the quality of wool in a consignment. These expenses are added to the value of wool before being offered for sale. Q. Write a comprehensive note on methods of sale of wool. In internal sales, wool is sold by private treaty. The lots of wool piled up by the merchants and commission agents on their premises are inspected by buyers or their representatives for quality and offers made verbally, on a chit, or under the cover of a scarf or another piece of cloth by clasping fingers. When a price is agreed to between the two parties, it is announced publicly and the lot sold after weighing. Sales on open bidding or auction are rare. In the case of wool in pressed bales, the same procedure is followed after breaking open a few bales for assessing the quality of wool. Negotiations under cover or on a chit keep the price a secret and cause uncertainty and suspicion. Therefore, it appears advisable to replace the secret bidding with open auction of wool. In external sales, wool is sold either on consignment or by contract. The first system is in vogue for sales to the UK where wool is sold to continental buyers at Liverpool and London auctions through brokers. In the second system, the exporters negotiate sales directly with foreign buyers. The quality of wool is decided beforehand by sending samples of wool or showing prepared wools to the buyers representatives visiting Pakistan and the price is determined on yield given on the Certificate of Quality. However, importers and exporters sometimes have additional tests made for yield abroad. The contract forms used for overseas transactions vary in terms and conditions from one importer to another. To remove this discrepancy, a standard contract form should be introduced. As sales on consignment place the exporters at the mercy of their brokers and overseas buyers, these need to be replaced with sales on contract. Q. Discuss the transportation of wool. Wool is transported by road, rail or sea. In rural areas small quantities of wool are hauled to the village and nearby town markets as head and sling loads, pack loads on horse, donkey and camel. Large quantities are carried by carts and trucks. Transport between secondary and tertiary markets is by road in trucks, by rail in goods wagons and by sea in passenger boats as well as cargo ships. Wool is transported within the country either loose in bags or in pressed bales, but for overseas markets compressed bales are preferred owing to their small dimensions and low freight cost. In general, wool moves by road and rail southwards to important wool markets such as Lahore, Multan and Karachi, for sale to local mills and foreign buyers. Transport charges are high for haulage by road, low for transport by sea and intermediate for rail. Many traders prefer haulage by road since they can arrange for the loading and unloading of

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wool under the supervision of their own men and send wool directly from their own godowns to those of the buyers. Q. What type of storage for wool is presently used in Pakistan? Give suggestions to improve it. When shepherds/producers wish to store wool for a few days, they do so in their own abodes which may be mud huts with thatched roofs built with bricks or stones and even tents, almost all with earthen floors. Village merchants and itinerant traders store wool in their houses on cement or earthen floors and wholesale merchants, commission agents and exporters have their own godowns, usually attached to their wool-cleaning yards with concrete roofs and floors. Most godowns do not provide protection against dampness, dust and vermin. Most producers sell their wool on the day of shearing and only a few store it for more than a week. Village merchants and itinerant traders also seldom store wool beyond a couple of weeks, while wholesalers and exporters store it for 2 to 6 weeks and occasionally 6 months or more. Prolonged storage is resorted to when factors such as bad weather, non-availability of transport and a falling market compel them to do so. Storage charges vary from one godown to another. There is certainly a need to encourage the construction of proper godowns with cement blocks and concrete roofs and floors. The Dept. of Livestock and Dairy Development in various provinces should train, encourage and provide incentives to wool producers in this respect. Q. Discuss various methods of financing the wool business. Wool producers generally finance their operations from their own resources but often the itinerant traders and wholesale merchants make advances to the shepherds, often up to 50 to 75% of the expected value of the clip and the accounts are settled at shearing. The producers generally receive lower returns for their wool in such cases, but sometimes they borrow money without interest from their relatives and friends, especially on occasions such as marriages. The itinerant traders and village merchants finance their own businesses and in some cases act as agents for wholesale merchants, while in others they may borrow from their relatives and friends on a profit-sharing system. Wholesale merchants either invest from their own resources or borrow from banks. In many cases merchants dispatch wool to Karachi and obtain loans from banks on receipts for their dispatch and the accounts are cleared after the buyers remit the sale proceeds. The exporters mostly conduct business with their own capital plus borrowings from banks, which fix the limits of loans according to the business standing of the exporters and their relations with banks. In the cases of contract sales, letters of credit generally covering 90 to 95% of the price of wool prove helpful but the overall borrowings from banks have to be within the borrowing limits conceded to individual exporters. Overall wool producers and merchants need to expand their credit facilities for the production and marketing of wool, including the introduction of producers/shepherds cooperatives, insurance cover for sheep and easing of bank-loan limits and terms. Institution of a Wool Marketing Board at the national level, to take care of wool at all stages between its production and consumption, seems a dire need. Q. What is meant by wool grading? Discuss in detail the various grading systems.

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Wool grading is based primarily on fibre diameter or fineness, but consideration is also given to length. Many manufacturers desire wool of certain fineness only. This means that the wool must be separated at the warehouse and like fleeces must be piled by themselves. This process is called wool grading. Grading does not infer that the wool in a pile is all of one diameter. Any single fleece of wool as it comes from the sheep may possess several different grades of wool. Thus, a 60 to 62s combing wool simply means that the greater part of the wool on the fleece is of that fineness and length. The manufacturer knowns that some wool in these fleeces, especially on the shoulder part, will be finer and some wool, as on the britch, will be considerably coarser. Because of this, a further separation, known as sorting, follows. Grades of Wool: A wool grader can roughly separate wool into three broad market grades according to diameter: 1) fine wool, 2) medium wool and 3) coarse or braid wool. More precisely, there are three methods of grading wool according to diameter, with several grades in each. The older method is the blood system; the newer methods are the numerical count system and the micron system. Blood System: This system divides all wool, from finest to coarsest, into six market grades. These are: I) fine, ii) blood, iii) 3/8 blood, iv) blood, v) low blood and vi) common and braid. Originally, these fractional blood names denoted the amount of Merino blood in the sheep producing wool. At the present time, these names indicate wool of a certain diameter only and have no connection with the amount of Merino blood in the sheep. Numerical Count System: This system divides all wool into 14 grades and each grade is designated by a number. The numbers range from 80s for the finest wool down to 36s for the coarsest. Theoretically, this system is based on the number of hanks of yarn (each hank representing 560 yards (512 m) that can be spun from 1 pound (0.45 kg) of such wool in the form of top. Wool of 50s quality, therefore, should spin 50 x 560 yards per pound of top. In actual practice, this is not always true and wools rarely spin to their maximum limit. Therefore, neither the blood system nor the numerical count system denotes accurately what it is supposed to indicate according to derivation of the respective terms. Micron System: This system is more technical and provides accurate measurement of the wool fibre. Sixteen grades are used and are based on the average fibre thickness as measured by a micrometer. An 80s wool, for example, averages about 18 microns, which is less than half a 36s wool that averages 39 microns. A micron is one thousandth of a millimeter. Wool too variable to fit within the limits of one grade is placed in the next coarser grade. Q. Write a brief note on sorting of wool. Sorting is the operation of taking an individual fleece, untying the twine, opening the fleece and separating it into the various grades as grown on different body areas. The objective of sorting is to obtain large lots of wool that are very uniform in fibre diameter, length, strength and other characteristics. Sorting is always done on the grease wool. Sorting is necessary on wool if a uniform worsted yarn with a certain spinning count is desired. This operation is usually done in the mill since a mill knows exactly what qualities of wool it wants to use into a fabric.

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MOHAIR

Q.

What is mohair? Discuss its important characteristics.

Mohair is the fibre produced by the Angora goat, one of the oldest animals known to humankind. It possesses qualities all its own. It has less crimp and smoother surface scales than sheeps wool. These qualities add luster, softness and dust resistance. Mohair has remarkable resistance to wrinkles, great strength and great affinity to brilliant, deep colours that resist hard wear. The Angora goat is bred on commercial basis for fibre production in five countries such as South Africa, Turkey, the United States, Argentina and Lesotho. There is a bit of mohair production in Pakistan too. There is considerable international trade associated with the raw products and the processed goods, since the processing of mohair is done largely in countries other than those in which it is produced. England, Japan, France, Itlay, Spain and Russia. all import the raw materials. The Angora goats in USA on the average, shear an annual clip of 1.8 to 3.9 kg of unscoured fleece per animal. Purebred herds often clip double this amount. At places mohair is taken off in two clips per year, in the spring and the autumn, whereas Turkish mohair is usually allowed a full years growth prior to shearing. The three types of fleeces, based on the type of lock are: the tight or spiral lock, the flat lock and the fluffy fleece. The tight lock hangs from the body in ringlets and is associated with the finest fibres. The flat lock is usually more wavy and coarser, but it is associated with heavy

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shearing weight. The fluffy fleece is objectionable because it is easily broken and is torn out by brush to a greater extent than the other types. The length of fibre averages about 30 cm (12 in.) for a full years growth and 15 cm (6 in.) when animals are shorn semi-annually. Some animals do not have a tendency to shed and when special attention is given to tying the fleece up, mohair up to 1m (3 ft.) long is produced in a period of 3 years. Such long fibres are used in making dolls hair and theatrical wigs. In fineness or diameter, mohair is somewhat coarser than wool. Length and luster are more sought than fineness. The fibres are usually very strong, high in luster, whitish in shade, fairly soft to touch and straight in staple appearance. However, most mohair contains considerable kemp, which is undesirable from manufacturers stand point. The amount of kemp can be lessened through breeding and selection. Mohair shrinkage in scouring averages from 15 to 17% and does not depend on fineness, as does wool, since adult mohair shrinks as much as does kid mohair. Q. What are the different grades and uses of mohair? Discuss in detail.

Kid hair is the finest and is especially sought by mills. The fleeces from adults, especially bucks and old wethers are the coarsest and those from yearlings are intermediate between other classes. Mohair obtained from different classes should be packed separately, at shearing time. The fleeces that are extremely coarse, weak and shorter than 15 cm (6 in.) or those having an excess of kemp, burs or other foreign matter, should be kept separate from clean, strong fleeces of desirable length and fineness. Grease mohair refers to the fleece as it comes from Angora goats. White mohair top is the processed fibre obtained after raw mohair has been scoured, carded and combed. As with wool, the grades of 164

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mohair are based primarily on the presumed spinning count obtainable on the number of 560-yard hanks to the pound. In practice, fineness is associated with softness and is recognized by the experienced touch when handled between the thumb and fingers. Mohair has certain physical and chemical properties, which are basic to its commercial value as a textile fibre. The characteristics affecting grease mohair value are its average diameter, length and yield of clean mohair, strength, luster and colour. The official grades of grease mohair and the specifications of each as applicable in USA are given in Table 28. Uses of Mohair: Mohair is in demand for sweaters, coats and velour articles of clothing. The long-fibred mohair may also be used for manufacturing wigs and hair pieces for theatrical purposes and for dolls hair.

Table 28.

Specifications for the official grades of grease mohair Fibre diameter

Grade Finer than 40s 40s 36s 32s 30s

Limits for average () Under 23.01 23.01-25.00 25.01-27.00 27.01-29.00 29.01-31.00

Maximum SD () 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.8

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SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5

Q. Write a brief note on marketing of Mohair. Although mohair is usually accorded more neglect than wool, the principles involved in the economical production and profitable marketing of a high quality product are the same as for wool. The discussion already presented relative to the handling and marketing of wool is equally applicable to mohair. The market channels and leading market centers for wool and mohair are identical in countries where mohair production is undertaken. Pakistan as yet is not on the list of countries that are producing a substantial amount of mohair. Q. Write a note on Cashmere. Cashmere is goat down. This fine undercoat of goat hair is produced by the secondary follicles. The term cashmere is apparently derived from the geographic region Kashmir in Asia, though not much of cashmere is produced in valley of Kashmir today. Pashmina is a term used somewhat synonymously with cashmere. Today, most of the cashmere is produced from goats that range in the Mongolian Republic, in the northern provinces of China (inner Mongolia and Sinkiang), parts of Iran, Afghanishtan and Russia.

HAIR Q. What are the different types of hair obtained from goats?
These are mohair, pashmina (hairy undercoat) and hair of common goat. Q. Discuss hair growth. Hairs are produced by hair follicles. These are not considered live tissue, as these have no nerve cells or blood vessels. Hairs are made of high protein keratin and thus are similar in composition to nails, horns and feathers. The number of follicles on a developing goat foetus is determined in late pregnancy. The density of fibres is related to the number of

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follicles and the number of fibres in each follicle. The follicles are arranged in groups called bundles. In each bundle there are primary and secondary follicles. The primary follicles give long, coarse guard hairs, which are hollow and brittle. The secondary follicles give fine short undercoat fibres. Most goats have more primary than secondary follicles, the Angora being the exception. Q. Write a detailed note on goat hair. Estimated annual production of hair in Pakistan is 19.3 thousands tons (2002) valued at Rs. 250 million. Most of this quantity comes from goats. Hair fibres should not be mistaken for wool. The former are coarse and have a hard core that makes them nonpliable and resistant to the spinning twist or to the absorption of dyes. Hair being a thicker fibre and lacking in elasticity, the yarn prepared from it or hairy wool is of a lower count and rough to the feel. Such fibres have a tendency to uncoil themselves from the yarn and this lessens the durability of the fabric. In trade, the wools containing hair are considered inferior and fetch lower prices of the two coats which most goats have, the short fine undercoat or down is called cashmere. The single coat of lustrous coarse nonhairy fibre, which only the Angora breed grows, is called mohair. Both cashmere and mohair are valuable products used in clothing manufacture. In practice, while most breeds have an undercoat of cashmere the quality and quantity of fibres do not make it economical to harvest. The outer coat is made up of ordinary or common hairs, which are a mixture of straight, fine and coarse fibres. Their colours and lengths vary, but black, brown and grey are very common. These are traditionally made into mats, tents, bags or ropes. These outer hairs are also imported into Europe to make brushes, coarse cloth and carpets for motorcars. Much of this common hair is from cashmere-bearing goats, which are clipped once the valuable cashmere has been combed out. Pakistan probably is the largest exporter of common hair selling over 3500 metric tons per year in three grades defined by length. The longer the hair length, the more valuable it is. Most common goat hair is clipped from the live animal, although a percentage comes from the skins on slaughter. Q. Describe the characteristics of cashmere, its world production and trade. Also name the countries that produce cashmere. Cashmere fibre has scales on it and is not smooth like mohair. It can thus be spun as a pure fibre and need not be mixed with other materials. Its value varies relative to the length of the fibre, the quality of the fibre (its diameter, uniformity, luster, colour) and yield per goat like wool, raw cashmere can contain impurities, which reduce its value. These must be removed before processing. To retain its purity, it should not be put in synthetic bags or tied with man-made fibres since synthetic fibre can flake off into the cashmere and spread during processing. Manufacturers separate the coarse fibres out in a process. This reduces the yield to 45 to 50% of the original greasy, raw weight. The Chinese are the biggest producers of raw cashmere. They grade it on the basis of average clean fibre content. The quality of fibres also relates to their diameter. All fibres must be elastic and uniform along their whole length. When good quality yarn is produced, it is spun using at least 25 to 30 fibres. Good quality fibres measure between 8 and 25 microns, long fibres and those of a uniform length are more valuable, being asier to spin into yarn. Fibres above 2.0 cm in length are the most valuable (Table 29).

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Table 29. Length and diameter of mohair and cashmere fibres


Fibre Mohair Country Turkey, S. Africa, USA Cashmere China,Iran,Afghanistan ,Russia Wool (Merino) Australia Camel (two- China, Mongolia humped) hair Diameter () 24-45 15-19 17-25 16-25 Length (cm) 10-25 2-8 6-12 3-5

Fibres vary considerably in their cross-sectional shape, with circular fibres being better than oval or flat ones. From commercial point of view, the lighter the colour, the higher the price paid since it is simpler to dye lighter colours when the final clothing colour is selected. White, grey, cream, fawn and brown are the common colours of cashmere produced in China, Iran, Ladakh, Mongolia and Tibet. Cashmere is sold as a luxury fibre and clothing manufacturers require a soft luster. However, luster is difficult to measure and buyers rely on feeling the raw product for softness, lightness, bulk, warmth and moisture when they purchase. World Production and Trade of Cashmere: Annual world production of cashmere is estimated at 3000 metric tons. Most of this comes from China, Iran, and East Asian part of the former USSR. Smaller quantities are produced by Australia and New Zealand. The major users are the USA, Japan and the UK where it is manufactured into luxury clothing including sweaters, scarves and overcoats. Cashmere clothing is very light, soft and warm. Q. Discuss harvesting and average yields of cashmere. Traditionally the down (undercoat) from cashmere goats is either combed from the goat in the spring or collected as it sheds naturally at the end of winter. The average length of outer fibres of a cashmere goat is 15 cm with an undercoat of 6 cm. Most ordinary breeds have a down/undercoat but only the cashmere and some associated breed produced sufficient fibre to make harvesting economical. The undercoat is normally of a paler colour than the hair. A black goat may have a grey undercoat. Cashmere and Angora flocks have a higher proportion of white goats as a result of planned breeding policies to provide fibre for textiles. Yields per animal are normally very small, 50 to 200 g. In China cashmere goats yields an average of 125g (80-200g) with a quality from 13-16 microns. Coarser fibres originate from Afghanistan and Iran with quality at 18 microns. Yields from these animals tend to be higher than from those producing finer quality. Coarser breeds include the Russian Oreburg (220 to 375) and the Don (450 to 1150g). Fibres below 16 microns are usually used in knitwear and those above are used in cloth. Very coarse fibres are mixed with wool in the manufacture of coats. Q. Write a note on Angora goat world population including mohair quality and yield. Mohair is the fleece of the Angora breed of goats. It develops from the secondary hair follicles, which are long enough to mask the primary fibres. It is used to make furnishings, rugs ,blankets, wigs etc. The best quality mohair obtained from kids is used

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for light-weight suits. The Angora breed is centered in Turkey but export of live animals to USA, South Africa and Lesotho have resulted in significant populations developing there. Smaller groups are found in Australia. Argentina and New Zealand. The Angora has also been used in crossbreeding programme in India, Madagascar, Fiji and Pakistan. In Pakistan, this programme resulted into a strain called Pak-Agora, but because of lack of sustained efforts, this strain has not made the required headway. Presently South Africa has the largest population of Angora (over 6.5 million) followed by Turkey (3.2 million), USA (1.5 million) and Lesotho (about 1 million). Mohair Quality and Yield: Mohair fleeces grow in curly ringlets or flat waves to a length of 10 to 25 cm. Mohair is less fine than cashmere and averages a diameter of 24 to 25 microns. Typical average annual yields per animal are: Lesotho, 5.3 kg; USA, 3 to 5 kg and Turkey 1.5 kg. Shearing twice yearly will increase yield but also increases percentage of kemp. Kemp is the hair produced by the primary follicles and is brittle and considered an impurity. Staples that are far too short do not meet the processors minimum requirement of 11 cm of staple for cloth production. Undersize staple is sold at a lower price than longer staple. Fleece weights are also affected by nutrition, disease etc. Very long fleece lengths cause processing problems. Overall mohair quality is defined by: i) fibre fineness, ii) kemp percentage, iii) vegetable matter content. Very young goats have more kemp than older ones. Q. What do you understand by skirting and grading? Discuss briefly. As applied to wool fleeces, the term skirting implies the practice of separating all inferior portions from the bulk of the fleece at shearing. This would normally involve the removal of head, lower leg and belly wool together with urine and blood-stained, faecalcontaminated fibres and skin pieces. The products of skirting are termed skirting wool and skirts. Wools from the top of the head, jaw and cheeks tend to be short and mostly heavily contaminated with plant material and thus should be packaged separately. Belly wool is usually lower yielding and may contain more vegetable and coloured fibre contamination than the bulk of the fleece. Since the term skirting generally implies removal of all wool that does not match the bulk of the fleece, therefore short wool, matted pieces, paint brand, skin pieces, areas of the fleece heavily contaminated with plant parts and especially coloured wool (stained and pigmented) all fall into the skirts category. Related but different terms are grading, classing and sorting. Wool fleeces differ most in measurable characteristics such as fineness, yield, vegetable matter type and content, length, strength and colour. When fleeces are grouped according to any or all of these characteristics, the process is called grading. The term classing originated in

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Australia but is also used to mean essentially the same as grading. When individual fleeces are subdivided according to any or all of the above characteristics, the process is called sorting. Sorting is usually a function performed by a specialized wool dealer or the textile company itself. Since sheep do not produce wool fibre of a single diameter, colour, length, strength or degree of cleanliness, normal quality control requires that wool be graded and sorted prior to scouring. Various methods have been developed with the specific purpose of adding value to wool at shearing time. Such innovations include Shearer or floor skirting in which Shearer makes an effort to drop the leg and belly wool onto the shearing floor in a way that it can be easily picked up and placed in a designated bag. In addition, the remainder shorn fleece is placed flesh side down on a slatted table, at which time all remaining skirts are removed prior to rolling and packaging fleece. The most critical aspect of skirting wool is the amount actually removed. Crutching (or tagging) will normally account for 5 to 10 % of the total fleece weight. Belly wool and other skirts from fine wool fleeces have been reported to compose a further 8 to 20%. Economics dictate that skirts (not including crutching) should constitute no more than 10% of the overall fleece weight.

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