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Summary Environmental I mpact Assessment

prepared f or

Proposed Expansion of Viscose Staple Fibre ( VSF)
Plant & Cogeneration Pow er Plant
of

Grasilene Division
(A unit of Gra sim Ind ustries Lim ited )
Kumarapatnam, Karnataka

Prepared by :

N a t i o n a l En v i r o n m e n t a l En g i n e e r i n g R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e
N ehru Marg, N agpur 4 4 0 0 2 0

Summary EIA

1.0

Project Description
Name of Industry

:

Grasilene Division
(A Unit of Grasim Industries Limited)

Year of Establishment

:

1977

Location

:

Kumarapatnam - 581123,
Ranebennur Taluk
Dist. Haveri, Karnataka

Existing products and their production capacity
Viscose Staple Fibre

:

51,100 TPA

Carbon Disulphide

:

8,380 TPA

Sulphuric Acid

:

38,610 TPA

Sodium Sulphate (by product)

:

36,485 TPA

Captive Cogeneration Capacity

:

10 MW

1.1 Proposed Project
Proposed additional production capacity
Viscose Staple Fibre

:

36,500 TPA

Carbon Disulphide

:

5,985 TPA

Sulphuric Acid

:

36,500 TPA

Sodium Sulphate (by product)

:

32,720 TPA

Captive Cogeneration Capacity

:

10 MW

Products and their production capacity after proposed expansion
Viscose Staple Fibre

:

87,600 TPA

Carbon Disulphide

:

14,365 TPA

Sulphuric Acid

:

75,110 TPA

Sodium Sulphate (by product)

:

69,205 TPA

Captive Cogeneration Capacity

:

20 MW

1

sodium sulphate and additive where cellulose is regenerated as fine filaments. The project site is the nearest VSF manufacturer for the entire southern Indian VSF market. and charged into an electric arc furnace. railways and sea. Molten sulphur is let in uniformly through the bed.000 tons per annum. ♦ Availability of land for the proposed expansion project within the premises of existing plant. The spent spinbath is evaporated in Multi Stage Flash Evaporators (MSFE) to remove excess of water & finally Sodium sulphate is recovered by crystallization. kept submerged in a coagulating bath consisting of sulphuric acid. a) Viscose Staple Fibre Manufacture Viscose production primarily consists of three stages. Sodium hydroxide in viscose reacts with sulphuric acid to form sodium sulphate. c) Power Generation and Steam Generation Captive Power Plant is of cogeneration type with coal fired Boilers to generate steam to power an Extraction cum Condensing type Turbine. d) Carbon Disulphide Manufacture Wood charcoal is calcined to remove moisture and volatile matter. 1. conversion of initial cellulose of wood pulp into alkali-cellulose by the action of sodium hydroxide. The viscose produced is filtered to remove undissolved particles and impurities and is extruded under pressure through spinnerettes. conversion of alkalicellulose into cellulose xanthate by Carbon-di-sulphide & dissolving cellulose xanthate in dilute sodium hydroxide to produce viscose.Summary EIA 1. when vapors of Carbon disulphide are evolved. Therefore the project is planned to meet the gap between demand and supply of VSF.. ♦ Availability of time tested know-how ♦ Availability of qualified trained and experienced work force. b) Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4) Recovery During the regeneration process. Carbon disulphide is manufactured by Electric Arc Furnaces and Sulphuric Acid is manufactured by the latest Double Conversion Double Absorption (DCDA) technology for captive consumption. viz.2 Need for the project ♦ Present Southern Indian market demand for VSF stands at about 85. ♦ The site is well connected with road. 2 . ♦ Lower capital cost as compared to alternative green field site.3 Process Description Rayon Grade Pulp is the main raw material used in the manufacturing of Viscose Staple Fibre (VSF).

0 Description of the environment Baseline Environmental Status 2. 2. In the rural/residential area in 10 km radius: SPM: 168-333 µg/m³ and RSPM: 62-147 µg/m³. a) Source Emissions The major pollutants from the emission sources are CS2.81-1.6 and 28. SO3 and Sulphuric Acid Mist emission from the Sulphuric Acid Plant stack are monitored and are in the range of 1. 45-59 mg/Nm³ and 27-32 mg/Nm³ respectively. H2S.1 Air Environment The base line environmental status for air environment was assessed during December and January months of the winter season.93 kg/ton acid. SO2. NOX and SPM. Sulphuric Acid Mist. - The SO2.2-29. 3 . - The CS2 and H2S emissions from the spinning stack are in the range of 91. e) Sulphuric Acid Manufacture Sulphuric Acid is manufactured by Double Conversion Double Absorption (DCDA) process by burning Sulphur in Air to form sulphur dioxide.Summary EIA The vapors of Carbon disulphide are condensed and the crude Carbon disulphide is refined and uncondensed Carbon disulphide is recovered by absorption system. Around the project site: SPM: 127-138 µg/m³ and RSPM: 32-41 µg/m³. II. The exhaust gases are passed through Klaus Kiln plant for sulphur recovery and then scrubbed. Exit gases are scrubbed before discharge. SO2 and NOX emissions are in the range of 338414 mg/Nm³ and 39-46 mg/Nm³ respectively b) Base line (Ambient Air Quality) data The 98th percentile values of 24 hourly SPM and Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM) concentrations during winter season are as under: I.296.6 kg/t fibre respectively. SO3. - The Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) from Power Plant stack is in the range of 129-138 mg/Nm³. which is then converted to Sulphur trioxide and absorbed in Sulphuric Acid in Absorption Towers to get Sulphuric Acid.

132 mg/l. potassium-7 mg/l.6 mg/l.39mg/l. - Noise levels in the individual process units vary between 59-85 dB(A) - Noise levels in the surrounding areas were observed in the range of 40-61 dB(A). chloride.BDL-18 µg/m³. - The 98th percentile values of 24 hourly SO2 NOX CS2 and H2S are as under : SO2 .0 mg/l and DO-7. NOX . sulphate. dissolved solids-379mg/l. chloride.44 mg/l. potassium-7 mg/l. feed pumps.BDL-7 µg/m³ 2. sodium-48 mg/l. 4 .3. H2S . sodium-46 mg/l. The existing water requirement is 11.2 Noise Environment - The sources of noise generation in the plant include air compressors.138 mg/l.8. total hardness-130 mg/l.Summary EIA The higher SPM and RSPM values in rural/residential area are due to dust getting air borne because of local phenomena like vehicular/bullock cart movements on mud road and man induced activities. boiler section and cooling towers etc.000 m³/d. BOD -<3. - Noise levels within the plant premises were observed in the range of 50-74 dB (A). - River attains its background TDS concentration within 300 m from the confluence point. - Physico-chemical characteristics of surface water 350 m downstream of confluence point during the lean season are observed to be pH. COD-14 mg/l.1-41µg/m³. The treated effluent discharged to the river meets all the stipulated river discharge standards.3. total hardness-139 mg/l. - Physico-chemical characteristics of surface water upstream of confluence point during the lean season are observed to be pH.8.0 mg/l and DO-7. 2. CS2 . dissolved solids-371mg/l. COD-16 mg/l. sulphate.030 m³/d and the effluent discharge is 9.4-23 µg/m³.3 Water Environment The base line environmental status for water environment was assessed during March and April months of the lean season. air blowers. The treated effluent is discharged into the river after mixing with the treated effluent of HPF (Pulp) unit. BOD -<3.7 mg/l. - The raw water source for the plant is the river Tungabhadra. cutter platform section.

5 .83 %. chilly and onion are also cultivated in the study area. The fly ash is used by cement manufacturers & contractors for various uses like manufacturing of bricks.44% of the total land is under agriculture. forest area is confined to 15. The sludge generated from the effluent treatment process is 4. 2. De-ashed charcoal. b) Hazardous Waste Average 7.43%. 0.5 - Soil is moderately good in organic carbon content and available nitrogen. Sugarcane. Biological Environment The study area is dominated by the vegetation of dry deciduous scrub of small tree. jowar and cotton are grown in Kharif season.0 Tons/d. 10 shrubs and 5 herbs are of medicinal value. 36 plant species comprising 21 trees. phosphorus and potassium are poor to medium level - Agriculture being the major activity in different villages about 73. The study of ground water quality showed no definite pattern of variation in various parameters. mangoes. could be attributed to the nature of local geographical strata. It is dried in sludge dryers. Out of total 120 plants studied. However Ranebennur Blackbuck Sanctuary is situated approximately 18 km away from the project site. papaya and arecanut are also grown in the study area.0 l/d Used oil is generated as hazardous waste and is disposed off as per the Authorisation. The study area is stretched beyond both banks of the river. The study area shows sparse occurrence of medicinal plants. whereas non-agricultural land is 6. fallow land is covered with 1. block etc.24% respectively.12%.Summary EIA Ground water quality monitoring Ground water quality in the study area was monitored. shrub and very few large trees along with agricultural fields. 0. Cereals like paddy. Pasture land. mixed with Coal and utilized in boilers. c) Baseline soil quality 2. There is no correlation between the industrial activity and the ground water quality & its variations. The variation in the quality therefore. There are no National parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries in the study area. The garden crops like bettlewine coconut.4 Land Environment a) Solid Waste The unit is generating 100 MT/d fly ash.24 Tons/d is also used in boilers after mixing with coal.

Post expansion. the predicted value is 0. 0.0 Anticipated Environmental Impacts and mitigation measures 3. There will be no impact on the noise level outside the project site premises. The predicted lower values are due to increase in CS2 recovery from 46 to 48 % for the expanded capacity and increased stack height from 125 m to 175 m.09 µg/m³..7 µg/m³ as against the present 10. 3.38 µg/m³. CS2 & H2S emissions from the spinning machine of the existing and proposed project will pass through the proposed 175 m stack. Most of the respondents were in favour of the proposed project. the value is 8.1 Anticipated Environmental Impacts 3.1 Air Environment - The maximum predicted GLC for CS2 after proposed expansion is 28. 6 . Giril. - - The literacy rate in the study area is 64.Summary EIA There are several species of fishes found in the area namely Catla.1.4 µg/m³. Apart from these other local varieties such as Harju. Most believe that the proposed expansion will lead to increase in infrastructure facilities and job opportunities.3 µg/m³.5 km and 47 dB (A) at a distance of 1 km in the GIL complex. - The maximum predicted GLC for SPM after proposed expansion is 1. Kolusu. For H2S.2 Noise Environment - There will be a few additional noise sources in the proposed expansion project. Chemari.13 µg/m³ as against the existing 1. 2. 4% - The main occupation of the people is agriculture and allied activities Awareness about the proposed expansion was found among 7 out of every 10 persons interacted. Store Koreva are also found in the village tanks.41 µg/m³ as against the present 0.8 µg/m³. which are of commercially important.7 µg/m³ as against the existing 34. Bidrichi. 3. Rohu and Mrigal etc. - The maximum predicted GLC for SO2 after proposed expansion is 20.6 Socio-Economic Environment The study area comprises of total 29 villages of Ranebennur and Harihar taluka.8 µg/m³ as against the existing 14. The cumulative noise level is found to be around 59 dB (A) at a distance of approx. For NOx.1.

1.6 Socio-Economic Environment Critically analyzing the baseline status of the socio-economic profile and visualizing the scenario with the proposed project. Post expansion.5 Biological Environment - The study region does not cover any reserved or sensitive areas like protected forest. reserved forest. - The progressive greenbelt development is expected to improve the fertility of soil and prevent topsoil erosion. The treated effluent would be discharged to the river after mixing with the treated effluents of HPF (pulp unit).2 Mitigation measures (Environmental Management Plan) 3.2. etc. - The construction phase of the project will not have any significant impact on the biota. wildlife sanctuary. the impacts of the project could be mixed. 3.670 m3/d.3 3. The quality of the effluents discharged to the river will meet the river discharge standards. - The fly ash generation after proposed expansion would be 220 MT/d. national park. 3. biosphere reserve.8 Tons/d and de-ashed charcoal would be 0.41 Tons/d.4 Water Environment - The projected total water requirement after expansion is 18. as already available space in the existing complex will be utilized for proposed expansion. - River water will attain the background TDS concentration within 416 m from the confluence point.Summary EIA 3.1. fresh water bodies etc. As such there will be no adverse impact on land from proposed expansion 3.1. - Average 11 l/d used oil would be generated as hazardous waste after proposed expansion. - The total quantity of effluent discharge after expansion is expected to be 15. - The sludge generation from the effluent treatment process after proposed expansion would be 6.1.120 m3/d. 7 .1 Air Environment - Impact of additional CS2 & H2S emissions is nullified by increasing CS2 recovery from 46% to 48% for the expanded capacity through modified design of recovery trough and by providing a new higher stack of 175 m in place of the existing 125 m stack. CS2 & H2S emissions from the spinning machine of the existing and proposed project will pass through the proposed 175 m stack. Land Environment - There will be no additional land acquired for the proposed expansion.

0 kg/t fibre by incorporating improved design for better sealing of the new spinning machine.2.4 % by installing additional Multi Stage Flash Evaporators (MSFE). wherever feasible. would be installed to control noise level. - Daily monitoring of treated effluent shall be continued. stack of 175 m height would be provided in lieu of the present 125 m - The power plant stack height would be increased to 95 m against the present 78 m in view of increased SO2 emission due to increased coal consumption. However to treat the additional quantity of effluent generated due to expansion another biological reactor of 4. - Stack and Ambient air quality monitoring as stipulated and scheduled by KSPCB shall be continued Noise Environment - Low noise equipment. Water Environment Sodium sulphate recovery will be increased to 89. would be enforced. - Use of personal protective equipment such as earmuffs.000 m3 will be installed to maintain the existing treated effluent quality. Better sealing of the machine would also result in reduction of fugitive emissions of H2S.3 - - The fugitive emission of CS2 would be reduced by 8. - Recycling/reuse of wastewater will be continued and all practicable measures will be implemented to reduce the water consumption and effluent discharge. - Acoustic laggings and silencers would be used in equipment wherever necessary.0 %. This reduction in CS2 fugitive emission.0 kg/t acid for the existing acid plant by providing additional converter followed by scrubbing system - Based on the CS2 emission from the existing and the proposed expanded facility and based on post expansion predictions for maximum GLC for CS2.0 kg/t acid against 2. Thus the overall Sodium sulphate recovery will be 79.2 3. 8 . - After detailed study the existing effluent treatment system is found to be adequate to treat the present effluent to meet the stipulated standards.2. however shall result in 96 kg/t fibre CS2 emission rate for the expanded capacity - SO2 emission from the expanded facility of the acid plant would be reduced to1.Summary EIA 3.0 % for the expanded capacity from the present recovery of 71. earplugs etc.

Monitoring of ambient noise level should also be carried out periodically both inside as well as outside the project site.0 Environmental Monitoring Program Post-Project Environmental Monitoring (PPEM) programme consist of the following: - Monitoring of all major stacks for different parameters like flue gas velocity. - Rainwater harvesting will be planned/encouraged. SO2.2. 4. General Recommendations after assessing risks associated with the proposed project in detail are as under : 9 . SPM.4 3.2.Summary EIA 3. Financial assistance to Jal Nirmal projects would be provided for speedier implementation of drinking water projects. Biological Environment - Additional 3 hectares of land will be covered under greenbelt/green cover. dental care.0 Additional Studies 5. preferably by suitable professionals/subject experts. Medical team visits would be increased based on the need.6 Socio-Economic Environment - Need based programmes like artificial limb camp. eye operation. family planning operations. NOX.2. - Noise generating sources in the proposed plant area should be monitored periodically. temperature and concentration viz. 3. encouraging self help groups and for women empowerment would be taken up. - Promotional activities for utilization of Fly ash for brick manufacturing and for fly ash based products by providing technical support to entrepreneurs would be continued for achieving 100 % fly ash utilization. H2S and CS2.1 Risk Assessment and Disaster Management Plan All the preventive and mitigation measures would be taken to mitigate the environmental hazards.5 Land Environment - A record with respect to quantity. - Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant should be undertaken at periodic intervals for all relevant parameters - Assessment of flora and fauna in project region once in two to three years. quality and treatment/ management of solid/hazardous waste will be maintained at environmental cell. 5.

♦ All the respondents are aware of the industry whereas some are unaware about the proposed project ♦ People are expecting that project authority will improve the basic infrastructure of the villages around the project. Most of the respondents are in favour of the project as it may lead to increase in infrastructure facilities and job opportunities. recommended to implement all the associated safety for the proposed activity.Summary EIA ♦ Surrounding population should be made aware of the safety precautions to be taken in the event of any mishap within the plant. 10 .2 Public Consultation ♦ Awareness of the project is 70 % among the villagers interviewed. It is. 5. ♦ People are expecting more medical facilities from the industry and desire improvement in facilities and extension of the facilities to some more nearby villages. The Disaster Management Plan describes the emergencies arising out of natural and man-made calamities. however. The maximum damage distances due to the accidental release of hazardous chemicals in the proposed expansion are well within the plant boundary limits in most cases. The duties of various persons are well defined and the emergency committees are formulated for the various levels of emergencies. This can effectively be done by conducting the training awareness programs ♦ Critical switches and alarm should be always kept in line ♦ Fire detectors should be installed near those units which handle large amount of flammable material and operate under high temperature and pressure ♦ A wind direction pointer should also be installed at storage site so that in an emergency the wind direction can be directly seen and downwind population cautioned ♦ Shut off and isolation valves should be easily approachable in emergencies ♦ Material Safety Data Sheet and Toxicological Data should be displayed at the facility. This DMP is prepared to take care of almost all the hazardous situations arising out of accidental release of hazardous chemicals handled in the various units.

♦ The proposed project will enhance quality of life of the people in the study area. Negative Impacts ♦ During the construction period there will be short-term socio-economic impacts in the study area that may include increase in floating population (contract labourers).3. communication and amenities like telephone booths and other basic requirements for working population of the project and village community.117 crores/annum from Rs. The unit also has a well-equipped laboratory for carrying out all related analysis. road transport and other facilities.3. 6. raw-material supply. ♦ Change in population density and diversity through the immigrants may cause cultural diversity in the region. The mitigation measures are implemented by the technical cell and the environment cell of the unit. auxiliary. A prescheduled review procedure ensures effective implementation and monitoring of the effectiveness of the suggested mitigation measures.0 Project Benefits ♦ The proposed activity would generate additional employment for activities like transportation.1 Positive Impacts ♦ The project has favourable ranking by majority of the local people and is looked upon as a step for further development of the area. ♦ Increase in revenue exchequer to Rs. communication facilities the working population of the project and village community. 5. ♦ The proposed expansion project is expected to generate employment opportunities that will help in increasing the economic status of the region. which marginally strain on the civic amenities like drinking water.Summary EIA 5. ancillary works etc. 7.2. ♦ There will be improvement in the infrastructure like transport. sanitation.0 Environment Management Plan (EMP) The unit has well established Environment Management System. The top management oversees the functioning of the system directly through Management Information System. 69 crores/annum. ♦ The project has favorable ranking by majority of local people and is looked upon as a step for further development of the area by way of improvement in transport. 11 . Qualified & experienced process and maintenance staff support the system.3 Socio Economic Impact Assessment 5.

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 1Œ‰«†HŒR² 44 mg/l. pH 8. COD – 14 mg/l.O Mj² 8ƒjƒW„¨E¨ (W„£[ƒjŒ"JƒJ„6ƒ‡qƒˆ[ƒ‡ &[ƒjƒ‡¢ {ƒ«R²– RŒ©¹"Jƒ‡H²jƒv« .M‡™ }„R²³jŒ{² 139 mg/l. {Œ‰†S"Jƒ‡" 48 mg/l.M‡™}„R²³jŒ{² 130 mg/l. qƒ‡Wƒ‡ž DO 7.6 mg/l.24 Mj² lƒ©Xijƒ  1ƒv«[ƒ vjƒ FŒ‰WŒ r‡wƒ©qƒJ„S o„"Jƒ‡«H²6ƒƒv«nƒ{ƒu„6ƒ‡qƒˆ[ƒ‡ %  $l„"Jƒ‡1„KW„¨E¨  {ƒH„{ƒK ijƒ1Œ 7.7 mg/l. qƒ‡Wƒ‡ž DO 7. {ƒuŒ¤†N² 132 mg/l. BOD < 3. 371 mg/l.  mg/l.0 mg/l. {Œ‰†S"Jƒ‡" 46 mg/l. lŒŠ†M|"Jƒ‡" 7 mg/l. BOD < 3. {ƒuŒ¤†N² 138 mg/l.0 v†MH² (lƒ"JŒ‰†7|[ƒ +VŒ $l„"Jƒ‡1„K W„¨E¨q„7nHƒ‡qƒˆ[ƒ‡&[ƒjƒ‡¢lƒHƒq„k7lƒ©1„Hƒkqƒ³~{ƒu„6ƒ‡qƒˆ[ƒ‡ -7- . . jƒiWƒjƒ¢ qƒ‡‰t1ƒHƒ7[ƒ8ƒjƒqƒ{ƒ‡žrjƒ {„"[ƒ©WŒ"Jƒ‡jƒ‡¢ {ƒ"6ƒqƒ‡p"[ƒ‡rk"[ƒ 300r‡$"WƒHƒ[ƒv«lƒRŒ"Jƒ‡‡Wƒž[Œ $"WƒE³t6ƒ‡Uqƒ‡M™lƒH„qƒ‡wŒ³ $[Tƒ¨"Jƒ‡jƒ 1Œ®†Wƒ©[ƒv«jƒ $"WƒE³t[ƒ 6ƒ‡Uqƒ‡M™qƒjƒ‡¢ lƒK†2®{ƒu„s‡Wƒ‡ jƒi"Jƒ‡ +HƒRƒ‰[ƒRƒ[ƒ‡[ƒ 1ƒ‰'$[Tƒ¨"Jƒ‡jƒ[ƒq„¨mž&Wƒ‡ž$"WƒE³t[ƒ6ƒ‡Uqƒ‡M™[ƒ rr[Tƒ lƒKV„qƒ‡6ƒƒ‡ {ƒ£yƒ™ qƒ¨Wƒ¨"Jƒ‡6ƒƒjƒ‡¢ WŒ‰†K{ƒvt« $"WƒE³t 6ƒ‡Uqƒ‡M™1ƒ‰0[Œ‰¨†71ƒ.ƒM‡qƒO1Œ6ƒ€6ƒ‰"JƒJ„qƒˆ[Œ†{ƒ"n"[Tƒ1ƒ"Rƒ‡nHƒvt« %[ƒ K"[ƒ'qƒ¨W„¨{ƒ6ƒƒ‡{„Ÿk†"Jƒ‡oTŽ6Œ‰†€1ƒ$"wƒ6ƒ€"[ƒ%7Hƒn}ƒ‡[ƒ‡ 2.4 jŒtlƒK{ƒHƒ $  8ƒjƒW„¨E¨  8ƒM1ƒqƒˆ ijƒ1Œ 100 Mj² }„Hƒ‡ n‰i (W„£i{ƒ‡Wƒž[Œ ' }„Hƒ‡ n‰i"Jƒ‡jƒ‡¢ |qŒ‡"N²(W„£[ƒ1ƒHƒ‡qƒ‡Wƒ‡ž6ƒ‡Xž6Œ[„HƒHƒ‡rr[Tƒn6Œ"Jƒ‡ &O™6Œqƒ‡Wƒ‡žo„«1²6ƒƒjƒ‡¢qƒJ„Rƒt‡(lƒ"JŒ‰†7{ƒ‡W„žHŒ  W„¨E¨ wƒ‡i¡†1ƒHƒU 8ƒM1ƒ[ƒv« ijƒ"lƒ©X 4.0 mg/l.3. COD – 16 mg/l. {ƒ"6ƒqƒ‡p"[ƒ‡rk"[ƒ350r‡MH²1Œƒ}ƒKrjƒv« k†Kjƒ[ƒ‡n³t}ƒKrjƒ ijƒ6ƒƒv«oTŽWƒH„{„"Jƒ‡k1ƒ6ƒ‡UrwŒ«†yƒVŒ~†7[Œ - pH – 8.U7|  1ƒv«[ƒ º vjƒFŒ‰WŒoŒHŒ|o„"Jƒ‡«H²6ƒƒv«nƒ{ƒu„6ƒ‡qƒˆ[ƒ‡S%w²› &i tjƒ‡¢ (0. 1ƒHƒ7[ƒ 8ƒjƒqƒ{ƒ‡ž 379 mg/l .1ƒHƒ7[ƒ8ƒjƒqƒ{ƒ‡ž - 1Œ‰«†HŒR²  39 lŒŠN„|"Jƒ‡" 7 mg/l.3.

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