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1. Define a structure. Ans. A structure is a collection of variables of different data types which are referred under one common name. 2. What is the need for structure ? Ans. To store any information in the form of record which contains information of different data types, the structure is used. 3. Differentiate between structure and class. Ans. Structure Class All members are public by default All members are private by default 4. Differentiate between array and structure. Ans. Structure Array Collection of variables of different data Collection of variables of same data type. type. 5. What is nested structure ? Give an example. Ans. A structure within another structure is called nested structure. Eg. struct date { int d,m,y;}; struct emp { int eno; char ename[25]; date doj;}; 6. How to refer the structure elements outside the structure ? Ans. The structure elements are referred using the structure variable name followed by the dot operator. 7. When the memory is allocated for structure ? Ans. The memory is allocated for structure only when the variable is declared of that type. 8. When does the structure assignment takes place ? Ans. The structure assignment is possible only when both the sides of the assignment operator has the variables of the same structure type. 9. What is typedef statement ? Explain Ans. Typedef statement is used for defining an alternative name for the datatype. typedef int a; In this statement a is given an alternative name for int data type. CHAPTER NAME : STRUCTURES

10. What is #define ? Explain Ans. It is used for defining constants and functions. It is a pre-processor directive. Eg. #define p 3.14 #define str “Maharishi Vidya Mandir” #define cube(a) a*a*a 11. What is the advantage and disadvantage of using #define ? Ans. Advantage : When we want to make any change in the constant value we can change it only in the statement and it will be reflected in the program which uses the value. Function overhead is avoided in #define macro. Disadvantage is that the function can include only one statement. Data types will not specified any where in the statement. 12. What is self referential structure ? Ans. A structure which refers to itself is called self referential structure. Eg. struct student { int sno; char name[25]; float avg; student *next; }; CHAPTER NAME : CLASSES AND OBJECTS 1. How encapsulation is implemented in C++ ? Give an example. Ans. Encapsulation is implemented in C++ through classes. Eg. class item { int itno; char itemname[25]; int qty; float price; public : void accept(); void display(); float totcost(); }; 2. Define a class and an object. Ans. A class is a collection of objects with common characteristics and behavior. An object is an individual entity with its own characteristics and behavior. 3. What are the ways of defining the member functions of a class ? Ans. There are 2 ways of defining the member functions of a class. 1. The function definition can be given within the class. 2. The function definition can be given outside the class using scope resolution operator. 4. What are access specifiers ?

Ans. Access specifiers specifies the accessibility of the members of the class. They are private, public, protected. Private - members can be accessed only within the class Protected - members can be accessed within the class and by the derived class. Public – members can be accessed within the class, by the derived class and by other functions. 5. Explain inline function . Ans. Member functions which are defined inside the class are automatically inline. The users can define their functions as inline by including the keyword inline before the return type in their function header. 6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of inline function. Ans. Advantage : Function overhead is avoided. Disadvantage : Goto statements are to be avoided. 7. What is nested member function ? Give example. Ans. A member function call given in other member function definition is called nested member function. Eg. class sample { int a,b; public : void Calc() { cout<<a+b; } void accept() { cin>>a>>b; Calc(); } }; 8. What is a friend function ? Ans. A non-member function given the privilege to access the private members of a class is called a friend function. 9. Differentiate between member function and non-member function. Member function Non-member function It is a member of a class It is not a member of a class It can access the private members of the class. Cannot access the private members of the class.

10. What is the purpose of the scope resolution operator ? Ans. (i) It is used to access the global variable which has the same name as that of the local variable. (ii) It is used to define the member function outside the class.


How the memory is allocated for objects ?

Ans. Why it is a bad idea to declare the data members of a class under the public category ? Ans. Explain nested classes with an example. float avg. 3.Ans. 2. class admission { student s. A class within another class is called a nested class. void func(double). Data members occupy different memory allocation and member functions occupy common memory allocation. Ans. 13. What are the types of member functions ? explain. What is polymorphism ? How it is implemented in C++ ? Ans. It is because the data members contain the information which has to be protected from outside and data abstraction to be retained in the program. char name[25]. void func(int). It is implemented in C++ through function overloading. (ii) Mutator functions :These member functions allows us to change the data member.It allows the user to access the data member. }. public : void accept(). What is function signature ? . It do not change the value of the data members. public : void in(). }. 14. void func(float). (i) Accessor functions . class student { int sno. Polymorphism is an ability of one object to exist in different forms in different situation. void display(). void out(). 12. Functions with the same name with different function signature. Eg. (iii) Manager functions : These are the member functions with specific functions like constructing and destroying the members of a class. What is function overloading ? Explain Ans. CHAPTER NAME : FUNCTION OVERLOADING 1.

Constructor Member function It is a member function with the same It can be of any name. CHAPTER NAME : CONSTRUCTOR AND DESTRUCTOR 1. It must have return type. What are the different types of constructor ? Explain Ans.if exact match is not found the integral promotion takes place. Give the steps involved in identifying the best match. What is a compiler constructor ? . (ii) Match through promotion . 4.if step(iii) fails the typecasting occurs in which the user can do the conversion. 6. The calling statement matches for more than one function definition is called the ambiguous match. (i) Exact match – searches for an exact match with respect to the data type. 3. Eg. Ans.05). 2. A constructor is a member function which has the same name as that of the class and is used for initializing the data members with initial values. Ans. It is the function argument list. 4. Differentiate between constructor and member function. name as that of the class. The derived class is called the concrete class. (iv) Match through user defined conversion . It cannot have return type. Int –float and float –double etc. Define constructor. Avoid using both default arguments and function overloading which will result in ambiguous match. (i) default constructor – a constructor with no arguments (ii)argument constructor – a constructor with the arguments (iii) copy constructor – a constructor used to copy one object’s value into another object. 5. 7. Ans. The class which is meant only derivation that is the base class is called an abstract class. What is an abstract class and concrete class ? Ans.float r=0.Ans. Ans. (iii) Match through standard C++ conversion – if the step (ii) fails then match through C++ conversion takes place ie. int t=4. Explain default arguments versus function overloading. Int calculate( float p. What is an ambiguous match ? Ans.

5. Differentiate between constructor and destructor. Ans.What are temporary instances or anonymous objects ? Ans. 9. (i) implicity call . (i) Constructor does not have return type. 6. Ans. It is a temporary object that lives in the memory as long as the statement gets executed. It will be overridden by the user defined constructor. It is created when an explicit call is made to a constructor. In explicit call to a constructor temporary instances are created. (i) it doesn’t take any arguments. Give the special characteristics of a constructor. 12. 7. (iv) It cannot be the member of the union. What are the two ways of calling a constructor ? Ans. (ii) explicit call . Ans. (ii) When the function returns an object.sample s.sample s=sample(). When the user defined constructor is not given by the user then the compiler invokes the constructor of its class. (iii) We cannot take the address of the constructor. Ans. CHAPTER NAME : INHERITANCE . (i) When any function takes an object as an argument by value. It lives in the memory as long as the statement is executed. It is used for destroying objects created by the constructor. 8. (ii) it is used for destroying objects.Ans. Constructor Destructor It is used for creating objects It is used for destroying objects It can take arguments It cannot take arguments It is labelled with the class name It is labeled with the tilde symbol and the class name 10. 11. What is destructor ? Ans. First the constructors of the classes used inside a class will be called and the class’s constructor. Destructor invocation is just the opposite of the constructor invocation. Give the order of constructor and destructor invocation in a nested class. Give any two characteristics of a destructor. Give two situations when the copy constructor is called automatically . (ii) It cannot be static. Ans.

(v) Hybrid . What are the types of inheritance ? Ans. Visibility modes specifies the accessibility of the base class members in the derived class. Eg. (ii) reusability (iii) transitive nature of inheritance. Explain the types of inheritance. 7. Protected and public members of the base class goes as the protected members of the derived class. .inheritance in different levels ie. 4. Class B is deriving from class A and class C is deriving from class B. 2. 6.private members are inherited but they cannot be accessed by the derived class directly.private members are inherited but they cannot be accessed by the derived class directly. Define Inheritance. Ans.many base classes and one derived class. (ii) protected . Give the advantages of inheritance. (iii) Multi-level . Protected and public members of the base class goes as the protected and public members of the derived class. 3. we have to pass the arguments inclusive of the base class members. (iii) public . (i) Single . This visibility mode stops the inheritance.How constructors be used in Inheritance ? Ans. 5. The capability of one class to inherit the properties and behavior of another class is called inheritance. Constructors and destructors cannot be inherited. base class and one derived class. (iv) Hierarchial – one base class and many derived classes.1. (i) private – private members are inherited but they cannot be accessed by the derived class directly. when we write the definition of the derived class constructor. Ans. because the derived class object is only be created in inheritance concept.combination of any of the forms of inheritance.Explain different visibility modes. Ans. Protected and public members of the base class goes as the private members of the derived class. (i) Single (ii) Multiple (iii) Multi-level (iv) Hierarchial (v) Hybrid. (ii) Multiple . class A { int a. In the case of the argument constructor. (i) Closest to the real world. What is visibility mode ? Ans.

. }. To access the global variable the ::SRO is used. What are virtual base classes ? Ans. By default as per the public derivation public goes public. public : B(int x. (ii) We cannot deny the access to certain data members.public : A(int x) { a=x. 10. Ans. the base class member and the derived class member is with the same name. }. Base classes which helps us to avoid two copies of the base classes in the derived classes are called as virtual base classes. But we have made the x to be in private of derived class which is not possible. public : A(int). } }. } }. class B {int y. Eg. Explain constructors in nesting of classes. Discuss some facts about inheritance. 9. To access the base class member base class name::variable name is used. In nested classes the constructors of the inner classes will be called first and then the outer class. class A { int x. class A { public : int x. class B :public A { int b. 8. (i) When the global y):A(x) { b=y. Ans. class B : public A { A::x. the global variable is hidden. }.

fstream. class C { A a1. Using constructor Using open() To open multiple files in succession To open multiple files in succession using the same object.Differentiate between ios::app and ios::ate Ans. They are (i) using constructor and (ii) using open function. There are 2 ways of opening files. Differentiate between text and binary file. 4. It is a collection of related information. 8. records. What is a stream ? Ans. Name the stream classes associated with file related operations. 9. the open() can not work because the object has to be be used. 5. public : C(int m.b1(n) { } }. It is a collection of bytes. }. Ans. Ans. Differentiate between opening files using constructor and open(). Text file Binary file It stores information in ASCII It stores information as block of data or characters. 2. CHAPTER NAME : DATA FILE HANDLING 1. ifstream. Ios::app Ios::ate . 3.public : B(int). 7. Which header file is used for file related operations ? Ans. Name the streams associated with file related operations. Character translation does not take place. Character translation takes place.h 6. What are the ways of opening files ? Ans. created. constructor will using the same object. Input stream and output stream. n):a1(m). Define a file. ofstream and fstream. B b1.

write(). 17. ios::nocreate mode will not create the file if it is not there. eof() returns a non-zero value when the end of file is reached otherwise zero value.What is the purpose of ios::nocreate ? Ans. will be removed from the input stream by the complier. information from the file Eof().The file pointer will be positioned at the end of the file and insertion can take place from the end. 16.get() Eof(). Seekp() Moves the put pointer to the respective location for writing. 15. Seekp() Tellp() It is used to move the put pointer to To show the position of where the put the respective position for writing. 14. information from the file Write(). Differentiate between seekp() and Ans. pointer is in the file.Differentiate between ifstream and fstream Ans. Ans. .getline() 13. Ios::app Helps us to add the contents to the file without erasing the existing content The file pointer will be positioned at the end of the file whereas the insertion can take place anywhere in the file. Differentiate between ofstream and fstream Ans. ofstream Fstream It is meant only for writing the It is meant for both reading and writing.getline() 12. Associated with ofstream and ifstream ios::app Ios::out Helps us to overwrite the contents of the file.Differentiate between ios::out and Ans.Differentiate between get() and getline() in files. int eof(). Associated with ofstream 10. read(). seekg() Seekg() Moves the get pointer to the respective location for reading. Ifstream Fstream It is meant only for reading the It is meant for both reading and writing. 11. Get() Getline() Get() can read a character and a string Getline() can read a character and a from the file and the delimiter will be string from the file and the delimiter available in the input stream. What is the prototype of eof() ? Ans. read() Eof().Differentiate between seekp() and tellp() Ans.

A pointer variable holds the starting memory address of a variable. Memory which is allocated during run time is called dynamic memory allocation. Define a pointer. 9. A pointer is a variable which holds the memory address of another variable. remove() is used to delete the file from the system and rename() is used to rename a file with a proper name. Ans. The unallocated memory is called as free/heap memory. * operator. 12. Ans. Pointer variable Reference variable It is a variable which has the memory It is an alias name given for a variable. Ans. Which operator is called as the dereferencing or indirection operator ? Ans. What is a null pointer ? Ans. 11. Differentiate between pointer and reference variable. Give the use of remove() and rename(). What is the base address ? Ans. Increment and decrement operations and assignment. 4. address of another variable. What is a heap memory ? Ans. new and delete. Ans. What is a wild pointer ? Ans. Name the operators used for dynamic memory allocation. Ans.18. The memory map is allocated as follows : (i) Compiled code. Differentiate between the following statements : . A pointer variable which is initialized to NULL is called null pointer. Static and dynamic memory allocation. 2. 6. 13. (ii) Global variables (iii) Stack (iv) Heap memory (v) 5. 8. Explain C++ memory map. Ans. CHAPTER NAME : POINTERS 1. What is dynamic memory allocation ? Ans. 10. Name the operations performed using pointers. Uninitialized pointer is called wild pointer. 7. 3. What are the types of memory allocation ? Ans.

2. 4.*p. What is a Stack ? Ans. 17. 15. Insertion or deletion of an element takes place at only one point which is the top position. a is a pointer variable which always holds the starting memory address of the array. What operator is used for referencing structure elements using structure pointer ? Ans. When the memory is allocated dynamically using new and it is not deallocated using delete. Queue is a collection of elements in which it follows the mechanism of First In First Out (FIFO). What is a subscript or index number ? Ans. 5. it will result in memory leak. //statement 2 Ans. It is the pointer used by the compiler which points to the object that invokes the member function of a class. . What is the difference between a and p variable ? Ans. What are the different types of arrays ? Ans. structure elements are accessed using structure pointer followed by the -> operator. CHAPTER NAME :ARRAYS 1. (ii) The elements are referred under one name with the subscript number. 14. The subscript number in C++ starts with 0. What is a Queue ? *p=new int(5). The number which is used to access the array elements. 16. What is the need for an array ? Ans. but p is a pointer variable which can be made to point to any memory location. What is memory leak ? Ans. a and p are the pointer variables. //statement 1 int *p=new int[5]. Statement 1 declares a pointer variable p and it holds the address of the memory location of where the value 5 is stored. Consider the following statements : int a[20]. An array is a collection of data of same data type referenced under one common name. 6. 3. Insertion takes place at the rear end and deletion takes place at the front end. Stack is a collection of elements in which it follows the mechanism of Last In First Out (LIFO). What is this pointer ? Ans. (i) one-d array and (ii) multi-dimensional array. What is an array ? Ans. Statement 2 declares a pointer variable p which holds the starting address of the array of size 5. (i) The datas are stored in continuous memory location.

Data Integrity – to check in the related records in the database. (i) Push the operand on to the stack. Give the formula for calculating the address of an element in row-major and column-major form.Data consistency – ensuring correct values are entered by the user. 1. 3. Write the steps for evaluating the postfix expression. When the operator is encountered place it on to the stack. l2 – lower bound of column. External level. 3. 8. What is overflow and underflow ? Ans. How an array is represented in memory ? Ans. Enforcing standards .When the left parenthesis is encountered push it on to the stack. 1. Ans. CHAPTER NAME : DATABASE CONCEPTS 1. 6. Ans. The elements can be in any order. Ans. Deletion in an empty array results in underflow condition. Sharing of data – because of the usage by many users. Data Security – to prevent unauthorized access. 12. . 2. (ii) When the operator is encountered. The elements must be in either ascending or descending order. Linear search Binary search Searches for an element in the entire Minimises the comparison by dividing array from the beginning. List out the advantages of database. Data redundancy – duplication of data is avoided. Row – major form : Address of the A[i][j]element = BA + ES [n[i-l1] +[j-l2]] Column-major form : Address of the A[i][j] element = BA + ES [[i-l1] +m[j-l2]] BA – Base Address. It occupies continuous memory location. Ans. m .7. pop the top 2 elements from the stack . The number of elements inserted has reached the size of the array is called as overflow condition. 4. n-no. When the operand is encountered place it on the postfix expression. 9. Write the steps for conversion of infix to postfix expression . 3. have a proper way of communication 5. What is a database ? Ans. the array into two halves. Give the difference between linear and binary search technique ? Ans. 11. perform the operation and push the result back on to the stack. Conceptual level. 4. 10. Physical level. 2. of columns in the array .no. 2. l 1-lower bound of row. ES – Element Size . Insert the parenthesis based on the priority of the operators. When the right parenthesis is encountered pop the top most operator from the stack and place it on the postfix expression and remove one left parenthesis from the stack. What are the various levels of data abstraction ? Ans. of rows in the array. A database is a collection of related data.

Ans. 9. In network and hierarchial data model insertion and deletion of records is a difficult process whereas in the relational model it is easier because the information is available in the form of rows and columns. (ii) candidate key – all attributes which qualifies to become a primary key. (i) Hierarchial data model – records are organized as trees ie. One tuple should be in common in the relations. Give the types of data models . It contains unique and not null values. 8. Ans. What are the conditions for applying union operation ? Ans. The relations must be of the same degree. (v)degree – no. What is select and project operation ? Ans. 11. Types are : Logical data independence – Any change made in the conceptual level should not be affected in the External level.datas are represented in the form of table which consists of rows and columns. Name the types of users using the database . (i) relation – it is a table in which the data are organize in rows and columns. Select operation selects the tuples that satisfies the given condition. (iv) foreign key – A primary key of one relation if used in other relation it becomes the foreign key of that relation. Define the terms : (i) primary key (ii) candidate key (iii) alternate key (iv) foreign key. (ii) Network data model – datas are represented as collection of records and relationships among the datas are represented as links. 1. of attributes in a relation. Ans.4. (i) End user (ii) Application Programmer (iii) System Analyst. (iii) alternate key – A candidate key that is not the primary key. Project operation is a subset of select operation which specifies particular attributes for selection. Define the following terms : (i) relation (ii) attribute (iii) tuple (iv) cardinality (v) degree Ans. (iii) tuple – a row or record in a relation. 6. 5. Data independence is that when any changes made in one level should not be affected in the other level. What is data independence and explain its types ? Ans. . Ans. of tuples in a relation. Parent-child relationship. (i) primary key – it is a set of one or more attributes that identifies a tuple in a relation. Discuss the advantage of relational model over the other models . 10. 2. 7. (iv) cardinality – no. (iii) Relational data model . (ii) attribute – a column or field in a relation. Physical data independence – Any change made in the Physical level should not be affected in the Conceptual level.

What are the different types of constraints ? Ans. . Differentiate between where and having clause. Having – it is applicable for grouped records in the relation. Ans. Differentiate between drop table and delete command. DML ? Ans. Group by – Groups the tuples based on an attribute.Data Manipulation Language – has commands for operating on the records/tuples in the relation. It is a condition to check on a field/attribute. Update command is used to update the values in the records. Alter table will alter only the design of the table. Not Null – allows the user to enter values except null. What is DDL. Unique – which allows null values and different values.which contains unique and not null values . Ans. Differentiate between order by and group by clause. 3. What is the purpose of distinct keyword in the select statement ? Ans. 7. DDL is Data Definition Language – has commands for designing the relation structure. Drop table will remove the entire table from the database if the table is empty. It selects the different values from an attribute for display. SQL is structured Query Language – it is a language which is used to create and operate on relational databases. Order by – Arranges all the tuples based on a particular attribute. Ans. What is SQL ? Ans. Primary key . What is a constraint ? Ans. 6. 10.1. 2. 5. Differentiate between alter table and update command. Delete command will remove the records from the table. View is the virtual table created from the existing base table for display purposes. What is a view ? Ans. Where – it is applicable for all the tuples in the relation. CHAPTER NAME : SQL 4. Check – checks the value for a condition Default –assigns the default value for an attribute. 9. It was developed at IBM’s San Jose Research Laboratory. Ans. 8. DML .

4. 2. (iv) Communication medium : It is easier to share the messages to different people all over the world which speeds up the cooperation among the users. Ans. Explain evolution of networking. . the entire network fails and it is very difficult to share the files. (ii) Reliability : The files can be stored in different systems on the network. if the server fails. 3. What is the need for networking ? or Discuss the advantages of network. (iv)File Security is more important because if connected to WAN’s full protection is required against viruses. peripherals and the programs across the network.CHAPTER NAME : COMMUNICATION AND NETWORK CONCEPTS 1. (iii) If the software and the files are located on the central system called server. Ans. Define a network. Ans. If one copy is lost due to system crash still the file can be used which is stored in the other systems. Networking helps us to do the following : (i) Resource sharing : helps us to share the datas. (iii) Cost factor : PC’s have better price and performance. (ii) If it is not managed properly it becomes unusuable . So it’s better to have one user per PC whereas the datas are shared on the network. (i) The systems are to be managed by the special person to run the network. A network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Write the disadvantages of network.

• NIU is also called as TAP (Terminal Access Point) or NIC (Network Interface Card). It is used when end-to-end path between the computers is needed. (i) Circuit switching – The physical connection is established between the source and the destination computer and then the datas are transmitted. 8.S.The system which is purely meant for serving purposes on the network. Eg. 1. What is NIU ? • NIU is Network Interface Unit is a device attached to each of the workstations and the server. Give the different types of server ? Ans. 11. What are the three types of switching techniques ? Ans. The network using such servers are called Master-Slave network. created a high capacity network called NSF net which allowed only academic research on the network. MAC Address is Media Access Control Address. What is a server ? Ans. 3. software and hardware. 6. software and hardware on the network is called a server. The network using such servers are called Peer-to-Peer Network. (i) Circuit switching (ii) message switching and (iii) packet switching. It helps the workstation establish all connection with the network. print server. 7. file server. What do you mean by switching techniques ? Ans. Ans. The main computer which facilitates the sharing of data. 5. The switching techniques are used for transmitting data across the network. Explain the switching techniques Or Differentiate between any of the switching techniques. A node is the computer attached to the network. • Each NIU attached to the workstation has a unique address . modem server. 10. . the National Science Foundation. What is a node ? Ans. (ii) non-dedicated server – The system on the network which plays the dual role of the server and the workstation is called as non-dedicated server. So. (i) dedicated server . Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.The NIU manufacturer assigns a unique physical address to each NIU. 2. 9. many private companies developed their own network and linked it with the ARPANET and NSFNet and that was named as Internet. This physical address is called as MAC Address. In 1969 the first network was developed called ARPANET ie.Ans. to help workstations access data. It is also called as workstation. It seeks to share the resources of the network. In mid 80’s another agency. terminal. This network was designed to connect computers at different universities and U. defense.

Ans. water or vacuum. The twisting of wires reduces crosstalk. The data are sent from the source computer to the switching office and then to the destination computers. In this technique the data are stored in the disk. Disadvantages : 1. 14. All the packets of fixed size are stored in the main memory.(ii) Message switching – It uses the technique of store and forward. Shielded twisted pair It can support 500 Mbps bandwidth Unshielded twisted pair It can support only bandwidth 100 Mbps . The twisted pair cable consists of two identical wires wrapped together in a double helix. It is very inexpensive. What are the types of communication media ? Ans. 2. 17. List out the types of twisted pair cable. What is twisted pair cable ? Ans. It is easy to install and maintain. Advantages : 1. Define transmission media or communication channel. Ans. What are the types of guided media. 1. Differentiate between Unshielded and shielded twisted pair cable. (i) Guided media includes cables and (ii) unguided media include waves through air. The communication media is categorized as guided media and unguided media. Ans. There is no limit on the block size of the data. 13. It places a tight upper limit on the block size. 12. 2. Packet means the datas are divided into byte format. (iii) Packet switching – The data is divided into different packets in this technique. Ans. List out the advantages and disadvantages of twisted pair cable . It means connecting cables or connecting media in a network.Shielded twisted pair cable. The types of guided media are (i) Twisted pair cable (ii) Co-axial cable (iii) Fibre optic cable 15. Ans. 16. Unshielded twisted pair cable 2. It is incapable of carrying a signal over long distances without using the repeaters. It supports maximum data rates of 1 Mbps without conditioning to 10 Mbps with conditioning. 18. which is the bleeding of signal from one wire to another which in turn can cause network errors.

each separated by an insulator. Parabolic antennas are mounted on towers to send a beam to other antennas ten kms away. Ans. 19. Advantages : 1. 23. Optical fibres consists of thin strands of glass that carry light from a source at one end of the fiber to a detector at the other end. Ans. while It offers greater protection from interference and crosstalk due to shielding. What is coaxial cable ? Ans. 2. Disadvantages : 1. Offer high bandwidth upto 400 Mbps. It is widely used for television signals which supports high speed communication. Expensive when compared to twisted pair. Thicknet : This type of cable can be upto 500 mts long. Coaxial cable consists of a solid wire core surrounded by one or more foil or wire shields. They are most expensive. The fiber optic cable consists of 3 pieces : (i) the core – the glass or plastic through which the light travels. . 2. Disadvantages : 1. List out the advantages and disadvantages of fibre optic cable . List out the advantages and disadvantages of coaxial cable .It has interference communication. 2. receiver and the atmosphere. (ii) the cladding – which is the covering of the core which reflects light back to the core and (iii) protective coating . It offers freedom from land acquisition rights that are required for laying. 21. It consists of a transmitter. Long.which protects the fiber cable from hostile environment. When the radio wave frequency is higher than 3 GHz it is named as microwave. 2. Advantages : 1. It supports secured transmission and a very high transmission capacity. 2. It is not compatible with twisted pair. 1. The inner core carries the signal and the shield provide the ground. Ans. Ans. List out the types of coaxial cable. 22. What is microwave transmission ? Ans. the greater the range. List out the advantages and disadvantages of microwave transmission. Installation is very hard. 20. repairing the cables. Advantages : 1. 24. It can be used for broadband transmission. It is immune to interference either magnetic or electrical. The microwave transmission are used to transmit without the use of cables.Thinnet : This type of cable can be upto 185 mts. The higher the tower. What is optical fibre ? Ans. 25.

29. The heavy usage of intercontinental traffic makes the satellite commercial attractive. TV remotes. It is susceptible to weather conditions. Eg. (i) (ii) Define the following : Data Channel : It is the medium to carry data from one end to another. Ans. It is an insecure communication. What is radio wave transmission ? Ans. It offers mobility.2. 2. implementation and maintenance is high. Advantages : 1. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Baud : It is the unit of measurement for the information carrying capacity of the communication channel. The transmitter takes the message and encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. the earth station consists of a satellite dish that functions as an antenna and the communication equipment to transmit and receive the data from satellites passing overhead. Advantages : 1. What is satellite means of communication ? Ans. List out the advantages and disadvantages of satellite transmission. It has the ability to communicate over oceans. 28. The high investment cost. Explain other unguided media . Over crowding of available bandwidths due to low antenna gains. It is unidirectional and it transmits data at a higher speed than microwave. 31. (i) Infrared : This type of transmission uses infrared light to send data. It has two parts : the transmitter and the receiver. It is an insecure communication. 2. Ans. 26. In this communication. Ans. (ii) Laser : The laser transmission requires direct line-of-sight. 2. 2. The area coverage through satellite transmission is large. 2. It offers ease of communication over difficult terrain. The transmission making use of radio frequencies is termed as radio wave transmission. List out the advantages and disadvantages of radiowave transmission. It offers secured transmission. Both of them uses antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. Disadvantages : 1. Disadvantages : 1. 27. The cost of design. Satellite communication is a special way of microwave relay system. Disadvantages : 1. 30. .

36. Explain the types of network .gigahertz THz . Long cable length 2. 39. Ans. . What is topology ? Ans. kilometers Very low error rates Higher error rates. Ans. (vi) Data transfer rates : The amount of data transferred per second by a communication channel is called data transfer rates. (iii)WAN – The network which is spread across countries and continents is called WAN. (iv) Narrowband : Low bandwidth channels are called narrowband. Advantage : 1. Ans. What is star topology ? List out the advantage and disadvantage of it. (ii)MAN – The network which is spread over a city is called MAN. The layout of the computers on the network is called topology. (i) LAN – Small computer networks that are limited to a localized area is known as LAN. 35. What are the types of network ? Ans.Megahertz GHz . 32. (iii) Broadband : High bandwidth channels are called broadband. Differentiate between LAN and WAN LAN WAN Diameter is not more than a few Span across countries and continents. Star topology consists of a central node to which all other nodes are connected. One device per connection – failure of one node will not affect the network. What is bus topology ? List out the advantage and disadvantage of it. Central node dependency. (i) LAN – Local Area Network(ii) MAN – Metropolitan Area Network (iii)WAN – Wide Area Network 34. bps – bits per second Bps – Bytes per second kbps – kilo bits per second Kbps – Kilo Bytes per second mbps – mega bits per second Mbps – Mega bytes per second kHz – kilohertz MHz . List out the different types of topology. (v) Hertz : Frequency is measured in hertz.Terahertz 33.(iii)Bandwidth : It refers to the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies of a transmission channel. (i) Star (ii) bus (iii) ring (iv) Tree (v) graph (vi) Mesh 38. Disadvantage : 1. 37. Centralized control 2. Expand the following : Ans.

Advantage : 1. What is a hub ? Explain its types. Fault diagnosis is difficult 2. 2. 43. The data can be transmitted in only one direction. What is Ethernet Card ? Ans. fibre optic or twisted pair cable). 44. . Ans. What is graph topology ? Ans. MODEM – MOdulator DEModulator 45. Short cable length. Fault isolation is difficult – if a node is not working in the bus it has to be rectified at the point where the node is connected. It is an eight-wire connector. 41. which is commonly used to connect computers on the local area networks. Short cable length 2.Ans. What is RJ-45 ? Ans. 46. 42. It contains connections for either coaxial cable or twisted pair cable. Ans. What is tree topology ? Ans. no separate space is allocated for wiring. The bus has terminators at both the ends which absorb the signal. Attachment Unit Interface – 15 pin connector that can be used for attaching coaxial. 47. The computers that are part of Ethernet. It is linear topology which consists of a single length of the transmission medium onto which the various nodes are connected. RJ-45 is Registered Jack -45. Resilient architecture – means which has a single cable through which all the datas are transmitted. Hub can be classified as active and passive hub. Ethernet is a LAN architecture which used bus or star topologies . What is ring topology ? List out the advantage and disadvantage of it. A modem is a device which allows us to connect and communicate with other computers via telephone lines. each node is connected to more than one node to provide an alternative route. Some Ethernet cards also contain an AUI connector (ie. In this topology. Difficult to diagnose faults. 2. A link may or may not connect nodes. A hub is a device used to connect several computers together. Disadvantage : 1. 40. What is mesh topology ? Ans. Ans. Nodes are connected in a circular fashion. Hub is also referred as multi-slot concentrator. Nodes that are connected in an arbitrary fashion is called graph topology. Node failure causes network failure. removing it from the bus. Disadvantage : 1. Advantage : 1. No wiring closet space is required – Since there is only one cable connecting each node to its neighbouring node. Define modem. must have an Ethernet card. The shape of the network is that of an inverted tree with the central node branching to various nodes and the sub-branching to the extremities of the network.

HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol – is an application level protocol used for distributed. A router is a network device that connects networks which supports different protocols. 54. 5. Eg. Expand and explain the following protocols. 49. laser or satellite communications. What is a gateway ? Ans. 3. It prevents the traffic overloading in a network. two-way radio. 51. SLIP – Serial Line Internet Protocol – It was the first protocol for relaying IP packets over dial-up lines. A switch is a device that is used to segment networks into different subnetworks called subnets or LAN segments. It is a formal description of message formats and the rules to be followed for communication in a network. hypermedia information systems. 53. collaborative. What is Datagram ? Ans. It is a layered protocol which contains Link Control Protocol (LCP) for link establishment. 56. What is a repeater ? Ans. 52. Network Control Protocol (NCP) for transport traffic. It is a device that connects dissimilar networks. What is a router ? Ans. TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol – It is a protocol used for sending and receiving messages which are divided into packets. What is a bridge ? Ans. Wireless refers to the method of transferring information between a computing device and a data source without a physical connection. PPP – Point to Point Protocol . 4. This doesn’t support dynamic address assignment. Ans.It is the Internet Standard for transmission of IP packets over serial lines. Passive hubs : It allows the signal to pass from one computer to another without any change. 1. 2. What is a switch ? Ans. IP Control Protocol (IPCP) permits the transport of IP packets over a PPP link. What is a protocol ? Ans. What is Wireless communication ? Ans. A bridge is a network device that connects two similar networks which supports the same protocol. It can filter traffic in the network. It is a data communication without the use of landlines. 48. fixed wireless. A Datagram is a collection of the data that is sent as a single message. A repeater is a device which is used to amplify the signals being transmitted in a network. The computing device is continuously connected to the base network. FTP – File Transfer Protocol – is a protocol used for transferring files from one system to another.(i) (ii) Active hubs : These electrically amplifies the signal as it moves from one connected device to another. 50. 55. .

3G stands for Third Generation also called as UMTS ( Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems) is a broadband. 62. What is WLL ? Ans. What is Mobile computing ? Ans. (i) It does not suffer from weather conditions. (Subscriber Identification Module). What is 3G and EDGE ? Ans. cell phones. 58.57. video and multimedia at data rates upto and possibly higher that 2 mbps (mega bits per second). (ii)It offers better bandwidth than the traditional telephone systems. 59. 61. What is GSM ? Ans. Eg. What is TDMA ? Ans. Current SIMs have 16 to 64 kb of memory. 60. Discuss the advantages of WLL ? Ans. GSM users simply switch SIM cards. .based transmission of text. Each user’s signal is spread over the entire bandwidth by unique spreading code and at the receiver end the same unique code is used to recover the signal. digitized voice. 63. Mobile computing device means that the computing device is not continuously connected to the base or central network. In covered areas. 64. cell-phone users can buy one phone that will work anywhere where the standard is supported. GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. It has the memory. laptop computers. signaling services. WLL is Wireless in Local Loop is a system that connects subscribers to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio signals as a substitute for other connecting media. What is SIM ? Ans. which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. offering consistent services to mobile computer and phone users where ever they are in the world. CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access is a technology which uses a spread spectrum technique where the data is sent in small pieces over a number of discrete frequencies available for use. These products may communicate with the base location with or without wireless connection. What is CDMA ? Ans. (iii) It supports high quality transmission. PDA. packet. TDMA means Time Division Multiple Access is a technology which works on dividing a radio frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to multiple calls. the processor and the ability to interact with the user. GSM uses narrowband TDMA. SIM stands for Subscriber Identification Module which is a chip that gives a cellular device a unique phone number.

What is e-mail ? Ans. Ans.EDGE stands for Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution is a radio based highspeed mobile data standard. which acts a pointer to information on the WWW. Microsoft NetMeeting is the software which supports Once the message is sent by the sender. Define SMS. (ii) where subscriber is roaming. 72. .conferencing. . 71. What is video-conferencing ? Ans. It allows data transmission speeds of 384 kbps to be achieved when all eight time slots are used. What is chat ? Ans. SMS – Short Message Service is the transmission of short text messages to and from a mobile phone. (ii) URL – Uniform Resource Locator is the distinct address for each resource on the internet. 70. fax machine and/or IP address. (i) WWW . (i) low cost (ii) speed (iii) waste reduction (i. The voice mail refers to e-mail systems supporting audio. . 69. it will respond to the SMSC with the subscriber’s status : (i) inactive or active. A two-way videophone conversation among multiple participants is called video. it is received by the Short Message Service Center (SMSC). Once the HLR receives the request. Eg. Users can leave spoken messages for one another and listen to the messages by executing the appropriate command in the e-mail system. E-mail is Electronic mail is sending and receiving messages by the computer. How the SMS is being sent ? Ans. which will get into the appropriate mobile phone. Online textual talk in real time is called chatting. 67. List the advantages of E-mail. Eg. 66. .World Wide Web is a set of protocols that allows the user to access any document on the internet through a naming system based on URL. Ans. SMSC sends the SMS Request to the Home Location Register (HLM) to find the roaming customer. (iii)Domain Name – The characters based naming system by which servers are identified is known as Domain Naming (iv) Telnet – is an internet utility that let us log onto remote computer systems. paper) (iv) ease of use (v) record maintenance . Define the following terms : Ans. To do this. What is Voice mail ? Ans. 68.

Web Hosting – is a means of hosting web-server application on a computer system through which electronic content on the internet is readily available to any web-browser client. PHP (Hyper Text Preprocessor). improved. (i) Free Hosting (ii) Virtual or Shared Hosting (iii) Dedicated Hosting (iv) Colocation Hosting. JavaScript. (ii) XML – Extensible Markup Language – It is a language for documents containing structured information ie. Web Server – It is a WWW server which responds to the requests made by the Web browser. Popular server side scripting are PHP. It supports dynamic web pages.ASP (Active Server Pages).Hyper Text Markup Language – It is a document layout and hyperlink specification language which contains pre-defined tags that let us control the presentation of the information on the web-pages. Scripts are interpreted and executed by a certain program or scripting engine. Web page – The documents residing on web sites are called web pages. JSP (Java Server Pages). 74. The tags are not predefined and it allows the user to define the tag and their semantics. style sheets and scripts that allows documents to be animated. Ans. (v) Types of Script : (i) Client Side Script : This type of scripting enables interaction within a web page. They are browser dependent. Web site – is a collection of web pages.It is not browser dependent. Define the following : Ans. What is a free software ? Ans. copied and distributed by all who wish to do so. (ii) Server-Side Script : This type of scripting enables the completion or carrying out a task at the server. What is Open Source Software ? . No payments are needed to be made for free software. 75. Free software means the software is freely accessible and can be freely used. changes. Script – It is a list of commands embedded in a web-page. 73. (iii)DHTML – Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language – The language which uses the combinations of HTML. 76. Popular Client side scripting are VBScript. Which contains both content and some indication of what role that content plays. It supports only static webpages. Give the types of Web Hosting . (i) HTML .end and then sending the result to the client-end.(v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) Web browser – It is software which the WWW client that navigates through the World Wide Web and displays Web pages. (iii) (iv) Web Scripting : the process of creating and embedding scripts in a web page is known as web scripting.

. 83. Explain OSI. but it does not have to be free of charge. What is FLOSS ? Ans. 84. Further distribution and modification of the software required special permission by the supplier or the vendor. It emphasizes on freedom and thus its logotype is an animal living in freedom. Source code is not readily available. GNU refers to GNU’s Not Unix. Shareware is a software. but it is limited ie. Open Source Software can be freely used which means making modifications. Libre or Livre means freedom. The software which is available free of cost which allows copying and redistribution but not modification whose source code is not available. 85. including applications apart from OS. If one intends to use the software after a certain period of time. it offers a wide range of software. What is Shareware ? Ans. 82. 80. It was initiated by Richard M. 79. FLOSS is used to refer a software which is both free software as well as open source software. What is a Proprietory software ? Ans. What is Freeware ? Ans. which is made available with the right to redistribute copies. Ans. FLOSS refers to Free Libre and Open Source Software or Free Livre and Open Source Software. a license fee should be paid. FSF stands for Free Software Foundation is a non-profit organization created for the purpose of supporting free software movement. (i) Free redistribution (ii) Source code (iii) Derived works (iv) Integrity of the Author’s Source code (v) No discrimination against persons or groups (vi) No discrimination against fields of endeavor (vii) Distribution of License (viii) License must not be specific to a product (ix) The license must not restrict other software (x) License must be technology neutral. W3C is an acronym for World Wide Web Consortium which is responsible for producing the software standards for the world wide web. Ans. Now. 81. 77. Source code is not available and the modifications cannot be made. What is W3C ? Ans. Stallman with an objective to create a system compatible to Unix but not identical with it. What is FSF ? Ans. It is the software that is neither open nor freely available. OSI is Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to cause of promoting open source software. 78.Ans. constructing business models . In open source software the source code is freely available to the customer and it can be modified and redistributed without any limitation. What is GNU ? Ans. List out the criteria for distributing open source software.

especially through the internet. It is a term which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of internet and the world wide web. (i) Authorization – login-id (ii) Authentication – password-protection (iii)Encrypted Smart Cards – It is a hand held card that can generate a token that a computer can recognize. Everytime a new and different token is generated. What are cookies ? Ans. 2000 is based on the United Nation’s Commission for International Trade related laws(UNCITRAL) model law. 89. 88. (iv) Biometric systems – finger-prints (v) Firewall – It is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Ans. which is obscene in electronic form (iv) Child Pornography (v) Accessing protected system (vi) Breach of confidentiality and privacy 93. What is Cyber Law ? Ans. It can be implemented in both hardware and software. 90. The Crackers are the malicious programmers who break into secure systems. What are the problems encountered under network security ? Ans. It can be classified as (i) Physical Security holes (ii) Software security holes (iii) Inconsistent Usage holes 87. Information Technology Act. Ans. Give the types of firewall techniques. (i) Packet filter (ii) Application gateway (iii) Circuit-level gateway (iv) Proxy server. 91. Explain Cyber Crime ? Ans. 92. Cyber Crime are the crimes committed with the use of computers or relating to computers.86. What is IPR ? . Classification of Cyber Crime : (i) Tampering with the computer source documents (ii) Hacking (iii) Publishing of information. What are the protection methods followed to secure the network ? Ans. Differentiate between Hackers and Crackers. Cookies are messages that a web server transmits to a web browser so that the web server can keep track of the user’s activity on a specific web site. The Hackers are more interested in gaining knowledge about the computers and possibly using this knowledge form playful pranks.

Install and use antivirus software. (iv)can destroy specific executable files. . (i) to make the system unstable. it is a second generation (2G) and third generation (3G) wireless data service that extends GSM data capabilities for Internet access. Always scan files downloaded from the internet or other sources. multimedia messaging services. It is the unsolicited usually commercial e-mail sent to a large number of addresses. What is Trojan Horse ? Ans. (ii) Not to register with true id on the internet. SPAM refers to electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. The following are the points that we must remember to follow to prevent viruses : 1. typically 150 MHz and up. 100. Explain 1G. 1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology. 99. destroying parts of programs and files. 94. Use Licensed software. 98. 3. How to prevent viruses ? Ans. 95. the voice during a call is is modulated to higher frequency. What is a worm ? Ans. A worm is a program designed to replicate. What is meant by GPRS? General Packet Radio Service. 2. 103. 96. including copyrighted property such as literary or artistic works and ideational property. Check for virus when using secondary storage devices in the system. A Trojan Horse is code hidden in a program such as a game or spreadsheet that looks safe to run but has hidden side effects. Ans. 4. Ans. (v) Can cause the system to hang.Ans. 102. Discuss the ways of avoiding Spam. a standard for wireless communications which supports a wide range of bandwidths. The Intellectual Property may be defined as a product of the intellect that has commercial value. as well as other wireless data services. What is a Computer Virus ? Ans. Explain 2G. List out the damages that the virus can cause. 5. 101. (ii) destroy file allocation table. 97. Computer virus is a malicious program that requires a host and is designed to make a system sick. What is SPAM ? Ans. (iii)can create bad sectors in the disk. These are the analog telecommunications standards that use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. and early mobile Internet applications via the wireless application protocol (WAP). Keep antivirus software up to date. (i) to create a filter that finds and does something to email that you suspect as spam.

Explain SMTP and POP3 Protocols. Explain PAN. The SMTP protocol can only be used to send emails. a cell phone and/or a handheld computing device such as a PDA) is called PAN (Personal Area Network) 109. wikis. 105. Tools are available free and widely used by people some of them are facebook. 104. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) implementations enables users to carry voice traffic (for example.. 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. Define Wi-Fi and Wimax. The POP (Post Office Protocol 3) protocol provides a simple. Youtube. telephone calls and faxes) over an IP network. WiMAX networks can deliver good VOIP quality 107. offering a metropolitan area network with a signal radius of about 50 km (30 miles). 106. or digital audio player. video game console. What is meant by Remote Login? Remote access is the ability to get access to a computer or a network from a remote distance.2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. VoIP uses Internet Protocol for transmission of voice as packets over IP networks. The SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) protocol is used by the Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) to deliver the EMail to the recipient's mail server. In simple words Remote Login means to access other computers on the network or on the other network by the use of telnet or rlogin command .0 are blogs. 108. What is meant by Web2.. Blogger. 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard and were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels.0 refers to added features and applications that make the web more interactive. social networking websites etc. Wi-Fi ( Wireless Fidility) is a mechanism for wirelessly connecting electronic devices.” or 4G. smartphone. Network organized around an individual person (typically involve a mobile computer. When using the POP protocol all the EMail messages can be downloaded from the mail server to the local computer. Twitter etc. can connect to the Internet via a wireless network access point. standardized way for users to access mailboxes and download messages to their computers. Define VoIP. video-sharing websites. such as a personal computer. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access ) is a communication technology for wirelessly delivering high-speed Internet service to large geographical areas.0? Web 2. of wireless-communication technology. Some noticeable features of Web 2. support easy online information exchange and interoperatibility. A device enabled with Wi-Fi. not to receive them. far surpasses the 30-metre (100-foot) wireless range of a conventional Wi-Fi (LAN). It is a part of a “fourth generation.