# Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F

Split ForenameSurname Page 1 of 138 G H

Split Forename and Surname
The following formula are useful when you have one cell containing text which needs to be split up. One of the most common examples of this is when a persons Forename and Surname are entered in full into a cell. The formula use various text functions to accomplish the task. Each of the techniques uses the space between the names to identify where to split. Finding the First Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams First Name Alan Bob Carol

=LEFT(C14,FIND(" ",C14,1)) =LEFT(C15,FIND(" ",C15,1)) =LEFT(C16,FIND(" ",C16,1))

Finding the Last Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams

=RIGHT(C22,LEN(C22)-FIND(" ",C22)) =RIGHT(C23,LEN(C23)-FIND(" ",C23)) =RIGHT(C24,LEN(C24)-FIND(" ",C24))

Finding the Last name when a Middle name is present The formula above cannot handle any more than two names. If there is also a middle name, the last name formula will be incorrect. To solve the problem you have to use a much longer calculation. Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams
=RIGHT(C37,LEN(C37)-FIND("#",SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","#",LEN(C37)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","")))))

Finding the Middle name Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Middle Name David John Susan
=LEFT(RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),FIND(" ",RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),1))

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 C D E F G H I

Percentages Page 2 of 139 J

Percentages
There are no specific functions for calculating percentages. You have to use the skills you were taught in your maths class at school! Finding a percentage of a value Initial value % to find Percentage value 120 25% 30 =D8*D9

Example 1 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise. The wages department need to calculate the increases. Staff on different grades get different pay rises. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Frank % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C A Old Salary Increase 10,000 1,000 20,000 3,000 30,000 6,000 25,000 3,750 32,000 6,400 12,000 1,200

=E23*LOOKUP(D23,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E24*LOOKUP(D24,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E25*LOOKUP(D25,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E26*LOOKUP(D26,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E27*LOOKUP(D27,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E28*LOOKUP(D28,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)

Finding a percentage increase Initial value % increase Increased value 120 25% 150 =D33*D34+D33

Example 2 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise. The wages department need to calculate the new salary including the % increase. Staff on different grades get different pay rises. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C Old Salary Increase £ 10,000 11,000 £ 20,000 23,000 £ 30,000 36,000 £ 25,000 28,750 £ 32,000 38,400

=E48*LOOKUP(D48,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E48 =E49*LOOKUP(D49,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E49 =E50*LOOKUP(D50,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E50 =E51*LOOKUP(D51,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E51 =E52*LOOKUP(D52,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E52

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 C Frank D A E 12,000

Percentages Page 3 of 139 F G H I 13,200 =E53*LOOKUP(D53,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E53 J

£

Finding one value as percentage of another Value A Value B A as % of B 120 60 50% =D59/D58

You will need to format the result as % by using the % button on the toolbar. Example 3 A manager has been asked to submit budget requirements for next year. The manger needs to specify what will be required each quarter. The manager knows what has been spent by each region in the previous year. By analysing the past years spending, the manager hopes to predict what will need to be spent in the next year. Last years figures Region Q1 Q2 North 9,000 South 7,000 East 2,000 West 8,000 Total 26,000

Q3 2,000 4,000 8,000 9,000 23,000 9,000 9,000 7,000 6,000 31,000

Q4 7,000 5,000 3,000 5,000 20,000

Total 100,000

Last years Quarters as % of last years Total Region Q1 Q2 North 9% 2% South 7% 4% East 2% 8% West 8% 9% Total 26% 23% Next years budget 150,000 Next years estimated budget requirements Region Q1 Q2 North 13,500 3,000 South 10,500 6,000 East 3,000 12,000 West 12,000 13,500 Total 39,000 34,500

Q3 9% 9% 7% 6% 31%

Q4 7% 5% 3% 5% 20%

=G74/\$H\$78 =G75/\$H\$78 =G76/\$H\$78 =G77/\$H\$78 =G78/\$H\$78

Q3 13,500 13,500 10,500 9,000 46,500

Q4 10,500 7,500 4,500 7,500 30,000

=G82*\$E\$88 =G83*\$E\$88 =G84*\$E\$88 Total 150,000

Finding an original value after an increase has been applied Increased value % increase Original value Example 4 150 25% 120 =D100/(100%+D101)

Unfortunately the receipts held by the employee only show the total amount.2000 Peter Noneley A B 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 C D E F G H I An employ has to submit an expenses claim for travelling and accommodation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 200.00 8.50% Total Actual Value Vat Value 10.00 35. VAT rate Receipt Petrol Hotel Petrol 17. The employee needs to split this total to show the original value and the VAT amount.50 100. The claim needs to show the VAT tax portion of each receipt.50 =D115/(100%+\$D\$110) Percentages Page 4 of 139 J =D113-D113/(100%+\$D\$110) .51 1.49 235.00 117.00 17.

The ' is the left single quote usually found on the key to left of number 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B C D E F G Show all formula Page 5 of 138 H Show all formula You can view all the formula on the worksheet by pressing Ctrl and `.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .) Press the same combination to see the original view. Press Ctrl and ` to see the formula below. (The screen may look a bit odd. 10 30 50 70 20 40 60 80 30 70 60 30 .

Accept Labels in Formula. Options. This formula can be copied to D16 and E16. and the names change to Feb and Mar. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer. Calculation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . You can switch it on by using Tools.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 6 of 138 H SUM using names You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D E F G H Instant Charts Page 7 of 138 Instant Charts You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 while inside a range of data. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above. . Then press F11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G

Brackets in formula Page 8 of 138 H

Brackets in formula
Sometimes you will need to use brackets, (also known as 'braces'), in formula. This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply. Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and - . The * and / operations will be calculated before + and - . Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50

Example 2 : The correct answer. 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first, resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G

Age Calculation Page 9 of 138 H

Age Calculation
You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date. The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5, 7 or 97, but it is in 2000. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 4 4 =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y") =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym") =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")

You can put this all together in one calculation, which creates a text version. Age is 53 Years, 4 Months and 4 Days
="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y")&" Years, "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")&" Days"

Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months. If the age is 20.5, the .5 represents 6 months. Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 53.34 =(TODAY()-C23)/365.25

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G

AutoSum Shortcut Key Page 10 of 138 H

AutoSum Shortcut Key
Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar, you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column, then press Alt and =. or Select a row, column or all cells and then press Alt and =. Jan 10 20 30 40 Feb 50 60 70 80 Mar 90 100 200 300 Total

North South East West Total

25 Absolute Value 10 10 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G ABS Page 11 of 138 H ABS Number 10 -10 1. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 shows the original calculations.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number. Whether the wood was too long or short. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference . Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% -25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured.25 1.25 -1. no special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber.

D38>=AVERAGE(\$D\$29:\$D\$38).Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().E38>=AVERAGE(\$E\$29:\$E\$38)) Averages 47 54 60 . Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results. Syntax =AND(Test1. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams.D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F G H AND Page 13 of 138 I AND Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE(\$C\$29:\$C\$38). The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average.

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2. the cell will not be used in the average calculation.667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G H I J K L M AVERAGE Page 14 of 138 N AVERAGE Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1. If the cell contains zero 0.Range2. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA(). Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24. If the cell is blank or contains text.3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28.. the cell will be included in the average calculation.667 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2..571 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.3333 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage .

MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28.30) =CEILING(C9.1) =CEILING(C7.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site.33 8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 .9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G CEILING Page 15 of 138 H CEILING Number 2. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck. This results of the division are not whole numbers. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis.7) =CEILING(D29.7) =CEILING(D30.33 5. Formatting No special formatting is needed.1 1. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user.1) =CEILING(C6. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound.30) =CEILING(C8.1) =CEILING(C5. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.

10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.60714 5.1) Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.1) =CEILING(D55/E55.75000 1.99) Calculates the integer part of the price. The shopkeeper buys products by the box. Calculates the decimal part of the price.1) =CEILING(D56/E56.99 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Raises the decimal to 0. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.1).62000 1.1) =CEILING(MOD(E83). Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.62000 5. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.0.81818 2.99 2.99 5.25 £28. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed.60714 2.25 £28.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18. Table 2 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 4 9 6 CEILING Page 16 of 138 H =CEILING(D54/E54.2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 B C D E F G Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number.0.75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence.81818 1.99 1.

00_). The width of the cell. Nothing is shown for numeric entries. 0 =CELL("parentheses".##0 0. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired".##0. The column number. 0 =CELL("color".xls]CELL =CELL("filename".##0.00 #.[Red](\$#.ms_office.##0_).xls.##0. v for value. The cell address. Numeric Format General 0 #.##0_).D3) =CELL("type".[Red](\$#.00% 0. The actual contents of the cell.D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width".00) \$#. The type of cell protection. Formatted for coloured negatives.D3) =CELL("format". l for text.##0.D3) 1 for a locked.D3) =CELL("row".00) 0% 0.D3) 1 for yes. The type of entry in the cell. Shown as ' for left.D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents. Shown as b for blank.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0 F2 . 0 for no.D3) =CELL("contents".2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 Example .D3) 9 =CELL("prefix". Formatting No special formatting is needed. 1 =CELL("protect". 0 for unlocked. The filename containing the cell. Codes used to show the formatting of the cell. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 . The alignment of the cell. position and formatting. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_1\[143503337. The number format fo the cell. " for right.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B C D E F G H CELL Page 17 of 139 I CELL This is the cell and contents to test.D3) 1 for yes.50% \$D\$3 4 3 0. 0 for no. ^ for centre.(\$#.D3) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values. The row number. (See the table shown below) 17.175 v =CELL("address".00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy.D3) =CELL("col".00_).(\$#.##0.CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".##0) \$#.00 \$#.##0) \$#.

CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("]".xls.xls =MID(CELL("filename").ms_office.CELL("filename"))-1) CELL Page 18 of 139 G H I .FIND("[".CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".2000 Peter Noneley A 56 57 58 59 B C D E F The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The name of the current file is : 143503337.

Item2."Bronze").CHOOSE(D33. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7. Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue."Silver"."Bronze").C30:C34) ."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3.10%.18%) =CHOOSE(C8."Alan".10%."Gold"."Bob"."Bob"."Alan".18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear. Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required."Silver".15%."Alan"."Gold"."Bob".18%) =CHOOSE(C9.CHOOSE(D34.CHOOSE(D31. due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it.15%.15%."Silver"."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3."Bronze").CHOOSE(D32.CHOOSE(D30. The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."Silver"."Gold".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Bronze"). The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3.10%."Bronze")."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3. The Time for each athlete is entered."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5. The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Silver"."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6."Gold"."Gold"."unplaced") =RANK(C34.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 19 of 138 J CHOOSE Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4. Item1. Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H CLEAN Page 20 of 138 I CLEAN Dirty Text Hello He llo Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text. The result will show as normal text. Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The internal order of the combination does not matter. Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems. The decorator is given five colours to work with.D4) =COMBIN(C5. How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F COMBIN Page 21 of 138 G COMBIN Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D25) Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 The four letters : Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Pair 5 Pair 6 Combinations 6 ABCD AB AC AD BC BD CD =COMBIN(C25.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black Scheme 1 Red Scheme 2 Red Scheme 3 Red Scheme 4 Red Scheme 5 Red . so AB is the same as BA.D5) =COMBIN(C6.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required. but can only use three in any scheme. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow C Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black D Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black E Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black F COMBIN Page 22 of 138 G Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .

.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G CONCATENATE Page 23 of 138 H CONCATENATE Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator.D6) =CONCATENATE(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1. Carol =CONCATENATE(C4. Carol =C25&D25 =C26&D26 =C27&D27 =C28&" "&D28 =D29&". ".D7) =CONCATENATE(D8. Bob Davies. ". Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams.Text2. Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result will be shown as normal text.D5) =CONCATENATE(C6.D4) =CONCATENATE(C5."..C9) What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item.Text3.C8) =CONCATENATE(D9.". Bob Davies. "&C29 =D30&"." ".Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined. "&C30 .

9144 =CONVERT(C6.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2."in".UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D5.54 =CONVERT(C4."kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 B C D E F G CONVERT Page 24 of 138 H CONVERT Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.5 0. such as Inches to Centimetres.D9.UnitToConvertFrom.E8) =CONVERT(C9."m")+CONVERT(E34.D6. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert."m") Weight Height Length Width Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E6) 365.D11.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8.35301 =CONVERT(D28.E4) 0.E9) =CONVERT(C10.D4.) g kg sg lbm u ozm m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica yr .5146 2 1."kg")+CONVERT(E28."lbm".81 3 2. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.5748 =CONVERT(D34.D8.E11) What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit."ozm".E10) =CONVERT(C11.E5) 0.D10.3048 =CONVERT(C5. to the same value expressed in a different type of unit. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system."ft".

00E-09 1.00E+18 E 1.00E-02 1.00E+06 M 1. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E+15 P 1.00E+12 T 1.00E-06 1.00E-15 1.00E+02 h 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Day Hour Minute Second Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU B C day hr mn sec D E Pressure Pascal Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F Pa atm mmHg G CONVERT Page 25 of 138 H C F K N dyn lbf tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU HP W Magnetism Tesla Gauss T ga These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a . Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E-12 1.00E+09 G 1.00E-03 1.00E-01 1.00E+03 k 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

000 £1.864 =CORREL(D5:D10.Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.000 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50 Sales £20. Syntax =CORREL(Range1.000 £1. the greater the correlation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .864 realtionship between the data. .000 £1. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units.000 £5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 B C D E F G H I CORREL Page 26 of 138 J CORREL Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400 Table 2 Advertising Costs £2.000 £8. The larger the result.000 Correlation 0.000 £40.000 £20.000 £20. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales.000 £40. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data.E5:E10) Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10. The correlation shows that there is an 0.H5:H10) What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets.000 £30.

Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month.Range3.686173 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed..000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 .Range2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . text and errors.000 Glass £2.000 Metal £1.000 Wood £5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I COUNT Page 27 of 138 J COUNT Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. It will ignore blanks. Syntax =COUNT(Range1. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1.000 £1..

Syntax =COUNTA(Range1. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed..Range2. 2 or 3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 B C D E F G H I COUNTA Page 28 of 138 J COUNTA Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam. Each exam passed was graded as 1..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) .176473 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. A failure was entered as Fail. Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam.Range3. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil. It will ignore blanks.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41. Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H COUNTBLANK Page 29 of 138 I COUNTBLANK Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. The response to the question could be Y or N. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed."N") Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : .

such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted. How many items cost £100 or above. To match a specific number type the number. Type the name of the item to count. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user.CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12.">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. . such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. How many Tyres have been bought.">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 30 of 138 COUNTIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12."Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes.

C5) January 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G H I DATE Page 31 of 138 J DATE Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.D6. 2000 =DATE(E6.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . By using the Format.month.Number. Syntax =DATE(year.Cells.Date command the format can be changed.C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5.D5.D4. .

"md" Days between the two dates. Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 =DATEDIF(C8."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates.TODAY()."md")&" Days" . "m" Months between the two dates. "y" Years between the two dates.TODAY().D5. 4 Months and 4 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. as if the dates were in the same year.D4.SecondDate. as if the dates were in the same month and year."y") =DATEDIF(C7. "d" Days between the two dates.TODAY(). "ym" Months between the dates.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H DATEDIF Page 32 of 138 I DATEDIF FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference 3782 124 10 130 4 9 =DATEDIF(C4. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates. which creates a text version."yd") =DATEDIF(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . months or years.D9."d") =DATEDIF(C5. as if the dates were in the same year. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). "&DATEDIF(C8. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates.TODAY().D6. These are the available intervals."md") You can put this all together in one calculation."ym") 4 =DATEDIF(C8."ym") =DATEDIF(C9. It can show the result in weeks.TODAY(). "yd" Days between the dates.D7."y") 4 =DATEDIF(C8."m") =DATEDIF(C6. Formatting No special formatting is needed."y")&" Years. Age is 53 Years.D8.

Number. probably after being imported from an external program. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format.Cells. Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 . Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4880 10-july/99 -5048 13-sep-98 -5348 30/5/2000 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref. Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease. such as exports from mainframe computers.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 33 of 138 G DATEVALUE Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 #VALUE! 36519 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations.Date.

Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 25 =DAY(F21) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday. but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G DAY Page 34 of 138 DAY Full Date 25-Dec-98 5-May-13 5-May-13 The Day 25 Thu 5 5 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.Number.Cells.

=DAYS360(Start.D6.TRUE) 359 =DAYS360(C7. Note The calculation does not include the last day.TRUE) 30 =DAYS360(C5.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months).End. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4.EndDate.D7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F DAYS360 Page 35 of 138 DAYS360 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between * See the Note below.TRUE)+1 . Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.TRUE) 89 =DAYS360(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 4 =DAYS360(C4. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.D5.D4. To correct this add 1 to the result. FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems.TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.

otherwise the result is 0.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6) =DELTA(C7.5 17.D31) =DELTA(C32.D7) =DELTA(C8.D30) =DELTA(C31. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber.D9) =DELTA(C10.D35) =DELTA(C36.5 17.175 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 #VALUE! 1 =DELTA(C4. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list. text values produce a result of #VALUE.D4) =DELTA(C5. Number1 10 50 30 17. The formatting of the number is not significant.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =DELTA(C6.D34) =DELTA(C35.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.D32) =DELTA(C33.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.D8) =DELTA(C9.5 18 0.D33) =DELTA(C34.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I DELTA Page 36 of 138 J DELTA Number1 10 50 17. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them. It only works with numbers.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 3 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 1000 2000 3000 6 Bob 4000 5000 6000 7 Carol 7000 8000 9000 8 Total 12000 15000 18000 F EAST Page 37 of 138 Total 6000 15000 24000 45000 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Eastern data. 2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.

Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff.D31) =EDATE(C32.Number.0) .Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number. then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future.2)-5.Date command. The contract Duration is entered as months.WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.Cells. The Start date is entered. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27.D28) =EDATE(C29.D30) =EDATE(C31.D32) =EDATE(C33.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F EDATE Page 38 of 138 G EDATE Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract. (Sat or Sun). If the week day number is 6 or 7.D27) =EDATE(C28.D48). Syntax =EDATE(StartDate.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48.D48).D29) =EDATE(C30. The company needed to know the end date of the employment.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.D5) =EDATE(C6.2)>5.D4) =EDATE(C5.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.

Number.Date command.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F EOMONTH Page 39 of 138 G EOMONTH StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4. .Cells.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D4) =EOMONTH(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =EOMONTH(C6.

TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number.TYPE Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! ####### Error Type 2 5 4 #N/A =ERROR. Syntax =ERROR.TYPE(E4) =ERROR.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.TYPE(E6) =ERROR.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G ERROR.TYPE Page 40 of 138 ERROR. .

The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G EVEN Page 41 of 138 H EVEN Original Value 1 1. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2 2. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars. Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 . Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number.

The case of the characters is taken into account. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown.D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. The password is the name of a colour.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. The case of the password is important. You need to guess the correct password. Syntax =EXACT(Text1. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I EXACT Page 42 of 138 J EXACT Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating.D4) =EXACT(C5. Example Here is a simple password checking formula. either red blue or green. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.D5) =EXACT(C6. . the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions.

. which results in 120. . Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting.800 2.176.432.902. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4. No special formatting is needed. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5.etc.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G FACT Page 43 of 138 H FACT Number 3 3.000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number.5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3.008. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored.628.640.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the letter is not found in the text.C7) =FIND(D8. Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result #VALUE is shown.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F FIND Page 44 of 138 G FIND Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4.6) =FIND(D9. it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter.C8. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.TextToLookInside.C4) =FIND(D5.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text. StartPosition : This is optional. thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character.C5) =FIND(D6. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text. .C6) =FIND(D7. the result will be shown as a number. the first occurrence is used.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and commas can be inserted at the 1. Number command will not have any effect.25 10 =FIXED(C9. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.23 1000 =FIXED(C14.Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE. .0) 10 10.3 =FIXED(C10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I FIXED Page 45 of 138 J FIXED Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.0) 1000.DecimalPlaces.000 =FIXED(C13.25 =FIXED(C8) 10. Cells.000. Note that any further formatting with the Format.000's. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2) 10.1) 10 10.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000.0) 10.00 =FIXED(C7.25 10.25 =FIXED(C11.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5.23 1.TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.0.2) 1000 1.25 10. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.0 =FIXED(C6.1) 10.25 10.

50) =FLOOR(C8.1) =FLOOR(C5.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29.1) =FLOOR(C6.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4.000 £560 £18.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.500 £56.50) =FLOOR(C9.000 £230 £56.890 £18.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.3 2. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.1000) .5 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G FLOOR Page 46 of 138 H FLOOR Number 1. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.1) =FLOOR(C7. which is then used as the basis for Commission.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.

even though to us the order of Jan. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind. TRUE for yes.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I HLOOKUP Page 47 of 138 J HLOOKUP Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 =HLOOKUP(F10. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Jan 10 20 30 40 Feb 80 90 100 110 Mar 97 69 45 51 Bob Eric Alan Carol .Mar is correct.RowToPickFrom.FALSE) row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed.D3:F10. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry.F11. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name.RangeToLookIn. When the item is found.Jan. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. FALSE for no.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . they are part of the illustration. It then calculates the position of the name in the list.Feb. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted. Unfortunately. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from.Mar. so and extra 1 is added to compensate.

The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. The name of the Item is typed in column C. the function will produce an error.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .MATCH(F55. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. Wood and Glass. When the make is found. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C.MATCH(C79. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol \$.2.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. If a match is not found.C48:C52.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount.D47:F54.F73:F77. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.0)+1.G72:I77. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 B C David D 50 E 120 F 77 feb alan G H I HLOOKUP Page 48 of 138 J Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54.200 =HLOOKUP(B79.0)+1. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells.E111:G112. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values . =HLOOKUP(C127.

D116:D118.0)+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E115:G118.D116:D118. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127.E115:G118.MATCH(C127.2. =HLOOKUP(D127.TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.E111:G112. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. the next lowest value is used.0)+1.275 =HLOOKUP(C127.MATCH(C127.TRUE) .2000 Peter Noneley A 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 HLOOKUP Page 49 of 138 B C D E F G H I J across the top of the Discount Table are sorted. and the discount from the 100 column is used.

25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B C D E F G H HOUR Page 50 of 138 I HOUR Number 21:15 0. Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23. .

Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43."Achieved". Formatting No special formatting is required. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target."Achieved". the Commission is only 5% of Sales. one of two actions will be carried out."Achieved". Depending upon the result. Syntax =IF(Condition. If the Sales do not reach Target.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H IF Page 51 of 138 I IF Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers. the Commission is 10% of Sales. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown."Achieved". If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. text or calculations. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.ActionIfTrue."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1. Each has their own target which they must reach.C45*10%."Achieved"."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33.C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. ."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44.C44*10%.C43*10%."Achieved"."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6. such as A1=A2.

000 £ 2.D61>=1000).700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0) .D61*10%. when the Order Value is £1000 or above.000 £ 500 £ 3.800 £ £ 2. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.000 IF Page 52 of 138 I Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Discount Total £ 200 £ 1. Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes Order Value £ 2.000 £ £ 500 £ 300 £ 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 B C D E F G H The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 53 of 138 I INDEX Holiday booking price list.RowCoordinate.2. It can be used with a single block of data. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.F51) 4 200. Both of the examples below use the same syntax.00 300.00 How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 500.00 250. but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal.00 400.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.00 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.3 or 4 for the country : Type 1. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.00 3 250.D36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34.00 2 300. or non-continuos blocks.G12) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1.00 700.00 600.RowCoordinate.F50.00 300. Country England France Germany Spain Currency Sterling Franc DM Peseta Population 50 M 40 M 60 M 30 M Capitol London Paris Bonn Barcelona 2 3 Paris =INDEX(D45:F48.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .ColumnColumnCordinate.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1.G11. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.00 500.2 or 3 for statistics : The result is : Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.00 350. .H36) Type 1. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.

00 12.00 10.000.000. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.500.00 Qtr4 4.00 6.00 9. 2.00 Qtr2 2.500.500.MATCH(F101.500.000.000.00 5.00 Qtr2 2.00 6.00 Qtr2 2.00 12.00 Qtr2 2.00 9.00 8.00 Qtr3 3. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.00 5.F76.00 11.000.500.000.00 8.000.00 Qtr3 3. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.00 8.00 8. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.00 10.500. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example.00 Qtr3 3.000.00 Qtr3 3.500.00 7.000.00 Qtr1 1. 2.00 11.500. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest.00 5.00 7.500.000.500.000.2000 Peter Noneley A 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 54 of 138 I In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth.00 6.000.F78) Qtr4 4.000.000.00 Qtr1 1.00 6.00 11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C91:C93.500.0).000.00 12.000.500.MATCH(F100. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 1.000.00 Type 1.00 1 3 2 3500 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.000.00 5.500.1.00 Type 1.500.500.500.00 7.000.00 wood qtr2 west 6500 Qtr4 4.500.500.000.00 12.500.IF(F102=C90.F77.500.500.000.00 9.00 9. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.IF(F102=C95.D90:G90.000.00 10.00 7.000.00 11.00 Qtr4 4.500.000. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 1.0).500.500.00 10.2))) .

Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. SOUTH and EAST. such as South : South Type the start cell of the range. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 55 of 139 J K INDIRECT North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. Type the name of the sheet. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200 =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) . but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells. Type the name of the sheet.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 56 of 139 J K .

(PC or Mac) System Information C:\Users\user\Documents\ #N/A #N/A #N/A 118 \$A:\$A\$1 Windows (32-bit) NT 6.01 Automatic 14. .0 pcdos =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D INFO Page 57 of 138 E INFO Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.

Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .3 10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H INT Page 58 of 138 I INT Number 1.504449008 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.570157426 8.75 -1. This has the effect of increasing the child age.25) . Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8.8678987 7.5 2. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 =INT((D49-C49)/365. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.25 7.47589 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number.25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age.668035592 =(D27-C27)/365.

.25 The reason for using 365. The number of days is then divided by 365.25 is to take account of the leap years.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 D 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 E 8 7 F G H INT Page 59 of 138 I Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked.0) Totals 550 1050 .E36. Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36). Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36).0. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user. chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G ISBLANK Page 60 of 138 H ISBLANK Data 1 Hello 25-Dec-98 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . When the cheque is cleared the date is entered.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H ISERR Page 61 of 138 I ISERR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell. Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation.E40/E41) . Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0."Try again!". Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error. or if the error is the #NA message. which Excel does not do. Formatting No special formatting is needed. by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate. Table 2 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G ISERROR Page 62 of 138 H ISERROR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated."Error in data entry". Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.D40-D39) . It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found. Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula. Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : #VALUE! =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : Error in data entry =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39).

An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE #VALUE! FALSE TRUE =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even. Note that dates can be even or odd.5 2. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 63 of 138 ISEVEN Number 1 2 2.5 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that decimal fractions are ignored.6 3. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.

. The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. If the cell does not contain a logical value. the result TRUE is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H I ISLOGICAL Page 64 of 138 J ISLOGICAL Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical. If the cell does contain a logical value. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result FALSE is shown.

but will be used for data entry in the future. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data. The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function. The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H ISNA Page 65 of 138 I ISNA Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A.

The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F ISNONTEXT Page 66 of 138 G ISNONTEXT Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number.D40*E40. 300. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation. Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up."Retype the Price") . is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. rather than text which looks like a number. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. rather than text. such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0.

000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35).000 £8.3.000 £12.FALSE).2. or is blank. If the cell or calculation is not numeric.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £ 12.000 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 67 of 138 J ISNUMBER Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.FALSE)) . The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown. Formatting No special formatting is needed. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. ID No.000 £15. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.D29:E33.VLOOKUP(E35.VLOOKUP(E35.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C29:E33. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. the result FALSE is shown.

5 3. Note that dates can be odd or even.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. . Note that decimal fractions are ignored.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE #VALUE! TRUE FALSE =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISODD Page 68 of 138 I ISODD Number 1 2 2. An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.5 2.6 3. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.

Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. or FALSE for any other type of value.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H ISREF Page 69 of 138 I ISREF TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISREF(A1) =ISREF(B99) =ISREF(Hello) =ISREF(10) =ISREF(NOW()) =ISREF("A1") =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. Its a bit of an odd one. but when used on the worksheet. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell. Formatting No special formatting is needed. . and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function.

000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £ 8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H ISTEXT Page 70 of 138 I ISTEXT Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.VLOOKUP(E33. Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33).000 £12. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.000 £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £8. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.D27:E31.VLOOKUP(E33. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.000 £15.C27:E31.FALSE). ID No.2. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.3. The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made. If the entry is text is shows TRUE.FALSE)) .

Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.000.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.00 12.1) =LARGE(D24:F27. Highest Lowest 12.000.00 12.800.00 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .00 3. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.00 =LARGE(D24:F27.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000.00 2.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.00 5.00 7.000.00 Mar 4.00 3.000. Sales North South East West Jan 5.00 2.500.00 10.000.00 7.000.000.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.000.000.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H LARGE Page 71 of 138 I LARGE Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.000. Feb and Mar.2) =LARGE(C4:C8.00 4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 Feb 6.00 10.000.000.000.00 6.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.500.

D7) =LEFT(C8.C27)-1) =LEFT(C28.D6) =LEFT(C7.FIND(" ". Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.C29)-1) .FIND(" ".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H LEFT Page 72 of 138 I LEFT Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 =LEFT(C4.C28)-1) =LEFT(C29.FIND(" ". Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan Bob Smith Bob Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C27.D4) =LEFT(C5.D5) =LEFT(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name.

C24)) This is just the second name.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H LEN Page 73 of 138 I LEN Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters. Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name. Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed. including spaces and numbers. Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names.C24) This is the length of the second name. =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C24) This is the position of the space. =RIGHT(C24. Carol Williams 8 . Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ". Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space. in a piece of text.

the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column.D4:G10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table. the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Array) Page 74 of 138 J LOOKUP (Array) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 =LOOKUP(F12. It always picks the data from the end of the row or column. When a match is found. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP). If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. When a match is found. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. . as in the description above. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors.

but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure. otherwise errors will occur. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. Table 2 shows the same data. E LOOKUP (Array) Page 75 of 138 F G H I J Example 2 In this table there are more columns than rows. either as #N/A or incorrect results. Sometimes the results will be correct. so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Jan Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D Example 1 In this table there are more rows than columns.G80:J86) . but not sorted. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct.B80:E86) 45 =LOOKUP(H88. Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically.

otherwise errors will occur. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. .RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values. either as #N/A or incorrect results. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38. If the name Carol is used.F4:F10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list.C38:C43. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors. and then picks an item from a second range of cells.RangeToLookIn.D4:G10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G H LOOKUP (Vector) Page 76 of 138 I J LOOKUP (Vector) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 =LOOKUP(F12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G LOWER Page 77 of 138 H LOWER Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123 =LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case. Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .

Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor.E4:E7. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match.0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A Example 2 . Using -1 will look for an exact match. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match. 1 or -1. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. or the next lowest number if no exact match exists. so the #NA is shown.TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0. The Descending list gives the exact match. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown.1) Using 0 will look for an exact match. It can be used with text and numbers.WhereToLook. If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown.0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C D E F G H MATCH Page 78 of 138 I MATCH Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000 The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9.G40:G43. or the next highest number if no exact match exists.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Using 1 will look for an exact match. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match.I4:I7. The Ascending list gives the exact match.

The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number.-1) Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours.G57:G60. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62.. The Descending list gives the exact match.D95:D99. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus.1) MATCH Page 79 of 138 I 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match.-1). The Ascending list gives the exact match.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match. The Descending list gives the #NA error. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered.0) Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 . the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. The Ascending list gives the #NA error. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99.MATCH(H94. If the number of passengers is not an exact match.G74:G77. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 #N/A Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79. the next biggest bus will be picked. The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number.

1).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The pupils scores were entered in another list. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints. Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114. If an exact match is not found.0) .2000 Peter Noneley A B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 C D E F G H MATCH Page 80 of 138 I Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils.MATCH(G114. the next lowest breakpoint is used. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list.C111:C114.

000 £12.Range3.000 £10.Range2. Syntax =MAX(Range1.000 £10.000 £6.000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.000 Mar £4. Sales North South East West Month Max Jan £5.000 £2.500 £12.500 £3.000 £4..2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MAX Page 81 of 138 I MAX Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.000 =MAX(C23:E26) . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.800 £3..000 £7. month and overall.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £10. 4-Jul-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region.000 Overall Max £12.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.000 £7.000 £5.000 £12.000 Feb £6.

Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1.Range3.. The median is not the average. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If there is no exact median number in the group.Range2.. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H I MEDIAN Page 82 of 138 J MEDIAN Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values.

2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.12.3) =MID(C12. The function needs to know at what point it should start. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.D4. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.PositionToStartPicking.3) =MID(C10.D5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 B C D E F G MID Page 83 of 138 H MID Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.99) =MID(C14.12. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.12.5.99) =MID(C13.5.E6) =MID(C8.E5) 2 ED =MID(C6. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.D6.5.5. Full Branch Code DRS/STC/872 HDRS/FC/111 S/NORTH/874 HQ/K/875 Postal Region STC FC NORTH K .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and how many characters to pick.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.2) WA =MID(C36.3) =MID(C9.5. only the available characters will be picked.5.2) NP =MID(C37. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50,FIND("/",C50)+1,FIND("/",C50,FIND("/",C50)+1)-FIND("/",C50)-1) Find the first /, plus 1 for the Start of the code. Find the second /, occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract, by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second /

MID Page 84 of 138 H

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H

MIN Page 85 of 138 I

MIN
Values 120 Dates 1-Jan-98 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4)

25-Dec-98

31-Mar-98

27-Dec-98

4-Jul-98

=MIN(C7:G7)

What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data. Syntax =MIN(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region, month and overall. Sales North South East West Month MIN Overall MIN Jan 5,000.00 5,800.00 3,500.00 12,000.00 3,500.00 2,000.00 =MIN(C23:E26) Feb 6,000.00 7,000.00 2,000.00 4,000.00 2,000.00 Mar 4,500.00 3,000.00 10,000.00 6,000.00 3,000.00 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4,500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3,000 £2,000 £4,000

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H

MOD Page 86 of 138 I

MOD
Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4,D4) =MOD(C5,D5) =MOD(C6,D6) =MOD(C7,D7) =MOD(C8,D8)

What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number. Syntax =MOD(Number,Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

"12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop..Range2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I MODE Page 87 of 138 J MODE Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 20 10 #N/A =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers.. When there is more than one set of duplicates. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same. the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size.Range3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 B 019 020 C Dress Skirt D 10 8 E F G H I MODE Page 88 of 138 J Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! 9.7 .

Number. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday. but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format.Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Cells. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F MONTH Page 89 of 138 G MONTH Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 January =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.

D4) =MROUND(C5.D6) =MROUND(C7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H I MROUND Page 90 of 138 J MROUND Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4. .MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D5) =MROUND(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.D7) =MROUND(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.

5 =N(C5) 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.5 3. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero. due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 =N(C6) 3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H I N Page 91 of 138 J N Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3.035 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value. Excel does not really need this function.50% 0. .

Table 2 Alan Bob Salary 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A Pay 750 #N/A =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 . The Salary and Tax percentage are entered. any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA. Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee. the Wage is still calculated. Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required. It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation.NA(). Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered.NA(). Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered.NA().C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid.C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). When the =NA() is used. The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H NA Page 92 of 139 I NA #N/A Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =NA() =IF(ISBLANK(C6).C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7).

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B Carol C 1000 D 20% E 800 F G =C51-C51*D51 H NA Page 93 of 139 I .

Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate.End.EndDate. =NETWORKDAYS(Start. Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F NETWORKDAYS Page 94 of 138 NETWORKDAYS Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.C29.C30.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5. Note The calculation does not include the last day.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. such as Xmas and Bank holidays. It will exclude weekends and any holidays.C28.D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created. To correct this add 1 to the result.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Northern data. 3 Alan 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 10 20 30 6 Bob 40 50 60 7 Carol 70 80 90 8 Total 120 150 180 9 F G NORTH Page 95 of 138 Total 60 150 240 450 . 2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

If the test fails.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . then the result is FALSE. If the test is met."OK") =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation. Formatting No special formatting is needed."Overdue". otherwise OK is shown. The date the book was Taken out is entered. (A type of reverse logic)."OK") =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I NOT Page 96 of 138 J NOT Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. by adding the Loan value to the Taken date."OK") . Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK 15-Jan-98 OK 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33). the result is TRUE. If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time. Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed. The period of the Loan is entered. The date the book was returned is entered."Overdue"."Overdue".

The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G NOW Page 97 of 138 H NOW The current Date and Time 5/5/2013 2:45 =NOW() 41399. If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time. Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.1149 =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time. .

Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .4 2.9 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.4 3.9 3 3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H ODD Page 98 of 138 I ODD Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2.

Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa".E27="Delta").Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.E4="Delta").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5.00 =IF(OR(E4="Visa".0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa". AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge 5.5. Syntax =OR(Test1. The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.5.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa". AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 .00 5.0) £ 5 £ £ 5 Order No. A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.5.0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H I OR Page 99 of 138 J OR Order No.E5="Delta").E7="Delta").E6="Delta").5. Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H PROPER Page 100 of 138 I PROPER Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase.

E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.1.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.H12) 1 285.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.2.3 or 4. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data. 2nd.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I J QUARTILE Page 101 of 138 K QUARTILE Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function. .75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value.E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.

E39) . Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock. The merchant can only sell full crates.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 102 of 138 QUOTIENT Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 2 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39. It ignores any remainder.5 25 3. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6. only showing the whole number.75 12.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division. Table 1 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed.660571403 0.436754761 0.702959 0.084788 0.044468 0.016313456 0.642723542 0.196898297 0.866594692 0.119997 0. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.57934236 0.393391 0. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.310191942 =RAND()*10 Random between 5 and 10.607325852 0.136911 0.501 0. 0.096471626 0.223178796 =RAND() Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 2.456297608 0. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information.067023 0.373470167 0.595111202 0. A list of cards has been entered in column C.387997 0.942125 0.942297 0.075958 0. 8.045226 0.714217565 0.745924946 0. and =RAND() in column D.159362 0. or when F9 is pressed.287434582 0.00538972 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.864489177 0.893275 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 Random 0.80109948 0. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Random 0.637546 0. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H RAND Page 103 of 138 I RAND Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.744107454 .481689 0.681884 0.

880734 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .909664 0.258316 0.984500412 0.796070041 0.542738 0.139440713 0.698579 0.180433 0.97567 0.070012 0.533512 0.639026 0.226928485 0.626783 0.343260182 0.089772 0.525642632 0.245963854 0.686162585 0.300732027 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Diamond 6 Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.956710539 0.728377 0.20077 0.877186793 0.551545 0.017842 0.764996 0.139064299 0.789155318 0.766093403 0.808609351 0.972928 0.308934999 0.560065822 0.258545214 0.733507392 0.328581 0.127089 0.778157 0.168112 0.671472 0.0448835 0.694707 0.611821 0.078400461 0.950145 0.62865 E F 3 45 47 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.885619 0.588337408 0.693134584 0.324350607 0.441447702 0.691771 0.253575 0.084159 0.376813317 0.826173777 0.999380624 H RAND Page 104 of 138 I .999504 0.228478809 0.924219826 0.54537 0.960691 0.782029656 0.

they will be assigned the same rank. If the numbers 30. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially.C11:C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C19. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis.1) =RANK(C13. both 20's are ranked as 2. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top. leaving it out has the same effect).C11:C15. .C4:C8) =RANK(C8. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list.C4:C8) =RANK(C6.1) =RANK(C15. If there are duplicate values in the list.1) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Values 10 30 20 30 40 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C18.C11:C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C20.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.C11:C15.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.1) =RANK(C12. 30 is ranked as 1.C18:C22) =RANK(C22.C4:C8) =RANK(C7.B34:B37) =RANK(B35.ListOfNumbers.C11:C15.C4:C8) =RANK(C5.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C4:C8) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 =RANK(C11. 20. 20 and 10 were ranked.1) =RANK(C14.B34:B37) =RANK(B36. (This is optional. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner.B34:B37) =RANK(B37. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H RANK Page 105 of 138 I RANK Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C4. and the 10 would be ranked as 4.

1) . E F G H RANK Page 106 of 138 I Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C57.C53:C58.C53:C58.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C54. The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.1) =RANK(C58.C53:C58.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 =RANK(C53.2000 Peter Noneley A 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =RANK(C55.1) =RANK(C56.C53:C58.

F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.NumberOfCharactersToReplace.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H REPLACE Page 107 of 138 I REPLACE Start Characters New Modified Text Original Text Position To Replace Character ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4.F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText. You need to specify where the replacement should start. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .E6.D4.D7.E7.StartPosition.D5.D6.E5.

D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.D6) =RIGHT(C7.D4) =RIGHT(C5.D5) =RIGHT(C6.LEN(C28)-FIND(" ". Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText. The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name.C30)) .D7) =RIGHT(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H RIGHT Page 108 of 138 I RIGHT Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 =RIGHT(C4.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30.C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29.LEN(C29)-FIND(" ".NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ". Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28. The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed. 1 is more Concise. 3 is even more Concise still. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal. 2 is even more Concise.4) =ROMAN(C15. 0 is Classic. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber.3) =ROMAN(C14. 4 is Simplified.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following.0) =ROMAN(C11.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats.1) =ROMAN(C12.TRUE) =ROMAN(C16. This is used if no format is specified.2) =ROMAN(C13. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H ROMAN Page 109 of 138 I ROMAN Number 1 2 3 5 10 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Roman I II III V X MCMXCVIII MCMXCVIII MLMVLIII MXMVIII MVMIII MVMIII MCMXCVIII MVMIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10.

If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.47589 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.48 =ROUND(C6.D5) 2 1.47589 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47589 13643.47589 1.47589 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H ROUND Page 110 of 138 I ROUND Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.47589 13643.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7. .5 =ROUND(C5.D4) 1 1.

D4) 1 1.47589 13643.48 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.47589 1.47589 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D5) 2 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I ROUNDDOWN Page 111 of 138 J ROUNDDOWN Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6.D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5. .48 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9.47589 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.5 =ROUNDUP(C5. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I ROUNDUP Page 112 of 138 J ROUNDUP Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4.47589 1.D5) 2 1.48 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 13643.D4) 1 1. . If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 1.

10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36). Cost Per Second : £0. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G SECOND Page 113 of 138 H SECOND Number 05/May/13 02:45:27 12:00:00 PM 0.25 1 50 £1.51 Second 27 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number. The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.51 1.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0.50 0. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call. The Duration of the call is entered. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. The Cost of the call is then calculated. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .70 2 5 £1.5) .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H I SIGN Page 114 of 138 J SIGN Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the value is negative the result is -1. . If the value is positive the result is 1. Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation.

PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =SMALL(D24:F27. Highest Lowest £12.3) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £4.500 £3.1) =SMALL(D24:F27.000 Feb £6.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.800 £3.2) =SMALL(C4:C8.500 Mar £4.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.1) =SMALL(C4:C8. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.000 £3.000 £2. Feb and Mar.000 £6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H SMALL Page 115 of 138 I SMALL Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 £2. Sales North South East West Jan £5.500 £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £5. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £10.000 £3.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.000 £7.000 £2.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .

2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. 3 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 100 200 300 6 Bob 400 500 600 7 Carol 700 800 900 8 Total 1200 1500 1800 F SOUTH Page 116 of 138 Total 600 1500 2400 4500 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Southern data.

The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I STDEV Page 117 of 138 J K STDEV Values 10 10 9 10 0.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2909944 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.H34:H36.5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.0816 1.4 1.5 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.8 0. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.5 0.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.Range2. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.5 0.6 1.H34:H36. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.0500 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.0)) find the machine name. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.7 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 1. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.H34:H36.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.6 1. .

=MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 1.8 0.6 1.4 1.5 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).Range2.H32:H34.0433 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.433013 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.433013 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.7 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H I STDEVP Page 118 of 138 J K STDEVP Values 10 10 9 10 0.5 1.6 1.4 1. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.5 0.0707 1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.0)) find the machine name.1118 The smallest variance is : 0. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run. ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1.118034 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.H32:H34.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.H32:H34.5 0.

The function is case sensitive.TextToRemove.D4) ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D10.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G SUBSTITUTE Page 119 of 138 H SUBSTITUTE Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Updated Text ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4.C5.E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.D6) Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7.TextToInsert. Formatting No special formatting is needed. or a specific instance.C39.D7) Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.C7.C11.D11.C4.D5) Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.C10. It can either replace all occurrences of the text.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.C6. Table 1 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Updated Text Northern Region Region Area Northern Area Northern region Region Area Northern region Northern Region region Area Northern Region Northern Region Region area Northern area Northern Region region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39. Table 2 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Northern Region Region Area Updated Text Northern Area . Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 B Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region C D E F G Region Area Northern Area region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50),PROPER(C50),PROPER(D50))

SUBSTITUTE Page 120 of 138 H

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I

SUM Page 121 of 139 J

SUM
Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4)

=SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells

100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000

300

600

=SUM(C13,D14,E13)

400 500 600 4800 Functions

=SUM(C17:C19,E17:E19)

100 200 300

400 500 600 800

=SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25),MAX(E23:E25))

What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers. It can be used either horizontally or vertically. The numbers can be in single cells, ranges are from other functions. Syntax =SUM(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30). Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly. This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. The formula is actually doing more work than needed. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50). 100 200 300

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 B C 600 D E =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) =C48+C49+C50 F G Wrong! Correct Correct H I

SUM Page 122 of 139 J

Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.0)) =SUM(IF(D9. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H SUM_as_Running_Total Page 123 of 138 I J SUM (Running Total) Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(\$D\$7:D7) =SUM(\$D\$7:D8) =SUM(\$D\$7:D9) =SUM(\$D\$7:D10) =SUM(\$D\$7:D11) =SUM(\$D\$7:D12) =SUM(\$D\$7:D13) =SUM(\$D\$7:D14) =SUM(\$D\$7:D15) =SUM(\$D\$7:D16) =SUM(\$D\$7:D17) =SUM(\$D\$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM(\$D\$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.0)) =SUM(IF(D8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .\$D\$7:D12.\$D\$7:D11.0)) =SUM(IF(D12.0)) =SUM(IF(D11.\$D\$7:D10. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down.0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D.\$D\$7:D8. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols \$ to keep \$D\$7 static as the formula is copied down.0)) =SUM(IF(D10.\$D\$7:D7.\$D\$7:D9.

2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed. 2. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate. 3.0. 1.0. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function. . One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered.0.0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column. but this would be time consuming and open to human error. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point.1):OFFSET(E45. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I SUM_with_OFFSET Page 124 of 138 J SUM and the =OFFSET function Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.0. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29.

the first offset is offset by 1 column.0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0.0. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79. 1500 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E57.1):OFFSET(E57.0. Type in the End month. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled. . These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.1):OFFSET(E51.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79. the second by 2 columns. but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number.0. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar. the second by 3 columns. the first offset is offset by 1 column. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user.0.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. Example The following table shows five months of data.0.0. The formula displayed below are only dummies.0. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B SUM_with_OFFSET Page 125 of 138 J C D E F G H I 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51.2) : OFFSET(D79.0.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets.0.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function. Type in the Start month.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function.0.

.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H SUMIF Page 126 of 138 I SUMIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12. Total cost of all Tyres bought.">=100") Formatting No special formatting is needed. Total of items costing £100 or above. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CriteriaToBeMatched. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 This examines the values in E4:E12. What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user. It then identifies the entries for Brakes.E18."Tyres".E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12."Brakes". Total of item typed in following cell."Brakes".E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12.RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12. =SUMIF(E4:E12.E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought.

00 2.790.00 9. takinging into account the markup percentage.440.H35:H39) =E44-E43 .D35:D39) =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39. Range.00 16.00 25% 33.00 130.00 200. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.00 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Cost Markup 12. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.40 3.00 30.00 20% 2. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price 15. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price 120.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price.E35:E39.00 25% 13. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock.00 24.25 60.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .350. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.00 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.33 80% 2.00 2.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : 7. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H SUMPRODUCT Page 127 of 138 I SUMPRODUCT Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6.

.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The function is not specifically needed by Excel. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result is a blank. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. If the value is text.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H I T Page 128 of 138 J T Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text.

Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 B C D E F G H I TEXT Page 129 of 138 J TEXT Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.0") =TEXT(C9. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.00") =TEXT(C5.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text.25 10."£0."£0."0") =TEXT(C7."0."£0") =TEXT(C8.00 10 £10 10.3 =TEXT(C4.00") =TEXT(C6."0.25 Converted To Text 10.00 £10.3 £10.

Minute.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5.Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.D6.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time. Syntax =TIME(Hour.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H TIME Page 130 of 138 I TIME Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.60485 =TIME(C4.D4.E5) =TIME(C6. . If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day.E4) =TIME(C5.

which convert all values to text. such as from mainframe computers. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system. Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is useful when data is imported from other applications.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G TIMEVALUE Page 131 of 138 H TIMEVALUE Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. .604849537 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time.

Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5968 5747 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5969 5748 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G TODAY Page 132 of 138 TODAY Today Is 5-May-13 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date. Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Year 2000 01-Jan-2000 Days Until -4873 =C36-TODAY() .

turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. . The function needs to be entered as an array formula. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. the entire array has to be highlighted.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. and the data originally in rows is in columns. Next type the formula.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I TRANSPOSE Page 133 of 138 J TRANSPOSE Alan Bob Carol Total 0 Jan Feb Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range. If changes need to be made to the formula. and places in it in a new range. The transpose range must be the same size as the original range.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H TRIM Page 134 of 138 I TRIM Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.

47589 1. .47589 -1.D4) 1 1.48 13643.4 =TRUNC(C5.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I TRUNC Page 135 of 138 J TRUNC Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.47 =TRUNC(C6.47589 1.4 =TRUNC(C7. it does not actually round the number.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.48 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number.D6) 1 -1.D7) 2 -1.D11) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.D5) 2 1.47589 -1.47 =TRUNC(C8.47589 13643.

Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G UPPER Page 136 of 138 H UPPER Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case. Example See the example for FREQUENCY. .

SEARCH("??:??". The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.SEARCH("??:??".C4)." The winning time was 1:30 seconds. the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage. The winning time was 0:30 seconds. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign. The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. as alphabetic characters will be included. 50% There was a 100% increase in sales. other than it is preceded by a space.5)) =VALUE(MID(C15." "." ". it can be either one. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH().5)) =VALUE(MID(C16. 1 Only a 2% increase in sales. based upon the original text. 0. 2% Approx 50% increase in sales." "). 0.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales. =MID().SEARCH("???%".C14).0625 1:30 10:30 0:30 ")). Explanation of formula shown above. If the % sign is included in the text. 100% * See explanation below.SEARCH("??:??". There was a 2% increase in sales. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function. If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.C15). two or three digits long.5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value. =SUBSTITUTE. There is no way to identify the beginning of the value. The winning time was 1:30 seconds. The winning time was 10:30 seconds.SEARCH("??:??". To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5)) =VALUE(MID(C17.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14.5 A 100% increase was achieved.SEARCH("£".02 There was a 50% increase in sales.02 . =LEFT() or =RIGHT().SUBSTITUTE(C11.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C D E F G VALUE Page 137 of 139 H VALUE Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C4. Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long. 0. 0.C17). To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. =FIND().C16). The same will be true for other recognised formats. The result will be shown as a value.

" D 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ." ".2000 Peter Noneley A B 51 52 53 54 C There was a 50% increase in sales.4)) .SEARCH("???%". There was a 100% increase in sales." E F G VALUE Page 138 of 139 H ")).5 1 ")." ". =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52.SUBSTITUTE(C52.

FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. It then calculates the position of the month in the list. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range. TRUE for yes. it then scans across to pick a cell entry. they are part of the illustration. Unfortunately. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month. When the item is found.C6:H8.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.ColumnToPickFrom. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry.RangeToLookIn. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require. FALSE for no. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name. Formatting No special formatting is needed.G12. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I VLOOKUP Page 138 of 138 J VLOOKUP The column numbers are not needed. Bob Jan 10 Feb 80 Mar 97 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .