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# Fast Calculation Tips

1. Multiplication by 5

It's often more convenient instead of multiplying by 5 to multiply first by 10 and then divide by 2. For example, 137·5=1370/2=685.

2. Division by 5

Similarly, it's often more convenient instead to multiply first by 2 and then divide by 10. For example, 1375/5=2750/10=275.

3. Division/multiplication by 4

Replace either with a repeated operation by 2. For example 124/4=62/2=31. Also, 124·4=248·2=496.

4. Division/multiplication by 25

Use operations with 4 instead. For example, 37·25=3700/4=1850/2=925.

5. Division/multiplication by 8

Replace either with a repeated operation by 2. For example 124·8=248·4=496·2=992.

**6. Division/multiplication by 125
**

Use operations with 8 instead. For example, 37·125=37000/8=18500/4=9250/2=4625.

**7. Squaring two digit numbers.
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i. 1 1 You should memorize the first 25 squares: 2 4 15 225 iii. 3 9 16 256 4 16 5 25 17 289 6 36 18 324 7 49 19 361 8 64 20 400 9 81 10 100 21 441 11 121 22 484 12 144 23 529 13 169 24 576 14 196 25 625

iv. v.

vi.

Squares of numbers from 26 through 50. Let A be such a number. Subtract 25 from A to get x. Subtract x from 25 to get, say, a. Then A2=a2+100x. For example, if A=26, then x=1 and a=24. Hence 262=242+100=676. Similarly, if A=37, then x=37-25=12, and a=25-12=13. Therefore, 372=132+100·12=1200+169=1369. Why does this work? (25+x)2-(25x)2=[(25+x)+(25-x)]·[(25+x)-(25-x)]=50·2x=100x. Squares of numbers from 51 through 99. The idea is the same as above. (50+x)2-(50-x)2=100·2x=200x. For example, 632=372+200·13= 1369+2600=3969. Squares of numbers from 51 through 99, second approach (this one was communicated to me by my father Moisey Bogomolny). We are looking to compute A2, where A=50+a. Instead compute 100·(25+a) and add a2. Example: 572. a=57-50=7. 25+7=32. Append 49=72. Answer: 572=3249. In general, a2 = (a + b)(a - b) + b2. Let a be 57 and, again, we wish to compute 572. Let b = 3. Then 572 = (57 + 3)(57 - 3) + 32, or 572 = 60·54 + 9 = 3240 + 9 = 3249.

**8. Squares of numbers that end with 5.
**

Let A=10a+5. Then A2=(10a+5)2=100a2+2·10a·5+25=100a(a+1)+25. For example, to compute 1152, where a=11, first compute 11·(11+1)=11·12=132 (since 3=1+2). Next, append 25 to the right of 132 to get 13225! Another example, to compute 245 2, let a=24. Then 24·(24+1)=242+24=576+24=600. Therefore 2452=60025. Here is another way to compute 24·25: 24·25=2400/4=1200/2=600. The rule naturally applies to 2-digit numbers as well. 752=5625 (since 7·8=56).

a here is the average of the two numbers. Example: 427-38=(427-27)-(3827)=400-11=389. A generic advice might be given as "First add what's easy. It's often faster to add a digit at a time starting with higher digits. For example. and then subtract the other number. If the difference is odd use either n(m+1)=nm+n or n(m-1)=nm-n. If it's a single digit number. 12. The product (10a+b)(10a+c) is given by 100a2+10a(b+c)+bc =&nbs. where b+c=10. If the numbers only differ in units and the sum of the units is 10. Faster addition. The explanation comes from the following formula: (5 + a)(5 + b) = 10(a + b) + (5 . For example. next whatever remains". ii. Product of numbers that only differ in units. do not forget to carry 1 over. b=3. A generic advice might be given as "First remove what's easy.9.b) In our example. Multiplying by 11. Append to the result (30) theproduct of the units (3·7=21) to obtain 3021. a = 2 and b = 4. Another example: 1049+187=1100+(187-51)=1200+36=1236. 37·34=37·33+37=352-22+37=1225-4+37=1258.2 = 3) and 1 for 4 (5 . Assume you forgot the product 7·9. 47·11=517 since 4+7=11. #2. This is a rule that helps remember a big part of the multiplication table. Faster subtraction. 10. Another example: 1049-187=1000-(187-49)=900-38=862. and their difference is even. Do this. i.5 = 2) and 4 for 9 (9 . When multiplying by 9. 87·48=87·5087·2=8700/2-160-14=4350-160-14=4190-14=4176. If the sum is 10 or more. First find the access of each of the multiples over 5: it's 2 for 7 (7 . Faster addition. one might use the well known formula (a+n)(a-n)=a2-n2. 15. take the sum of its digits. Subtraction is often faster in two steps instead of one. like with 53 and 57 or 122 and 128. 23·51=23·50+23=2300/2+23=1150+23=1173. say 10a+b and 10a+c. 583+645=583+600+40+5=1183+40+5=1223+5=1228. then subtract. Similarly 122·128 = 12·13·100+2·8=15616.100a(a+1)+bc. To multiply a 2-digit number by 11. The same applies to other numbers near those for which multiplication is simplified. 13. 11. Example: 487+38=(487+13)+(3813)=500+25=525. combine thus obtained two numbers (6 and 3) as 63 = 6·10 + 3. then think of them as. 28·24=262-22=676-4=672 since 26=(24+28)/2. just write it between the two digits. Multipliply. next whatever remains".5 = 4). Thus to compute 53 times 57 (a=5. Example 37·34=37·35-37=362-12-37=1296-1-37=1258. Product of two one-digit numbers greater than 5. For example. 14.4 = 1). Also. Now find the complements of these two numbers to 5: it's 3 for 2 (5 . multiply 5 times (5+1) to get 30. If the numbers are not too far apart. c=7). Addition is often faster in two steps instead of one. 16. 19·31=252-62=625-36=589 since 25=(19+31)/2. On the other hand. Add them up to get 6 = 2 + 4. 34·11=374 since 3+4=7. Remember their product 3 = 3·1. For example. .a)(5 . Lastly. 23·9=230-23=207. multiply by 10 instead. Product of two 2-digit numbers.