# Fast Calculation Tips

1. Multiplication by 5
It's often more convenient instead of multiplying by 5 to multiply first by 10 and then divide by 2. For example, 137·5=1370/2=685.

2. Division by 5
Similarly, it's often more convenient instead to multiply first by 2 and then divide by 10. For example, 1375/5=2750/10=275.

3. Division/multiplication by 4
Replace either with a repeated operation by 2. For example 124/4=62/2=31. Also, 124·4=248·2=496.

4. Division/multiplication by 25
Use operations with 4 instead. For example, 37·25=3700/4=1850/2=925.

5. Division/multiplication by 8
Replace either with a repeated operation by 2. For example 124·8=248·4=496·2=992.

6. Division/multiplication by 125
Use operations with 8 instead. For example, 37·125=37000/8=18500/4=9250/2=4625.

7. Squaring two digit numbers.
i. 1 1 You should memorize the first 25 squares: 2 4 15 225 iii. 3 9 16 256 4 16 5 25 17 289 6 36 18 324 7 49 19 361 8 64 20 400 9 81 10 100 21 441 11 121 22 484 12 144 23 529 13 169 24 576 14 196 25 625

iv. v.

vi.

Squares of numbers from 26 through 50. Let A be such a number. Subtract 25 from A to get x. Subtract x from 25 to get, say, a. Then A2=a2+100x. For example, if A=26, then x=1 and a=24. Hence 262=242+100=676. Similarly, if A=37, then x=37-25=12, and a=25-12=13. Therefore, 372=132+100·12=1200+169=1369. Why does this work? (25+x)2-(25x)2=[(25+x)+(25-x)]·[(25+x)-(25-x)]=50·2x=100x. Squares of numbers from 51 through 99. The idea is the same as above. (50+x)2-(50-x)2=100·2x=200x. For example, 632=372+200·13= 1369+2600=3969. Squares of numbers from 51 through 99, second approach (this one was communicated to me by my father Moisey Bogomolny). We are looking to compute A2, where A=50+a. Instead compute 100·(25+a) and add a2. Example: 572. a=57-50=7. 25+7=32. Append 49=72. Answer: 572=3249. In general, a2 = (a + b)(a - b) + b2. Let a be 57 and, again, we wish to compute 572. Let b = 3. Then 572 = (57 + 3)(57 - 3) + 32, or 572 = 60·54 + 9 = 3240 + 9 = 3249.

8. Squares of numbers that end with 5.
Let A=10a+5. Then A2=(10a+5)2=100a2+2·10a·5+25=100a(a+1)+25. For example, to compute 1152, where a=11, first compute 11·(11+1)=11·12=132 (since 3=1+2). Next, append 25 to the right of 132 to get 13225! Another example, to compute 245 2, let a=24. Then 24·(24+1)=242+24=576+24=600. Therefore 2452=60025. Here is another way to compute 24·25: 24·25=2400/4=1200/2=600. The rule naturally applies to 2-digit numbers as well. 752=5625 (since 7·8=56).