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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF PROJECT REPORT AND COPYRIGHT

Author’s full name Date of birth Title Academic Session

: Vasuthevan A/L Annamalai : 05th January 1972 : Data Management of Public Bus Operators in Johor Bahru : 2008/2009

I declare that this project report is classified as:

CONFIDENTAL RESTRICTED

(Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972)* (Contains restricted information as specified by the organisation where research was done)* I agree that my project paper to be published as online open access (full text)

OPEN ACCESS

I acknowledge that Universiti Teknologi Malaysia reserves the right as follows:
1. The project report is property of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 2. The Library of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only. 3. The Library has the right to make copies of the thesis for academic exchange.

Certified by :

___________________________ SIGNATURE

________________________________ SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR

720105-01-5731_ (NEW IC NO./PASSPORT NO.)

DR.MUHAMMAD ZALY SHAH NAME OF SUPERVISOR

Date

: 12th November 2008

Date

: 12th November 2008

NOTES: *

If the project paper is CONFIDENTIAL or RESTRICTED, please attach with the letter from the organisation with period and reasons for confidentially or restriction

DATA MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC BUS OPERATORS IN JOHOR BAHRU

VASUTHEVAN A/L ANNAMALAI

A project report submitted in fulfilment of the partial requirement for the award of the Master of Science (Transport Planning)

Faculty of Built Environment UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

NOVEMBER 2008

ii

“We hereby declare that we have read this thesis and in our opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Science (Transport Planning)”

Signature

: ............................................................................ : 12th November 2008

Name of Supervisor : Dr. Muhammad Zaly Shah B. Muhammad Hussein Date

Signature Name of Examiner Date

: ............................................................................ : Associate Professor Dr. Othman Che Puan : 12th November 2008

iii

“I declare that this project report entitled “Data Management Of Public Bus Operators in Johor Bahru” is the result of my own research except where I have cited in the references. The project report has not been accepted for award of any degree and is not currently submitted in candidature of any degree.”

Signature Name of Candidate Date

: ............................................................................ : Vasuthevan A/L Annamalai : 12th November 2008

iv

DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to my late father Mr.Annamalai, loving mum Mrs. Theivanai, my lovely wife Parameshwari and dearest daughter Saranyaa who taught me that the best kind of knowledge to have is that which is learned for its own sake.

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In all my humbleness and respect, I wish to dedicate this piece of work including the many endeavour’s undertaken, to my loving mother Mrs.Theivanai. I also pray for the blessings of my forefathers. My pursuit of Masters (M Sc. Transport Planning) has been possible due to the moral support of my lovely wife Parameshwari and my dearest daughter Saranyaa who has constantly assisted me in continuing my further studies at UTM. It would be incomplete if I did not mention Dr. Muhammad Zaly Shah my project supervisor, who at all times, guided and counseled me through the completion of project. Many thanks to my colleagues Asogan, Captain V and Nizam who were with me during my M. Sc. (Transport Planning) studies at UTM, Skudai. Special thanks to my lovely wife for her support in my studies. Finally, above all, I am grateful to Lord Shiva – Anbe Sivam.

vi

ABSTRAK

Di dalam era logistik dan ekonomi yang baru, pengurusan data bas yang sistematik adalah merupakan salah satu aset kritikal bagi mana-mana pengusaha bas. Johor Bahru antaranya merupakan sebuah bandaraya di dunia ini yang menghadapi masalah peningkatan permintaan pengangkutan awam dan juga masalah

pengangkutan yang disebabkan oleh pembangunan yang pesat. Kajian ini mengkaji sistem pengurusan data yang dilaksanakan oleh pengusaha bas awam di bandaraya Johor Bahru, Johor. Kajian ini memfokuskan kepada cara pengurusan data terkini yang dilaksanakan oleh pengusaha-pengusaha bas awam di Johor Bahru. Kesemua enam syarikat pengusaha bas di Johor Bahru telah ditemubual dalam menjayakan objektif kajian ini. Matlamat pengkajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengetahui pola/corak pengurusan data sedia ada yang dilaksanakan oleh pengusaha-pengusaha bas awam di Johor Bahru di samping ingin mengetahui apakah faktor-faktor yang memberikan kesan kepada pengusaha bas samada daripada pengumpulan, penilaian dan menganalisa data. Borang soal selidik ( pengurusan data bas) untuk kajian ini telah direka dan dianalisa dengan menggunakan program perisian Excel, di mana dua dimensi yang berbeza iaitu data pendapat penumpang dan data operasi telah digunakan dan dianalisa. Data-data diperolehi daripada semua pengusaha bas awam dianalisa secara terperinci dan hasilnya menunjukkan bahawa tiada pendekatan yang sistematik digunakan untuk mengumpul data daripada penumpang dan aktiviti operasi. Hasil kajian ini juga menunjukkan bahawa pengurusan data bas sedia ada tidak mempunyai satu pengumpulan data yang lengkap dan ianya lebih kepada bentuk pemasaran dan route impact analysis. Pada masa yang sama, kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa polisi syarikat memainkan peranan yang jelas dari segi pengumpulan, penilaian dan analisa data. Kajian ini juga menunjukkan bahawa pengurusan data bas di Johor Bahru jauh ketinggalan jika dibandingkan dengan lainlain bandaraya di negara-negara membangun.

vii

ABSRACT

In the new logistic and economy era, a systematic bus data management is one of the critical assets for any bus operator. Johor Bahru like other cities in the world is facing increased public transportation demands and transportation problems caused by rapid urbanization. This research project investigates the data management of public bus provider in Johor Bahru City, Johor. The research is focus on the current practice of data management by public bus operator in Johor Bahru city. All six public bus operators were interviewed for the purpose of this research. The aim of this research attempts to know the pattern of existing data management practiced by public bus operators in Johor Bahru and to know what are the factors affects the bus operators from collecting, evaluating and analyzing the data. The questionnaire (bus data management survey) of the research were designed and analyzed with application of simple Microsoft Excel where two distinct dimensions namely, passengers opinion data and operational data were analyzed. The data obtained from all six public bus operator were descriptively analyzed and the finding indicate that there is no systematic approach to collect data from passengers and operational activities. The finding also indicates that the existing bus data management is not a complete data collection and it is more on market trend and route impact analysis. At the same time this research indicates that company policy play a significant role in affects the bus operator from collecting, evaluating and analyzing the data. This research indicating that the bus data management in Johor Bahru far less than compare to other cities in developed countries.

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE TITLE SUPERVISOR DECLARATION STUDENT DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRAK ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURE

PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii viii xii xiv

TITLE 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction Current public bus scenario in Johor Bahru Problem statement Research question Objective of study Area of study Contribution Scope and limitation of study

PAGE

1 1 4 5 5 6 7 8

ix CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

2

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2 Introduction Basic element of data management 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.4 2.5 Data collection Data entry Data analysis Data reporting 9 11 11 12 16 17 18 20 21 21 23 23 24 24

Data warehousing Data mining Application of data management 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 Marine data management Transport data management What is intelligent transport system ITS and transportation

2.5.4.1 Benefits of ITS 2.5.5 ITS case study 1 - Improvement in Denmark Rail Services using ITS 2.5.6 2.6 ITS case study 2 - Buses Tracked in Denmark

26 27 28 28 28 29 31

Importance of data management 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 Success story of New Zealand Post Challenges Action plan Result

2.7 2.8

Failure of data management - Failure in predicting El-Nino 31 Transport data management - Failure in sustainable data collection 32

2.9

Importance of data management to CEO/ Executive and Planners 2.9.1 Application of EIS 33 34

2.10

Contribution of data management to public transportation 36 2.10.1 Key benefits of the data management in public Transportation 36

x CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction Conceptual model Data collection method 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 3.5 Primary data Secondary data Bus operator data management survey 38 38 39 39 40 40 42 42 42 43 43

Population and sampling method Data analysis 3.5.1 3.5.2 Quantitative method Qualitative analysis

3.6

Conclusion

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

4 4.1

DATA ANALYSIS Introduction 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 Data collection – passenger opinion Passenger bus survey Frequent of passenger bus surveys Source of passenger’s feedback Budget allocated for bus survey Appointed personnel or department Difficulties faced by bus operators during data collection from passenger 4.1.8 Information collects by bus operators from passenger 4.1.9 Record keeping 50 52 49 44 44 46 47 47 48 48

4.1.10 Purpose of bus operators collect data on passenger opinion 4.1.11 Activity after collected the passenger data 52 53

4.1.12 Use of collected passenger’s data by bus operators 53

xi 4.1.13 Receiver of the complete passenger’s opinion reports 4.2 Operational data collection 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Company policy Frequent of operational data Source of operational data Budget allocated for operational data Appointed personnel or department Difficulties faced by bus operators during operational data collection 4.2.7 Type of data collected from operational activities 4.2.8 4.2.9 Record keeping of operational data Purpose of collecting operational data 61 63 63 63 64 65 66 67 67 60 55 56 56 57 58 59 59

4.2.10 Activity after collect the operational data 4.2.11 Use of collected operational data 4.2.12 Receiver of complete operational data reports 4.2.13 Types and formats of reports 4.2.14 Review and action plan 4.3 Conclusion

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

CONCLUSION Introduction Summary of the research findings Discussion Future studies 69 69 70 72

Recommendation for public bus operators in Johor Bahru 72 Conclusion 73

REFERENCES APPENDIX

75 78

xii

LIST OF TABLE

TABLE NO.

TITLE

PAGE

Table 1.1

Current public bus operators and number of bus routes in Johor Bahru City 2

Table 1.2

Total registered stages bus, number of complaint and type of disciplinary action taken by CVLB Peninsular Malaysia for 2005 and 2006 3 3 4 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Table 1.3 Table 1.4 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10

Transport & Communication Indicator by City, 1990 and 2000 Traffic Compositions (%) By Bus JB-Air Hitam and JB – Endau Passenger opinion data collection by Johor Bahru bus operators Public bus passenger bus survey in Johor Bahru Frequent of public bus passenger survey Source of passenger’s feedback by bus operators Department for data management Difficulties during data collection for passenger opinion Passengers information collects by bus operators Records keeping of passenger opinion data by bus operators Purpose of data collection Activities after collect the data from passenger and method of analysis

54 54 55

Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 4.13

Use of passenger’s data collected by public bus operators Receiver of the passenger opinion report Review of reports and action plan by bus operators on final report

56 57 58

Table 4.14 Table 4.15

Company policy on operational data collection Frequent of operational data collection

xiii Table 4.16 Table 4.17 Table 4.18 Source of operational data collection Department for operational data management Difficulties faces by bus operators during collect operational data Table 4.19 Table 4.20 Table 4.21 Table 4.22 Table 4.23 Table 4.24 Table 4.25 Table 4.26 Table 4.27 Type of data collected from operational activities Data collection on peak time and peak season Record keeping of operational data Purpose of bus company collect operational data Method of use to analyze the operational data Use of operational data Receiver of the operational report Type and format of the report Review of operational data collection reports and action plan 60 62 61 62 64 64 65 66 66 67 58 59

xiv

LIST OF FIGURES

NO.

TITLE

PAGE

Figure 1.1 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 4.1

Area of Study, Map of Johor Bahru City Simple process of data management Chicago transit authority bus tracker Chicago transit authority bus location map Data analysis New Zealand Post Conceptual model Sections in Bus Operator Data Management Survey Handal Indah, online customer feedback form

7 11 15 16 17 30 39 41 45

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1. 1

Introduction1

Data Management is one of the strategically significant resources that any organization can possess. Data management has traditionally been viewed as part of the information technology cost centre. But this view is changing, both in business and in general, as organizations recognize data as a critical asset that, when properly managed and with a view to addressing specific business challenges, provides significant competitive advantages. Data management has become an important source of better performance and competitive advantage for any organization. Data Management studies in Malaysia mostly focus on Hi-Tech industry, public sector administration and educational institutes, rarely on transportation. This study takes how public bus operator in Johor Bahru manage the data their data as a performance index to improve services and sustain in the industry.

1.2

Current public bus scenario in Johor Bahru

Johor Bahru, like many Asian cities, is facing increased demand in better and quality public bus transportation due to rapid urbanisation. The current public bus services in Johor Bahru comprise of 6 bus companies with almost 600 buses which operating on 117 routes (refer Table 1.1). Even though, current combination of land-

2 use and transport planning, public transport is accessible to a large part of the Johor Bahru population the modal split is not in favors of public transport (bus, train and taxi) 30:70 to private vehicles. (Technical report Transport Traffic Management Unit, Local Plan Research, Johor Bahru , 2002).

Public bus transport system provide most efficient meant of moving large numbers of people in Johor Bahru, especially in connecting surroundings residential townships and rural areas to Johor Bahru City. Even though these public bus transports not considerable flexibility in meeting demand for urban population, public bus transport is the only choice of majority of the urban poor population in Johor Bahru.

Table 1.1: Current public bus operators number of bus routes in Johor Bahru City PUBLIC BUS OPERATOR MAJU HANDAL INDAH - CERIA / CAUSEWAY LINK S&S GML LINE TRITON CITY BUS / TRANSIT LINK Source: www.wikitravel.com NUMBER OF BUS ROUTES 16 Routes 23 Routes 3 Routes 5 Routes 10 Routes 36 Routes

Statistics from CVLB Commercial Vehicles License Board (CVLB) showed that even though complaint about stages bus in year 2006 is decreased about 0.9 but seriousness of disciplinary action taken against stages bus is getting worst in 2006 compare to year 2005 (refer Table 1.2). Number of suspension is increased from 2 cases to 13 cases and one termination in year 2006. Above data clearly indicated that public bus passenger are not satisfied with the service and poor bus management and data management of bus resulted in serious disciplinary action taken against bus operators.

3 Table 1.2: Total registered stages bus, number of complaint and type of disciplinary action taken by CVLB Peninsular Malaysia for 2005 and 2006 Year 2005 Total registered stages bus License Issued Complaint Warning Compound Suspension Termination 8,615 519 775 204 123 2 0 Year 2006 8,976 361 724 127 200 13 1

Source: MECD Annual Report 2005 and 2006

A study on Malaysian Quality life in year 1990 - 2000 completed in 2002 by Ministry of Entrepreneurial and Cooperative Development indicated that there are 838 cars and motorcycles per 1000 people in Johor Bahru in year 1990 were increased to 1271 cars and motorcycles in year 2000. This is contrast with statistic for public transport per 1000 population was 13.9 in year 1990 were only increased to 15.8 in year 2000 (refer Table 1.3). This clearly indicated that declined in public transport, especially public bus transport from year 1990 to 2000 in Johor Bahru and registered the second highest of private vehicle user after Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia Quality Life, Year 2002).

Table 1.3: Transport & Communication Indicator by City, 1990 and 2000 City Private vehicles per 1000 population City Ipoh Johor Bahru Kuala Lumpur Kuching 1990 485.1 838.1 591.1 1549.0 2000 825.4 1271.1 1418.5 1882.8 Public transport per 1000 population 1990 4.8 13.3 10.5 15.5 2000 6.3 15.8 21.6 12.9

Source: Malaysian Quality Life, Year 2000

4 Table 1.4: Traffic Compositions (%) By Bus JB-Air Hitam and JB – Endau Route / location JR203 JB-Air Hitam JR501 JB-Endau 2004 2.7 0.9 2005 2.2 0.8 2006 1.9 1.9 2007 1.7 1.2

Source: Road Transport Department, Malaysia, 2007

Another statistics from Ministry of Transport support above claims that the traffic Compositions (%) by bus in selected JB-Air Hitam and JB – Endau showed that compositions of bus on the road reduce from 2.7% in year 2004 to 1.7% in year 2007(refer Table 1.4). This is very obvious in JB-Air Hitam location whereby the density of population along this route is higher compare to JB-Endau location. Above two data clearly indicated that poor bus management and data management of bus result in decreased of buses on the road specifically public bus passenger whom shift to use private vehicles.

In Johor Bahru only one bus operator provide information and collect customer’s feedback by online website. It is very surprised to know that two prominent public us operators Syarikat Pengangkutan Maju (MAJU) and Alec Bus Sdn. Bhd (City Bus) in Johor Bahru which in this industry more than 25 years still using traditional method to collect passenger feedback. This study will highlight the status of intra-city bus data management in Johor Bahru and how these bus operators use the collected data and the effectiveness of the existing data management.

1.3

Problem statement

Johor Bahru like other cities in the world is facing increased transportation demands and transportation problems caused by rapid urbanization. Even though there are six public bus providers in Johor Bahru; intra-city bus industry is still considered a traditional industry although it is one of indispensable transportation in Johor Bahru. The management strategy of these public bus providers has no systematic approach for collecting, record keeping, evaluate and analyze (bus data management) the bus data’s among public bus operator in Johor Bahru. Most of the

5 bus companies have customer complaints form only and no adequate and well planned complete bus survey. Basically the bus data management of intra-city bus industry in Johor Bahru is far less than compare to other cities in developed countries. Therefore, it is highly desirable to assess the status of intercity bus data management in Johor Bahru to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing data management and analyze the factors which affects the bus operators from collecting, evaluating and analyzing the data’s practiced by bus companies in Johor Bahru.

1.4

Research Question

Research question for this study is based on above scenario of problem statement and below are the research questions for this study.

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

What is the existing company policy on data management? What are data / information Johor Bahru bus operator collect? How these bus operators collect the data? How do these bus operators keep the collected data or archive the data? Why these bus operators collect data? What these bus operators do after collected the data? How do these bus operators use the collected data? Company strategies and action plan after analyze the data /results?

1.5

Objective of study

The objectives of the study are:

i.

To know the pattern of existing data management practiced by bus operators in Johor Bahru.

6 ii. To know and analyze the factor which affects the bus operator from collecting, evaluating and analyzing the data. iii. To suggest and recommend solutions that will help improve the bus operators data management.

1.6

Area of study

Johor Bahru is physically located at the southern part of the Malaysian Peninsular which 350 Kilometres south of Kuala Lumpur and proclaimed as a City Council in 1994. Population of Johor Bahru city is nearly 1.5 million (year 2006). Land Area is 186 sq. km. Johor Bahru, (refer figure: 1.1) like many Asian cities, is facing increased demand in better and quality public bus transportation due to rapid urbanisation. Currently, 6 bus companies providing public bus services in Johor Bahru city and its metropolitan area (refer table 1.1) This study covers the entire 6 public bus provider in Johor Bahru which covers 112 routes.

7

Area of study Johor Bahru Figure 1.1: Area of Study, Map of Johor Bahru City Source: Jabatan Kerja Raya, Negeri Johor, 2007

1.7

Contribution

This study could give us the existing pattern and effectiveness of data management by bus companies in Johor Bahru.

8 Analyze the factors which affect the data management could help existing bus service provider to think seriously about bus management and future and sustainable public bus service in Johor Bahru.

Suggestion and recommendation based on result of study to improve the Johor Bahru bus companies’ data management.

1.8

Scope and limitation of study

Involving public bus operator associated with competition in Johor Bahru only. Any cross border bus service from JB-Singapore, Singapore – JB and intercity / major town not included in this study. Any direct and indirect implications from congestion, pollution and accidents involving other vehicles not covered in this study.

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