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IB Biology Lab Report Effect of Stress on Blood Pressure Design Sean Wada

Introduction: Blood pressure is a measurement of the force exerted on the arterial walls as blood is pumped throughout the body. Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, occurs when your blood pressure readings are consistently 140 over 90. The higher pressure puts extra strain on your heart and blood vessels. Generally, the normal value is 120/80mmHg for an adult. Anxiety, or stress, is linked to temporary increases in blood pressure, but not to chronic high blood pressure. Long periods of stress trigger the release of hormones that cause increased heart rate and decreased blood vessel diametre, both which escalate the probability of high blood pressure. However, there is still no proof that stress itself is linked to high blood pressure, but other behaviours linked to stress, such as alcohol consumption, over eating, and smoking, are widely known in causing it. Research Question: Can continuous tobacco consumption lead to an increase in blood pressure? Hypothesis: I predict that smoking will lead to an increase in high blood pressure for a temporary period of time since it causes a narrowing of blood vessels from the chemicals in cigarettes. Also, it can lead to the build-up of plaque that clogs the blood vessels that supply the heart with blood. Apparatus: Blood pressure cuff Packet of cigarettes Lighter Timer Ashtray

Variables: Independent Variable: The number of times of inhaling and exhaling smoke- volunteers from different ages will each have a turn to smoke, also seeing if age has an effect in determining the type of blood pressure. Controlled Variables: Precise timing- the time limit will be the same for every subject to ensure that there will be no errors in calculating the rate of blood pressure. Same type and amount of nicotine- the smoke inhaled and exhaled by the subject could be harsher or weaker depending on the content of the nicotine. Cigarette packets usually have content info on the back, so it will be helpful for the subject to use ones from the same box.

Dependent Variable: Increase in the rate of blood pressure according to cuff

Method: 1. The volunteer attaches the blood pressure cuff to his arm. 2. Make sure that all the cigarettes have the same equal amount of nicotine 3. Puts a cigarette in his or her mouth and lights it with a lighter ( only individuals who are eligible for smoking are allowed to take part in this experiment) 4. Set the timer to 2 minutes 5. Subject inhales and exhales as much smoke as he or she can within 2 minutes 6. Record the data from the blood pressure cuff 7. Repeat process for different age groups Safety Precautions: Do not accept volunteers who are allergic to nicotine as it could result to life-threatening ordeals Carry out this experiment in an area where there are not around as smoke could be hazardous to some individuals with breathing problems many people

Diagram of a Blood Pressure Cuff Sample Cigarette Packet