Technical Questions

1. What is pressure altitude? Pressure altitude is the height above the standard datum plane of 1013Hpa when above 10,000 ft in Australia 2. What do you know about the RR Trent engine ? The Trent is a three-shaft and second-generation hollow titanium wide-chord fan high bypass ratio engine. Fan diameter: Trent 800 at 110 inches (2.79 meters). Eight-stage IP compressor; six-stage HP compressor; single annular combustor with 24 fuel injectors (Trent 700 and 800); single-stage HP turbine; single-stage IP turbine; five-stage LP turbine (Trent 800, 500, 900 and 600).
http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil/products/turbofans/default.htm

3. How does an INS work ? 3 Platform with rotating mechanical gyros updated by DME / DME, VOR / DME, VOR / VOR. System is self-contained. Timing accuracy remains a critical shortfall. Integrity could either be acceptable, in the case of a complete INS failure, or unacceptable, in the case of insidious drift rates.
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/crd/crdfp-3.html http://www.gfy.ku.dk/~cct/WP333/WP333.htm

4. How does an Omega work ? Very low frequency ( 10KHz – 14 KHz ) Phase synchronizing system. Initially used for submarine navigation. Last antenna switch off end ’97. Antenna in USA, Norway, France, Japan, Australia.
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/omega/ogeninfo/omegaff.htm

5. How do winglets work ? Improve performance / reduces drag by reducing wingtip vortices between high pressure and low pressure zone at the end of the wing. The main advantage is a less fuel flow.
http://www.visionengineer.com/aero/winglet.shtml

6. What are the advantages of the B 747-400 ? Range, higher Payload, no ETOPS limitation, It also presents major aerodynamic improvements over earlier 747 models, including the addition of winglets to reduce drag, a new flight deck with new avionics and the latest inflight entertainment systems. Boeing claims that it has also the lowest operating cost per ton-mile in the industry.
http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/background.html

7. What type of engine is on your aircraft? What is the RPM ? RR Trent 884 / 892 RPM on the N1 is ?
http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil/products/turbofans/default.htm

8. Explain Dutch roll The 'Dutch Roll' is a combination of rolling and yawing, which results in an elliptic motion of the wingtips. Ailerons bank / Rudder opposite to maintain HDG / or a point on horizon.

What is the biggest hazard in heavy rain on final approach ? Reduced visibility. aerodynamics.edu/~doswell/microbursts/Figure_08.What is VMCA on the B 777 ? VMCA on TO2 884 = 93 kts.htm http://www.net/info/stats.PDF 10. Range.flwsradar. left engine.http://www.fiu.194.Define endurance/ range on the drag curve http://www.131/aerodynamics1/Multi/Page3. How does an iso-contour radar work ? Contour or iso-counter refers to a weather radar display presentation that blanks the echo returns in the center of a storm cell. wind shear.ou.71Landing%20in%20Winds. skid ) 16.What is the difference between the B 777 wing and the B 747 wing ? Wing area of 747-400 is larger.edu/~lutze/AOE3104/range&endurance.com/Page4.Is there a critical engine on a propeller / jet aircraft ? For an engine with clockwise rotating props. http://142. 14.html 11.edu/aero/lift_drag.vt.com/Tech_Lit/Glossary/GLOSSARY.26. 777’s has no winglets and is more advanced in design. .airliners. There is no critical engine on an jet aircraft as the corresponding systems are redundant.main?id=97 http://www. this produces left roll. Efficiency.cimms.How do flaps affect the take-off ground run ? Less flaps longer takeoff run but better climb vv. and the other is the extremely wet environment.pdf 13. The critical engine would be the outboard. cockpit layout including avionics.JPG 15.What is the difference between MRC and LRC ? LRC is 1% less then MRC but with a significant increase of speed. which can produce microburst embedded in very heavy rain. reduced landing performance ( aquaplaning. 12. One is the extremely dry environment in which moist convection is just barely possible. http://www.aoe. The area blanked out is called contour and corresponds to the return levels that exceed a predetermined threshold. http://www.boeing. VMCA on TO2 892ER = 87 kts. Avoid them ! http://www.whittsflying.html 19.What is the difference between a B 747 classic and the B 747-400 ? Payload. VMCA on TO2 892 = 97 kts.htm#anchor94041 9.What is a microburst? What do you do about it ? Two extreme types of microburst. 17.What is the relationship between VMCG and V1 ? VMCG≤ V1 18.allstar.com/commercial/747family/technical.

Drag on ground. high efficiency. Basically ailerons.What are active controls ? Active controls enable an airplane to pull air across the plane in specific directions rather than passively letting the air flow over it. higher production cost http://www. This signal is applied to the mach trim actuator.What are the advantages of a fan engine ? Higher Thrust due to high Bypass ratio. 28. rudder and elevator. http://digilander.Define the two major types of drag ? PARASITE DRAG o Parasite drag is defined as all drag that is not associated with the production of lift INDUCED DRAG o Induced drag is that portion of total drag associated with the production of lift http://www. less noise 24. destroy lift after touch down. DLC.When do you turn on engine anti-ice ? Whenever icing conditions are anticipated or visible moisture. Mach data from the air data computer is used to generate a servo position command signal. less fuel flow.What is the purpose of a Mach trimmer ? In a flight control system.navygouge.htm 21.Why are bleed valves fitted to jet engines ? To regulate the internal pressure during all parts of flight. for roll. disadvantage higher drag.nasa.What are Kueger flaps ? Nose flaps formed by rotating part of lower wing surface. The actuator provides elevator pitch-up position to maintain the correct attitude when airplane mach tuck speed is attained. prevent stalling an engine. temperature less then 10˚C down to -40˚C 22.libero. Speed brakes. 26. They also serve for the purpose of air extraction for air conditioning and pressurization. visibility less then 1 NM.html .What is Direct Lift Control (DLC) ? Spoiler movement to increase ROD without changing Thrust / Pitch 23. The mach trim actuator changes the position of the column neutral point without altering feel/force characteristics.htm 27. yaw and pitch control. The mach trim system provides automatic elevator displacement as a function of mach number in the mach tuck (nose down) region.gov/office/pao/History/SP-468/ch10-5. an automatic control sub-system which provides pitch trim of an aircraft as a function of mach number. Advantage increased chord. Redundancy due 3 HYD systems. ? 25.20.it/andreatheone/dfcs.hq.Give six reasons for spoilers ? High speed turn device.com/api/basics/ELOs/aero.

gov/pubs/gps/crd/crdfp-3.What is a super-stall ? Turbulent air due high pitch reaches the aft section of the aircraft and causes a super stall.lerc. Hg per 1000 feet altitude A standard decrease in density as altitude increases http://www.nasa. wrong takeoff speeds.com/gs/perf. http://www. 34.29.com/articles/hydropln.1 VMCA ≤ V2 36. VR and V2 ? VMCG ≤ V1 ≤ VMBE ≤ 1.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/epr.25 Hpa Sea Level Temperature of 15° Celsius Relative humidity of 0 % Standard temperature lapse rate of 2° C per 1000 feet altitude Standard pressure lapse rate of 1 in.com/articles/hydropln.html#dy http://www. Viscous Hydroplaning ( dust.What are the forces acting upon an aircraft in flight ? Thrust-Drag / Lift-Weight http://www.com/articles/hydropln.uscg. http://www.nasa. Hg). dirt.jet-jobs.What is ISA ( ICAO standard atmosphere ) ? Sea Level Barometric Pressure of 29.05 VMCG ≤ VR ≤ 1.What are the three types of hydroplaning ? Dynamic Hydroplaning ( Standing water ).What are the four reasons for a variable incidence tail plane ? Over rotation.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/smotion.boeing-727. 1013.htm 37.jet-jobs. cargo shift during rotation.au/avfacts/editorial/tipstall/default.asp 33.uncletom2000.com/Data/systems/infoyawdampers.html 31.html 30.html#vis http://www.html 32.92 inches of Mercury (in.aviationshop.What are the various ICAO approach limits ? ( CAT I. http://www.What is EPR ( engine pressure ratio ) ? EPR = PT8/PT2 PT8 = Outlet pressure / PT2 = Ram Air Fan pressure http://www. tailwind.navcen.What are the purposes roll and yaw dampers ? The prime function of a yaw damper is to minimize Dutch Roll by providing automatic rudder displacement proportional to and opposing the amount of yaw experienced.com.html#rub 35.lerc. CAT II … ) .jet-jobs. Timing accuracy remains a critical shortfall. rubber ) Rubber reversion hydroplaning ( high-pressure steam due to hot brakes melting ice ) http://www. Rotating gyros causing drag and that causes inaccuracy over the time period.html 38.What is the relationship of V1.What are the advantages and disadvantages of the INS system ? System is self-contained.

taxi speed.What is the rejected takeoff drill ? Call stop. Severe wind shear is a rapid change in wind direction or velocity causing airspeed changes greater than 15 knots or vertical speed changes greater than 500 feet per minute in the vertical direction. http://www.math. 44.edu/~doswell/microbursts/Figure_08. i. deflections of the vertical are ignored.dk/~cct/WP333/WP333. where rapidly moving air is close to much slower air.ku. Airport elevation. This turbulence can be caused by small-scale wind velocity gradients around the jet stream. 42. One is the extremely dry environment in which moist convection is just barely possible. The aircraft can’t be moved during the alignment.How does an INS find True North ? By entering the present position in LAT / LONG into the INS. This gives rise to errors.What is the transport wander of an uncorrected gyro ? The systems typically assume the gravity field to be the normal (ellipsoidal) field.000 and 39. OAT.What is a CAT ( Clear Air Turbulence ) ? Erratic air currents that occur in cloudless air between altitudes of 23. close thrust lever / same time use brakes. range use MRC 45. raise speed brakes. which for military systems is known to be the primary error source in navigation accuracy. http://www.htm 43.cimms.unl. Two extreme types of microburst.e. http://www.How is range increased when flying into a headwind ? By selecting LRC or for max. During the alignment the platforms stabilize and internal compass then finds during the alignment true north. use thrust reverse.edu/~jfisher/NSF_96/windshear.CAT I = 200’-800m | CAT II = 100’-350m | CAT IIIa = 50’-200m | CAT IIIb = 20’-100m 39.au/airsafe/trip/turbulen.casa. after a complete stop set the barking brake.htm 40. It is most severe over mountainous areas.gov.JPG 41.html http://www.What is wind shear / micro burst ? Wind shear are any rapid change in wind direction or velocity. which can produce microburst embedded in very heavy rain.000 feet.gfy. tire pressure. and the other is the extremely wet environment.Tire temperatures prior takeoff depend upon ? A/C weight. .ou.

They can also be used to control shock-induced separation.htm 49. stall speed. 200 ER ) different from ( 300 ) ? B777-300 is a stretched version of the B777-200. and DH setting. or vortex which actually reduces wind resistance (or aerodynamic drag). because of warmed up air from the forward brakes.geocities.Initially.What is / are the purposes of vortex generators ? They work by creating a controlled swirl of air.htm 51. subsequently increasing the rudder’s control effectiveness.sasflightops. airspeed/Mach number.org/non-members/safety/safetyPPDec00.Landing on a tandem bogie. 54.com/pegasusair_tr/aoa. http://www.What are the inputs to GPWS ? The GPWS uses inputs from systems providing radio altitude. landing gear and flap position.What changes the AOA at the stall ? Lowest sustainable speed for required lift occurs at maximum AOA i.How does stall speed vary with C of G ? Highest stall speed is at the most forward CG.com/how. Better effectiveness means you can fly to a slower speed and still maintain directional control.copanational.airtab. http://www.Why are B 777 takeoff limits ( 200.46.htm 50. Takeoff weight is different because of different destination profiles.ntps. which brake gets the hottest ? The aft one. http://www. ( Insurance costs ) 52. B777-200/200ER are same aircraft but with different engines ( 884/892 ). http://www.htm http://www.airtab.e.com/safety/gpws. on wet runway. At lower speeds brakes are getting more efficient. http://www.com/thapdfs/07stalls.What are the purpose of engine relight boundaries ? The same as In-flight Engine Start Envelope . what is the most efficient means of breaking ? Reverse thrust and speed brake drag are the most effective during the high speed portion of the landing.How does VMCA vary with C of G ? Any position forward of full aft effectively lengthens the control arm or distance between the rudder and the point which the aircraft yaws about. They control boundary layer because they prevent separation by bringing air of high momentum into the boundary layer mainly at high angles of attack thus delaying a stall. 53.com/what.htm 47.pdf 48.

What is Mack tuck ? At high speeds ( even as low as Mach . http://hypertextbook. http://www.html 62. even though the overall speed of the aircraft is still sub sonic.What happens to stall speed at very high altitudes ? Stall speed increases with higher altitudes because of lesser air density.gov/essay/Theories_of_Flight/Devices/TH17. 60.com/machtuck_article. 57.htm 63.htm 59.85 ) the nose starts to droop.Why is ERP set by 60 / 80 kts ? Because of increasing Ram effect during takeoff run and therefore more accurate values.html 58. which will alter the amount of resulting force on the object. mechanically compensating for this varying speed to give a constant output speed .What happens to EPR on the takeoff roll ? EPR increases due to ram effect on the engine.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/airsim. This effect becomes more important as speed increases. 64. But for high speeds.lerc.What is a high-lift devices ? Slats and Flaps are High-lift device’s. http://www.What are the wind / gust correction factors for VREF speed ? ½ headwind + full gusts up to a maximum of 20 kts.ultralightfloats. If the object passes at a low speed the density of the fluid will remain constant.nasa.55. The initial droop is caused by the center of pressure moving aft on the wing as a result of the air stream over the top of the wing being accelerated to supersonic speeds.What is a high-drag devices ? Spoiler. Near and beyond the speed of sound shock waves are produced that affect both the lift and drag of an object. The speed of sound is faster at higher temperatures because molecules collide more often. some of the energy of the object goes into compressing the fluid and changing the density.What are the effects of compressibility ? Aerodynamic forces depend in a complex way on the compressibility of the air. The nose of the aircraft always tends to pitch nose down as the aircraft transitions from subsonic to supersonic speed. As an object moves through the air. This tendency is called the "Mach Tuck.shtml 56. full flaps.Wow does the temperatures affect the speed of sound ? The speed of sound is only dependent on temperature. 61.com/facts/2000/CheukWong.org/HighLift/multi.aerodyn. By pulling the stick back to correct the flight path the upward deflection of the elevator has been known to cause a shock wave stall at the elevator hinge line. the air molecules move around the object.1903to2003.What do CSD’s ( constant speed drives ) do ? The CSD or IDG is fitted to the aircraft engine and takes a varying input speed from the engine. the aircraft goes into an ever-increasing downward pitch." http://www. As the speed increases. http://www.

26.Who was your first instructor ? Mr. http://www.How do prevent span-wise flow on a wing ? By installing vortex generators and fences.html 67.What advantages does a jet gain from a swept wing ? Swept wing increases the critical much number and decreases the wave drag http://backoff. Vautz 70. the critical engine is the left engine on twins with props that rotate in the same direction. Therefore. These include torque and Pfactor. and you have a severe rolling and yawing reaction of the airplane.erau. no matter which engine you lose it is not the critical engine. in almost all American twins.How do you do fuel planning on B 777 ? Burn off + 5% Contingency + Alternate Fuel + 30 min.edu/gallyt/ae301/Chapter5-Part3.Where does a swept wing stall first ? Swept wing will stall first at the tip.tarel. 73. An IDG integrates the Generator into the same unit as the CSD.pr. Twins. just like single engine airplanes. Holding Fuel + 700 Kg Taxi 68.to the Generator.com/constant_speed_drives. Thrust line is the distance from centerline of fuselage to downward bite of the propeller. On airplanes with counter-rotating props. more compact unit.net/Flight_Training_Stuff/engine_out.194.glenndale. Usually.How did you prepare technically for the interview ? By reading and internet surfing 69.What is mass balance for ? To trim an aircraft within the certified limits. have left turning tendencies.pdf 72. the downward bite of the descending prop blades are the same on both engines. . http://www. You could also consider both engines to be critical since the loss of either on would adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of the airplane. Put this on top of the left-turning tendencies already existing on the airplane. http://142. giving a single.131/aerodynamics1/Drag/Stall_Pattern. when you lose the left engine the larger arm on the right engine causes more turning tendencies than when you lose the left engine the larger arm on the right engine causes more tuning tendencies than when you lose the right.htm 71.Why is #1 engine the critical engine on a multi-engine prop airplane ? Critical engine is the engine whose failure would most adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of the airplane. In this manner a strong boundary layer buildup over the ailerons is prevented. 66. Because the downward bite of the prop has a larger arm from the center of thrust on the right engine than it does on the left in conventional twins.htm 65.Why do you do de-rated thrust takeoffs in a jet aircraft ? To safe engine life.

GPS permits land. B777 requires following: EICAS MSG not displayed SGL SOURCE DISPLAYS.http://www.What are the advantages of MLS or GPS ? MLS allow pilots to pick a path best suited to their type of aircraft and to descend and land from more directions than the ILS.centennialofflight. Having different landing patterns can help reduce noise around airports and keep small aircraft away from the dangerous vortices behind large aircraft.mit.htm 80.1 window heat system operational. 24 hours a day in all weather.edu/16.05 VMCA≤VR | 1.uscg. SGL SOURCE RAD ALT. anywhere in the world. sea.gov/gps/default. 78. http://www. and airborne users to determine their three dimensional position. sea.What do you know about CAT III approaches ? CAT IIIa = 50’-200m | CAT IIIb = 20’-100m | CAT IIIc = no limits Auto coupled approach with A/T is mandatory for CAT III + Auto brakes for CAT IIIb.What are the advantages of MLS and of GPS ? MLS allow pilots to pick a path best suited to their type of aircraft and to descend and land from more directions than the ILS.How many feet in millibar ? About 30 feet 76. velocity.What happens to your Mach # if you climb at a constant equivalent airspeed / EAS ? Mach # gets lower due to decreasing temperature 77.navcen. VMCA is an air speed while VMCG is a ground speed. VMCG or VMCA on a B 747-400 ? Why ? VMCA is always higher than VMCG. VMCG≤ V1 | 1. Ground equipment meet required approach category. GPS permits land. velocity.61/www/lectures/lecture18. SINGLE SOURCE ILS and both ASA and FWD No.gov/gps/default.centennialofflight.uscg. Having different landing patterns can help reduce noise around airports and keep small aircraft away from the dangerous vortices behind large aircraft. http://www.gov/essay/Government_Role/landing_nav/POL14.pdf 79.What is the correct technique from Dutch roll ? To use the rudder.centennialofflight. http://web.htm 75.gov/essay/Government_Role/landing_nav/POL14. 24 hours a day in all weather.navcen. and time. and airborne users to determine their three dimensional position.1 VMCA≤V2 . Crew must be certified.htm http://www.htm http://www.What is higher. anywhere in the world.ht m 74. and time.gov/essay/Theories_of_Flight/Transonic_Wings/TH20.

How do you teach a student about VMCA ? VMCA. Problems during transition from instruments to visual cues.copanational.org/non-members/safety/safetyPPDec00.89 Mach Due to swept wing not to succeed Vmcrit. Xwind / gust ) To gain approval for 180 minutes ETOPS.02/1000 hours. is the minimum speed at which a pilot can expect to recover directional control of the airplane within 20 degrees of heading change and then maintain straight flight with not more than five degrees of bank when one engine fails. approach lights. What is an adequate / suitable aerodrome ? What things are considered for an airline to be certified for 180 minutes ETOPS ? Adequate airport physically there equipped with a sufficient Rwy. 85.81. then Wing Fuel. http://www. RA callouts. Call out -wind shear recovery. Wing Fuel the scavenge system transfer the remaining Center Fuel the Wing tanks.attitude 15˚ nose up. 86. ECON considers the cost index set.Tell me about ETOPS. altitude and wind factor. at about 13000 Kg.html 87. no configuration change until out of wind shear.ps1fplan. the air carrier must operate the extended range fleet for at least one year in ER-OPS.87 Mach 777-300 330 KIAS / .htm 82.What is the B 777 VMO / MMO ? Why ? 777-200 330 KIAS / . 84.Your F/O is flying a non-precision approach and has rain on his windscreen. To be prepared for a go-around. Suitable airport is like an adequate airport but with at least 2 separate approach procedures based on 2 aids serving 2 separate Rwy’s + specified WX criteria ( VIS. http://www. The latest landmark in ETOPS was achieved by the Boeing 777. cruise and descent speeds in the FMC. meteorological and aeronautical service. THR | TOGA | TOGA on the FMC. aircraft weight. at least one letdown instrument approach. with an IFSD of approximately .Why do you teach VMCA in the airplane vice the simulator ? Shouldn’t we better teach VMCA in the simulator instead? 83. single engine. normal SOP’s.com/mb/docs/etops.What does the cost index mean to B 777? What things are considered by the FMC system when setting cruise speed in ECON mode ? Cost Index sets variable climb. ( Much tuck ) . ATC. What should you be caution of ? What things would you look for if winds hear was expected ? What is your recovery technique ? What selection will give you TOGA when you hit the go-levers ? Late visual contact to the Rwy.How much fuel is used on B 777 ? How is it distributed ? Left 29100 Kg | Center 79300 Kg | Right 29100 Kg Center Fuel down to about 1000 Kg. or minimum control speed air. which was authorized for 180 minute ETOPS upon certification.

Bypass ratio is about 80% of total thrust.org/Wings/waverider.lerc. just like the air through a propeller. You lose an engine after takeoff. These are manufactured by placing a 3D-machined piece of honeycomb material between two sheets of pre-machined titanium. Dimensions. or goes around the engine.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/aturbf.html 89.What are the advantages of a wide-chord fan engine ? Unique wide chord.pdf 88.html 90.What features make the B 777 unique from other aircraft ? The triple bogie landing steer able landing gear. totally CAD planed. as in a basic turbojet. etc.nasa. Ailerons are used for low speed roll control as well as lift devices on takeoff with flaps 5.edu/courses/online/FAA %20Programs/2002_FAA_Key_to_FAA_Publications/TCDS/tcdsvol3/t00001se. and airborne users to determine their three dimensional position. anywhere in the world. shroud less. The ratio of the air that goes around the engine to the air that goes through the core is called the bypass ratio. 91. Some of the incoming air passes through the fan and continues on into the core compressor and then the burner.You are in a four engine aircraft departing Honolulu for Vancouver. http://aerodyn.Describe a fan engine The incoming air is captured by the engine inlet. 24 hours a day in all weather. and time. 15 and 20. The hot exhaust passes through the core and fan turbines and then out the nozzle. So a turbofan gets some of its thrust from the core and some of its thrust from the fan. where it is CAVOK ? If the engine failure is caused by just an engine problem and not a common problem like volcanic ash.htm 93. Would you return to a IFR minimum approach in Honolulu or would you continue to Vancouver. where it is mixed with fuel and combustion occurs.navcen.Tell me about GPS GPS is defined as the constellation of satellites. The air that goes through the fan has a velocity that is slightly increased from free stream.eng.Describe. 94. http://www. YES I would continue to my destination if the engineer service would be the same. sea. hollow blades designed and developed by Rolls-Royce.How do spoilers / ailerons work ? Spoilers are used for high and low speed roll control as well as speed brakes in flight and lift destroyer upon landing in order to pressure the gear on landing with the full aircraft weight. how you would design a high speed aircraft wing ? Delta wings are appropriate plan forms to fly at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. At high temperatures a diffusion bond is formed between these three pieces of material such that the finished blade is effectively a . http://www. velocity.gov/gps/default. GPS permits land.ohio-state. fuel contamination.http://aviation. Back up electrical generators ( no need for APU generators in case of coupled approach ) Huge engines with high thrust. The rest of the incoming air passes through the fan and bypasses.uscg. 92.

So the main advantages are best FOD & strongest fan ever built.How does a contaminated runway ( ice.How do you maintain obstacle clearance on B 777. the wide-chord nature of the blade. or when thrust lever is not closed. rain ) or a tailwind affect your V1 ( distance or speed ) ? Distance to reach V1 for tailwind / contaminated runway is shorter. Wide-chord fan protects the engine against foreign object damage while latest-generation single crystal high-pressure turbine blades help to ensure that engines have the best on-wing life in the airline industry. 99. Engines incorporating the wide chord blade have fan modules that are approximately 24% lighter and an engine which is 7% lighter ( typically the Trent 800 engine as used in the Boeing 777 ). By extending or retarding the spoiler slow and gently. 98.What are the limitations of spoilers ? How do you correct spoiler blowback ? Speed brake is extended when radio altitude is between 15’ and 800’. Fuel efficiency is another great characteristic. hollow structure. 95. What are differential / non-differential spoilers ? . This lightweight blade is then extremely strong with a leading edge that is robust and can resist damage due to foreign object impact. what is the profile you fly ? Improved climb takeoff ( Flaps 5 ) gives the highest takeoff weight to clear obstacles. In addition. centrifuges runway debris and dust into the by-pass duct reducing engine removals due to FOD ( foreign object damage ) by a factor of four when measured against conventional narrow blades. or when the flap lever is in landing position. 100.single piece.Explain the B 777 anti / de-ice system ? The system contains: • Automatic ice detection • Engine anti ice • Wing anti ice • Flight deck window heat • Windshield wipers • Probe heat 97. permissible takeoff weight is the lowest of the corrected performance • Climb limited weight • Improved climb limited weight • Runway limited weight 96.Outline takeoff performance planning on B 777 ? The max. V1 Speed is lower than the normal V1 speed.

it/andreatheone/dfcs.edu/~jfisher/NSF_96/windshear. Even with such systems installed. and the other is the extremely wet environment.htm 102. You can compare it to a modern car’s power steering that changes it’s feeling as speed increases.at/Books/indestructible_pilot/book/knowledge/knowledge_2. A Low-Level Wind-Shear Alert System has been installed on the ground at more than 100 U. http://www. http://www. Fla. and Denver Stapleton airports and is scheduled to be stationed at more than 40 other airports by mid-1994. The actuator provides elevator pitch-up position to maintain the correct attitude when airplane mach tuck speed is attained.html http://www.Differential spoilers are slightly more sophisticated and will extend on one side in response to a roll demand and will retract on the other side. But the systems cannot predict when wind shears are approaching. What is a mach trimmer ? What is it used for ? In a flight control system. the respective engine igniters are activated.edu/~doswell/microbursts/Figure_08. and controllers can alert pilots in the ¢ vent wind shear is detected.htm 101.math.br/artigo36. which can produce microburst embedded in very heavy rain. EEC energizes both igniters. This signal is applied to the mach trim actuator.cimms. airborne detection will still be needed because wind shear is a global phenomena and most airports will not have predictive. What is wind shear ? How is it detected ? Where do you find wind shear ? Where do you find microburst ? Wind shear is any rapid change in wind direction or velocity. ground-based systems installed. What are the inputs of “ Q “ feel ? The ‘Q feel’ (“Q” for dynamic air pressure) systems provide artificial feel forces to the pilot control yokes. sea breezes. http://www.gaveasky. The basic information comes from a pitot tube.com..htm . When EEC detects an engine flameout. an automatic control sub-system which provides pitch trim of an aircraft as a function of mach number. Why do engines have auto-ignition ? How does it work ? To prevent engine flameout during rain /hail. temperature inversions. Non-differential spoilers will extend on one side in response to a roll demand but will not retract on the other side. This is because hydraulic powered controls mask high demands that may be applied by pilots inadvertently.najaco.ou. The mach trim system provides automatic elevator quadrant displacement as a function of Mach number in the mach tuck (nose down) region. frontal systems. However. These wind variations can result from a large variety of meteorological conditions.S. Wind speed and directional sensors report to a central computer.libero. 103. Two extreme types of microburst exists. When engine flameout is detected. however. strong surface winds and thunderstorms. a ground-based radar ( Terminal Doppler Weather Radar ) system has been tested at Orlando.JPG 104. One is the extremely dry environment in which moist convection is just barely possible.unl. airports. Mach data from the air data computer is used to generate a servo position command signal. The mach trim actuator changes the position of the column neutral point without altering feel/force characteristics. http://digilander.

http://www. The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. ( FAA ) http://www. maximum gross weight.uk/assumedtemp. Absolute ceiling: the maximum density altitude which the aircraft can maintain or attain with two engines operating.htm 107. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle. http://inventors.g. Above this temperature.org. This higher temperature is called the assumed temperature. The RR Trend engines 884/892 are flat rated at ISA +30˚C.htm http://www. 108. they will give less thrust because the air is less dense.b737. The compressor is made up of fans with many blades and attached to a shaft. Max. work on the same principle.105.wordreference. takeoff thrust. long runway.com/cfi/pdf/Multi-engine_Instructor_Quick_Reference. • Rudder / If nose is low.com/library/inventors/blhowajetengineworks. headwind etc. high / low speeds.about. On occasions when full thrust would be more than is safely required e.com/atem/EngineYB/Acrobat/eybdirturbos. flaps up. and maximum continuous power. This means that they are guaranteed to give (at least) the rated thrust at the full throttle position when the OAT is below this temperature. local Mach numbers at different points on the wing's surface will range from zero at the .com/english/definition. we can choose a thrust setting below full thrust by telling the engines (via the FMC) that the OAT is much higher than it actually is. What is the combustion cycle of a jet engine ? All jet engines. Immediate action items : • Push / Push the autopilot off and push yoke to unload any G’s. light aircraft.aviation-industry. gear up. • Power / Increase if nose is high. A compressor raises the pressure of the air. thereby conserving engine life and hence reducing your chances of an engine failure.pdf 106.com/english/definition. What causes a jet-upset ? How do you correct it ? Extreme attitudes.asp?en=absolute%20ceiling 109. What is a service ceiling ? An absolute ceiling ? Service ceiling: the maximum density altitude at which the best rate of climb will produce a 100 fpm rate of climb at maximum gross weight.doc http://www. gear up. and maximum continuous power. The blades compress the air. decrease if nose is low. For a given flight Mach number (M). As an aircraft climbs.fergworld.asp?en=service%20ceiling http://www. at the back of the engine. which are also called gas turbines. step on the sky. the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward. As the jets of gas shoot backward. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. The density altitude where VY and VX meet is the absolute ceiling. allowed reduction is 25% from max. VY decreases and VX increases. • Roll / Roll wings level before pitching up to horizon. flaps up. What is a “ assumed temperature “ ? This is a way of reducing the take-off thrust to the minimum required for a safe take-off.wordreference. What is MCRIT ? Consider the flow past a standard aerofoil section.

What is a safety cell battery ? A safety cell battery is a battery which doesn’t leak. as the aircraft moves into supersonic flight the up wash ahead of the wing disappears (since no pressure waves move out ahead of the wing. giving a single. During what phase of flight is lift the greatest ? Lift is greatest during takeoff.131/aerodynamics1/High-Speed/Page6.tech.uk/aeroxtra/hsfapp. Outline the change in the Center of Pressure as an aircraft increases speed past MCRIT ? An aerodynamic center is at approximately the 25% chord point. 112. would you load it with a forward or aft C of G ? Aft C of G. At any higher value of M there will be a region of supersonic flow produced on the upper surface.html 115. altitude. What are the basic parameters of an aircraft electrical system ? Aircraft electrical components operate on many different voltages both AC and DC However. mechanically compensating for this varying speed to give a constant output speed to the Generator.nasa. the maximum local M on the upper surface will also increase until it eventually reaches M = 1 at the flight Mcrit. both move back to the 50% chord point.com/constant_speed_drives. most of the systems use: 115 V AC @ 400 Hz 28 V DC 26 V AC is also used in some aircraft for lighting http://www. Use the standby horizon. 114.rmcs. Describe the construction of an engine generator ? The generator or IDG is fitted to the aircraft engine and takes a varying input speed from the engine. If you were loading an airplane to obtain max. http://www. As M increases. ) Use QRH Unreliable Airspeed table to determine Pitch and Thrust settings. leading to increased drag http://www.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/smotion.leading edge stagnation point to a maximum value somewhere on the upper surface.htm 113. .purdue. etc.tarel. Range. Highest weight of aircraft needs highest lift. http://142.) As a result it is not surprising that the aerodynamic center and center of pressure.edu/at/courses/at403/Aircraft_electrical_systems.26.htm 110.194.cranfield.ac.html 116. more compact unit. terminated by a terminal shock wave. What are your actions for a pitot / static blockage ? An artificial horizon failure ? Pitot / static blockage causes unreliable data ( speed. However. http://www.ppt 111.lerc. An IDG integrates the Generator into the same unit as the CSD.

How does differential GPS work ? A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is a system designed to improve the accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) by measuring infinitesimal changes in variables to provide satellite positioning corrections.000 ft. Two or more receivers observe the same set of satellites.jsp?view=story&id=news/cetop1217. taking similar measurements that produce similar errors when positioned closely together. up to 240 minutes and beyond 240 minutes. although an exemption of up to 207 minutes is allowed on some Northern Pacific routes. calculates its theoretical position and compares it to the measurements provided by the navigation satellite signals. 123.xml http://www. what is the heading required to maintain the reciprocal track ? HDG 280˚ WCA = 12˚ reciprocal track is 268˚ + 12˚= HDG 280˚ 118. What are the various ETOPS categories ? Right now. This technique compensates for errors in the satellite navigation system itself but may not always correct errors caused by the local environment when satellite navigation signals are reflected off of tall buildings or nearby mountains. How does cross-wind affect the critical engine ? The most hazardous crosswind takeoff situation regarding pilots and flight line safety is with the wind from behind the pilots and takeoff from right to left.asp 121. http://www.org/imaa/hfarticles/safety/v9-4-64. http://www.thalesnavigation.com/en/products/aboutgps/dgps. The ARAC proposal would add two more steps to this limit.html 122. Accuracy of global satellite positioning is thereby increased from 15 meters to within a few meters.fly-imaa. http://products. Platform with laser gyros not updated System is self-contained. If you were flying 076˚ heading to track 088˚.html . creating multipath signals. carriers must have operational experience in the next lowest step. The screen height of normally 35’ is reduced for a wet V1 to 15’. To use the new categories. qualifying twin-engine aircraft must be within 180 minutes flying time of an alternate airport in case a diversion is required.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_22/etops_story. A reference receiver. 120.boeing. OAT is -45˚. placed at a known location. what is ∆T ( deviation from ISA ) ? ISA+6˚ 33 x (-2˚) = -66˚+15˚= -51˚ 119. Tell me about IRS. The difference between the two values reveals the measurement error.117.com/avnow/news/channel_comm. What is the difference between a dry V1 and a wet V1 ? What does it change with respect to the screen height ? The wet V1 is lower than the dry V1. If you are at 33. The reference receiver then transmits a corrected signal to any number of receivers at unknown positions within the area covered by the DGPS.aviationnow.

climb gradient • of 2.124. cargo fire indication. engine flameout. Engine over temperature. windscreen damage 125. If TOW is limited by an obstacle in the 2nd segment. what does it mean ? That the min. engine stall. .4% for a 2 engine aircraft • of 2.7% for a 3 engine aircraft • of 3. what is the hazards ? Avoid the area! If entered an area turn back by 180˚.0% for a 4 engine aircraft is not reached. If you fly in a region of volcanic dust discuss the procedures you would adopt. smoke in the cabin.

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