TUTORIAL 4

:-

since the threshold is 9KB. the window size is supposed to be 16.. UDP packets contain a destination port. No! The IP layer will properly reassemble fragments and ensure that the datagrams are correctly ordered.IP packets contain IP addresses. three things happend. . it cannot be implemented since one process can have one process ID. Second. the threshold will be reset to 18KB/2=9KB. the congestion window would start at 1. 4KB 4th transmission: 8 segments. If process ID is use d. However." 2. 8KB After these four successful transmissions. Once such a packet arrived. However the datagrams themselves may arrive out of order (or be lost) and it is up to the TCP layer to rectify this. one process manages multiple sockets on different TSAPs.ANSWERS:1. daytime. By using UDP. it cannot be used for well-known service such as HTTP. BOOTP. reliability can be built into the client/ server applications to provide a more reliable. First. Two Reasons are. then 1st transmission: 1 segment. slow start will be initiated. That is. 5. (2) In some situations. Third. TFTP and SNMP. If the next four transmission are all successful. "Reliability is not of primary importance in applications such as echo. When a timeout occurs. the window size can only be 9KB. 3. a segment cannot be delivered to a specified application as a raw IP packet. 4. a segment will be delivered correctly to the specified application because UDP uses source and destination ports while raw IP packet does not include ports. 2KB 3rd transmission: 4 segments. 1KB 2nd transmission: 2 segments. which specify a destination machine. In custom software. how would the network handler know which process to give it to. Since process ID is assigned dynamically to the process when a process is created (forked). No. low overhead service.:- (1) Process ID is not static.

TUTORIAL 5:- .

Compression can be either : a.. there are many schemes to reduce file size by eliminating redundancy. which use the control connection. Lossless compression is possible because most real-world data has statistical redundancy. b..) Data compression.data compressin k naam se…agar usme na mile then write this one. while keeping a result which is as close as possible to the original data. This is a basic example of run-length encoding.. for example. Lossy Lossy compression Lossy compression. such as MP3 or the Ogg Vorbisformat. source coding or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation. Lossless Loseless Compression:. It is the case. FTP does not need a message format because there is no need to send additional information back and forth aside from the commands and responses. 3. instead of coding "red pixel. .:Lossless data compression algorithms usually exploit statistical redundancy to represent data more concisely without losing information.ANSWERS:1. of certain image or sound compressions. it is usual to speak of irreversible compression methods. eliminates some information in order to achieve the best possible compression ratio. 2. red pixel. as opposed to lossless compression. an image may have areas of colour that do not change over several pixels." the data may be encoded as "279 red pixels". (Ache se shivani mai diya hua hai.. Since this type of compression removes information contained in the data that is to be compressed. . For example.

modem racks. printers. It is used mostly in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. we can assume p=59 and q=61. and: φ(n) = (p-1)(q-1) = (59-1)(61-1) = 3480 d = (1 + k φ(n))/e = (1 + 3480k)/31 = -13921/31 = -449 (for k = -4) d = -449 (mod 3480) = 3031 (mod 3480) 5. Devices that typically support SNMP include routers. switches. workstations. and a set of data objects . SNMP is a component of the Internet Protocol Suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). servers. including an application layer protocol. Since p and q must both be prime and n = 3599 = 1·59·61. It consists of a set of standards for network management.4. a database schema. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an "Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks". and more.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful