“TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT IN AUTO SECTOR” (an empirical study with special reference to JCBL)





MBA University Roll No.



“Gratitude is the hardest of emotions to express and one often does not find adequate words to convey what one feels and trying to express it” The present project file is an amalgamated of various thoughts and experiences .The successful completion of this project report would have not been possible without the help and guidance of number of people and specially to my project guide .I take this opportunity to thank all those who have directly and indirectly inspired, directed and helped me towards successful completion of this project report.

I am also immensely indebted to my project guide, MISS ASTT. PROFESSOR, ICL-IMT, for his/her illumining observation, encouraging suggestions and constructive criticisms, which have helped me in completing this research project successfully.

I also acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude and wholeheartedness to several other people who also deserve much more than a mere acknowledgement for their exemplary help and cooperation intended to me by them.


Practical training is an important part of management courses. Theoretical studies in classroom are not sufficient to understand the functioning of complex and large sized organization, managerial climate and the real problems coming in the way of management of Man, Material, Machines and Money. Practical training supplements the theoretical studies i.e. it covers what is left uncovered in the classrooms. It offers an exposure to real practice of management in business organization. It exposes student to an invaluable treasure of experience. In the forthcoming pages an attempt has been made to present a comprehensive report concerning different aspects of my study. The overall knowledge gained by me will be reflected in the report itself.

MBA University Roll No.



I hereby declare that, the project entitled “TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT” assigned to me for the partial fulfillment of MBA degree from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. The work is originally completed by me and the information provided in the study is authentic to the best of my knowledge.

This study has not been submitted to any other institution or university for the award of any other degree.

MBA University Roll No.



This is to certify that has completed the project entitled “TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT” under my supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the report consists of result of the empirical study conducted by the student. In my opinion, the work is of requisite standard expected from an MBA student. Therefore, I recommend the same to be sent for evaluation to the university.




Chapter-1 Introduction Chapter -2 Research methodology     Objectives of the study Sample design Data collection Tools and techniques for analysis and interpretation

Chapter -3 Analysis and interpretation

Chapter-4 Findings and recommendations     Limitations of the study Bibliography Abbreviations used (If applicable) Annexure/Appendix


   Introduction to auto sector. Introduction to JCBL. Introduction to training & development.


Automotive industry in India
The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the sixth largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.7 million units in 2010. According to recent reports, India is set to overtake Brazil to become the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world, growing 16-18 per cent to sell around three million units in the course of 2011-12. In 2009, India emerged as Asia's fourth largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea, and Thailand. In 2010, India reached as Asia's third largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan and South Korea beating Thailand. As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles. More than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an increase of 33.9%), making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world. According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, annual vehicle sales are projected to increase to 5 million by 2015 and more than 9 million by 2020. By 2050, the country is expected to top the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation's roads. The majority of India's car manufacturing industry is based around three clusters in the south, west and north. The southern cluster near Chennai is the biggest with 35% of the revenue share. The western hub near Maharashtra is 33% of the market. The northern cluster is primarily Haryana with 32%. Chennai, is also referred to as the "Detroit of India" with the India operations of Ford, Hyundai, Renault and Nissan headquartered in the city and BMW having an assembly plant on the outskirts. Chennai accounts for 60% of the country's automotive exports. Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the country's largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based. The Chakan corridor near Pune, Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies like General Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra and Mahindra, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Fiat and Force Motors having assembly plants in the area. Aurangabad with Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen also forms part of the western cluster. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nano at Sanand. Ford, Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot-Citroen plants


are also set to come up in Gujarat. Kolkatta with Hindustan Motors, Noida with Honda and Bangalore with Toyota are some of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.

The Indian Automobile Industry manufactures over 11 million vehicles and exports about 1.5 million each year. The dominant products of the industry are two-wheelers with a market share of over 75% and passenger cars with a market share of about 16%. Commercial vehicles and three-wheelers share about 9% of the market between them. About 91% of the vehicles sold are used by households and only about 9% for commercial purposes. The industry has a turnover of more than USD $35 billion and provides direct and indirect employment to over 13 million people.??? The supply chain is similar to the supply chain of the automotive industry in Europe and America. Interestingly, the level of trade exports in this sector in India has been medium and imports have been low. However, this is rapidly changing and both exports and imports are increasing. The demand determinants of the industry are factors like affordability, product innovation, infrastructure and price of fuel. Also, the basis of competition in the sector is high and increasing, and its life cycle stage is growth. With a rapidly growing middle class, all the advantages of this sector in India are yet to be leveraged. With a high cost of developing production facilities, limited accessibility to new technology, and increasing competition, the barriers to enter the Indian Automotive sector are high. On the other hand, India has a well-developed tax structure. The power to levy taxes and duties is distributed among the three tiers of Government. The cost structure of the industry is fairly traditional, but the profitability of motor vehicle manufacturers has been rising over the past five years. Major players, like Tata Motors and Maruti Suzuki have material cost of about 80% but are recording profits after tax of about 6% to 11%.


The level of technology change in the Motor vehicle Industry has been high but, the rate of change in technology has been medium. Investment in the technology by the producers has been high. System-suppliers of integrated components and sub-systems have become the order of the day. However, further investment in new technologies will help the industry be more competitive. Over the past few years, the industry has been volatile. Currently, India's increasing per capita disposable income which is expected to rise by 106% by 2015 and growth in exports is playing a major role in the rise and competitiveness of the industry. Tata Motors is leading the commercial vehicle segment with a market share of about 64%.Maruti Suzuki is leading the passenger vehicle segment with a market share of 46%. Hyundai Motor India and Mahindra and Mahindra are focusing expanding their footprint in the overseas market. Hero Moto Corp is occupying over 41% and sharing 26% of the two-wheeler market in India with Bajaj Auto. Bajaj Auto in itself is occupying about 58% of the three-wheeler market. Consumers are very important of the survival of the Motor Vehicle manufacturing industry. In 2008-09, customer sentiment dropped, which burned on the augmentation in demand of cars. Steel is the major input used by manufacturers and the rise in price of steel is putting a cost pressure on manufacturers and cost is getting transferred to the end consumer. The price of oil and petrol affect the driving habits of consumers and the type of car they buy. The key to success in the industry is to improve labor productivity, labor flexibility, and capital efficiency. Having quality manpower, infrastructure improvements, and raw material availability also play a major role. Access to latest and most efficient technology and techniques will bring competitive advantage to the major players. Utilizing manufacturing plants to optimum level and understanding implications from the government policies are the essentials in the Automotive Industry of India. Both, Industry and Indian Government are obligated to intervene the Indian Automotive industry. The Indian government should facilitate infrastructure creation, create favorable and predictable business environment, attract investment and promote research and development. The role of Industry will primarily be in designing and manufacturing products of world-class quality establishing cost competitiveness and improving productivity in labor and in capital.


With a combined effort, the Indian Automotive industry will emerge as the destination of choice in the world for design and manufacturing of automobiles.

The first car ran on India's roads in 1897. Until the 1930s, cars were imported directly, but in very small numbers. Embryonic automotive industry emerged in India in the 1940s. Mahindra & Mahindra was established by two brothers as a trading company in 1945, and began assembly of Jeep CJ-3A utility vehicles under license from Willys. The company soon branched out into the manufacture of light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and agricultural tractors. Following the independence, in 1947, the Government of India and the private sector launched efforts to create an automotive component manufacturing industry to supply to the automobile industry. However, the growth was relatively slow in the 1950s and 1960s due to nationalisation and the license raj which hampered the Indian private sector. After 1970, the automotive industry started to grow, but the growth was mainly driven by tractors, commercial vehicles and scooters. Cars were still a major luxury. Japanese manufacturers entered the Indian market ultimately leading to the establishment of Maruti Udyog. A number of foreign firms initiated joint ventures with Indian companies. In the 1980s, a number of Japanese manufacturers launched joint-ventures for building motorcycles and light commercial-vehicles. It was at this time that the Indian government chose Suzuki for its joint-venture to manufacture small cars. Following the economic liberalisation in 1991 and the gradual weakening of the license raj, a number of Indian and multi-national car companies launched operations. Since then, automotive component and automobile manufacturing growth has accelerated to meet domestic and export demands. Following economic liberalization in India in 1991, the Indian automotive industry has demonstrated sustained growth as a result of increased competitiveness and relaxed restrictions. Several Indian automobile manufacturers such as Tata Motors, Maruti Suzuki and Mahindra and Mahindra, expanded their domestic and international operations. India's robust economic growth 11

led to the further expansion of its domestic automobile market which has attracted significant India-specific investment by multinational automobile manufacturers. In February 2009, monthly sales of passenger cars in India exceeded 100,000 units and has since grown rapidly to a record monthly high of 182,992 units in October 2009. From 2003 to 2010, car sales in India have progressed at a CAGR of 13.7%, and with only 10% of Indian households owning a car in 2009 (whereas this figure reaches 80% in Switzerland for example) this progression is unlikely to stop in the coming decade. Congestion of Indian roads, more than market demand, will likely be the limiting factor. SIAM is the apex industry body representing all the vehicle manufacturers, home-grown and international, in India.

Industry Definition
This class consists of units mainly engaged in manufacturing motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines. Products and Services The primary activities of this industry are: Motor cars manufacturing Motor vehicle engine manufacturing The major products and services in this industry are: Passenger motor vehicle manufacturing segment (Passenger Cars, Utility Vehicles & Multi Purpose Vehicles) Commercial Vehicles (Medium & Heavy and Light Commercial Vehicles) Two Wheelers Three Wheelers


Supply Chain of Automobile Industry
The supply chain of automotive industry in India is very similar to the supply chain of the automotive industry in Europe and America. The orders of the industry arise from the bottom of the supply chain i. e., from the consumers and goes through the automakers and climbs up until the third tier suppliers. However the products, as channelled in every traditional automotive industry, flow from the top of the supply chain to reach the consumers. Automakers in India are the key to the supply chain and are responsible for the products and innovation in the industry. The description and the role of each of the contributors to the supply chain are discussed below. Third Tier Suppliers: These companies provide basic products like rubber, glass, steel, plastic and aluminium to the second tier suppliers. Second Tier Suppliers: These companies design vehicle systems or bodies for First Tier Suppliers and OEMs. They work on designs provided by the first tier suppliers or OEMs. They also provide engineering resources for detailed designs. Some of their services may include welding, fabrication, shearing, bending etc. First Tier Suppliers: These companies provide major systems directly to assemblers. These companies have global coverage to follow their customers to various locations around the world. They design and innovate to provide "black-box" solutions for the requirements of their customers. Black-box solutions are solutions created by suppliers using their own technology to meet the performance and interface requirements set by assemblers. First tier suppliers are responsible not only for the assembly of parts into complete units like dashboard, breaks-axle-suspension, seats, or cockpit but also for the management of second-tier suppliers. Automakers/Vehicle Manufacturers/Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs): After

researching consumers' wants and needs, automakers begin designing models which are tailored to consumers' demands. The design process normally takes five years. These companies have manufacturing units where engines are manufactured and parts supplied by first tier suppliers


and second tier suppliers are assembled. Automakers are the key to the supply chain of the automotive industry. Examples of these companies are Tata Motors, Maruti Suzuki, Toyota, and Honda. Innovation, design capability and branding are the main focus of these companies. Dealers: Once the vehicles are ready they are shipped to the regional branch and from there, to the authorised dealers of the companies. The dealers then sell the vehicles to the end customers. Parts and Accessory: These companies provide products like tires, windshields, and air bags etc. to automakers and dealers or directly to customers. Service Providers: Some of the services to the customers include servicing of vehicles, repairing parts, or financing of vehicles. Many dealers provide these services but, customers can also choose to go to independent service providers.

Key statistics
The production of automobiles has greatly increased in the last decade. It passed the 1 million mark during 2003-2004 and has more than doubled since. Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Car Production 2,814,584 2,175,220 1,846,051 1,713,479 1,473,000 1,264,000 1,178,354 907,968 703,948 654,557 517,957 533,149 % Change 29.39 17.83 7.74 16.33 16.53 7.27 29.78 28.98 7.55 26.37 -2.85 Commercial 722,199 466,330 486,277 540,250 546,808 362,755 332,803 253,555 190,848 160,054 283,403 285,044 % Change 54.86 -4.10 -9.99 -1.20 50.74 9.00 31.25 32.86 19.24 -43.52 -0.58 Total Vehicles Prodn. 3,536,783 2,641,550 2,332,328 2,253,999 2,019,808 1,628,755 1,511,157 1,161,523 894796 814611 801360 818193 % Change 33.89 13.25 3.35 10.39 19.36 7.22 23.13 22.96 8.96 1.62 -2.10

Year 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 [18] Motor Vehicle Production 8,467,853 9,743,503 11,087,997 10,853,930 11,175,479 [18] Industry Revenue USD Million 24,379 26,969 30,507 32,383 33,342* [18] Exports (Units) 629,544 806,222 1,011,529 1,238,333 1,530,660


Year Exports (Revenue)

2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 1,915 2,231 2,552 3,008 3,718*

[edit] Automobile Production
Type of Vehicle 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 Passenger Vehicles 1,209,876 1,309,300 1,545,223 1,777,583 1,838,697 Commercial Vehicles 353,703 391,083 519,982 549,006 417,126 Three Wheelers 374,445 434,423 556,126 500,660 501,030 Two Wheelers 6,529,829 7,608,697 8,466,666 8,026,681 8,418,626 Total. 8,467,853 9,743,503 11,087,997 10,853,930 11,175,479

Automobile Sales
Type of Vehicle 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 [18] Passenger Vehicles 1,061,572 1,143,076 1,379,979 1,549,882 1,551,880 [18] Commercial Vehicles 318,430 351,041 467,765 490,494 384,122 [18] Three Wheelers 307,862 359,920 403,910 364,781 349,719 [18] Two Wheelers 6,209,765 7,052,391 7,872,334 7,249,278 7,437,670 Total 7,897,629 8,906,428 10,123,988 9,654,435 9,723,391

Automobile Exports
Type of Vehicle 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 [18] Passenger Vehicles 166,402 175,572 198,452 218,401 335,739 [18] Commercial Vehicles 29,940 40,600 49,537 58,994 42,673 [18] Three Wheelers 66,795 76,881 143,896 141,225 148,074 [18] Two Wheelers 366,407 513,169 619,644 819,713 1,004,174 Total 629,544 806,222 1,011,529 1,238,333 1,530,660

Industry Assistance
The automobile industry has a defined its target in the Automotive Mission Plan as “To emerge as the destination of choice in the world for design and manufacture of automobiles with output reaching a level of USD 145 billion accounting more than 10% of GDP and providing additional


employment to 25 million people by 2016”. In order to achieve this plan interventions are required from both Industry and Indian Government. The Indian Government would play a key enabling role in facilitating infrastructure creation, promote the country's capabilities, create a favorable and predictable business environment, attract investment and promote research & development. The role of Industry will primarily be in designing and manufacturing products of world-class quality standards, establishing cost competitiveness, improving productivity of both labor and capital, achieving scale and R&D enhancing capability and showcasing India's products in potential markets. In order to achieve these goals the following key recommendations have been made in the Automotive Mission Plan to the Indian Government and Industry: Manufacturing and export of small cars, multi-utility vehicles, two- and three-wheelers, tractors, components to be promoted Care to be taken of negative like and rules of the country with current negotiation of Free Trade Agreement and Regional Trade agreement with countries like Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Korea, Egypt, Gulf etc. Attractive Tariff Policy which may follow attractive investment. Specific measures will be taken for expansion of domestic market. Incremental investment of USD 35 to 40 billion to Automotive Industry during the next 10 years. National Road Safety Board to act as the coordinating body for promoting safety. Inspection and Certification system to be strengthened by encouraging public-private partnership. National level Automotive Institute for training on automobile at International Training Institutes (ITIs) and Automotive Training Institute (ATIs) to be set up. An Auto Design Centre to be established at National Institute of Design, Ahmadabad.National Automotive Testing and R&D Implementation Project (NATRIP) to act as Centre of Excellence for Technical Design Data. Integration of Information Technology in manufacturing to be promoted. R&D for product, process and technology to be incentivised. Road Map for Auto Fuel Policy beyond 2010 would be drawn. The profitability of motor vehicle manufacturers has been rising over the past five years, mainly due to rising demand and growth of Indian middle class. Major players of the industry, like


Maruti Suzuki India and Tata Motors have been recording profits of 6% to 11% from the past five years. Whereas, earlier profit margins in the industry were only 1.5% to 3%. Cost of material has reduced from over 85% in the year 2001-2002 to under 80% in the year2008-2009.[18] Wages and salary as a percentage of revenue has been declining and with the increasing labour productivity this is expected to decline further in the coming years.

Capital and Labour Intensity
The level of Capital Intensity is high The level of Labour intensity in medium The motor vehicle manufacturing industry requires significant level of capital investment. Value is added through the automated manufacturing and assembly of costly components. Labour input is required in the manufacturing, assembly, and finishing processes. In order to achieve and retain competitiveness, vehicle manufacturing industry depends on its capacity and speed to innovate and upgrade. The most imperative indices for competitiveness in the industry are productivity in both labour and capital. Technology and Systems The level of technology change is high The rate of change in technology is medium Investment in technology by producers has been on the rise. The automobile industry in India has seen an enormous development in the engines which are being used. Carburettor engines have become obsolete and Multi Point Fuel Injection (MPFI) engines are the order of the days in patrol cars. The Diesel engines have also undergone a sea change from the time Rudolf Diesel invented it way back in the 1892. Today Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) is the order of the day. Multi Point Fuel injection (MPFI) The fuel injects were used to meet stricter emission norms as it keeps pollutants to bare minimum and drives the maximum performance out of a vehicle by squeezing out the maximum mileage even from the last drop of fuel that goes into the engine. 17

MPFI system injects fuel into individual cylinders after receiving command from the on board engine management system computer or Engine Control Unit (ECU). This technology results in superior fuel combustion, better fuel management, engine performance and reduced pollution. To get the maximum out from these types of engine one should use Premium petrol like XTRA Premium, Speed, and Power. Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) CRDI engine cars offer 25% more power than the normal direct injection engine with a superior pickup and torque, offering sometimes up to 70% more power than the conventional diesel engines. They are smooth, less strident, and immensely fuel efficient giving around 24 kilometres to a litre of Diesel. The fact that Diesel is cheaper than petrol in India further attributes greatness to the engine. In a CRDI engine, a tube or a common rail connects all the injectors and contains fuel at a constant pressure. The high pressure in the common rail ensures that when injected, the fuel breaks up into small particles and mixes evenly with the air, thereby leaving little un-burnt fuel thus reducing pollution. The common rail principle has been used to reduce the noise which used to be a downside with earlier Diesel engines; the technology has been pioneered by the Fiat group, only to be adopted by other automobile companies around the world. However, these engines are 25% more costly than the conventional engines. They also require higher degree of maintenance and spares are also expensive. The Indian automotive industry is in the mindset of a major structural transformation in today's globalised scenario. “System Supplies” of integrated components and sub-systems has become the order of the day, with individual small components being supplied to the system integrators instead of vehicle manufacturers. In this process most of the Small Scale Industrial units, manufacturing smaller individual components, have become tier 2 and tier 3 suppliers, while the large companies including most Multi National Companies are being transformed into tier 1


companies who purchase from tier 2 and tier 3, and sell to the auto manufacturers. (Source: Department of Heavy Industry) Investment in new technology such as supply-chain management and collaborative forecasting (where members of the supply chain share forecasting data to reduce bottlenecks) will help make industry more competitive.

Industry Volatility
The level of volatility is medium. Over the past few years, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturing industry has become more volatile. This has been the result of fluctuations in metal prices and fuel prices, as well as changes in legislation and assistance packages. India's increasing per capita disposable income and growth in exports is playing a major role in the rise and the competitiveness of the industry. As per the BRIC report India's per capita disposable income from current year will rise by 106% in 2015. This increase in the spending power has been a forefront of the economic development. According to the Economic Times of India, economic liberalization – allowing unrestricted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and removing foreign currency neutralisation and export obligations – has been also been one of the key to India's automotive volatility.

Key Competitors
Tata Motors
Market Share: Commercial Vehicles 63.94%, Passenger Vehicles 16.45% Tata Motors Limited is India's largest automobile company, with consolidated revenues of USD 14 billion in 2008-09. It is the leader in commercial vehicles and among the top three in passenger vehicles. Tata Motors has winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments. The company is the world's fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world's second largest bus manufacturer with over 24,000 employees. Since first rolled out in 1954, Tata Motors as has produced and sold over 4 million vehicles in India. 19

Tata Motors is the first company from India's engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock Exchange (September 2004), has also emerged as an international automobile company. Through subsidiaries and associate companies, Tata Motors has operations in the United Kingdom, South Korea, Thailand and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover, a business comprising the two British brands which was acquired in 2008. In 2004, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company, South Korea's second largest truck maker. The rechristened Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company has launched several new products in the Korean market, while also exporting these products to several international markets. Today two-thirds of heavy commercial vehicle exports out of South Korea are from Tata Daewoo. In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera, a reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer, and subsequently the remaining stake in 2009. Hispano's presence is being expanded in other markets.

Maruti Suzuki India
Market Share: Passenger Vehicles 46.07% Maruti Suzuki India Limited, a subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan, is India's largest passenger car company, accounting for over 45% of the domestic car market. The company offers a complete range of cars from entry level Maruti-800 and Alto, to stylish hatchback Ritz, A star, Swift, Wagon-R, Estillo and sedans DZire, SX4 and Sports Utility vehicle Grand Vitara. Since inception in 1983, Maruti Suzuki India has produced and sold over 10 million vehicles in India and exported over 500,000 units to Europe and other countries. The company's revenue for the fiscal 2010-2011 stood over Rs 375,224 million and Profits After Tax at over Rs. 22,886 million.


Hyundai Motor India
Market Share: Passenger Vehicles 14.15% Hyundai Motor India Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of world's fifth largest automobile company, Hyundai Motor Company, South Korea, and is the largest passenger car exporter. Hyundai Motor presently markets 49 variants of passenger cars across segments. These includes the Santro in the B segment, the i10, the premium hatchback i20 in the B+ segment, the Accent and the Verna in the C segment, the Sonata Transform in the E segment. Hyundai Motor, continuing its tradition of being the fastest growing passenger car manufacturer, registered total sales of 559,880 vehicles in the year 2009, an increase of 14.4% over 2008. In the domestic market it clocked a growth of 18.1% as compared to 2008 with 289,863 units, while overseas sales grew by 10.7%, with export of 270,017 units. Hyundai Motor currently exports cars to more than 110 countries across European Union, Africa, Middle East, Latin America and Asia. It has been the number one exporter of passenger car of the country for the sixth year in a row. In a little over a decade since Hyundai has been present in India, it has become the leading exporter of passenger cars with a market share of 66% of the total exports of passenger cars from India, making it a significant contributor to the Indian automobile industry. In 2009, in spite of a global slowdown, Hyundai Motor India's exports grew by 10.7%. In 2010 Hyundai plans to add 10 new markets with Australia being the latest entrant to the list. The first shipment to Australia is of 500 units of the i20 and the total i20 exports to Australia are expected to be in the region of 15,000 per annum.

Mahindra & Mahindra
Market Share: Commercial Vehicles 10.01%, Passenger Vehicles 6.50%, Three Wheelers 1.31% Mahindra & Mahindra is mainly engaged in the Multi Utility Vehicle and Three Wheeler segments directly. The company competes in the Light Commercial Vehicle segment through its joint venture subsidiary Mahindra Navistar Automotives Limited and in the passenger car


segment through another joint venture subsidiary Mahindra Renault. In the year 2009, on the domestic sales front, the Company along with its subsidiaries sold a total of 220,213 vehicles (including 44,533 three-wheelers, 8,603 Light Commercial Vehicles through Mahindra Navistar Automotives and 13,423 cars through Mahindra Renault), recording a growth of 0.6% over the previous year.[18] The company's domestic Multi Utility Vehicle sales volumes increased by 3.3%, as against a decline of 7.4% for industry Multi Utility Vehicle sales. A record number of 153,653 Multi Utility Vehicles were sold in the domestic market in 2009 compared to 148,761 MUVs in the previous year. Hence, Mahindra & Mahindra further strengthened its domination of the domestic Multi Utility Vehicle sub-segment during the year, increasing its market share to 57.2% over the previous year's market share of 51.3%. Mahindra & Mahindra is expanding its footprint in the overseas market. In 2009 the Xylo was launched in South Africa. The company formed a new joint venture Mahindra Automotive Australia Pty. Limited, to focus on the Australian Market.

Ashok Leyland
Market Share: Commercial Vehicles 22% Against the backdrop of the sharp slump in demand for commercial vehicles, during 2008-09, Ashok Leyland registered sales of 47,118 medium and heavy commercial vehicles (M&HCV), 37.5% less than in the previous year. This includes 16,049 M&HCV buses and 31,069 M&HCV trucks respectively, 8.7% and 46.3% less than in the previous year. The company lost 1.8% market share in the Indian medium and heavy commercial vehicle market during the financial year 2008-09, mainly due to loss of sales in the truck segment. This was because the Eastern Region, where the Company's presence had been historically weak, was relatively stable, whilst the market declined sharply in other regions.


While total industry volume of the medium and heavy duty buses declined by about 8.7%, the Company's market share grew marginally and Ashok Leyland retained its number one position in this segment. The Company sold 6,812 vehicles in the overseas markets during 2008-09. This represents a decrease of approximately 6.5% over the previous year. Total industry volume related to overseas markets to which the Company exports (such as Sri Lanka, the Middle East) witnessed a reduction of about 25% over the previous year. To combat the impact of decline in CV sales, the Company focused on non-cyclical businesses in the portfolio. The Company produced in all 54,049 vehicles during the year. To contain costs and conserve cash, the Company worked only about 50% of the working days in all its manufacturing units during the second half of the year.


JAYCEE COACH BUILDERS LTD (JCBL) is Certified under Companies Act, 1956. JCBL, a highly successful quality coach building company was incorporated in 1989. The authorized Share Capital of the company was Rs. 4 CRORE divided into 40 LACS Equity shares of Rs. 10 each, with power to increase and reduce the capital and to divide the shares in the capital for the time being into several classes. JCBL today has evolved into a highly successful coach building company. The company‟s product portfolio encompasses an array of high quality and luxuries coaches including luxuries intercity and intracity buses. Special application vehicles, Election campaign vans, display vans, OB vans, Radar calibration vans etc. Located on the Chandigarh-Ambala Highway, its manufacturing facilities have been steadily growing from strength to strength. Spread over an area of 45000 sq meters, the plant has a manufacturing capacity of 600 mini buses/ambulances, 2400 load carriers, 300 luxury coaches, 1500 mini buses and 5000 cargo boxes per annum. As a technology lead company, JCBL has state-of-art manufacturing systems which is carefully engineered to ensure optimum hassle-free performance. The JCBL Group includes several companies that can be regarded as pioneer in providing mobility solutions confirming to global standards since its inception in 1989.The current activities of the group include the manufacture of integral coaches in collaboration with King Long Co. Ltd., trailers in alliance with Tantri Trailers, air suspension system for LCV and HCV vehicles, seating system under technical guidance from APM Malaysia, LCV and HCV coaches and several automotive components for export to North America. The JCBL Group of companies are pioneers in providing mobility solution adhering to global standards. ISO 9001 certified, the company confirms to the stringent quality management system standards of DNV for manufacturing bus bodies, cargo boxes, seats and suspensions. The company is also in the process of implementing TS16949.


The group now offers a wide range of products and is firmly established within the industry. From luxury buses and mobile homes to mobile ambulances and display vans, JCBL has also diversified into the manufacture of several high quality luxury coaches, motor homes, trailers, special utility vehicles and cargo boxes. With a total capital outlay of over Rs.250 million, JCBL has a work force of over 500 people comprising of engineers, MBA‟s, CA‟s, supervisor staff and operators. Each employee is exposed to global manufacturing and quality practices for constant improvement of skills through regular training programs.

“To be a market leader, sustaining domestic leadership and global presence through innovation quality, and value added growth with diversified interests”.

  JCBL - JCBL IS One of the largest coach manufacturers in India. Leaders in Passenger Carrier/Goods industry with market share of 40%, growing at 50% per annum. CERITA - Cerita brings to India the next generation buses. In partnerships with the best aggregate suppliers around the globe, Cerita a wide range of intercity and intracity buses including low floor models with the option of CNG and Diesel engines.   MSL - It is a leading name in seat manufacturing and bus components. It is growing at more than 100% per annum. GLOBE TOYOTA - Dealership of Toyota cars in Karnal Awarded the Best Dealership in India for the year 2004 and recently awarded two more Dealership for Chandigarh and Ambala.  JCBL INDIA - International face of JCBL Group and brand is well recognized in US Market, Growing at more than 200% per annum. With its guiding principles of desire for excellence, quest for quality and pursuit of perfection JCBL is a trusted name in the industry today. The facets of the group are reflected in the impressive list of clients including SWARAJ MAZDA, TELCO, ASHOK LEYLAND, MINISTRY OF DEFENSE AND MINISTRY OF HEALTH.



JCBL‟s wide range of products, from luxury buses and mobile homes to ambulances, mobile display vans and much more, has established them firmly within the industry. Each of them lives up to the JBCL name and delivers an unparalleled performance. JCBL has today become a name to be reckoned with in the automobile industry.

1.To carry on the business of automobile, road transport, railway or such other coach or wagon builders carriage, car, cart and other such vehicle body builders, iron founders, mechanical and automobile engineers and consultants, and dealers of implements and machinery, iron and brass founder, metal workers, metallurgists, millwrights, machinists, smiths, wood workers, builders, painters and engineers thereof. 2. To carry on the business of garage proprietors and of service stations for motor vehicles of all kinds. 3. To carry on the work of automobile, mechanical and electrical engineers and to run workshops, to undertake and execute all types of automobile, mechanical and structural jobs of manufacture, fabrication and erection of coaches, chassis and bodies and to do various types of sheet metal works related thereto. 4. To act as an export house. 5. To take and negotiate loans, underwriting contracts equity participations cash credits, and other financial facilities from individuals, banks, Central Government, State Government, International Agencies, World Banks, Financial Institutions and others. 6. Office Equipment:- To carry on, in any mode, the business of manufacturers, suppliers, dealers of office facilities, office machines and all kinds of office equipments whether on lease, hire, hire-purchase or sale including servicing and maintenance. 7. Research and Experiment:- To establish, promote, operate and maintain experimental firs and research stations everywhere in or outside India for conducting experiments, tests and research for developing better qualities of food grains and agricultural products and for developing milt 27

strain in cattle by cross breeding or otherwise and increasing egg laying capacity in poultry and also for finding other ways and means of improving other agricultural crops, produce, seeds, fodder, crops and cattle feed of all kinds.

JCBL- A name synonymous high quality, utmost safety, groundbreaking technology and futuristic styling. From being incorporated in 1989 as a company that would manufacture high quality Japanese technology buses and load carriers for Swaraj Mazda, JCBL, has today evolved into a highly successful coach building company. Since its inception, the company has been technology driven and has worked restlessly to offer its patron the best in technology and comfort. The company‟s product folio encompasses an array of high quality and luxurious coaches including luxurious intercity and intracity buses, Special Application Vehicles, Election Campaign Vans, Display Vans, OB Vans, Radar Calibration Vans, Riot Control Vehicles, Mobile Homes and Offices, Life-Saving Ambulances, Cargo Boxes and Power-Packed Trailers. With an unending zeal to innovate and excel, JCBL, has become a name to reckon within the automobile industry.

By living up to its promise of providing „Global Mobility Solutions‟, JCBL has today travers ed a long journey. From being incorporated in 1989 as a company that would manufacture high quality Japanese Technology buses, ambulances and load carriers for Swaraj Mazda, JCBL has today evolved into a highly successful coach building company. Located on the Chandigarh-Ambala Highway, its manufacturing facilities have been steadily growing from strength to strength. Spread over an area of 45000 sq meters, the plant has a manufacturing capacity of 600 minibuses/ambulances,2400 load carriers,300 luxury

coaches,1500 mini buses and 5000 cargo boxes per annum.


As a technology lead company, each of JCBL‟s state-of -art manufacturing systems are carefully engineered to ensure optimum hassle-free performance. By diversifying into the manufacture of several high quality luxury coaches, motor homes, trailers, special utility vehicles and cargo boxes, JCBL has today become a name to be reckoned with in the automobile industry. JCBL‟s wide range of products, from luxury buses and mobile homes to ambulances, mobile display vans and much more, has established them firmly within the industry. Each of them lives up to the JBCL name and delivers an unparalleled performance. JCBL has today become a name to be reckoned within the automobile industry.

JCBL Ltd. Is committed to supply world class mobility solutions to its customer to satisfy their stated and implied needs through continued improvement in the quality management system and collective efforts of our employees. Quality in every detail JCBL‟s competitiveness is firmly rooted in concepts such as safety, reliability and durability. JCBL has spent considerable on matters relating to quality not just in terms of production but also throughout every aspect of the company. Quality means the constant drive to become better, safer and more reliable. Production processes are monitored by individual work groups to ensure the proper quality and to ensure that the final product meets the customer satisfaction.

Minimizing customer complaints Minimizing internal rejection Adherence to Quality System Adherence to Trained, Skilled, Motivated & Sincere Manpower in friendly, safe and team environment


Continuous improvement

JCBL constant endeavor to produce world class products is backed by company‟s state-of-the-art infrastructural facilities. Company press shop is equipped with a wide range of specially designed multistage profile rolling machines, a hydraulic press of 500 ton capacity, press brakes, shearing machines, power presses of varying capacities and customized press tools for all formed components. The body shop, on the other hand, is equipped with Mig, Tig, spot welders, huge welding fixtures and gauging equipments for all structure assemblies. Two sophisticated paint lines consisting of 12 tank pre-treatment lines, pressurized and dust free paint booths and baking ovens ensure that all the structural components undergo a superior pre-treatment primer coating and baking process. While the latest vacuum forming machines and fiberglass components are responsible for the superbly finished internal furnishings, a well-equipped tool room, manufactures new press tools and undertakes the calibration and repair of tooling to ensure the production of high quality components.

JCBL focus excellence. Excellence has driven JCBL to set up a state-of-the-art manufacturing plant on the Chandigarh-Ambala Highway. Spread over a sprawling area of 45,000 sq meters, the plant has a manufacturing capacity of 600 minibuses/ambulances,2400 load carriers,300 luxury coaches,1500 mini buses and 5000 cargo boxes per annum. As a technology led company, each of JCBL state-of-art manufacturing system is carefully engineered to ensure optimum and hassle-free performance of the final product.


JCBL‟s world class automotive research and development facilities are key factors that contribute to the development ,highly innovative technical marvels whish have won trust and applauds of JCBL‟s engineers design, its products while ensuring lightweight, safety, rigidity and durability. The specially designed rolled section and aerodynamic design of JCBL‟s products make them lighter and far more fuel-efficient. While the plush and aesthetically conceived interiors are designed to ensure luxurious, smooth and a rattle free ride.

JCBL consider its workforce as its biggest Asset, with a total capital outlay of over Rs.250 million, JCBL employs over 500 people. The workforce is empowered by skilled and dedicated engineers, MBA‟s, CA‟s, supervisory staff and operators each of whom are exposed to global manufacturing and quality practices. Through regular training programs, JCBL constantly upgrade their skills and enhance their knowledge base, which enables them to perform delegated task with efficiency and accuracy. Associates JCBL have found worthy associates in King Long from China and Marrel from Germany. They have helped JCBL, not just strengthen JCBL‟s product portfolio but also has helped JCBL in expanding knowledge base and fortify technological powers by establishing highly symbiotic relationships. King Long United Automotive Industry Co. Ltd. has proved to be an able partner in the manufacturing of integral coaches. Ranking No.1 among over 160 bus manufacturers nationwide, in turnover and in per capita output as well, King Long has willingly shared their know-how and technical expertise with JCBL. Through various training programs and a healthy exchange of information, JCBL has been able to expand its knowledge base and grow from strength to strength. Marrel Company is a leader in the hook lift market and in the truck equipment market. With worldwide sales in excess of $80 million, it is aggressively expanding in the US market, building on its technical leadership and extraordinary reliability.


SERVICES & NETWORK To keep pace with the increasing popularity of JCBL product range, JCBL has strengthened its service network across the country. Currently, JCBL has 5 fully operational service stations at Delhi, Jaipur, Vadodara, Mumbai and Chennai. Offering genuine spare parts and the expertise of qualified engineers and mechanics, the stations provide a wide range of services at reasonable prices. Apart from this, JCBL has also tied up with Cummins India under their SURAKSHA scheme and are gradually expanding it to cover the length and breadth of the country. So that wherever you go, there‟s always a friend and a helping hand at every corner. MARKETING MIX OF JCBL PRODUCT Manufacturing Buses:Integral Coaches and Luxury Coaches. Special Purpose Vehicle:Mobile Homes,Mobile Display Vans,Riot Control Vehicle,Service/Covered Vans,Police Vans. Cargo Box: MCV and LCV Air Suspension: Air Suspension for LCV and HCV. Trailers: Tandem Axle and Tri Axle. PLACE: Ambala-Chandigarh Road,Lalru(140501),District-Patiala,Punjab. PROMOTION: Advertisement in magazines and newspapers. TAG LINE: On the road with JCBL TRADE MARK: JCBL Quality Certification: ISO 9001 the TS16949 from severe taskmasters like the DNV Management System Certification and the TUV Management Certification.


Since its inception ,JCBL has been technology driven and has work restlessly to offer ITS patrons,the best in technology and comfort.JCBL‟s product portfolio encompasses an array of high quality and luxurious coaches including luxurious Intercity and Intra city buses, Special Application Vehicles,Election Campaign Vans, OB Vans, Radar Calibration Vans,Riot Control Vehicles,Mobile Homes and Offices,Life Saving Ambulances,Cargo Boxes and Power-Packed Trailers.JCBL is mainly the manufacturer of integral coache/luxury coach/Special Utility Vehicle Trailers/Cargo Box.Following are the activities of JCBL:-

Our integral coaches are a unique combination of comfort,performance and durability manufactured, as they are in collaboration with Xiamen King Long United automotive industry Co. Ltd. From China. A highly symbiotic relationship with our partners has helped us introduce various innovations in body design,engine,chassis and manufacturing technology.Little wonder then,that our coaches incorporate the best aggregates from the finest equipment supplies in the world and that each of our integral coach announces the arrival of unmatched quality and performance.

Over 14 years expertise in bus manufacturing is mirrored in the Speed XL and the splash among several other luxury coaches. Superior fuel efficiency,luxurious interiors,an extremely light weight,as-smooth-as silk ride and enduring durability make the coaches an absolute delight,not just to own but even to travel in.They are in fect,an apt example of our zest for making nothing but the very best.

Our ranges of ambulances have established a presence not just within the Armed Forces but with the Health Ministry as well.Each of these ambulances can be modified to suit special requirements like those for mobile hospitals or even first-aid vans,safe,strong and sturdy,these


ambulances can be modified to suit special requirements like those for mobile hospitals or even first aid vans.

It manufactures a wide range of special utility vehicles from election campaign van, railway electrification vans to mobile display vans, outstation broadcasting vans and bunkhouses.

Swaraj Mazda entrusts the manufacture of most of their buses to it. This speaks volumes for the superb quality and meticulous finish of its wide range of buses. The greater fuel efficiency and lighter body weight of its buses have also prompted automobile giants like Tata Motors and Ashok Leyland to entrust the design and manufacture of their buses to us.

Our cargo vehicles and covered trucks are worthy examples of our engineering expertise.Built to endure the severest conditions,our cargo vehicles are lighter,safer and more fuel efficient.This is reiterated by the fact that Swaraj Mazda entrusts us with the manufacture of all their cargo vehicle

Having entered into a strategic alliance with Tantri Trailers Pvt. Ltd. From Sri Lanka,today we offer a comprehensive range of trailers to suit a wide variety of needs.Each of these trailers is sturdy,dependable and built to perform.

To keep pace with the increasing popularity of our product range,we have also strengthened our service stations on National Highway No.8 at Delhi,Jaipur,Vadodra,Mumbai and

Chennai.Offering genuine spare parts and the expertise of qualified engineers and mechanics,these stations provide a wide range of services at reasonable prices.


Among the many components that go into making a company competitive are the skills of its employees. Other components like technology and capital are not crucial. Technology can be copied and money can be borrowed. This being an information era, whoever is able to use information properly will have an advantage over other competitors in the same field. This is why Human Resource Development (HRD), which transforms information into various skills of the personnel, has great responsibility in any organization. We would call this transformation of information into human skills as training. Training needs arise from restructuring, expansion, performance gaps, replacing of employees who are leaving, motivating of staff and, new technology. The goal in training is to meet the organization objectives at shortest possible time, efficiently and with minimum use of resources. To meet this objective, various training models have been developed.

Definitions Of Training:“Training constitutes a basic concept in Human Resource Development. It is the systematic modification of behaviour through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience” . As was said earlier, it is concerned with developing a particular skill to a desired standard by instruction and practice. Training was defined in greater detail Lundy and Cowing as follows: “A planned process to mod ify attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future manpower needs of the organization”. Training is highly useful tools which can bring an employee into a position where he/she can do his/her job correctly, effectively and conscientiously:


a) Correctly, in that he/she can apply whatever he/she has been taught, b) Effectively, in that he/she may be in a position where he/she can perform to the expected standards, and c) Conscientiously, in that the behaviour of the trainers can bring the trainees to the position where they can put their maximum effort at the right time. A training course should constitute a key feature in a formal development programme, and this could be a standard offering by various specialist bodies or in -house courses developed for the organization‟s specialist needs. Increas ingly, these options are being combined so that there is the possibility of an externally provided course tailored to suit an organization‟s particular needs.

The Goals Of Training
The main goal of training is to help the organization achieve its objectives by adding value to its key assets – the people it employs. Training means investing in people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to:    Develop the competencies of employees and improve their performance. Help people grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resources can be met from within. Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfer or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and effectively as possible.

Challenges In Training
Upgrading employees' performance and improving their skills through training is a necessity in today's competitive environment. The training process brings with it many questions that managers must answer. Included in these questions are: Is training the solution to the problems? Are the goals of training clear and realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the training work?


   

Is Training the Solution? Are the Goals Clear and Realistic? Is Training a Good Investment? Will Training Work?

Understanding training and its process.
To understand how training should be developed and operated within an organization, the first requirement is to appreciate learning theory and approaches to providing learning and development opportunities in organizations. It is then necessary to understand the following approaches to training. 1) Training Philosophy. 2) Types And Process Of Training. 3) Identifying Training Needs. 4) Planning Training. 5) Conducting Training. 6) Responsibility For Training. 7) Evaluating Training.

1) Training Philosophy
The training philosophy of an organization expresses the degree of importance it attaches to training. Organizations with a positive training philosophy understand that they live in a world where effectiveness is achieved by having higher quality people than other organizations employ, and that this need will not be satisfied unless they invest in developing the skills and competencies of their people. They also recognize that actual or potential skill shortages can threaten their future prosperity and growth. In hard economic terms, these organizations are convinced that training is an investment that will pay off. They understand that it may be difficult to calculate the return on that investment but they believe that the tangible and intangible benefits of training will more than justify the cost. It is not enough, however, to believe in training as an act of faith. This belief must be supported by a positive and realistic philosophy of how training contributes to the bottom 37

line. Underpinning this belief is the need to set concrete objectives for training in terms of a return on investment, in the same way as other investments have to demonstrate a payback. The main areas in which such a philosophy should be developed are the following:    A strategic approach to training: this takes a long-term view of what skills, knowledge and levels of competence employees of the organization need. Relevance: Training must be relevant to identify appropriate training needs. Problem-based: Training should be problem-based in the sense that it should be planned to fill the gaps between what people can do and what they need to do, now and in the future.  Action-orientated: Training philosophy should stress that training exists to make things happen, to get people into action, and to ensure that they can do things they are doing now better, or will be able to do things that they could not do before.    Performance-related training: A performance-related training philosophy involves training specifically to performance and competence requirements. Continuous development: Learning is a continuous process and, therefore, a policy of continuous development should be pursued. Training policies: These should provide guidelines on the amount of training needed, the proportion of turnover that should be allocated to training, the scope and aims of training schemes, and the allocation of responsibilities for training.

2) Types And The Process Of Training a) Systematic training “Systematic training is training which is specifically designed to meet defined needs. It is planned and provided by people who know how to train, and the impact of tr aining is carefully evaluated”. It is based on a simple, four -stage model expressed as follows:     Define training needs. Decide what sort of training is required to satisfy these needs. Use experienced and trained trainers to plan and implement training. Follow up and evaluate training to ensure that it is effective.


The model of systematic training provides a good basis for planning training programmes, but it is often oversimplified – training is a more complex process than this. Another drawback of systematic training is that insufficient emphasis is placed on the responsibilities of managers and individuals for training. The concept of planned training provides a more comprehensive description of the training process. b) Planned training Planned trai ning is defined by Kenney and Reid as “a deliberate intervention aimed at achieving the learning necessary for improved job performance”. The process of planned training consists of the following steps:       Identify and define training needs. Define the learning required. Define the objectives of training. Plan training programmes. Decide who provides the training. Implement the training.

3) Identification Of Learning And Training Needs Training must have a purpose and that purpose can be defined only if the l earning needs of the organization and the groups and individuals within it have been systematically identified and analyzed. According to Kempton , training needs can be identified at the individual and the organization level.  At the individual level  Identification will need to begin with the job description. This will provide a list of the skills and knowledge required. It can be compared with the actual skills and knowledge that the job holder processes.  Another approach could be to look at critical incidents over, say, the past three months that were particularly challenging or stressful. The training can then be directed at the areas that are most relevant.  Managers will also be able to identify training for their subordinates. One of the best ways of achieving this is through the appraisal interview, where agreed training needs can be identified.


 Individuals may request training that they perceive will equip them for a change of job, either laterally or through promotion.  At the organizational level  Training needs may be identified through the performance appraisal system. This may provide the key channel for feeding back individual needs. The information should be processed by a human resource professional in order to plan the overall needs of the organization.  The management team may identify areas from the corporate plan that they want included in the training plans.

4) Planning Training Programmes Every training programme needs to be designed individually, and the design will continually evolve as new learning needs emerge, or when feedback indicates that changes are required. According to Kempton, before consideration is given to special aspects of training programmes for managers, team leaders, craft and technical trainees, and office staff, decisions are necessary in the following areas:  Objectives: The objectives need to be considered against the desired results. The end result will be the acquisition of a new skill or changed behaviour. Skills and behaviours can be learned. A skill can be learnt in isolation whereas a behavioural change will lead to permanent change in the values and behaviours held. That means, teaching the skill of juggling to people who can not juggle is achievable.     Location: Is the training to be on-site? Is the training to be run by an external source? Timing: Is there an optimum time for the training to take place? What is the duration of the training, and if it is to be a series of courses does a pilot course need to be planned? Level: If the training is to be just conceptual, are the trainees experienced enough to be able to relate it to the work situation? Techniques: Consideration should be given to elements of technique. Is it appropriate to use case studies or role plays? What is the objectivity level of the trainer and the expectation of the trainee? There is a variety of training techniques that can be used.

These techniques can be divided into:


 On-the-job techniques, which are practiced on a-day-to-day basis or as part of a specially tailored training programme. These techniques include demonstration, coaching, job rotation, planned experience and mentoring  Off-the-job techniques, which are used in formal training courses away from the place of work. These techniques include lectures, talks, discussions, the di scovery method, case study, role-playing, simulation, group exercises, team building, distance learning, outdoor learning and workshops.  On- or off-the-job techniques, which include instruction, question and answer, action learning, assignments, projects, guided reading, computer-based training, interactive video and video.

5) Conducting Training Programmes The only general rules for conducting training programmes are that first, the courses should continually be monitored to ensure that they are proceeding according to plan and within the agreed budget and second, all training should be evaluated after the event to check on the extend to which it is delivering the required results. There are, however, a number of considerations which affect the conduct of training for specific occupations, and those concerning managers and team leaders, sales staff, skilled workers and office staff are the following:       Management and team leader training. Sales training. Technical and skill or craft training. Training office staff. Team building training. Meeting the training needs of special groups.

6) Responsibility For Training It is believed that most learning occurs on the job through coaching, planned experience and self-development. The onus is on managers and individuals to ensure that it takes place. Senior management must create a learning organization in which managers


recognize that training and development are a key part of their role and one on which their performance will be assessed. The role of a specialized training function is generally to provide advice and guidance to managers on their training responsibilities. Some of the responsibilities of a training function are the following:      Developing training strategies which support the achievement of bus iness strategies. Analyzing and identifying corporate and occupational training needs. Developing proposals on how these needs should be satisfied. Preparing plans and budgets for training activities. Identifying external training resources, selecting external training providers, specifying what is required from them and ensuring that their delivery of training meets the specification.      Advising on external training courses for individuals or groups. Organizing internal courses and training programmes, but often relying on outside help for the whole or part of formal training courses Training managers, supervisors and mentors in their training responsibilities. Providing help and guidance to individuals in the preparation and implementation of personal development plans. Monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of training throughout the organization.

7) Evaluation Of Training One of the most nebulous and unsatisfactory aspects of training programmes is the evaluation of their effectiveness. Evaluation has been defined by Hamblin, as “any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training programme, and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information”. Evaluation leads to control which means deciding whether or not the training was worth the effort and what improvements are required to make it even more effective. According to Hamblin, there are five levels at which evaluation can take place:   Reactions of trainees to the training experience itself. Learning evaluation requires the measurement of what trainees have learned as a result of their training. 42

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Job behaviour evaluation is concerned with measuring the extent to which trainees have applied their learning on the job. Organizational unit evaluation attempts to measure the effect of changes in the job behaviour of trainees on the functioning of the part of the organization in which they are employed.

Ultimate value evaluation aims to measure how the organization as a whole has benefited from the training in terms of greater profitability, survival or growth.

Trainees and Trainers
Since the real organizational needs are known, the process of training can begin. Exclusive of the training techniques, the trainees and the trainers constitute other key elements of a training programme. The selection of trainees is a very important activity in order for an organization to achieve desirable training results. According to Peel, the elements of trainees which have to be taken into consideration in order for the selection of appropriate training methods are the following:         How many they are. The level of education they have. The qualifications they have. The experience they have. Why they are chosen. What job they do now. Why they have to be trained. If they work as a team.

The trainers Trainers constitute the key for the successful holding of a training programme. It is really difficult for an organization to succeed effective training if the trainers do not have the necessary abilities for that. According to Peel , possible trainers can be:  Inside the company trainers.


   

Outside consultants. Universities. Managers. Colleagues.

Many employees of the same company can be excellent with their work but it can be proved that they are not relevant to be trainers. According to Stout , the ideal trainer must be:     Knowledgeable about the organization. Able to communicate effectively and listen carefully to others. Able to analyze and solve problems. Flexible in the use of training methods.

The Training Models Can Be Classified As:    Classroom training. On-the- job- training. Electronic based training

Classroom Based Training Classroom based or instructor led training has been the traditional way of training and accounts for over 60 % of training in leading firms. One advantage of this mode of training is that it allows for immediate feedback. The instructor is able to assess the student‟s ability to follow and speed of understanding and adjust the delivery method accordingly. Training is a form of communication and as with other forms of communication; information is transmitted not only with words but by other cues like body language, emotional expressions like shock, and surprise. Such kind of communication is only possible in a classroom setting.


Learners and the in structor are able to share experiences which add to the students‟ understanding. With classroom training a lot of information can be passed within a short time. The instructor is able to make sure that what is necessary to be covered for the particular skill required is included in the course. The instructor is therefore able to assess when the student has acquired the required skills. Classroom training can be said to offer full interaction which ensures maximum skills transfer. One disadvantages of classroom training is that it requires participants to be away from there work places and during that time they are not productive. If there is need to consult them for some urgent matters, it may not be possible. Also to move to the training centres may be expensive because the employer has to pay for travel and hotel accommodation. Classroom training can be conducted within an institution owned by the organization or carried out by another organization. On The Job Training On the job training requires that the employee work under an experienced person from whom he has to learn the new skills. This model of training has the advantage that the employee is learning in real life situation and hence retentive ability is highest. Also there is immediate feedback as to the results. Whereas in classroom training one has to wait to see how the employee applies the skills learned, on the job training the employer is able to see immediately whether the employee has acquired the skill or not. This mode of training is cheap as there are no extra expenses to be paid. There are however serious shortcoming with this model. It is only limited to skills that organization already has. The rate of learning is also slow as the employee learns only what is related to what is happening when he is at the place of work. There is the danger that the employee will take whatever practice at the work place (whether good or bad) as the standard. Bad practices sometimes take root in a particular section. Also not all people are good teachers even if they may be excellent workers. The officer assigned to offer on


the job training may deliberately withhold valuable information fearing that the new employee may take over his job. It must be noted that, since this training is conducted on live equipment, care must be taken in allowing the trainee to have hands-on-experience until sufficient competence has been gained. If not properly undertaken, it may be costly through poor workmanship which may result in unnecessary faults. Electronic Based Training With the advances in information technology more and more training is now being carried on electronically. This has taken many names such as Web-based training (WBT),

Computer Based Training (CBT), Distant learning, CD-ROM training, and Internet Based Training (IBT). This kind of learning range from live two-way interaction including video and audio interaction. It may take the form of distribution of learning material via the internet. Another way is searching the internet for information using powerful search engines. Also specialized training centers offer training over the Internet. This new model of training achieves cost and time savings. Employees learn at there own pace and modules can be tailored to suit each individual employee. This method assumes that computers are widely available and there is company-wide computer literacy. This is far from being the case. There is also the acceptance stage which employees must undergo. Also Web based training could cause many distractions as th e employees try to down load information from the Internet. To sieve out materials that are relevant and those that are not relevant appears to be a daunting task as well. Most Training Schemes And Processes Are Based On The Following Steps: 1) Identification And Selection Of Training And Development Methods. 2) Creating Training Budget. 3) Selecting Training Methods & Designing Modules. 4) Implementation Of The Training Program. 5) Evaluation Of The Training Program. 46

1) Identification Of Training Needs Training has always been important. In recent years, however, the process of training is more important than ever in order for organizations to cope with accelerating change which affects existent training needs (eg inefficient job performance) and future training needs (eg responding to the continuous progress of technology). According to Kenney and Reid, the most common methods of diagnosis of organizational training needs are the following:  Evaluation of personnel. The director (or a team) evaluates the personnel‟s performance. This process takes place periodically with an evaluation form. That form contains questions in which the ability to take good knowledge and the abilities organizing, leadership and progress will be reported.  Analysis of work. Every step which takes place during the work performance examined in order to determine if it is really needed. After determining the necessary steps, the areas in which employees need training must be identified.  Analysis of skills. The trainer must first identify the differences between new and experienced employees, in relation to their effectiveness. These differences will show the size of the training need for the new employees.   Observation. Observation can help the trainer find out what an employee does not do correctly and in that way to determine the training needs. Changes in the organization or the job. The creation of new job positions, the abolition of old positions and the integration of positions are some important changes which often take place in a company and generate the need for training.  Interviews between super ordinates and subordinates. Very often, when the super ordinate and the subordinate discuss matters which concern the organization, it is a good opportunity to discuss training needs as well. These interviews can be formal or informal. of


Analysis of data. Selecting data from departmental records (such as personnel statistics, accident records, training reports, and staff appraisal forms) also helps to identify training needs.

What other organizations do. According to this method, small organizations must take advantage of information about what larger organizations do in relation to training.

Training needs analysis is the first critical stage in the training cycle. The cycle is continuous. The evaluation step includes a re-assessment of training needs. There are many aspects to training needs analysis, but the essential activity involves: Determining what is required to complete the work activity;   Determining the existing skill levels of the staff completing the work: Determining the training gap (if any).

The training gap is the difference between required and existing skill levels. The word "skill" is generic in this case - it includes the knowledge, skills, attitude and aptitude required to undertake the activity efficiently and effectively. Training need analysis is done at three levels 1. Organizational analysis 2. Personal Analysis 3. Task Analysis Organizational Analysis – involves determining:  The appropriateness of training, given the business strategy  Resources available for training  Support by managers and peers for training


Task Analysis – involves:  Identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks Person Analysis – involves:  Determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem  Identifying who needs training  Determining emp loyees‟ readiness for training



What is the Context?

Organizational analysis Task Analysis Personal analysis In what do they need training?

Who needs the training?
2) Creating A Training Budget Budgeting for training does not mean using surplus money when it‟s available. Instead, you should build a separate line item for training into your yearly budget. A training budget should include the following costs:
   

Initial communication about the training program Training delivery (e.g. classes, video tutorials, e-learning, course fees) Training materials (workbooks, videos) Staff time (including replacement time)


   

Instructor fee Travel, lodging or meal expenses required to participate Ongoing training (upkeep) Contingencies

Managing the Budget Once approved, your training budget will need careful management to ensure that costs stay on track. Unforeseen events can lead to changing costs. A specially trained staff member might unexpectedly leave the company before their knowledge is passed on to others. Training costs will increase if you need to rely on external resources. How Much to Spend? Many large organizations commit to investing anywhere from two to five percent of salary budgets back into training. While that may not be realistic for you, it's important to find a number you feel your budget can absorb. Base the figure you'll use on your needs analysis. You may be tempted to use the least expensive trainers or training materials available. Often, using "b" level resources produces "b" results. Increase the likelihood of success by always striving for A's. Use the best caliber training you can afford. Ways to Save Depending on the size of your staff, you may find training costs add up quickly. Here are some ways you can save on costs:

Group training: earn volume discounts by training numerous employees at once (sometimes as few as three participants will qualify)

Re-use materials: training materials such as videos have a long shelf life and m ay be used repeatedly

Teach one, teach all: spend on off-site training for one employee, but have him or her present their knowledge to remaining staff

E-learning: electronic options are cheaper than traditional, instructor -led training


Another tip is to negotiate free or reduced-cost training from your vendors, who will be happy to help you if it means their product will be successful. Securing Commitment Don't forget that employee commitment is necessary for training to succeed. One way to ensure employees take the effort seriously is to have those getting specialized training to share the cost. Employees who have made a personal investment in learning will be more focused on completing the task. If you are footing the bill, get employees to commit to working for you for a specified period of time following the training's completion. Let them know you will require reimbursement if they aren't able to fulfill the agreement. It is also important to have full support for training efforts from senior people in your organization. If they understand the long-term value of employee development, they should be able to help by earmarking funds for training. 3) Selecting Of A Training Methods. The best type of training methods has to be selected keeping in mind the employees needs and capabilities. • Lecture The Lecture is an efficient means of transmitting large amounts of factual information to a relatively large number of people at the same time. It is traditional method of teaching and is used in many training programs. A skilled lecture can organize material and present it in a clear and understandable way. How ever a lecture doesn‟t allow active participation by learners. • Case method A Training method in which trainees are expected to study the inform ation provided in the case and make decisions based on it.


• Simulations Simulators are training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world. Simulation refers to creating an artificial learning environment that approximates the actual job conditions as much as possible. • Apprenticeship This type of training refers to the process of having new worker, called an apprentice, work alongside and under the direction of skilled technician. • Internships Internships and assistantships p rovide training similar to apprenticeship training; however‟ assistantships and internships typically refer to occupations that require a higher level of the formal education than that required by the skilled trades. Many colleges and universities used to develop agreements with organizations to provide internships opportunities for students. • Coaching and Mentoring Some organizations assign an experienced to serve as a mentor for new employees. Effective mentors teach their protégés job skills, provide emotional support and encouragement. Coaching and mentoring are primarily on-the-job development approaches emphasizing learning on a one-to-one basis. Coaching is often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss who has greater experience or expertise and is in the position to offer sage advice. The same is true with a mentor, but this person may be located elsewhere in the organization or even in another firm. The relationship may be established formally or it may develop on an informal basis. • Discussions Conferences and group discussions, used extensively for making decisions, can also be used as a form of training because they provide forums where individuals are able to learn from one another. A major use of the group discussion is to change at titudes and behaviors.


• Games Simulations that represent actual business situations are referred to as business games. These simulations attempt to duplicate selected parts of a particular situation, which are then manipulated by the participants • Role playing A Training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may actually encounter in their jobs. • Computer-based Computer based training is a teaching method that takes advantage of the speed, memory, and data manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction. • Multimedia Multimedia is an application that enhances computer-based learning with audio, animation, graphics, and interactive video. • Virtual reality It is a unique computer-based approach that permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise impractical or impossible. • Video Training The use of videotapes continues to be a popular Training method. An illustration of the use of videotapes is provided by behavior modeling. It has long been a successful Training approach that utilizes videotapes to illustrate effective interpersonal skills and how managers function in various situations. • Vestibule training Training that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles the actual equipment used on the job.


3) Delivering The Training. The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem or need. Approaches vary by location, presentation, and type. These are summarized below the 1. Location Options a. On the job: Training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment b. Off the job: Training away from the actual work site. Training is at a Training facility designed specifically for Training. For the delivery of the training it must be taken care that the best methods, faculty, and environment are chosen so as the training get absorbed. Success of the training is directly related to absorption and implementation of the training information given. It should be well designed and well planned. 4) Evaluating Training The credibility of training is greatly enhanced when it can be shown that the organization has benefited tangibly from such programs. Organizations have taken s everal approaches in attempting to determine the worth of specific programs. In this phase, the effectiveness of the training is assessed. Effectiveness can be measured in monetary or non-monetary terms. It is important that the training be assessed on how well it addresses the needs it was designed to address. • Participants’ Opinions : Evaluating a training program by asking the participants‟ opinions of it is an inexpensive approach that provides an immediate response and suggestions for improvements. The basic problem with this type of evaluation is that it is based on opinion rather than fact. In reality, the trainee may have learned nothing, but perceived that a learning experience occurred.


• Extent of Learning: Some organizations administer tests to determine what the participants in training program have learned. The pretest, posttest, control group design is one evaluation procedure that may be used. • Behavioral Change: Tests may indicate fairly accurately what has been learned, but they give little insight into desired behavioral changes. • Accomplishment of Training Objectives: Still another approach to evaluating training programs involves determining the extent to which stated objectives have been achieved. • Benchmarking Benchmarking utilizes exemplary practices of other organizations to evaluate and improve training programs. It is estimated that up to 70 percent of American firms engage in some sort of benchmarking. • A Case for Simplicity : Value is the measure of impact and positive change elicited by the training. The most common approaches used to determine the effectiveness of training programs are as under: Other Approaches For Evaluation Of Training a) Post Training Performance Method In this method the participants‟ performance is measured after attending a training program to determine if behavioral changes have been made.


b) Pre-Post Test approach Most commonly used approach towards measurement of effectiveness of training is Pretest Post test approach this approach performances the employees is measured prior to training and if required training is provided. After completion if the training again the performance is measured this is compared with performance before training if evaluation is positive e.g. increase in productivity that means that training is effective. c) Pre- Post Training Performance with control group Method Under this evaluation method, two groups are established and evaluated on actual job performance. Members of the control group work on the job but do not undergo instructions. On the other hand, the experimental group is given the instructi ons. At the conclusion of the training, the two groups are reevaluated. If the training is really effective, the experimental group‟s performance will have improved, and its performance will be substantially better than that of the control group. Maintaining Performance after Training Effective training can raise performance, improve morale, and increase an organization's potential. Poor, inappropriate, or inadequate training can be a source of frustration for everyone involved. To maximize the benefits of training, managers must closely monitor the training process. Developing learning points, to assist knowledge retention, Setting specific goals, identifying appropriate reinforces and teaching trainees, self-management skills can help organizations to maintain performance after training. Following up on Training Any training or development implemented in an organization must be cost effective. That is the benefits gained by such programs must outweigh the cost associated with providing the learning experience. Training to be more effective, is supposed to be followed with careful evaluation. Evaluation methods are discussed in the previous lecture. Different techniques and approaches can be used to evaluate the training program and, if required at any level, revisions and redesigning should not be avoided. It is not enough to merely assume that any training effort of an organization is effective; we must develop substantive data to determine whether our training


effort is achieving its goals- that is, if it‟s correcting the deficiencies in skills, knowledge or attitudes that were assessed in needing attention. Training programs are expensive. The cost incurred alone justify evaluating the effectiveness.


Chapter -2
Research methodology     Objectives of the study Sample design Data collection Tools and techniques for analysis and interpretation


1. To understand the importance of the training program at the JCBL. 2. To know the barriers of training programs in the JCBL. And organization steps to remove barriers. 3. To know the mode and benefits of training programs used in JCBL. 4. To understand the organization efforts to make training program more effective. 5. To know whether the employees and the advisors are satisfied or not amongst the training and development program.


Research methodology:“IF A MAN WILL BEGIN WITH CERTAINITIES HE SHALL END IN DOUBTS; BUT IF HE WILL BE CONTENT TO BEGIN WITH DOUBTS HE SHALL END IN CERTAINITIES “ .(Francis Bacon) Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is an academic activity and thus the term should be used in a technical sense. Research comprises defining the problem, formulating hypothesis or suggesting solutions; collecting organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. Research is thus, an original contribution to the existing body of knowledge, making for its advancement.. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The research methodology included the various methods and techniques for conducting a research. “Research is a systematic designing, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and finding relevant solution to a specific situation or problem.” Research is thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement, the purpose of research is to discover answers to the questions through the application of scientific procedure. My research project has a specified framework for collecting the data in an effective manner. Such framework is called “RESEARCH DESIGN”. The research process which was followed by me consisted of following steps: A. DEFINING THE PROBLEM & RESEARCH OBJECTIVES It is said, “A problem well defined is half solved”. The first step is to define the problem under study and decide the research objective. The definition of problem is to get the feedback of employees regarding the training and development given to them in JCBL.


B. DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH PLAN: The second stage of research calls for developing the efficient plan for gathering the needed information. Designing a research plan calls for decision on the data sources, research approach, research instruments, sampling plan and contacts method. The development of Research plan has the following Steps:  DATA SOURCES

Two types of data were taken into consideration i.e. primary data and secondary data. My major emphasis was on gathering the primary data. Secondary data has also been used to make things more clear. i. PRIMARY DATA: Direct collection of data from the source of information,

personal interviewing, survey etc. ii. SECONDARY DATA: Indirect collection of data from sources containing past or recent information like, publication in newspapers, magazines and data availability on company website. RESEARCH APPROACH Surveys are best suited for Descriptive Research. Surveys are undertaken to learn about people‟s knowledge, beliefs, preferences, satisfactions and so on and to measure these magnitudes in the general public. Therefore I have done this Survey for the Descriptive Research Process. 1. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT A close friend questionnaire was constructed for my survey. A Questionnaire consists a set of statements was presented to respondents for their answers 2. SAMPLING PLAN The sampling plan calls for two decisions. (a) Sampling unit: Who is to be surveyed? The employees at the JCBL Company. (b) Sample Size: How many people have to be surveyed?


Sample Size: For the purpose of the study, the selection of the Managers is done with the help of department. The samples are selected randomly. The following table summarized the sample size in terms of units in nature of job.





(B) CONTACT METHODS Once the sampling plan has been determined, the question is how the subject should be contracted i.e. by telephone, mail or personal interview. Here in this survey, I have contacted the respondents through personal interviews. NEED FOR THE STUDY Training and development is an attempt to improve current and future performance by increasing an employee‟s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee‟s attitude or increasing his/her skills and knowledge. 1. The quality and variety of the training provided is the key for motivation. 2. Training and development helps to remove performance deficiencies in employees. 3. It is very important to change negative attitude with respect to job satisfaction, resistance to change and job commitment. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The broad based objectives of undertaking the studies to explore the areas where training of workers is required in the organization.


SCOPE OF THE STUDY:Different head of departments have given their points on this problem. The study will help in reducing the turnover of employees in the organization. With the help of this study it will become easier to know the perception of employees regarding satisfaction by the organizations system. After going through the results, the study will help to look after the overall development of the organization. The study would also be helpful to the organization as well as for the betterment of the employees in the organization DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE:The collection of data is a tedious task. For conducting any sort of research. Data was needed. So for my research, there was plenty of primary data. I have collected the information from the respondents with the help of questionnaire. A) COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA: Primary Data is the data collected from the original source Questionnaire and personal interviews were the main instruments, which were used for collecting primary data. Research Design in This Case:- Interview and interaction with the officers and officials of the corporation has been conducted in order to find out the existing system of training and development and to suggest feasible improvements in the system of JCBL. Discussions with the officials of the company have provided detail insight into these discussions. Contact Method:- Interview/interaction method. Sampling Procedure:- Random & Convenience Sample Size:-50 respondents.


COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA: Secondary Data is the one which has already been collected by someone else and some other person is using that information. The source of secondary data was, the records maintained about the employees who have left the organization. Research Design in This Case:- The secondary data has been collected from the company records already available like Annual report, budgetary performance report and data available on internet. Research Design: The Survey Research Method is the basic research design. The source of data is primary. Each respondent is required to fill a questionnaire, interviews are conducted wherever necessary. Survey questions are framed so as to obtain objectivity in the respondent aspects. The nature of research is primarily and exploratory research qualitative data. Sample Design: The survey of approximately 50 respondents is conducted. Information is collected using self administered, voluntary and anonymous questionnaire. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE The next step is to extract the pertinent findings from the collected data. I have tabulated the data and then charts are made on the basis of data survey during the research process.


Chapter -3
Analysis and interpretation


Q1. Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do you agree with this
statement? Ans.

Parameter Strongly agree Agree Somewhat agree Disagree Strongly disagree

no. of respondents 05 20 10 02 13

% 10 40 20 4 26

25 20 20 15 14 10 10 5 0 senior staff junior staff new staff based on requirement 6 Series1

INTERPREATION:The given graph shows, the 40% (20) respondent agree on a statement that training is a vital part of the organization. But 13 strongly were opposite to the statement. But result shows the training provides the benefits to the organization..


Q2. How many training programs will you attend in a year?
Ans. Parameter Less than 10 10-20 20-40 More than 40 no. of respondent 10 30 07 03 % 20 60 14 06

based on requirement 20% senior staff 12%

junior staff 28% new staff 40%

INTERPRETATION:The given graph shows the 60% of the employees attend 10-20 training programs in a year. 20% said less than 10 and 14 % between 20-40 in a year. But the portion in favor of 10-20 is high so they attend mid of 10-20 programs in a year at JCBL.


Q3. To whom the training is given more in your organization? Ans. Parameter Senior staff Junior staff New staff Based on requirement no. of respondent 06 14 20 10 % 12 28 40 20

senior based on staff requirement 12% 20% junior staff 28% new staff 40%

INTERPRETATION:The given graph shows. 40% in the favor that organization provides the training to new staff to familiar with the working of the organization. And 28% in the favor of junior staff. So it means the organization provides training to entry level employees.


Q4. What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your organization?
Ans. Parameter Time Money Lack of interest by staff Non availability of skilled trainer
25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 education of employees off job training strong budget hiring efficient trainer

no. of respondent 20 05 15 10

% 40 10 30 20


INTERPRETATION:The given bar chart shows, the organization faces problem of time (40%) in training & development program. Lack of interest (30%) and non availability of skilled trainer (20%) also an problem for the organization. It reveals the organization willingly wants to provide the training but staff, time and trainer are the problems.


Q5. What tactics organization used to remove the barriers in the training program? That makes success of training program in organization? Ans. Parameter Education of employees Off job training Strong budget Hiring efficient trainer no. of respondent 20 10 05 15 % 40 20 10 30


30% 40%

education of employees off job training strong budget

10% 20%

hiring efficient trainer

INTERPRETATION:The given pie chart show, the 40% of the favor that organization stress on education of the employees to increase their interest for training programs. And organization likes to provide off job training (30%) to remove the problem of time. And less 20% respondents were in favor that organization prepared strong budget for the efficient implementation of training program.


Q6. What mode of training method is normally used in your organization?
Ans. Parameter no. of respondents %

Job rotation External training Conference/discussion Programmed instruction

10 18 15 07

20 36 30 14

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 18 15 10 7 Series1

INTERPRETATION:The given graph shows, the maximum (36%) of the respondents in the favor that organization provides the external training. 20% and 30% in the favor that organization provides the job rotation and conference/discussion training.


Q7. What are the conditions that have to be improved during the training sessions? Ans. Parameter Redesign the job Remove interference Reorganize the workplace Upgrade the information
fond of talking to people 24%

no. of respondent 12 15 04 19
should possess only technical skills 20%

% 24 30 08 38

people and soft skills are more important 44% generalist makes better personnel manager 12%

INTERPRETATION:The given pie chart shows, the organization doing the lots of practices to make training program more effective. 38% respondent in favor of upgrade the information while training program implemented in the organization. 30% and 24% respondent in favor to remove the interference and redesign the job to make training program more effective.


Q08. What are the skills that the trainer should possess to make the training more effective? Ans. Parameter Should possess only technical skills People or soft skills are more important Generalist makes better personnel manager Fond of talking to people
fond of talking to people 24%

no. of respondent 10 22 06 12
should possess only technical skills 20%

% 20 44 12 24

people and soft skills are more important 44% generalist makes better personnel manager 12%

INTERPRETATION:The given pie chart shows the different skills of the trainer that should be possess. 44% respondent said, the trainer should possess people skills and soft skills. 24% said fond of talking to people, 20% said should possess only technical skills and rest 12% said generalist makes better personnel manager.


Q09. Do you agree that enough time was provided to learn about the subject covered in the training
program? Ans. Parameter no. of respondent %

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree
25 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree

10 30 02 05 03

20 60 04 10 06



strongly disagree

INTERPRETATION: The given graph shows, big portion of the respondents (40) in the favor that organization provides the enough time to understand the subject covered in the training program. But rest 10 against the effort of organization.


Q10. Do you think that the training leads to enhancement of your skill?
Ans. Parameter Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree
25 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly disagree

no. of respondents 12 26 02 08

% 24 52 04 16



INTERPRETATION:The given graph shows, 12 and 26 responded in favor that training helps to increase the skills of the employees. But 2 were undecided. And rest 10 responded were in against. JCBL continuously keep check on the training program in the organization to enhance the skill of the employees.


Q11. Do you think that the knowledge and skills gained from the training program directly apply to your


Parameter Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree
25 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree

no. of respondents 20 22 02 04 02

% 40 44 04 08 04



strongly disagree

INTERPRETATION:The given graph shows, huge no. of respondents (20+22) in favor that they apply the knowledge, skills learned from the training programs to their work. Some portions of respondent were against of the statement. Here it‟s clear the training program really beneficial for the organization.


Q12. Do you think that freedom is given to you to show your skills and knowledge during training


Parameter Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree
25 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree

no. of respondent 10 20 04 10 06

% 20 40 08 20 12



strongly disagree

INTERPRETATION:The given bar chart shows, 10 and 20 respondent in favor that organization gives the freedom to employees to use their own skills in training program. 04 don‟t want to comment on the statement. But 10 and 06 were against of the statement that organization not giving the freedom to the employees.


Findings and recommendations     Limitations of the study Bibliography Abbreviations used (If applicable) Annexure/Appendix


It is concluded from the survey on “Training & Development” that training program conducted in JCBL Ltd, is very effective in improving the skill and knowledge of the employee to meet the present and future requirement of the organization. It‟s found that training place a crucial role in not only the development of employees but also in achieving the overall organizational goals.

Through the research work it was found that employees were very satisfied by the training provided to them and strongly agreed that after training their confidence have increased and their skill and knowledge has also been increased and hence, there was remarkable improvement in their performance.


It is recommended that managers must ask their employees from time to time what kind of changes they think should be brought as many employees would like to introduce or accept certain changes in their present job. For the above, managers must hold meetings with officers and executives of their respective departments after at least 3 months and encourage employees to share their views and give suggestions for any kind of change in their job or in the organization. If the capabilities are present and the department wants to have some fun while learning, develop a game. This game can be anything from family feud to jeopardy and more. In either format, the employees have the answer to the questions created by management department relating to work situations or people. It is amazing what people will remember from a fun situation versus a forced learning experience. When conducting the training classes, attempt should be made to keep them informative. While communicating the ideas is important, the goal should also be to keep the employees interest and entertained during the workshop.

Through all this, what I would like you to remember is „Learning can, and should be a FUN‟.


During the period of research training, I have made all the possible efforts to gain insight into the various aspects of training and development at JCBL. I have gone into the details of various procedures, methods and techniques of training and development being followed at JCBL. But still this study has following limitations:Analysis is only a means not an end. The analysis has been done on the basis of my own interpretations and up to my best knowledge but every analyst has his/her own interpretations and suggestions.  The shortage of time was no doubt the major limitation in the study; the stipulated period was not sufficient to understand each & every aspect of the system.  Span of contact was limited to a number of people in organization. It is also the limitation of the study.  Sample size is limited due to restrictions, work discipline and time constraints.  Limitations of subjectivity of respondents involved in the study.


MAGZINES International Journal of Training and Development Edited by:Paul Lewis, William J. Rothwell, Linda Miller, AAhad Osman-Gani Books consulted      BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY,pulished by:-NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATION.edited by:-DR.C.R.KOTHARI. Human Resource and Personnel Management by K. Ashwathapa Human Resource Management by T.N Chabra ,edited by dhanpat publication ,page no:223 to 276. Approaches to training and development ,by DUGAN LAIRD,edition:-THIRD,third edition revised and updated by SHARON S.NAQUIN. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT,edition:-THIRTEEN,by:-ROBERT L.MATHIS.

Website Consulted      and+development+process&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1miFTXtBojMrQen5PC6Bg&ved=0CEkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=training%20and%20develop ment%20process&f=false


Q1. Your Organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Do you agree with this
statement? Ans. A. Strongly agree

B. Agree

C. Somewhat agree

D. Disagree

E. Strongly disagree

Q2. Ans.

How many training programs will you attend in a year? A. less than 10 B. 10-20 C. 20-40 D. more than 40

Q3. Ans.

To whom the training is given more in your organization? A. senior staff B. junior staff C. new staff D. based on requirement

Q4. Ans.

What are all the important barriers to Training and Development in your organization? A. time B. money C. lack of interest D. non availability of skilled worker


What tactics organization used to remove the barriers in the training program? That

makes success of training program in organization? Ans. A. education of employees B. off job training C. strong budget

C. High efficient trainer.


Q6. What mode of training method is normally used in your organization? Ans. A. job rotation instruction. B. external training C. conference/discussion D. programmed

Q7. . What are the conditions that have to be improved during the training sessions? Ans. A. redesign the job B. remove interference C. reorganize the workplace D. upgrade the information

Q8. What are the skills that the trainer should possess to make the training more effective? Ans. A. should possess only technical skills B. people or soft skills are more important C. generalist makes better personnel manager D. fond of talking people


Do you agree that enough time was provided to learn about the subject covered in the

training program? Ans. A. Strongly agree E. Strongly disagree B. Agree C. Somewhat agree D. Disagree

Q10. Do you think that the training leads to enhancement of your skill? Ans. A. Strongly agree E. Strongly disagree B. Agree C. Somewhat agree D. Disagree



Do you think that the knowledge and skills gained from the training program directly

apply to your work? Ans. . A. Strongly agree E. Strongly disagree B. Agree C. Somewhat agree D. Disagree

Q12. Do you think that freedom is given to you to show your skills and knowledge during training program? Ans. A. Strongly agree E. Strongly disagree B. Agree C. Somewhat agree D. Disagree

DATE:-………………… PLACE:-…………………


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