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K. Belacheheb, S.Saadate

**GREEN-UHP-CNRS URA 1438 U h r s i t 6 Henri Poind 54500 V a & e ~ ~ l & S - N a n Fran~e cy email : belache@green-uhp.u-nancy.fr
**

Abstract- This paper describes the theory and simulation, by numerical code SABER, of Flexible Alternate Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices used in the electrical systems. One of these devices, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC),will be chosen for a specific application, detailed in this paper, since it contains following elements: Static Var Compensator (SVC), Controllable Series Compensator (CSC) and Phase Shifter (PS). It is able to control both active and reactive power flow.

This active power control results in the Variation o f the reactive power f l o w in the line which should be compensatedby the UPFC. Also, the control of the shunt and series part of the h i spaper. UPFC will be studied in t

I I .STUDIED SYSTEM

Figure 1 presents the typical s y s t e m in which the UPFC w i l lbe installed:

**Keywords : FACTS, UPFC, power transmission, electrical system,reactive power compensation.
**

I. INTRODUCTION In t h i s paper, the simulation of an electtical s y s t e m with production groups of different characteristics, notably in t e r m of production cost, is presented. The proposed electrical system is strongly interconnected and the a w s on power transit is gavemed by KRCHOFF's l which the dispatchers have no m e a n s to act. The aim is to control the power flow in the different lines in order t o minimize the total production cost. The power electronic based Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) have been developed and used as economical and efficient means to control the power transfer in the interconnected AC Transmission Systems[l]. This allows to force the power transit in the lines with higher transmission capacity [2],[6]. l o w Among the FACTS components, Unified Power F Controller (UPFC), is the most complete. It is able to control independently the throughput active and reactive powers. The UPFC is capable to act m r three basic y s t e m parameters[3] : line voltage, line electrical s impedance, and phase angle, which determine the transmitted power. Power flow through an alternative current line is a function of the line impedance, the magnitudes of the sending-end and receiving-end voltage and the phase angle between these voltages[3]. The power flow can be increased, firstly by decreasing the line impedance with a capacitive reactance, secondly by increasing the voltages and finally by increasing the phase angle between these voltages. In our study, the active power f l o w is controlled by the electrical angle.

0-7803-5105-3/98/$10.00 0 1998 IEEE

bZ

X5

PLgUre 1 :scheme of the studied SystaL

Inthisdiagram:

**PIand Pzare the cheap production means but distanced f r o m the loads.
**

P s and P A are the expensive production groups near the loads. C1and c2 are the loads. bl, br, B, b4, b5, bs represent the lines reactance, respectively XI,X z ,X3, )6, X s and &.

Reactance

X,=0.25pu

IMaximum line transmissible power 1 pblm=l

The loads are given by the expressions:

PGl(t)=2.5*(0.7+0.2*cos(2n*tl24*365)+0. 1*sin(2n*t/24)

P & ) = 1.5*(0.7+0.2*cos(21c*t/24*365)+0.1 *sin(2n*t/24)

660

By this method. Figure 3 shows a single line diagram of a simple transmission line in which a voltage source is inserted.=Vhin(u.= v. which is introduced in the line phase angle [3].m. the transferred power becomes : V2 P = -(6. . is to keep the transmitted active power at a desired level independently of electrical angle 6. Figure 4 :Active powr !lowcontrol by phase mdjc One can simplify these calculations by linearisation called continuow. connecting a sending-end voltage VA to a receiving-end voltage v. : i V&Sc ..I. plgure 6 :The senies ioltage diagram. In t h s case. Figure 5 :M C stmcture o f M UPFC Q Figure 6 shows the series voltage diagram where the phase displacement a is introduced Assuming t h a t the voltage a t node A is: vA =Vv!&in(oit) in order to obtain at node C. Figure 2 :line diagram.*I. with V. The souzce introduced in series with the line allows to obtain the same magnitude at node C : 0 V. 0 sin6#S: V2 Then P=--. x . InU X This equation shows that the relation between the active power flow and the line electrical angle is linear. The original idea. v.=v.l+a) should be injected between these nodes : Vsrr*ex=K* w u . Figure 4 shows the effect of this angle (a) over the line power for the same electrical angle 6.. the active power transferred between two nodes A and B is : PAB =-v ~ v csin(6. I I % VeJS.=2Vsin(d2) and p=(r+a). current This assumption allows to have the active power flow more linked to line electrical angle than to magnitudes./2. LINE POWER CONTROL Figure 2 shows a single line diagram of a simple transmission line with an inductive reactance X.c Figure 3 :line diagram with voltage source inserted. Two Merent powers can be obtained : PI(a=Oo)<P2(a=-300). in our study.=V.. r + p l .I *.S. : Thus. the power flow in the line is controlled by the angle a. Q ' L vejs.a ) (3) X with : S=&-& and a = SA-&. The UPFC realizes a phase displacement a.=V. The active and reactive power flow between t w o nodes A and B are given by the following expressions[4] : PAB =2 sins vv X I Li.S (2) The power control is realized by an UPFC using as a phase shifter according to the scheme of figure 5 .*". supposethat: v"= v. 661 .

The series part controls the line active power flow and the shunt part controls the line reactive power flow and also. the reactive power flow in the line in which the UPFC is introduced may not be negligible. V. compensates the series part losses. no reactive power is exchanged. Another method to control the active power is to control the magnitude of the line voltage. Figure 9 shows the control block diagram of the shunt part. figure 8b shows how the active power is exchanged between the UPFC and the electrical system. The voltage generated by inverter 1 is not in phase with the voltage of the system but of the same magnitude. The voltage Vka is either in phase with line voltage or perpendicular to line current I. It is generally used to control the active power flow on the transmission line by injecting a synchronous voltage Vshm in series ) . I V .7). v Figure 9 : Control M o d diagram of the shunt part LzP oftbe 662 . in which case line impedance can be controlled (figure. The UPFC consists of two fully controlled power electronic converters coupled by a DC link capacitor. Figure 8a shows the exchange of the reactive power between the UPFC and the electrical system. by injecting a reactive current as indicated in figure 5. This reference is set a t zero ( W O ) so as to cancel the line reactive power. The difference between this voltage and the line voltage . These two components allow to generate a voltage by the shunt inverter called Vh.=kjjwCI. then the UPFC absorbs reactive power and if VS=VA.. L Figure 8 :Exchange of the shunt part. The UPFC is able to compensate it by the shunt part. _ . V is applied across the leakage reactance of the shunt transformer and determines the shunt current as given below : V C voltage control Impedance control Figure 7 :Other control functions.DESCRIPTION OF THE UPFC a) Basic operation principle The UPFC seems to be very interesting since it allows to control the three parameters which theoretically define the power flow in the line and can provide VAR compensation. in phase with the voltage system VA but with variable magnitude. the UPFC couples a shunt and a series voltage source inverter through a DC link. the UPFC produces the reactive power and if Vs=Vs2.Besides the active power flow control. presents the dlfference between the measured line reactive power and its reference. it allows to control the reactive power in the line[S] and to provide for the absorbed active power by inverter 2. as shown in figure 7. the output of this regulation. Inverter 1 generates a voltage V. In order to control these different parameters. b) UPFC control Basically. two block diagrams are established. Whereas inverter 1 (bridgel) connected in parallel with the line transmission by transformer.. For the points S3 or S4 (Vs=Vs3 or Vs=Vd).. If Vs=Vsl. is connected in series with the transmission line through a transformer.-. 0 reactive power regulation: Q*. the UPFC can produce or absorb the active power for the capacitor voltage regulation. It contains : 0 DC voltage regulation : the output of this regulation is called P* which corresponds to the active power consumed by the series part and supplied by the shunt part. In order to compensate the inverter 2 losses. as illustrated in figure 5 . The magnitude and the with transmission line (figure 6 angle p fix the transmitted active power. Inverter 2 (bridge2).

M and P. the lines bl and b are not used in their maximal power transfer capacity. Thus.. Indeed. the power flow of t w o lines will be controlled by using UPFC.&PI. The system of following equations for the active power in the different lines of the electrical system (figl)can be obtained : ‘1 ‘fi I 0 0 - 0 1 x 3 1 1 - 3 4 0 1 - 8 2 =T q-64 I V I . T h i s allows to i d e n w the charged lines and those loaded less and to elaborate the strategy of control adapted to thls electrical system. sin6#6. which determines the series voltage to be injected in the line. the transmitted active power of the line The power conservation at each node allows to write the following equations : 663 . The line bl is controlled so as to force the maximum power transited in the line b2 and supplementary power is deviated in the line bl. Ths study has shown that it is necessary to control the power flow in lines bl and b3 in order to cancel the costly groups production (P3+P4).. SIMULATION RESULTS First of all and without any compensation. Each line reference is calculated independently. Other lines are at the maximum of their power transfer capacity. In matrix form and by talung &=O so as to simple the calculation. The difference between the measured line active power and its reference allows to calculate the angle U. Figure 11 allows to observe that with one power control by using UPFC. The line bl is used at 50% and the line b at 16% of their maximum power.Figure 10 shows the control block diagram of the series part. Then P. the eqUatiOnS(4) and ( 5 ) become: Plgure 10 :Control block diagram for the series part In this paper. SYSTEM EQUATIONS and 0 c (7) 0 1 - s The combination of the two systems (6) and (7) allows to obtain : 0 0 By equation (1) and followingassumptions : vi=vj=1 pu. the power reference ofthe line bl is : p r c f l = p bl+(Pb2”-PbZ) The line b is controlled in the same manner in order to exploit the line bl at its maximum : pd3=pb3+(Pbl~~pbl) These power reference cannot exceed the maximum power transited in the lines bl and b. the electrical system is studied in order to determine the power f l o w in each line of the system.&Pb3~ V.

Pub. to approximately 80%.3. [3] Gygyi. figure 11 allows also to observe that the reactive pomr in the line bl is reduced to a null average. which is economical. The reactive power transit in the line & is also reduced to a null average by the shunt part of second UPFC.. 664 . 01 01 Vm. settled in the lines bl and b.. [4] Kalyan K. \ 1 rrrolivcp a w I. Prague. " Utilization of the UPFC for the optimal exploitation of costly centrals in the electrical systems 'I. in order to control the active power transit in the lines bl and b. 366-371.950-955. the active power transit in this line never exceeds Pbl-. AEtive p o w I. is totally canceled. JEE Cod. With the control of the series part of the UPFC.. CONCLUSION In this paper. the UPFC has also allowed to annul the reactive power in these lines.bl has remarkably increased and reaches 100% of its maximum power. Herold G. Vol. can be made by comparing the investment with daily production Cost. Trondheim. " Application of FACTS Devices for the maximum laudability Improvement in Transmission lines EPE'97. The active power control in the line & by using a second UpPC. Vo1. the costly production groups (p3+P4) can be totally canceled whilst all other line constraints such as thermal limitations were respected...by injecting a reactive current by the shunt part of the UPFC. it could be authorized to mppose that FACTS devices allow to optimize the production cost of the electrical system. Juin 1992. . the increase of the active power transit in the lines (bl+b+b) is approximately 62%. * e. On the other hand. 'I Reactive power using a UPFC fed by a current source EPE'97.M. pp.. the costly group production (P3+P4). The final decision.' *c 1. "Pour un reseau electrique plus Figure 12 gives the active and reactive power f l o w of the line b.REFERENCES [l] Le Du A. I' SSSC: Theory. always used as a phase-shifter. The simulation results. show the efficiency of FACTS devices. the compensation of an electrical system by using UPFC has been studied. 8-10 Sept. 8-10 Sept. 105-117. by exploiting all t their maximum power transfer lines of the system a capacity... so as to keep a saciently stable electrical system. [6] Belacheheb K. September 98. 1991 pp. 'I.. On the other hand. in controlling line both active and reactive power flow. 'I. By using two compensators.. pp. Ehsan M.. 19-26. I5 Thus. Saadate S.. W. Czech Republic. With two UPFC devices. pp.* I U U . [2] Sadeghzadeh S. obtained by numerical code SABER.7 *I Blpre 11 :Active and readve powr i nline b . I. specially UPFC. By generalizing the study presented in this paper. Feuillet R. PEMC'98. " AC/DC Power Transmission Conference. as indicated in figure 10. Modeling and Application" [5] Jiiger J. The main objective was to control the active power flow in the electrical system in order to optimize the production cost. Trondheim. has allowed to increase considerably the active power transit in this line. performant: le projet FACTS" RGE n06/92.345 .. This explains the asymmetrical power form. 'I A unified power flow control concept for Flexible AC Transmission Systems.l. L. Hajsaid N.

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