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**Mechanics of Materials: Strain
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Global 1D Strain

Consider a rod with initial length L which is stretched to a length L'. The strain measure ε, a dimensionless ratio, is defined as the ratio of elongation with respect to the original length,

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Infinitesimal 1D Strain

The above strain measure is defined in a global sense. The strain at each point may vary dramatically if the bar's elastic modulus or cross-sectional area changes. To track down the strain at each point, further refinement in the definition is needed.

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Consider an arbitrary point in the bar P, which has a position vector x, and its infinitesimal neighbor dx. Point P shifts to P', which has a position vector x', after the stretch. In the meantime, the small "step" dx is stretched to dx'. The strain at point p can be defined the same

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http://www.efunda.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/mat_mechanics/strain.cfm

14.08.2012

Top of Page General Definition of 3D Strain As in the one dimensional strain derivation. suppose that point P in a body shifts to point P after deformation. http://www.cfm 14. where u is the displacement vector. x is coordinate.efunda.2012 . Page 2 of 4 Since the displacement .08. Expanding the above equation for each coordinate direction gives. The infinitesimal strain-displacement relationships can be summarized as.Mechanics of Materials: Strain as in the global strain measure. 3} in three dimensional space. the strain can hence be rewritten as. and the two indices i and j can range over the three coordinates {1. 2.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/mat_mechanics/strain.

so as to avoid errors in mathematical manipulations.efunda. and z directions respectively (i. Top of Page 3D Strain Matrix There are a total of 6 strain measures. the shear strain εxy is the average of the shear strain on the x face along the y direction. and w are the displacements in the x. These 6 measures can be organized into a matrix (similar in form to the 3D stress matrix). y.2012 .com/formulae/solid_mechanics/mat_mechanics/strain. v. However. please beware of the difference between shear strain and engineering shear strain.08.cfm 14. and on the y face along the x direction. The expression inside the parentheses can be rewritten as. shown here. Top of Page Engineering Shear Strain Focus on the strain εxy for a moment.e. Top of Page http://www. γxy is a total measure of shear strain in the x-y plane.Mechanics of Materials: Strain Page 3 of 4 where u. they are the components of u). In constrast. Called the engineering shear strain. where . Engineering shear strain is commonly used in engineering reference books.

ftapi.Tekscan.efunda. That is. Inc. The compatibility equations reduce to. In two dimensional problems (e.com/StrainGauge Technisches Englisch .HH Englischtraining genau auf Ihre technischen Bedürfnissen fokussiert – www. & Accurate Force Sensors – www. there are six strain measures but only three independent displacements.2012 . These compatibility conditions for infinitesimal strain refered to rectangular Cartesian coordinates are. there are 6 unknowns for only 3 independent variables. ) when Top of Page Ads by Google Strain Gauge Substitute Measure Force with our Ultra-Thin.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/mat_mechanics/strain.de Fracture Mechanics Assessment Software.g. http://www. Flexible. API 579-1 / ASME FFS-1 and more! – www.IngeniumLS. plane strain). Note that some references use engineering shear strain ( referencing compatibility equations. As a result there exist 3 constraint. all z terms are set to zero.com Home Membership About Us Privacy Disclaimer Contact Advertise Copyright © 2012 eFunda.Mechanics of Materials: Strain Compatibility Conditions Page 4 of 4 In the strain-displacement relationships.QuestIntegrity. or compatibility.08. equations.com/SignalFFS Große Dateien versenden Hochsichere Firmenlösung = Jetzt kostenlos starten! – www.cfm 14.

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UsefulNot usefulEngineering and elastic strain

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