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Human Resource Management-MCQS

1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. When the management conducts QWL programs in association with the union it : Leads to effective negotiations that enable designing contracts that satisfy both the parties. Improves the efficiency of the management and strengthens employee organizations. Encourages participative management and involves employees in decision making. All the above __________________ is a self-governing group of workers, with or without their supervisors, who voluntarily meet on a regular basis to identify, analyze and solve problems in their work field. Employee groups Quality circles Quality systems Employee circles. The difference between quality circles and task groups is that In task groups, members skill does not matter while in quality circle it is important to have skilled employees Employees in task force are selected by management whereas in quality circle, they are selected by members of the groups The only aim of task group is people building whereas in quality circles it is problem solving The source of members in task group is from the same work group whereas in quality circles it is from various functions Which of the following is not a basic objective of the quality circle? To enhance, develop and utilize human resources effectively To develop quality of products as well as productivity To improve quality of work life To increase employee benefits and incentives In the development of a quality circle, what is the phase that follows the stage of initial problem solving? Promoting and communicating the need for a quality circle Composition of a quality circle Presentation of suggestions Execution This technique creates an open environment free of criticism, encouraging employees to participate and come up with their own ideas. One idea leads to another and impractical and unreasonable ideas are also stimulated and recorded without being suppressed. What is this process termed as? Cerebral popcorn Group popcorn Group storm Idea storm Which committee looks after the activities of the QCs in a particular unit/division and acts as an advisory board? Quality committee Steering committee

4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6.

a. b. c. d. 7. a. b.

c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d.

Employee committee Standard committee Who introduced the concept of quality circles? Dr. Edward Deming Dr. Caldwell Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa et al Dr. Kim Yung Due What is the likely composition of a quality circle? Six to twelve members Two to three members Fifteen to twenty members More than twenty members In a plant council, when is it obligatory to appoint a woman representative? If the number of women workers is 5 percent or more of the total workforce If the number of women workers is 15 percent or more of the total workforce If the number of women workers is 30 percent or more of the total workforce Even if there is one woman worker ______________ is continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of protecting and advancing the conditions of their working lives. Management Trade union Quality circle Productivity circle Under extramural functions, Trade unions fight with employers to achieve economic interests of their members Trade unions act as benefit organizations providing financial and non financial assistance to their members during sickness strikes, lockouts, boycotts, temporary removal from service, etc Trade unions involve themselves in various activities to serve a social cause and accomplish their social responsibility towards different sections of the society. Under these functions, trade unions associate themselves with a political party, get affiliated to the party and help it by enrolling members, campaigning for it during the elections, collecting donations, etc. In India, BMS (Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh) is affiliated to the BJP(Bharatiya Janata Party), CITU is affiliated to CPM(Communist Party Marxist) and INTUC (Indian National Trade Union Congress) is affiliated to the Congress (I). what is the function being performed by the trade unions? Intramural Extramural Political Social The main objective of a reformist union is To conserve the capitalist society, to continue the employer-employee relationship and the competitive system of production To demolish the prevailing structure and replace it with a new one based on the ideals they believe in


a. b. c. d. 14. a. b.

c. d.

Not to cooperate with their employers instead they aim at using whatever and whomever they can in order to achieve their goals To enjoy a large part of the booty earned from the customers and give only a small portion to the workers Business unions and uplift unions are types of Reformist unions Revolutionary unions Guerilla unions Anarchist unions ___________ unions are ideal in nature and aim at broader issues such as education, benefits, health and insurance. Uplift Unions Business Unions Political unions Anarchist Unions Trade unions based on the Marxist ideology can be termed as Friendly Revolutionary Uplift Business Predatory unions Use revolutionary means to completely dissolve the current economic system. They believe that capitalism is a system that does not work Do not stick to a particular ideology or a specific methodology to achieve their objectives Destroy the power of capital and capitalists through laws, attain power by participating in political action and apportion wealth and offer effective power to the workers Are ideal in nature and aim at broader issues such as education, benefits, health and insurance The Cine Dancers Association and the Indian Pilots Guild are examples of Craft unions Staff union Industrial union General union A staff union Is experienced and works on a single craft or trade or any number of crafts or trades Generally employs workers from non-manual sectors Is based on the industry in which the members work rather than the craft, grade, skill, position or sex Consists of members belonging to various industries with varied skills and experience

15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d.

19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d.

21. a.

All the following are the advantages of the mutual insurance method adopted by the trade unions, except It attracts the people to join the union with its varied welfare activities;

b. c. d.

Under this method, members donate more if they need more benefits. This helps in improving the financial condition of the union and enhances its bargaining power when the need arises; It restricts outsider interference like that of political leaders and helps maintain friendly relations with the management In case a strike continues for a long time, it helps the members to stay united by offering the required financial assistance The Rashtriya Mill Mazdoor Sangh, Bombay; the Engineering Mazdoor Sabha, Bombay; the Labor Mines Mazdoor Sangh, Udaipur, etc. are a few examples of General union Industrial union Craft union Inter-union rivalry What is the tenure of the joint councils formed in an organization? 5 years 10 years 1 year 2 years The extent to which employees are aware of their interests, skills, strengths are weaknesses regarding their career goals is termed Career motivation Career resilience Career insight Career identity One of the following is not an example of a Career Anchor Functional competence Security and stability Entrepreneurial creativity Aspiring capability __________________ helps organizations identify employee strengths and weaknesses to determine avenues for their career development. Gap analysis Individual assessment Organizational assessment Opportunity analysis Understanding the career aspirations of an employee, determining his capabilities and competencies and identifying the gaps is termed Need analysis Gap analysis Opportunity analysis Employee analysis

22. a. b. c. d. 23. a. b. c. d. 24. a. b. c. d. 25. a. b. c. d. 26. a. b. c. d. 27. a. b. c. d.

28. a. b. c.

Career planning and development programs for employees Increase employee frustration Promote only a lucky few Increase the employee turnover rate

d. 29. a. b. c. d. 30. a. b. c. d. 31. a. b. c. d. 32. a. b. c. d. 33. a. b. c. d. 34. a. b. c. d. 35. a. b. c. d. 36. a. b. c.

Ensure future availability of resources Employees who feel that there is nothing more to achieve and that their career has becomes stagnant are said to have reached a Career island Career plateau Career peak Career goal The employee at this stage strives to maintain a reputation and desires to be looked up to, in the organization. This is the Exploration stage Establishment stage Maintenance stage Disengagement stage Reassignment of an employee to a higher level job that involves greater responsibility or status or pay is termed Transfer Cross functional transfer Demotion Promotion The process of selecting and developing employees in the organization to occupy key positions in the future is termed Career planning Succession planning Career development Human resource enhancement Evaluation of an employees performance by his colleagues is called Peer appraisal Management by objectives Formal appraisal Group appraisal Clear and well-defined goals, a definite time plan and an action plan to achieve these goals, combined with timely feedback, are characteristics of Work standards approach Management by objectives BARS Balanced Scorecard method The main disadvantage of the essay appraisal is that It consumes a lot of paper Different writing skills can portray employee performance differently Some points can be missed out by the evaluator Both b & c Paired comparison of employees is a method of Ranking Checklist Point allocation

d. 37. a. b. c. d. 38. a. b. C. d. 39. a. b. c. d. 40. a. b. c. d. 41.

Forced choice rating Appraisal of an employee performance by supervisor, self, peers, subordinates and customers is termed as Team appraisal Balanced scorecard method 360 degree appraisal Critical incident method The method of appraisal where the appraiser makes a list of all the important situations and employee reactions/ behavior at that time is the Checklist method Critical incident method Graphic rating method Work standards approach If the appraiser allows a single characteristic of the appraisee to dominate his judgement of the employee performance, it is termed as Halo effect Stereotyping Perceptual set Primacy effect Rajan believes that all those from Xaviers are very arrogant and complacent. This is reflected in his performance appraisal of Pprrthi, who is from Xaviers. This is an example of Halo effect Perceptual set Stereotyping Stringency effect Priyank is a good salesman and works for an IT company. But, his performance in 2001-02 was affected because of the slump in the IT market. However, his boss fails to acknowledge it and rates his performance as poor. This is an example of Stereotyping Primacy effect Fundamental attribution error Halo effect Veena always awards high ratings to all her subordinates irrespective of their performance levels. She is affected by Leniency effect Primacy effect Recency effect Tringency effect

a. b. c. d. 42 a. b. c. d.

43. a. b. c. d.

One of the main reasons for the negative attitude of employees towards performance appraisal is It is associated with pay It gives away how bad they are It tends to become subjective because of poor implementation It is not useful for any other organizational activity

44. a. b. c. d. 45. a. b. c. d. 46. a. b. c. d. 47. a. b. c. d. 48. a. b. c. d. 49 a. b. c. d. 50. a. b. c. d. 51. a.

Supratim has been promoted to the post of an Area Sales Manager just last week, but finds himself lacking in some areas. His performance can be improved by Reprimanding him Training him Linking his pay to performance Providing him with an assistant Rapid Creations has been acquired by Indigo Hues. Employees of the acquired company need basic training in Human relations New technology Managerial aspects Company policies and procedures Employees resist participating in training programs mainly because They are not convinced about their benefits They do not like to be away from their colleagues and friends They feel that they are ill-equipped that they need training None of the above _______________ as a training method, helps the trainee gain crossfunctional knowledge Apprenticeship Simulation Job rotation Job enlargement The method of training in which the trainee is given a series of questions to answer after reading the relevant material is called Role playing Simulation exercises Programmed instruction Committee assignment _______________ helps in improving the communication, people management and relationship management skills of the trainees. Computer modeling Role playing Class Room lectures Vestibule training The basic yardstick to measure the success of a training program is No. of participants Reputation of the trainer Learning benefits to the trainees The amount paid in TAs & Das paid to all the trainees The process of developing an understanding of the self and ones relationships with other group members through unstructured group interaction is termed as Role playing

b. c. d. 52. a. b. c. d. 53. a. b. c. d. 54. a. b. c. d. 55. a. b. c. d. 56. a. b. c. d. 57. a. b. c. d. 58. a. b. c. d.

Simulation exercise Sensitivity training Transactional analysis Response, learning performance and results, are the four levels in evaluating a management development program. This system of evaluation is called Taylors system Kirkpatricks system Werther & Daviss method Armstrong method A meeting of people to study and analyze a problem from different angles for developing the participants ability to exchange ideas and change their own views is a Class room lecture Case study Conference Sensitivity training A person who is either obedient or manipulative, charming at one time and repulsive at another time, is in a Child ago state Adult ego state Parent ego state Chameleon ego state Traditionally the pay scales in companies were associated with Employee performance Organizational hierarchy Worth of the candidate Charm of the employee ________________ is the systematic process of analyzing and evaluating jobs to determine their relative worth in an organization. Job analysis Job design Job evaluation Job enrichment The different factors associated with the jobs in an organization, which from the basis for job evaluation are termed Job specifications Job descriptions Job dimensions Job definitions The process of ranking in which the relative importance of each job is determined in comparison with the representative job is called Relative ranking Comparative ranking Paired comparison Single factor ranking

59. a. b. c. d. 60. a. b. c. d. 61. a. b. c. d. 62. a. b. c. d. 63. a. b. c. d. 64. a. b. c. d. 65. a. b. c. d. 66. a. b. c. d.

The main disadvantage of the job grading method is that It is more comprehensive It is not supported by job description or specification It is very expensive The grade definitions have to cover jobs from different functions Example of a quantitative method of job evaluation is Single factor ranking method Factor comparison method Job classification method All of the above Decision band method of job evaluation is based on the premise that the value of a job depends on its ________________ requirements Relationship management Hierarchical Decision-making Decision-abiding Compensation administration should match/follow all the following basics except Employee expectancy Principle of equity Legal requirements None of the above The financial capacity of the employer is taken into consideration in the concept of Minimum wage Fair wage Living wage Just wage Radha works in a small scale industry where she is paid Rs. 100 as a daily wage like all her co-workers. This is an example of Time wage plan Piece wage plan Skill based pay Competency-based pay Satwik is an IT engineer, who earns Rs.4.0000 p.m., working for his company. His pay is an example of Qualification-based pay Skill-based pay Time wage plan Piece wage plan Under which system, the wage for each piece of work is fixed and the workers are paid once the work is completed. Piece-wage plan Skill based pay Time wage plan Payment by results

67. a. b. c. d. 68. a. b. c. d. 69. a. b. c. d. 70. a. b. c. d. 71. a. b. c. d. 72. a. b. c. d. 73. a. b. c. d. 74. a. b.

The system of compensating employees in accordance with their performance is termed the Executive compensation program Fixed compensation program Variable compensation program Performance pay program The main hurdle in having a National Wage Policy in India is Opposition from trade unions Opposition from workers Regional & industrial disparities Opposition from the heads of state Performance bonus is an example of a/an Intrinsic reward Extrinsic reward Intrinsic wage payment Extrinsic wage payment The process of rewarding employees by giving them a stake I the company, which further enhances their performance is called the Gain-sharing Annual bonus Employee stock plan Profit sharing The fringe advantages that accrue to an employee over and above his salary, as a result of his employment and position in an organization are termed Benefits Incentives Compensation Wages The flexible benefit plan for employees, where the employee gets a change to choose from a lot of benefits, is also called the Holiday benefit plan Restaurant benefit plan Cafeteria benefit plan Variable benefit plan The provision of compensation or lucrative benefits for the top management in case of a job loss/changeover when there is a change of guard, is the High-flier scheme Retention planning scheme Cool landing scheme Golden parachute scheme The basic difference between incentives and benefits is Incentives are service related and benefits are performance related Incentives are performance related and benefits are service related

c. d. 75. a. b. c. d. 76 a. b. c. d. 77. a. b. c. d. 78. a. b. c. d. 79. a. b. c. d. 80. a. b. c. d. 81. a. b. c. d. 82. a. b.

Incentives are non-monetary and benefits are monetary Incentives are monetary and benefits are non-monetary Halsey plan, Rowan plan, Barth system etc. are all example of Long term incentive plans Short-term incentive plans Non-monetary incentive plans Employee benefit plans The first sign of an employees discontent either with the job or the organization is Conflict Industrial unrest Grievance Strike The first stage in grievance redressal is handled by the Organizational head HR Department Arbitrator Supervisor The method of smoothing out differences to resolve a conflict between two parties, in view of large interests is Avoidance Accommodation Arbitration Mediation ____________________ is employee self-control which prompts him to willingly cooperate with the organizational standards, rules, objectives etc. Culture Behavior Discipline Trust Triumph chemicals awards the Safest Place annual award to the unit with the best safety record every year, across its 16 units. This is an example of Positive discipline Negative discipline Enforced discipline Rewards discipline Being late to work is an example of Minor infraction Major infraction Medium infraction Intolerable offence Corrective action should be immediate, impartial and consistent with a warning-this is called the Common disciplinary rule Red hot stove rule

c. d. 83. a. b. c. d. 84.

Ciscos disciplinary rule Yellow hot stove rule All the following are the features of a good disciplinary process except, Consistency Impartiality Immediate action Unpredictability The in charge of the acid storage plant at Sirpi was suspended for the accident that took place. Investigation revealed that he had actually approached the management with a request for repairing a leaking pipe, but the management ignored it. His suspension is an example of Late intervention Negative feedback Misplaced responsibility Punitive discipline Ratan got a shock when he was suspended for smoking in the office premises. He says he never knew a puff came with such a heavy tag attached to it. This is an example of Negative feedback Lack of communication Immediate action Late intervention __________________ can be defined as the relationship between the management and employees of an industry. Interpersonal relations Industrial relations Organizational relations Employment relations Paternalistic style of management, adopted during the human relations era is also called the Exploitative authoritative style Benevolent Authoritative style Consultative management style Participative style _____________ bodies like Indian Committee and Industrial Committees help the government in settling industrial disputes. Bipartite Tripartite Constitutional Autonomous ________________ is a managerial tool that facilitates an amicable and mutually acceptable agreement between the management and the employees to solve employment related problems. Adjudication Industrial conflict Collective bargaining Strike / Lockout

a. b. c. d. 85. a. b. c. d. 86. a. b. c. d. 87. a. b. c. d. 88. a. b. c. d. 89. a. b. c. d.

90. a. b. c. d. 91. a. b. c. d. 92. a. b. c. d. 93. a. b. c. d. 95. a. b. c. d. 96.

Most of the problems in industrial relations arise out of the differing perceptions and attitudes of the management and the workers this is the Sociological approach Human relations approach Gandhian approach Psychological approach The production targets are fixed with the mutual consent of the management and the workers in Calcio Tubes & Bulbs Pvt. Ltd. This is an example of Associative participation Administrative participation Decisive participation Informative participation A trade unions primary objective is to Conduct strikes Force Lockouts Fight with the management on employment related issues Achieve economic benefits for employees The workers in these unions are experienced and work on a single trade or posses similar skills and specialization. Craft union General union Industrial union Staff union The difference in the wages paid to workers in the same unit, occupation or region is called Wage inequality Wage differential Compensation differential Compensation difference Ramya analyzed the market opportunities and the future of the IT industry in-depth before taking up a career as a Systems Analyst, However, she is not very happy today as she feels she is unfit for the job. The most probable reason is She failed to do a proper self assessment before taking the decision She is unhappy that all her friends are in the same industry She is unhappy that none of her friends are in the same industry She sees her friends in other fields doing better As a student, when one is trying to assess ones self and the opportunities available in the market to choose the right career, he/ she is said to be in the Exploration stage Establishment stage Maintenance stage Disengagement stage

a. b. c. d. 97. a. b. c. d.


The role of a legal advisor in an organization is very important. However, it has very little scope for career advancement because of a high degree of

a. b. c. d. 99.

specialization. Such careers are called Declining careers Low-ceiling careers Career plateaus Glass-ceiling careers Virtuous Services Pvt. Ltd. Believes that is pays quite handsome salaries to its employees. However, the turnover rate has been quite high in the recent past and all the exit interviews point to one factor compensation as the culprit. The company failed to Meet the legal requirements Follow the principle of equanimity Match the employee expectations Match the pay scales abroad In the job classification system for job evaluation, job grades are defined and determined based on Organizational structure & pay packages Job dimensions & pay packages Pay packages & grade definitions Organizational structure & job dimensions Both Raunak & Dilip work for View real Inc. Though Dilip is two years senior to Runak, he earns Rs.5000 less than Runak per month. This is because of the difference in their performances. View real follows the system of Standard compensation Variable compensation Executive compensation Biased compensation The approach that stresses on the fact that individuals should not be treated as mere factors of production is Human Relations Approach Scientific Management Approach Humanistic Approach None of the above Hawthorne studies gave raise to this approach of human resource management Mathematical Approach Human Relations Approach Human Resources Approach Contingent Approach An average sincere employee expects his boss or manager to have all the following characteristics except Be genuinely interested in the employee and his work Ignore all the employees mistakes Be fair and frank in his dealings with the employee Recognize and reward the employee for his contributions

a. b. c. d. 100. a. b. c. d. 101. a. b. c. d. 102. a. b. c. d. 103. a. b. c. d. 104. a. b. c. d.

105. a.

As an auditor, the HR professional Ensures that all managers of the organization perform their respective roles

b. c. d. 106. a. b. c. d. 107. a. b. c. d. 108. a. b. c. d. 109. a. b. c. d. 110. a. b. c. d. 111. a. b. c. d. 112. a. b. c. d.

Conducts training and development activities Solve employee grievances Provides support to other departments in conducting appraisals etc. _____________ organizations are characterized by rigid directives and rules and are appropriate for static environments. Mechanistic Organic Flat Decentralized structures

The marketing manager was asked to handle the product re-launch of toothpaste by VP-Marketing. The managers obligation towards the VP is called Responsibility Accountability Authority None of the above The process of ensuring that there are the right number of qualified people in the right jobs for best results is termed Human Resource Planning Recruitment Retrenchment Downsizing The statement of the required set of knowledge skills and competencies for a job is called the Job specification Job description Job classification Job analysis One of the following is not a job characteristic under the job characteristics Approach to Job analysis. Skill Variety Task significance Reporting authority Task significance Adding more responsibility, providing wider scope, greater sequencing and minimizing controls all constitute Job enlargement Job expansion Job design Job enrichment If a selection method produces consistent results across different situations and times, it is termed to be Reliable Valid Legal None of the above

113. a. b. c. d. 114. a. b. c. d. 115. a. b. c. d. 116. a. b. c. d. 117. a. b. c. d. 118. a. b. c. d. 119.. a. b. c. d.

An interview where the interviewer does not chart out the formal structure of the interview but lets it take a natural course is called a Formal interview Unstructured interview Group interview Stress interview The performance appraisal method that channelises employee efforts with organizational goals is BARS 360 degree appraisal Balanced scorecard Management by objectives The employees of IIVB lose a half day]s leave if they are late to wlrk even by minutes. This is an example of Punitive discipline Preventive discipline Positive discipline Precautionary discipline In India, Regulation of employment and conditions of employment are governed by The trade Union Act, 1926 The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 The Factories Act, 1948 The workmens Compensation Act, 1923 Registration and cancellation of trade unions is governed by The Trade Union Act, 1926 The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 The Factories Act, 1948 The Workmens Compensation Act, 1923 Sameer, a fresh chemical engineer has been provide training in a simulated work environment using the same equipment and materials that he would be using on the job. This training is termed Case exercise Computer modeling In-basket training Vestibule training Rishabh has an adventurous spirit and loves trekking, rock-climbing etc. He wants to be a fighter pilot. His career anchor most probably is Service Pure challenge Autonomy Life style


Ramesh, the Marketing Manager in a large firm meets the Prduction Manager, Sr. Manager R and the VP-Operations almost every day in the officers club. Some topic or the other, related to their organization and

a. b. c. d. 121. a. b. c. d. 122. a. b. c. d. 123. a. b. c. d. 124. a. b. c. d. 125. a. b. c. d. 126. a. b. c. d. 127.

business comes up for discussion. This is an example of Formal organization Informal organization Conference Rumors Sarita left her job as receptionist as she was not happy with the job profile and wanted a more challenging job that would suit her qualification. Her leaving the organization is termed Layoff Outplacement Attrition Loaning One of the reasons for over-staffing in the government and the public sector enterprises is Minimal turnover rates Long-term planning Continuous assessment Highly qualified employees Munnalal & Sons is a medium sized traditional family business which wants to introduce some modern management practices like performance appraisal. The best suited method for the company is 360 degree performance appraisal BARS Management by objectives Balanced scorecard method Sugandhi works in a bank but works from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. (instead of 9 to 6) so that she is at home when her kids are back from school. This is an example of Flextime Part-time Compressed work week Telecommuting HR Manager, Pavithra, arranges training programs and coordinates with different departments to conduct the same. She plays the role of a __________ in this case. Specialist Facilitator Change agent Controller Raghavan, Manager in the ER division of the HR department in a large firm ensures that the production, engineering and other departments comply with the statutory requirements of the contract labor laws. He pays the role of a Specialist Facilitator Change agent Controller Radiant Recordings is a small 8 year old company employing around 40

a. b. c. d.

people. The company wants to forecast its manpower requirements for the next 2-3 years. It can rely on Time series analysis Regression analysis Past experience Delphi technique

1. 11. 21. 31. 42. 52. 62. 72. 82. 91. d b c c c c c a a d 2. 12. 22. 32. 43. 53. 63. 73. 83. 92. 102 . 112 . 122 . b 3. b 13 b 23. d 34 a 44. b 54. d 64. c 74. b 84. c 93. a 103 . a 113 . a 123 . b c c a c c b d d d b b c 4. 14. 24. 35. 45. 55. 65. 75. 85. 94. 104 . 114 . 124 . d a d b b a a b c a b c b 5. 15. 25. 36. 46. 56. 66. 76. 86. 95. 105 . 115 . 125 . c a c d d b b b b b a a b 6. 16. 26. 37. 47. 57. 67. 77. 87. 96. 106 . 116 . 126 . a a d a a c d c b a a c d 7. 17. 27. 38. 48. 58. 68. 78. 88. 97. 107 . 117 . 127 . b b b c c c c d b a b a c 8. 18. 28. 39. 49. 59. 69. 79. 89. 98. 108 . 118 . c b a b c a c b b a d 9. 19. 29. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 99. 109 . 119 . a a d a b d b c c c a b 100 . 110 . 120 . d c b 10. 20. 30. 41. 51. 61. 71. 81. b b b c c b c a

b 90.

101 b . 111 d . 121 c . 33-b