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0 C X B A

Rev. No.

02 Nov 11 Issued for Construction Code A per JESA-TKF-DCS-0286 13 Oct 11 Issued for Review

MF MF MF MF MF

MK MK MF NJM NJM

HG HG HG HG HG
Reviewed TEKFEN

15 Aug 11 Issued for Detailed Design 19 Apr 11 18 Apr 11


Date

Issued for Review (updated with Tekfen comments) Issued for Review
Description

Prepared Checked ORIGINATOR

Groupe OCP S.A.


Casablanca, 2, rue Al Abtal, Hay Erraha, Morocco KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM
EPC CONTRACTOR

Document Title

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


SUBCONTRACTOR

Document No. PAC Proj. No. Org. Code Area Code Disc. Code Doc. Type Seq. No.

Rev. No.

Total pages (w. attachmts)

1305
Digitally signed by HASAN TAHSN GRTAY Date: 2011.11.04 13:10:47 +02:00

PAC

04

PR

REP

0003

15

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 2 of

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CONTENTS 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 3 Background ......................................................................................................................... 3 Scope.................................................................................................................................. 3 Reference Documents ........................................................................................................ 4 Units.................................................................................................................................... 4 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 4 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................... 5 System Overview ................................................................................................................ 5 Analysis Software................................................................................................................ 5 Component Modelling ......................................................................................................... 5 2.3.1 Pumps ................................................................................................................... 5 2.3.2 Valves ................................................................................................................... 6 2.3.3 Piping .................................................................................................................... 7 2.3.4 Rupture disc rating criteria..................................................................................... 7 System Duty........................................................................................................................ 8 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM ................................................................................ 9 Steady State Calibration of Model ....................................................................................... 9 Operating Cases Analysed.................................................................................................. 9 Analysis Results .................................................................................................................. 9 3.3.1 Emergency shutdown ............................................................................................ 9 3.3.2 Start-up with slurry .............................................................................................. 12 PIPELINE WALL THICKNESS AND FLANGE SPECIFICATION ...................................... 14 CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................ 15

2.4 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3

4. 5.

All information related to pipe sizes other than those in the Basic Engineering design together C with associated lower concentrations has been removed.

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

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1. 1.1

INTRODUCTION Background Groupe Chrifien des Phosphates Groupe OCP S.A. (Groupe OCP or OCP) is currently expanding its phosphate production capacity by:

Developing additional phosphate mines and beneficiation facilities at Khouribga. Installing a slurry pipeline transportation pipeline system from the Khouribga mines to the Jorf Lasfar terminal and port site. Expanding the terminal facilities at Jorf Lasfar to accommodate the increased production and to process the phosphate conveyed in slurry form in the pipeline.

This is the slurry transportation component of the project and is termed the Khouribga to Jorf Lasfar Phosphate Slurry Pipeline System. 1.2 Scope This document presents the transient analysis of the Halassa Feeder Pipeline from the Halassa Wash Plant to the Head Station at Khouribga Mine. The transient analysis is based on the steady state design presented in PAC-04-REP-0001. Note that there is no transient analysis for the Halassa Feeder Pipeline presented in the Basic Engineering. The objective of the transient analysis is as follows:

To determine maximum transient pressures during normal, emergency and abnormal pipeline operations. To optimize the operating sequences for these normal, emergency and abnormal operations to minimize the maximum transient pressures where possible. To define any required pipeline protection devices such as rupture discs. To evaluate and if necessary change the pipe wall thickness and flange class selection determined during the steady state design.

The transient analysis work and this report will be updated during detail design. The results presented in this report have been used for the final wall thickness and flange specification for the procurement of the pipeline. C This report is an update of the previous version which considered different pipeline sizes. This revision considers only the Basic Engineering pipeline size selection.

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 4 of

15

1.3

Reference Documents
Document Basic Engineering HAZOP Review Pipeline Process Design Criteria El Halassa Feeder Pipeline - Steady State Hydraulic Report El Halassa Station - Pump Selection Report El Halassa Feeder Pipelines Pipeline Calculation Report El Halassa Feeder Pipe List and Data Sheet Pack Document No. 1593-G-G-018 PAC-00-PR-REP-0001 PAC-04-PR-REP-0001 PAC-08-ME-REP-0001 PAC-04-PP-REP-0001 PAC-04-PP-DAT-0001 C

1.4

Units Metric units are used throughout the project.

1.5

Abbreviations amsl HGL m3/h Mt/a t/h t/d t/m3 %m %v above mean sea level hydraulic grade line cubic metres per hour million metric tons per annum metric ton per hour metric ton per day metric ton per cubic metre solids percentage by mass solids percentage by volume
C

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 5 of

15

2. 2.1

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION System Overview The system considered in this transient analysis is the El Halassa Feeder Pipeline including the pump station at the El Halassa Wash Plant. The main system components required for the model are:

El Halassa Wash Plant feeder tank, 5 feeder pumps and discharge isolation valve located at 0 m. El Halassa Feeder pipeline, 14 894 m long. Discharge into storage tanks at Head Station located at 14 894 m.

2.2

Analysis Software The analysis has been conducted with the transient analysis software package WANDA developed by Deltares. The package uses the method of characteristics as the basis for modelling pressure and flow transients. Additional software capabilities have been developed in conjunction with Deltares.

2.3

Component Modelling

2.3.1 Pumps The requirements for the pumps are detailed in the pump selection report PAC-08-ME-REP-0001. A suitable pump was used as a basis to determine the inputs for the model to achieve the required duty C specified in Table III in Section 2.4. The pump used in the modelling is the Warman 12/10 AHP. The pump performance curve is shown Figure 1. This assumption will not affect the results significantly. The pumps were modelled using Suter curves for a pump specific speed of 25. This allowed for better modelling of the pump flow conditions in the event of a pump trip during which reverse flow can occur in the pump. Three of the pumps have variable frequency drives and two of the pumps have fixed speed drives. The 1st, 4th, 5th and 6th stage pumps have variable frequency drives and the 2nd and 3rd stage pumps have fixed speed drives. However for this transient analysis, the effect of electrical drive type was not modelled as the effect on the results is not significant. In the final analysis, this effect will be modelled and considered. Pump head was de-rated as detailed in the pump selection report PAC-08-ME-REP-0001. The design slurry head for the pumps is specified as nominally 52 m

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 6 of

15

2.3.2 Valves The main inline slurry valves are all modelled as ball valves as per the Basic Engineering. The pump and pipeline isolation valves are specified as ball valves and are modelled using the standard head loss coefficients assumed for the ball vales are as presented in Table I to determine the valve head loss and are defined as follows:
C

v2 H k 2g
where:

(1)

= head loss across valve (m of mixture)

k = head loss coefficient v = velocity through valve (m/s)


g = gravitational constant (m/s)

Valve closure time is specified as 120 s with a tolerance of 5 s as per the Basic Engineering for the Main Slurry Pipeline. The valve closure rate is assumed to be linear, that is at a constant closing rate.
Table I: Slurry Ball Valve Head Loss Characteristics Valve position 0% 1.5% 2.5% 5.0% 7.5% 10% 15% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Head loss coefficient 1.0E+10 (infinity) 900 000 350 000 40 000 9 500 2 750 650 270 79.5 30.0 13.8 6.1 2.7 1.03 0.14 0.01

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 7 of

15

2.3.3 Piping The methodology for the calculation of the pipe and flange pressure rating is detailed in report PACC 04-PP-REP-0001. The maximum allowable transient pressure is 10% above the maximum allowable steady state pressure as allowed in ASME B31.11 paragraph 1102.2.4. This 10% additional pressure allowance is applicable to both the pipe and flanges. In all normal transient cases, the maximum allowable transient pressure head (in metres of mixture) should be above the maximum transient head envelope by at least 25 m at any point along the pipeline. This margin is allowed to accommodate variations in input parameters, such as wave speed. For cases where the sensitivity of system response to variations in model inputs is checked (for example fluid bulk modulus variations), this 25 m margin is not applicable, although the maximum allowable transient pressure head must still be above the maximum transient head envelope. 2.3.4 Rupture disc rating criteria The rupture discs are specified in accordance with API STD 520. The key pressure criteria used to determine the rupture disc burst pressure is given in Table II.
Table II: Rupture Disc Pressure Criteria Parameter Operating ratio Manufacturing tolerance Minimum disc burst tolerance Maximum disc burst tolerance Disc temperature tolerance Value 90% (ratio of max. operating pressure to rated burst pressure) 0% 5% below rated burst pressure 5% above rated burst pressure 0%

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 8 of

15

2.4

System Duty The system duties used in the transient analysis are summarised in Table III and are taken from the steady state hydraulic design presented in PAC-04-PR-REP-0001. The duty presented in Table III has been chosen to determine the maximum expected transient pressures for the pipeline. The maximum total available pump head was assumed together with the design flow rate and design concentration given in PAC-04-PR-REP-0001. Note that no transient analysis for the Daouui Feeder pipeline is presented in the Basic Engineering.
Table III: System Duty for El Halassa Feeder Pipeline Parameter Mass concentration Maximum flow rate (m/h) Slurry density (t/m) Head at 1 stage pump suction (m) Maximum total pump head for pump station (m) Discharge height above ground of pipeline into gravity feeder into distributor box feeding tanks (m)
st

500 NB pipeline 61% 1 459 1.69 1 250 25 C

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

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3. 3.1

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM Steady State Calibration of Model Prior to starting the transient analysis, the model is benchmarked against the steady state design to ensure that operating flows, pressures and concentrations match the steady state design.

3.2

Operating Cases Analysed Table IV outlines the key operating cases analysed. A discussion of the analysis results is provided in Section 3.3. Note that Due to the profile of the pipeline, it is not necessary to shut close the valve at the end of the C pipeline on shutdown of the pipeline. Thus in this transient analysis have not analysed any case with regards to the no cases were analysed considering an accidental valve closure at the end of the pipeline. It is recommended that the diverting valves at the end of the feeder pipeline are interlocked to prevent inadvertent closure while pumping or pumping against a shut valve.
Table IV: Operating Cases Analysed Event Emergency shutdown with slurry in the pipeline. Shutdown of pumps and closure of pump discharge valve with slurry. Transient pressures must be below maximum transient rating of pipeline. Start up with slurry in the pipeline. Open pump discharge valve and ramp up pumps to full speed. Transient pressures must be below maximum transient rating of pipeline. Case filename HF-20-250-1459-1600-ESD-SL-c100 (w dis)

C HF-20-250-1459-1600-Start (90 s)-SL-c100 (w dis) HF-20-250-1459-1600-Start (delay V)-SL-c100 (w dis)

3.3

Analysis Results

3.3.1 Emergency shutdown The emergency shutdown case is analysed to verify that when the pump discharge valve closes, there are no excessive transient pressures due to reverse flow. The emergency shutdown sequence is presented in Table V. The sequence may change during optimisation of the control philosophy in the detailed engineering. Note that the sequence is initiated at 5 s to allow for verification of steady state operation on time history charts and simulations.

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

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15

The maximum transient head envelope is shown on the hydraulic grade line (HGL) plot for the El Halassa Feeder pipeline in Figure 1. The transient head envelope lies below the pipeline rating by a margin of greater than 25 m indicating the pipeline rating should not be exceeded in this case. Figure 2 shows the maximum transient head envelope on the hydraulic grade line plot, showing that the transient pressures are below the pipeline rating. Figure 2 shows the pressure trace downstream of the discharge valve of the feeder station pumps. There are three pressure spikes that occur at about 125 s, 175 s and 180 s. The first is the pressure generated when the discharge valve closes on the reverse flow which occurs following the stopping of the pumps. The second two spikes occur upon collapse of cavities that form at local high points between chainage 6 000 m and 11 000 m following the shutdown. Reducing the discharge valve closure time to less than 120 s increases the magnitude of these pressure spikes. If the valve is to close in a period of less than 120 s, it is recommended that a small bore bypass is considered to limit the magnitude of the pressure spikes. Figure 2 shows the maximum transient head envelope on the hydraulic grade line plot, showing that the transient pressures are below the pipeline rating. Figure 3 shows the pressure trace downstream of the discharge valve of the Feeder pumps.
Table V: Event Sequence: Emergency Shutdown Time 5s 5s 35 s 125 s Event sequence Initiate shutdown of feeder station pumps. Feeder station discharge valve starts to close. Feeder station pumps all stopped. Feeder station discharge valve closed.

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

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1400 Simplified profile 1300 Pipe transient rating Flange rating 1200 MATP 1175 t/h 1100 Shutdown HF-20-250-1459-ESD-SL-c100 (w dis)

Elevation (m amsl)

1000

900

800

700 End elev. = 645.8 m Start elev. = 532.2 m Pipe length = 14.9 km

600

500

400 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Distance along pipeline (km)

Figure 1: HGL Plot with Maximum Transient Head Envelope for Emergency Shutdown

50 45 40 35 30

Pressure 2 (barg)

25 20 15 10 5 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

300 320 Time (s)

340

360

380

400

420

440

460

480

500

520

540

560

580

600

Figure 2: Pressure Trace Downstream of Discharge Valve for Feeder Station Pumps

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

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3.3.2 Start-up with slurry This section is new The start up case with slurry in the pipeline is analysed to verify that no significant pressure spikes are generated on start-up and that the flow in the pipeline is increased smoothly to the operating flow. Due to high point in the El Halassa pipeline profile, reverse flow will occur in the pipeline following opening of the feeder station pump discharge valve unless some of the pumps start prior to the opening of the valve. Voids form at the high point due to this reverse flow and as the flow and pressure in the pipeline increase due to the pumps starting, these voids collapse causing pressure transients. It recommended that the pumps are either started up over a period of at least 90 s to prevent excessive pressures or that some of the pumps are started prior to opening the discharge valve to prevent reverse flows. However starting up over 90 s still results in reverse flow and the flow in the pipeline is not smoothly brought up to the operating flow. Thus it is recommended that some of the pumps are started prior to the valve opening to balance the pressure across the valve (or slightly higher upstream pressure) prior to opening the valve. This minimizes the transient pressures generated, prevents void formation and results in a smooth increase in the flow throughout the pipeline. The maximum transient head envelope for the start up case is shown on the hydraulic grade line (HGL) plot for the El Halassa Feeder pipeline in Figure 3. The transient head envelope lies below the pipeline rating by a margin of greater than 25 m indicating the pipeline rating should not be exceeded in this case. Figure 4 shows the discharge pressure and flow trace for the feeder station pumps on start up with three of the pumps started prior to opening the valve to balance the pressure across the valve. The pressure increase and flow increase is relatively smooth.
C

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 13 of

15

1400 Simplified profile 1300 Pipe transient rating Flange rating 1200 MATP 1175 t/h 1100 Shutdown HF-20-250-1459-Start (delay v)-SL-c100 (w dis)

Elevation (m amsl)

1000

900

800

700 End elev. = 645.8 m Start elev. = 532.2 m Pipe length = 14.9 km

600

500

400 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Distance along pipeline (km)

Figure 3: HGL Plot with Maximum Transient Head Envelope for Start-up

48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 Time (s) 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560

1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000

Discharge 2 (m3/h)

Pressure 2 (barg)

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 580 600

Pressure 2 (Centreline) PUMP P5 (Startup)

Discharge 2 PUMP P5 (Startup)

Figure 4: Discharge Pressure and Flow Trace for Last Stage Feeder Station Pump

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

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15

4.

PIPELINE WALL THICKNESS AND FLANGE SPECIFICATION Based on the transient analysis of the case described above, the required wall thicknesses and flange C classes to prevent over pressurisation of the Halassa Feeder Pipeline is as specified in Table VI. Based on the transient pressures predicted for the analysed cases, the wall thicknesses and flange classes specified in the Basic Engineering are suitable. The required wall thicknesses and flange C classes to prevent over pressurisation of the El Halassa Feeder Pipeline are as specified in Table VI. The wall thicknesses and flange classes specified in Table VI are not specified to withstand the pump shutoff head as it is recommended that there is no isolation valve at the end of the pipeline that needs to be closed on shutdown. To meet a withstand the pump shutoff head will require a significantly thicker pipe and in addition to rupture discs at the start and end of the pipeline.

The pipe list and data sheets for the El Halassa Feeder pipeline are presented in PAC-04-PP-DATC 0001.
Table VI: Wall Thickness and Flange Class Specification Section Section 1 Section 1 Section 2 From (m) 0 0 3 000 To (m) 14 894 3 000 14 894 Wall thk (mm) 6.4 7.1 6.4 Flange class 300 300 300 Total Length (m) 14 894 3 000 11 894 14 894 Pipe mass (t) 1 179 290 1 037 1 179 C

KHOURIBGA JORF LASFAR PHOSPHATE SLURRY PIPELINE SYSTEM


Document Title:

Groupe OCP S. A.
Casablanca Morocco

EL HALASSA FEEDER PIPELINE TRANSIENT REPORT


Doc. no: PAC-04-PR-REP-0003 Rev.

Issue date :

02 Nov 2011

Page 15 of

15

5.

CONCLUSIONS There is no Basic Engineering transient analysis of the Halassa Feeder Pipeline to review. However review of the Basic Engineering shows that the wall thicknesses specified is insufficient to withstand C the pump shutoff head as identified in 1593-G-G-018. The transient analysis presented in this report considers the emergency shutdown case and based on the results the wall thickness and flange classes have been specified. The wall thicknesses and flange classes are not specified to withstand the pump shutoff head as it is recommended that there is no valve at the end of the line that needs to be closed on shutdown. To meet a shutoff head will require significantly thicker pipe in addition to rupture discs at the start and end of the pipeline. The emergency shutdown and start up with slurry cases was analysed for El Halassa feeder pipeline. Based on the transient pressures predicted for the analysed cases, the wall thicknesses and flange classes specified in the Basic Engineering are suitable. Due to the profile of the pipeline, it is not necessary to close the valve at the end of the pipeline on shutdown of the pipeline. Thus no cases were analysed considering an accidental valve closure at the end of the pipeline. It is recommended that the diverting valves at the end of the feeder pipeline are interlocked to prevent inadvertent closure while pumping or pumping against a shut valve. The wall thicknesses and flange classes have not been specified to withstand the pump shutoff head as it is recommended that there is no isolation valve at the end of the pipeline that needs to be closed on shutdown. To withstand the pump shutoff head would require a significantly thicker pipe and in addition rupture discs at the start and end of the pipeline.

Mike Fehrsen Pr Eng Senior Engineer 02 November 2011