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Bharata Khanda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Epic India) This article is about the kingdoms as reflected in the epic of the Mahabharata. See History of India for a conventionally historical overview, in particular the articles on the Mahajanapadas and the Middle kingdoms of India for ca. 700 BC–AD 1200. Bharata Khanda (or Bharata Ksetra) is a term used in Hindu texts, including the Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana and the Puranic, for the geography of Greater India in ancient India. The historical context of the Sanskrit epics are the late Vedic Mahajanapadas (early 1st Millennium BCE) and the subsequent formation of the Maurya Empire (322 BCE), the beginning of the "golden age" of Classical Sanskrit literature.
1 The name 2 The Kingdoms 2.1 The boundaries of the kingdoms 2.2 The cities and villages 2.3 Interactions between kingdoms 2.4 New kingdoms 2.5 Cultural differences in the kingdoms 2.6 Main kingdoms of Northern India 2.7 Main kingdoms of North-Central India 2.8 Kingdoms of Western/Central India 2.9 Kingdoms of North Western India 2.10 Foreign Kingdoms to the North-West 2.11 Foreign Kingdoms to the North 2.12 Eastern Kingdoms of India 2.13 Kingdoms of Central India 2.14 Kingdoms of Southern India 2.15 Saraswathi Valley Kingdoms of India 2.16 Himalayan kingdoms 3 See also 4 References 5 External links
In Hindu scriptures, Bharata Khanda is habitable world; the known land as experienced by the writers.
The boundaries of the kingdoms
Vindhya and Sahya also formed their boundaries. Similarly there were some tribes in the eastern regions of India. in most cases. Apart from the main city or capital. without maintaining any contact with the victorious king. where the palace of the ruling king was situated. as a friend and ally. The defeated king.wikipedia. Tribes with non-Vedic culture specially those of barbaric nature were collectively termed as Mlechha. beyond the Himalayas. There was no annexation of one kingdom by another. the Yadava clan of kings formed numerous kingdoms in Central India. What the king offered in return to these villages and towns was protection from the attack of other kings and robber tribes. China was mentioned as a kingdom known as Cina. Ahichatra was the capital of Northern Panchala whereas Kampilya was the capital of Southern Panchala. lasting for a day. considered to be in this category. The Kuru (kingdom) clan of Kings was very successful in governing throughout North India with their numerous kingdoms. The defeated king would acknowledge the supremacy of the victorious king. often grouped with Mlechcha kingdoms. Mahabharata and Buddha. Tax was collected by the officers appointed by the king from these villages and towns. The cities and villages Some kingdoms possessed a main city that served as its capital. The defeated king also was invited to attend these sacrifice ceremonies. about the kingdoms to the North. Similarly. as well as from invading foreign nomadic tribes. formed their boundaries as was the case of the Naimisha Forest between Panchala and Kosala kingdoms.org/wiki/Epic_India 2/5 .Wikipedia. not on a periodic basis. Map of Ancient India with locations of cities and places during the time of Ramayana. as was the case between the northern and southern Panchala and between the western (Pandava's Kingdom) and eastern (Kaurava's Kingdom) Kuru. A military campaign and tribute collection was often associated with a great sacrifice (like Rajasuya or Ashvamedha) conducted in the kingdom of the campaigning king. Mountain ranges like Himalaya. The king also enforced code and order in his kingdom by punishing the guilty. Cultural differences in the kingdoms Main article Bahlika Culture Western parts of India were dominated by tribes who had a slightly different culture that was considered as non-vedic by the mainstream Vedic culture prevailed in the Kuru and Panchala kingdoms. would be free to rule his own kingdom. which were formed after each successive generation. Such tribute would be collected only once. One king might conduct a military campaign (often designated as Digvijaya meaning victory over all the directions) and defeat another king in a battle. Often a military general conducted these campaigns on behalf of his king. The defeated king might sometimes be asked to give a tribute to the victorious king. Very little was mentioned in the ancient Indian literature. the free encyclopedia Often rivers formed the boundaries of two neighboring kingdoms. https://en. there were small towns and villages spread in a kingdom. the capital of Pandava's Kingdom was Indraprastha and the Kaurava's Kingdom was Hastinapura. Kosala Kingdom had its capital as Ayodhya. New kingdoms New kingdoms were formed when a major clan produced more than one King in a generation. Sometimes. large forests. which were larger than the kingdoms themselves. For example.5/1/13 Bharata Khanda . Interactions between kingdoms There was no border security for a kingdom and border disputes were very rare.
5/1/13 Bharata Khanda .wikipedia.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Epic_India 3/5 . the free encyclopedia Main kingdoms of Northern India Kuru Kingdom Panchala Kingdom Vatsa Kingdom Matsya Kingdom Main kingdoms of North-Central India Kosala Kingdom Kasi Kingdom Videha Kingdom Dakshina Kosala Kingdom Malla Kingdom Kingdoms of Western/Central India Surasena Kingdom Dwaraka Kingdom Anarta Kingdom Saurashtra Kingdom Heheya Kingdom Nishadha Kingdom Gurjara Kingdom Karusha Kingdom Chedi Kingdom Kunti Kingdom Avanti Kingdom Malava Kingdom Dasarna Kingdom Kingdoms of North Western India Trigarta Kingdom Salwa Kingdom Sivi Kingdom Bahlika Kingdom Kamboja Kingdom Madra Kingdom Sindhu Kingdom Sauvira Kingdom Kekeya Kingdom Gandhara Kingdom Youdheya Kingdom Kashmira Kingdom Foreign Kingdoms to the North-West Bahlika Kingdom Parama Kamboja Kingdom Uttara Madra Kingdom Uttara Kuru Kingdom Yavana Kingdom Khasa Kingdom Saka Kingdom Foreign Kingdoms to the North Kamboja Kingdom Darada Kingdom Parada Kingdom Tushara Kingdom Huna Kingdom Parasika Kingdom Hara Huna Kingdom Rishika Kingdom Eastern Kingdoms of India Magadha Kingdom Kikata Kingdom Anga Kingdom Pragjyotisha Kingdom Sonita Kingdom Vanga Kingdom Pundra Kingdom Suhma Kingdom Utkala Kingdom Odra Kingdom Kingdoms of Central India Vidarbha Kingdom Anupa Kingdom Surparaka Kingdom Nasikya Kingdom Konkana Kingdom Asmaka Kingdom Danda Kingdom Kalinga Kingdom Kingdoms of Southern India https://en.
were inhabited by tribes who had very little interactions with the rest of the world. and Malabar (http://books. Sarasvati River and Sindhu river valleys. https://en.com/books? id=KP_DTtd6kJEC&pg=PA230&lpg=PA230&dq=%22Bharata+Khanda%22&source=bl&ots=w5JvDmpLO7& sig=wDmJI_zXyLr0mxlzMEITvOfcfM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=kPmCT_mpG4jJ0AGT3PT2Bw&ved=0CGIQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=%22 Bharata%20Khanda%22&f=false). ^ Hamilton. Law. the free encyclopedia Andhra Kingdom Kanchi Kingdom Satyaputra Kingdom Telinga Kingdom Kishkindha Kingdom Gomanta Kingdom Karnata Kingdom Pallava Kingdom Tulu Kingdom Mushika Kingdom Chera Dynasty Ay Kingdom Pandya Dynasty Chola Kingdom Saraswathi Valley Kingdoms of India Saraswata Kingdom Abhira Kingdom Sudra Kingdom Nishada Kingdom Himalayan kingdoms The table lands and valleys of the great Himalayan Mountain Ranges. Ramachandra.org/stream/ancientindiantri032697mbp#page/n9/mode/2up). Bimala Churn (1926).5/1/13 Bharata Khanda . Kirata Kingdom Himalaya Kingdom Parvata Kingdom Nepa Kingdom See also Ramayana Mahabharata Bharatavarsha Chakravartin Exotic tribes of ancient India Monarchy in ancient India Iron Age India References 1. The Gupta Polity (http://books. Canara. ^ Dikshitar. Ancient Indian Tribes (http://www. To know about the historical significance of these tribes see the Exotic tribes of ancient India. Motilal Banarsidas.Wikipedia. 2.wikipedia. A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore.google.com/books? id=oajq17SrONAC&pg=PA306&lpg=PA306&dq=%22Bharata+Khanda%22&source=bl&ots=RoyhLGQzww& sig=1RKazcvk-itZyHhQFoDPPQr1hg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=kPmCT_mpG4jJ0AGT3PT2Bw&ved=0CFsQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q= %22Bharata%20Khanda%22&f=false). which were almost inaccessible to the people settled in the Ganges. Francis.google. The domains of these tribes are listed below: To know about the mythological aspects of these exotic tribes see Hindu mythology.org/wiki/Epic_India 4/5 .archive.