Tuesday, October 4.

15:00-16:00

Nanoantenna directivity and enhancement: how to measure them, what do they mean ?
Jérôme Wenger
Institut Fresnel (CNRS) – Domaine Universitaire de Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13013, France Email: jerome.wenger@fresnel.fr
http://jw-photonics-inside.over-blog.org/

Abstract
This tutorial will look into more details into the definitions and the practical use of enhancement factors and directivity in the context of plasmonic nanoantennas to control the photoluminescence of a quantum emitter.

Plasmonic antennas are receiving a considerable interest to manipulate the light-matter interaction at the nanoscale, and improve the detection of single quantum emitters. Two figures of merit are commonly introduced to quantify the influence of the plasmonic antenna: the luminescence enhancement factor and the emission directivity. Being widely used does not imply that they are correctly used by everyone. This contribution aims at discussing into more details these two figures of merit, and avoid any misconception. We will look into the formal definitions – which are quite straightforward – and then focus on common mistakes or factors influencing the measured values. A special attention will be devoted to experimental aspects. Single nanoapertures surrounded by shallow grooves will serve as a practical illustration of a plasmonic antenna to enhance the fluorescence of molecules [1,2].

References
[1] H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T.W. Ebbesen, J. Wenger, Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission, Nano Lett. 11, DOI: 10.1021/nl200772d (2011). [2] H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T.W. Ebbesen, J. Wenger, Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations, Nano Lett. 11, 637-644 (2011).

Tuesday, October 4. 16:00-17:00

Mie theory for modelling plasmonic particles
Brian Stout
Institut Fresnel (CNRS) – Domaine Universitaire de Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13013, France brian.stout@fresnel.fr Abstract
The analytical basis for "Mie" theory is reviewed while emphasizing the light it shines on fundamental scattering laws and theorems. The extensions of Mie theory provided by multiple-scattering theory are also reviewed and we illustrate some of their more notable physical predictions concerning hot spots and collective excitations. We also review recent advances of this formalism concerning the properties of nano-antennas: notably the modifications they confer on quantum emitter lifetimes and radiation diagrams.

"Mie" theory (as it is often called) provides analytical expressions for the scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by homogeneous isotropic spherical particles. The quasi-exact nature of this theory has proved invaluable in both the qualitative understanding and quantitative simulations of light interacting with systems containing small particle inclusions. Although localized plasmon excitations are often modelled as point electric dipoles, Mie theory has proved indispensable in understanding finite size effects and the radiation properties of localized plasmon resonances. In this tutorial, we shall introduce the theoretical basis for deriving Mie theory while placing an emphasis on its physical content. Notably, we show how these formulas illuminate some fundamental scattering theorems and properties such as the unitary limit, optical theorem, and Ward identities. The utility of Mie theory has been greatly extended in recent decades, by coupling it with quasianalytic multiple-scattering theories. We review the principles of these extensions which generalize the quasi-exact results of "Mie" theory to plasmonic systems containing multiple particles, thus yielding precise predictions of both near and far-field quantities.[1] Even more recently, Mie theory has been improved to yield insights into nano-antenna design by allowing rapid predictions for the modifications the antenna confers on the decay rates and radiation diagrams of nearby quantum emitters.[2] Some surprising predictions and novel designs are discussed in this context.

References
[1] B.Stout, J.C.Auger, A.Devilez, “Recursive T matrix algorithm for resonant multiple scattering: Applications to localized plasmon excitations” , J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 25, pp:2549-2557, (2008). [2] B.Stout, A.Devilez, B.Rolly, N.Bonod, “Multipole methods for Nano-antennas design : applications to YagiUda configurations” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28 pp:1213:1223 (2011)

Wednesday, October 5. 15:00-16:00

Nonlinear plasmonics
Sophie Brasselet
Institut Fresnel (CNRS) – Domaine Universitaire de Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13013, France * Email: sophie.brasselet@fresnel.fr Abstract
We will present basics and recent advances in nonlinear optics, applied to metallic nanostructures.

Linear optical responses from metallic nanostructures are essentially governed by plasmons, which result in the confinement of optical fields within sub-wavelength size regions. This confinement can result in significant enhancements of their nonlinear responses [1], which involve higher powers of the incident optical fields. Nonlinear fields enhancements which can lead to interesting applications such as efficient generation of optical harmonics from new types of nano-emitters for imaging [2,3], ultra-sensitive detection of molecules at the surface of metals [4], active optical fields nanomanipulation and routing in engineered nanostructures [5], as well as new nonlinear nano-probes to characterize coherent properties of optical fields at the nano-scale [6]. While such applications already emerge today, nonlinear optical properties of metallic nanostructures are still at the center of a large amount of research, principally because understanding their underlying mechanisms requires refined modelling and experimental techniques. We will review in this lecture the basics of nonlinear optics and apply it to optical harmonics generation in metallic nanoparticles (Fig. 1). In a second part, a few recent applications of nonlinear optics in the fields of nano-plasmonics will be described, from single particle imaging to the coherent control of ultra-short optical pulses at the nano-scale.

50nm

Fig.1 Schematic representation of the generation of harmonics of the incident light by a non-centrosymmetric metallic nanoparticle. *Some of the works presented in this lecture have been obtained in collaboration with H. Shen, N. Nguyen, T. Toury, UTT Troyes, France, and P. Schön, V. Maillard, Institut Fresnel, Marseille, France.

References
[1] M.I. Stockman, D.J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, Enhanced second harmonic generation by nanorough metal surfaces, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 057402 (2004) [2] M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M.Orrit, Third-Harmonic Generation from Single Gold Nanoparticles, Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005) [3] J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.F. Brevet , Optical Second Harmonic Generation of Single Metallic Nanoparticles Embedded in a Homogeneous Medium, Nano Lett. 10, 1717 (2010). [4] P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, General considerations of optical second harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces, Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254 (1986). [5] T. Utikal, M.I. Stockman, A.P. Heberle, M. Lippitz, H. Giessen, All-Optical Control of the Ultrafast Dynamics of a Hybrid Plasmonic System, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113903 (2010) [6] A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).

Wednesday, October 5. 16:00-17:00

Manipulating surface plasmons with transformational optics
Sebastien Guenneau
Institut Fresnel (CNRS) – Domaine Universitaire de Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13013, France The emerging field of transformational optics allows for a markedly enhanced control of the electromagnetic wave trajectories within metamaterials popularized by fascinating paradigms ranging from perfect lenses to invisibility cloaks, carpets, concentrators and rotators. In this tutorial, I will review recent experimental results for heterogeneous meta-surfaces designed using the tool of transformational plasmonics, in order to achieve a similar control for surface plasmon polaritons.

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