Amoeba

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Scientific classification Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Amoebozoa Subphylum: Lobosa Class: Tubulinea Subclass: Sarcodia Order: Tubulinida Family: Amoebidae Amoeba Genus: Bory de Saint-Vincent,
1822

Species Amoeba proteus Amoeba (sometimes amœba or ameba, plural amoebae or amoebas) is a genus of Protozoa[1] consisting of shapeless unicellular organisms.

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1 History 2 Anatomy 3 Genome o 3.1 Osmoregulation o 3.2 Amoebic cysts 4 Nutrition in amoeba 5 Video gallery

reproduce asexually via mitosis and cytokinesis.  6 References 7 External links History The amoeba was first discovered by August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof in 1757. while in motion [6] making it a giant among amoeboids. Amoebae have a single large tubular pseudopod at the anterior end. the portion that retains the nucleus will survive and form a new cell and cytoplasm. The cell's organelles and cytoplasm are enclosed by a cell membrane.[4] Dientamoeba fragili was first described in 1918. The name "amibe" was given to it by Bory de Saint-Vincent.[3] from the Greek amoibè (αμοιβή).. Amoebae's most recognizable features include one or more nuclei and a simple contractile vacuole to maintain osmotic equilibrium . Amoebae.[2] Early naturalists referred to Amoeba as the Proteus animalcule after the Greek god Proteus. like other unicellular eukaryotic organisms. meaning change. such as Gromia. it obtains its food through phagocytosis. while the other portion dies. The most famous species. which is how prokaryotes (bacteria) reproduce. In cases where the amoeba are forcibly divided. Food enveloped by the amoeba is stored and digested in vacuoles. and several secondary ones branching to the sides.[7] A few amoeboids belonging to different genera can grow larger. Pelomyxa. Amoeba proteus.low water amounts in cell protecting cell from bursting with excess water. and Chaos.[5] Anatomy Anatomy of an amoeba. and was linked to harm in humans. not to be confused with binary fission. This makes amoebae heterotrophs.[8] Genome . Amoebae also have no definite shape. however. who could change his shape. averages about 220-740 μm in length.

lowering its pH with respect to the cytosol. which is a membrane-bound organelle. The presence of aquaporin proteins in both CV and the small vesicles suggests that water collection occurs both through the CV membrane itself as well as through the function of the vesicles. while fusing with the cell membrane. leading to influx of water from the cytosol into the vesicles by osmosis. the vesicles. The membranes of the small vesicles as well as the membrane of the CV have aquaporin proteins embedded in them. which expels the water.[10] It is suggested that these vesicles split from the CV membrane itself. amoebae will also attempt to match the concentration of the . amoebae are adversely affected by excessive osmotic pressure caused by extremely saline or dilute water. The removal of ions with the water has to be compensated by some yet-unidentified mechanism. Amoebae will prevent the influx of salt in saline water.9 billion base pairs. However. The CV slowly fills with water from the cytoplasm (diastole). The species Amoeba proteus has 290 billion base pairs in its genome. the function of these numerous small vesicles is to collect excess cytoplasmic water and channel it to the central CV.[10] The small vesicles also have another protein embedded in its membrane: Vacuolar-type H+ATPase or V-ATPase. has one contractile vacuole (CV). The cycle is then repeated again. a means of osmoregulation. the pH of the CV in some amoebas is only mildly acidic. causing the cell to shrink.The amoeba is remarkable for its very large genome.[10] These transmembrane proteins facilitate water passage through the membranes. The CV swells for a number of minutes and then contracts to expel the water outside. Since these vesicles fuse with the central contractile vacuole. freshwater species of amoeba.[9] Osmoregulation Like most other protists. while the related Polychaos dubium (formerly known as Amoeba dubia) has 670 billion base pairs. ions end up being removed from the cell. Immediately after the CV expels water. resulting in a net loss of water as the cell becomes isotonic with the environment. Like most cells. and.[10] This ATPase pumps H+ ions into the vesicle lumen. The small vesicles gradually increase in size as they take in water and then they fuse with the CV. and soon afterwards. suggesting that the H+ ions are being removed from the CV or from the vesicles. It is thought that the electrochemical gradient generated by V-ATPase might be used for the transport of ions (it is presumed K+ and Cl-) into the vesicles. The human genome is small by contrast. which grows in size as it fills with water. Placed into fresh water. it quickly contracts releasing water to the outside (systole) by exocytosis. amoebas have a contractile vacuole. a free-living. which is not beneficial for a freshwater organism. This process regulates the amount of water present in the cytoplasm of the amoeba. would allow a faster water uptake due to the larger total surface area provided by the vesicles. many small vacuoles or vesicles appear surrounding the membrane of the CV. Amoeba proteus. it is. Therefore. This builds an osmotic gradient across the vesicle membrane.[10] which is facilitated by aquaporins. However. being more numerous and smaller. with its count of 2. its membrane crumples.

Then it engulfs the food with its pseudopodia. causing the cell to swell and sometimes burst if the water surrounding the amoeba is too dilute. When the food is digested the unwanted waste is released through its body surface.like structures called pseudopodia. When the food enters its body the amoeba forms a food vacuole around it which contains certain enzymes to digest the food. It can form arm. Both the anabolic and catabolic functions are carried out in the same cell. Nutrition in amoeba Amoeba obtains its nutrition in a heterotrophic mode.surrounding water. Amoeba feeds on plankton and diatoms present in water. extending from any part of its body as it is shapeless. When it senses food in its surroundings it extends its pseudopodia in that direction and moves towards it. Video gallery .[8] While in cyst form the amoeba will not replicate and may die if unable to emerge for a lengthy period of time. an amoeba may become dormant by forming itself into a ball and secreting a protective membrane to become a microbial cyst.[11] Amoebic cysts Main article: Microbial cyst In environments that are potentially lethal to the cell. The cell remains in this state until it encounters more favourable conditions.

^ "Amoeba proteus". Blachford.genomenewsnetwork. 8. 7. Amoebae on the Web. Retrieved 2009-10-08.). Graham Clark Emerging from Obscurity: Biological. Scienceclarified. ^ Eugene H. Clinical. 4. and Diagnostic Aspects of Dientamoeba fragilis. "Isolation of Amoebae". ISBN 0-7876-4370-X. 9.) (2001). Retrieved 2009-10-08. ^ Audouin. Windsor. ^ "Amoeba" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary 2. The American Naturalist 12 (4): 235–238. and C. 1: Aardvark-Catalyst (2nd ed. Gale Group. ^ McGrath. OCLC 46337140. Stacey (eds. JSTOR 2463786. ^ http://www. Jeffrey J. Gale Encyclopedia of Science Vol. Joseph (1878). "Amoeba proteus". ^ MacIver. 6. 3. Jean-Victor. Johnson.com. 5. The Amoebae.org/articles/02_01/Sizing_genomes.1086/272082. pp. Rey et Gravier.shtml . 5. ^ Leidy. Kimberley. doi:10. Sutherland.Amoeba proteus in motion Amoeba engulfing a diatom References 1. ^ a b "Amoeba". et al (1826). Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle.

Protistologica 17: 243–248.10. D. H. E. E. (1981).. ^ Patterson. K. "Contractile vacuole complex behaviour as a diagnostic character for free living amoebae". External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amoebozoa  Wikibooks: Comparison of Cell Size . Katsuhara. Orii. Kataoka.. (2008).J.. 179-188. M. Yokota. Biology of the cell .. Tazaki. 11. 100 (3). et al.. A. ^ a b c d e Nishihara.. Presece of aquaporin and V-ATPase on the contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus.

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