The Machine's Dialogue Author(s): Steve Edwards Reviewed work(s): Source: Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1990), pp.

63-76 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1360389 . Accessed: 18/03/2013 14:05
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

.

Oxford University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Oxford Art Journal.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded on Mon, 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

econandinstitutional omic. theprison. The questionofthephotographer's studiomight prove tobe a particularly useful one aroundwhich to examinerecent photographic This I intend theory. In the workof the Bakhtinschool an argument about the sign's reciprocaldetermination. themissionhall. JohnTagg. for in hisessayon Powerand Photography. even ifit has not been statedin theseterms.in whichphotographic therapy sessions in thestudioresult in imageswhicherupt as the repressed 'unofficialconsciousness' of the Family Album. analysis.is that it would look like Maclntyre's in After nightmare Virtue. As a controlled space it has enabled thosevoiceswhichare usuallysilentto be heard. Forthose ofuswhoare inphotography. it does.The Machine'sDialogue STEVE EDWARDS Ifwelookatcontemporary cultural intheUnited studies we discover a curious echoofthereverberations States. involved thepolarities ofthis debate are quiteevident.invariably. itspriority force overhumansubjects. post-structuralist theory. producedto do instrumental jobs.is one oftheforces whichis boosting the statusof the studio and reducingphototo itsphantasmagorical graphy residue.argues that realism is the dominant form ofsignification in bourgeois society.In theprocessofengaging withFormalist linguistics and theworkofFreud. to do by drawing on the conceptsofDialogue and Monologue theorisedby the Bakhtinschool.and scienceintoart. instance. regime oftheproduction oftruth.thewriters of the Bakhtinschool produceda theory ofdiscourse thatnotonlyaddressedquestions whichwerenotto becomeissueswithin cultural for politics another 50 yearsbut. all ofwhich are studio picturesof variouskinds.At the same time.Anti-realism. what these theoristscalled dialogue. both intheory andinpractice.thegap between artand science. some practicesover others. to detach itspower from thespecific forms ofhegemony inwhich itnowoperates. A dreamofa sciencein whichanything worldwithout can be said because nothingcan be tested. He asks: What woulditmeanin photography to struggle notfor 'correct consciousness' buttochange thepolitical. and around. from economics to sexuality. to lookagainat thosepractices thathavebeentoooften dismissed as 'marginal' and 'unworthy'by a dominantart historical criticism.critical photographic has come. Tagg believes. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sensedialogueis only one specific form ofdiscourse butthesewriters use it 63 JouRNAL - 13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon.This is forcefully in therecent demonstrated workofJo Spence. THE OXFORD ART whichintroduced manyofthesethemes intophotographic criticism. a politics ofrepresentation wouldnecessitate a disturbance creating in the productionof realism that would then have repercussions throughout thesocialformation. principallystructuralism and postbut also certain kinds of psychostructuralism. it could be argued. AllanSekula.On the one hand. The discovery of these'ignoblearchives'has allowed us to comprehend the partplayedby photography in theworkings of social power.I believe.4 is a Photography peculiar formof representation as occupying. In thisperiod.itseffects are . constitutesthe central In theformal category. thegeneral suspicion ofthe realist mode thathas developedin.6 it is a sobering thought thatthosemethods whichhave come to figure so prominently in theimpasseofthe late 1980s.the hospital. theory to take as its objects those images of 'power/ knowledge'producedin the asylum.5As Raymond Williams notedin one ofhislastessays. On theother hand.'had already received decisive criticism duringthe 1920s at the hands of Volosinovand Medvedev.the theoretical work elaboratedaround 19th-century studiopictures has allowed us to reconsider the photographic field.a moreconservative and institutionally entrenched "humanist" claims to defend the paradigm autonomy ofthecreative subject. andtoproject thepossibility of a newpolitics constructing oftruth?3 The answer.it focuses variform powerand desirebut it also producesknowledge.radicalphotographic has movedinto practice the studio.it elevating turnsknowledgeinto power. addressed themin a mode they whichwas thoroughly historical and materialist.moreand morefrequently. or into desire. As a consequence.and so on. It has also alerted us to theproblem ofsimply reconhistories ofthesegroupsfrom stituting archives that were. The effect ofanti-realist episis alwaysto negateone wingof thiscontemology tradiction. structuralist and poststructuralist models assert theautonomous determining oflanguage.moreover. undoubtedlyprovidingwomen and black photographers with a productivespace in which to explore questionsof identity and hegemonicrepresentations.2 Similarly. The benefits of thisworkon and in the studio. needtobe locatedwithin however.' Over the last fewyearsphotographic and history has turned theory on thequestionofthe increasingly studioas a siteof ideology. between 'twotrends in the philosophy Volosinov's of language'. the way it has presseddown upon thebodies oftheexploited and theoppressed.

social. and theintonations speakers of or the furniture Seavey'sbackgrounds. he argues. The colonialsubject orthenakedwomanherecome to figure as theciphers ofthephotographer's imaginaire.He writes ofthismonologue: as thecauseofhistory. one obsceneword. be invested relativism.Here. majority this cannot be understood. and backgrounds itmight ment. has Hirschkop argued: are a relationbe exactbecausethey can never trary.studiomight In opposition to thisdialogicform be seenas a placewhere thefantasies of the notionof monologue. simultaneously.The flux ofjuxtaposition and opposition that goes on outsideof the studio. the social hierarchy ofstudio refused to use themass-produced fantasies it whichthisproduces. andhistorical social dialogiableinboth turns of camera the where the monologue subject that to theextent are repeatable linguistic cal elements fascination intoan objectwhich thephotographer's a neednotbe. For Bakhtinit is necessary to separateout the in a sign.scienceand ideology. remains recalcitrant to the photographiclook. ing Bakhtinintroduces are focused. Without is onlyintelligible in fact. Onlyin trying The studio is a site on which these patterns of word. 64 whichbrings concept.it is this process that mixed designand decorum. Thereare in many situations. The ofunderstand. atitsextreme. ship betweensubjects.8 about thatthe questionofthe studiowasn'tsimply a kind of homologyin which the voices.10 of the All discourseaccordingto the thinkers moreprivate or moredubious. ates as a kind of symbolicappropriation of space logue is here linked to the formsof behavioural dense withthe signsof urban or geographic landoftheother.7 with word do wetry tomatch contradiction can be negotiated. Meaningthen. coveredin linoleumforease ofmoveon such a basis. unlikethe studio mannequin wordwitha counter thesubjects speaker's seeksto match standing hereanswer back. between position He insists that while The fact that the signcannot activeunderstanding. however. elements dumb. Those deviant objectsofbourgeois fear and dreadare brought into thestudioso thatthey might becometheir opposite. the subjectof study is theidea that deconstruction] Whatis missing [from be voiceless cannot without.on the otherhand. whichonlytakesshape in relation utterance can ever be no utterance Withinthis perspective completebeingonlypartofwhat has come before insists: Volosinov and whatwillfollow. thisis a dead language. But his was a drawing room ofa peculiarly Discourse. one whose themesare no Sarah Graham-Brown arguedthatthe studiooperMonolonger investedwith social contradiction.Volosinov illustrates moment did not. becomesa non-issue. intobeingand organizes model of language presupposesthatwe orientate it into our upon the other'sword.And in a historical photographers witha passage from Dostoytheoretical argument in a backofthehorizon in whicheventheposition intellilabourers hold a perfectly in whichfive evsky for groundcould becomethebattleground a debate in whicheach ofthemutters only gibleconversation we need to be aware on the photographer's status.the utterance mies of powerand desireare developedand roam a reply. In her discussionof colonial photography. ceasing entail arerepeatandthesubject they contexts positions in be a This is what the studio to subject.controlled and cleanedup.by definition.be relatedto signification whether room. the spaces beyond is understanding innature. forrepressing of fascination. or cannot.11 Robinson at any change that organizes those place. therefore.12 happens In fact location. stablemeaning. carpets. thephotographer a placewhere taxonoto whichwe are whichis. takes in whichtheutterance situations theconcrete If moment its continent.His major exampleof unable to formulate free. thesame willproduce which oflinguistic options variety a process we knowas reification.Bakhtin callsthisthingificais. Monologism. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . on castors.as a category as a theoretical This dialogical discourse. denies theexistence outside itself of another consciousness withequal rights and equal responsibilities. as onelineofdialogue toutterance power problematic. it is ratherdependenton the sign in a human and the naturalsciencesas dialogicaland and thisnecessitates monological respectively.we incorporate to it. itscirculators.accidental and the contradictory.forthephotographier a monological overtheobject mastery as a space in whichto assert the the uncontrolled. With a monologic approach (initsextreme orpure form) THE OXFORD ARTJOURNAL- 13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon. another I with equalrights (thou). in itsrefusal ideology A space whichalwayssoughtto be another scape. Transitory and unpredictable.the bourgeois drawing can.The willto internally renders representation ofthat HenryPeach Robinsondetailedthecreation of dialogismmeans thatthe questionof reference most symbolicspace . tion.are always intersocial interests concerned withissuescloserto hand. every daysociallife is collapsedintoit. the only subject presentis the one who does the witheternal. As Ken us totheoretical does notcommit the human sciences. is. theextra-discursive fluidnature. language a foreign to comprehend word.here. isdialogic true understanding Any the studio render the patternings of desire and Underis toanother.his own termfor is is absolutely that every context To assert unique effect. naturalsciencecontemplates things and. ofas thought Discourse.does notremainfixed nallypresent.In one ofthose19thBakhtinschool liveson the boundarybetweenits centurymanuals on the studio which typically own and an alien context.and the within itbutwas also theimagesthat wereproduced thatinvestthem.9 time toreify WhatI wantto argueis thatthestudioconstitutes it operates site.on the concomprehending.

to be the Monologue pretends It closesdowntherepresented world and ultimate word. he insists.the exceptionwhich the public hears about. consciousness.and he is convinced I * TheGraphic.the warders. is: happens. Whilehe notes that occasionallythe photographer might encounteran unrulysitter.It is representations like these. In an article on MillbankPrison14 he detailsforus thenextsitter.1. represented persons. SirLukeFildes. may prove useful. He describesthe achitecture..Do whatyou wanthimto do? Willhe be obedient? he would Why.No and not anotherconsciousness. 1873. 'docile as a dog'. is left the sitting. Pritchard Then. andtherefore manages degree materializes all reality. isexpected from itthat couldchange response everything is finalized inthe world ofmy consciousness.13 It is thismonologic addressthatFoucauldianphotographic criticismdescribes as the operation of And herea consideration ofthat power/knowledge. a man of 'stalwart build'. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . stand on hisheadto pleaseyouand toescapefor a few minutes hisdaily toil. THE OXFORD ART JOURNAL- 13:1 1990 65 This content downloaded on Mon. that have leftsuch a marked impression on thepublicmind. Fig. it anydecisive force. longer in his texton Pentonville Similarly.'ugly' and bearingthe L forLiferon his sleeve. It is. does notacknowledge Monologue tosome without theother. thiswas theexception. As partofthe19th-century debateon photographing criminals.H.16 Pritchard is concerned to stress theease withwhich convicts submitto photographic scrutiny. event. Baden Pritchard. the prisoners and the studios but his main concern is withthe'criminal' subject's response to thephotographic event. undoubtedlymaking workdifficult.that indefatigable champion and cataloguer of the photographicfield. after temporarily ofbeing alonewith theLifer thefantasy entertaining Butnothing assaulted in a desperate escapeattempt.The tone of the photogapher's instructions another person remainswhollyand merelyan object of leavesus withno doubtas to thepowerrelations of This is literally a monological the situation. with wierd accounts published of strange devicesand ingenioustricks used againstthe convict. however. the distinctive sounds and smells. key Foucauldian figure. Penitentiary.As Pritchard putsittheconvict in a delightful Luxuriating moment of releasefrom work and monotonous drudging labour.. Pritchardargues. 'clean shaven'. publishedseveral accountsofhisvisits to prison studios in The Photographic News. He goeson todescribe SirLuke Fildes"talented picture'depictinga prisonerheld in positionby warders while the photographerattemptedto producea likeness. the prisoner. Monologue itand and deafto theother's doesnotexpect response..

5t0tWf~~JR xr u r. F6USSINe AN Pleasures Fig. a narrative of tripwires and Blitz illumination powder. one convict . And then.13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon. Photographic Popuwith Pen &' Pencil. withperhapsthe mostrecurrent themeconcerned with the way in which the clever 'rogue' might thwart thephotographic process by distorting hisor herfeatures at thedecisive moment.thattheyare erroneous for'a more docile body of sitters thanour convicts do notexist'. cases. Those who contributed to The NomewtaYork byoaidtetv wou thad sonily evwer News seen-hi Photographic were.here at last is our refuses to obey instructions refractory subject. The 'cabinet'not onlyshowedthe face with horribly distorted. ithad beena long time grapher in coming. or increasing thelabour.whilethe handsof the third officer holding as ifhewaschoking theprisoner.indeed. noting: In most a threat ofshortening therations. and a virtual pointto Pritchard literary accompanimentto theFildesimage: in which ittookfour The writer recollects one instance while the'artist' stalwart officers toholdoneprisoner got his picture. and thesame kind of perfunctory intonation. thisone turns outto be deaf.discipline and command. Pritchard mighthave been on one definite wingofthephotographic establishment concerned to assertmonological ease but his discoursewas a responseto those otherswho understood thisprocessas a struggle.If this struggleto produce the monologicalimage seemed like an impossible labour thenat leastone exchange able to trn@apthos macntns h pointed out that social power rencommentator deredthestruggle uneven. CuthbertBede. thechairand itsabsenceofa head rest. In additionto numerous and suggestions relatedto the power descriptions struggle in the prison studio it also republished and the materialfromthe foreign photographic domestic press."7 showed In thistext. 1855. While at Pentonville he evidenced the photoofsixconvicts.e had made And. eyesshutand tongue out. Sachse. larly Portrayed phtgaph a ecived aunmeitdrpe toit exercise that candid looking yards suggests setato on col tat prtea nvrsltkno was bornofthisdisciplinary photography power.recounted their ingeniousdevicesand tricks.One writer insisted generalgood and for thatitwas because photography wasn'tart. enabling the photoWaskingonto Mulercthe murderrofM Briggss chaugt iandi to seizethemoment.the narrowboards held above the prisoners ontowhichtheir number was chalked.of fake camerasand hiddenassistants.determinedto perseverefor the their own. however. 2. For throughout the photographic literature there was an obsessionwith'criminal photography' in general. has beeneffectual in inducing 18 therogues toleave their features ina normal state. merely If Pritchard was convincedthat convictsitters couldbe described as 'docilebodies'hisfocus on the question of power wasn't a personal quirk. Such accounts wereinvariably accompaniedbythestratagems and techniques for outwitting theprisoner. He notes thatwhile the operatorprepares a double carteplate he rarely has to use the secondbecausethemenremain perfectly still for the seven seconds required. and the refractory convictsitterin particular. however.their dress.'9 THE OXFORD ARTJOURNAL. fromTheAmerican Journal reprinted of Sachse pointedout thatany visitto a Photography. pointed dryplate 'all such scenes fade away'.In an essaybyJuliusF. in a Police Stationwould convince 'roguesgallery' useless you how manyoftheimageswererendered Such stories werelegion by thiskindof resistance. thesecond alsothehands ofoneofficer holding his hair. lrefse Pothaed lwstofn capta out whereil ifas Sachse theevr8he5igt.butno.because it lackedimagination.The Photographic Newsin particular ran article after article on 'CriminalPhotography'.for we are provided witha graphiccounterinstance. The observation oftheir shaved heads. graphing Thereis thesame attention to detail in his description of the men and their situation as before. The questionwas a liveone among photographic commentators manyofwhom. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .but hisears. ofsecret hideaways 66 ?D1TECTIVE. thatit had such a keyroleto It was because play in the disciplinary apparatus.

awaiting doubt.Ut1 h 4 a (A if.2' notuse one imagefor . that mode of display could also be read in which throughthe ideology of physiognomy is this thebest Perhaps is to its image. proprigntors photography thatitcould see for The one advantage Or.z. dplow te mdemps of surveine diiepn ta the Barnd othe Beloos plcehthactes One tior athor. tA valued what H.in which all criminalswere depictedwith shaven heads and shaven faces. big business with the London Stereoscopicand requests receiving Companyregularly Photographic wanted criminal for2. Baden Pritchard Alternatively. hrouring Eurom. to act as a system 't from Australia or from the criminals {j After much lobbyingon the part of The Photoannounced finally theHome Secretary News. and marshalled maudlin school of humanitarians' countinen empirical prticularly haditial badcreputaionteatonath to Dickens'crimievidence and references on theotnt hada pArticlrl bad rtemputedassiation nal types. the and practically prove look same graphs o Te imagtherulemightregulateitslikenes. idea a sounde the Depie Liberary. e. scribed the Britishsystem.000 printsof a particularly the act was fromScotland Yard. 9sr.A leaderin TheDaily enciesand interests.ifthey constituted photothenwould notall their features.Turningthe physiognomists' Secretary's back upon them..'Nihilists'.23 archiveheld by the Metropolitan to deploythe thattemptsby theBelinplice that The Photographic these debates demonstrate of llthe. t wnasithetnte-s oin Aential arlbmis cameras weapn i them aintcmeAn fIgh werecharacterised a specific type.a' iL2r <T UnitedC THE OXFORD ART JOURNAL- 13:1 1990 67 This content downloaded on Mon. 'criminalphotography' After surveillance. was thatit was morehumanethanbranding. 'hairyindividuals'. the daz and 'unsoaped'.ano theyinkingei the lobbyof facevalueand misrecognise professional movethe for News like a journal The Photographic disciplinary greater towards state mentoftheBritish was all.e Biaind shoulda poainsts Briteaind wrigte shulmeciroct reciproat fswaor.ifcriminals nality.0 cotur tbe fudeated at G7ainathe Britfih theywerein dangerofbeingchargedwithassault. Two~years after ". J{_t*. oftheHome doubtedtheefficacy for example.i for thewrigte againtsot. afw 't\ app} - Wi sv t X z:s ani ti .however. nths wa th whl wol woud bt]tGe their in England and Wales to photograph Gaols propriety by thet fo h ueo prpet and of~ inmatesand to submitthose images to a central But if police. In 1.w. thughtfor 'we tke no hkenand totakethesedebatesat It wouldbe easy.22 'unshaven' their'naturalstate'. k_. itwas theindividual quarter @ *| flAM~ 9.are here exchange aroundphotographic developing And if the called to a halt by politicalformation.r 4thi imaeo pae or* idniyn the from for all' mandatory itwouldbe henceforth in 1870that rendee saf I!.i4L T i atI r:. se e ii ^ this not so much was 'criminal photography' about the x ia e as a kindofdifferregularity.*. individualsthat the PrefectdeAs opposed to withone word. ifa conviction was notsecured a sitter trial. ries.I. graphic glss?>ush. warders ofliberty and that.in prison greyand with theirheads an inch and a ofthe identity in length. lhnft: tnuj liEltotZ W. wereprticularlyikee thaBepoytain this schemptyte 'the The Photographic News responded criticising cnaedintcld noa thbe hebwas oforcedetotonlcrmed out. ti sA Ttx^ sire mn Clave al'lit"xW. isd e>I' r ^v4Sf rsi 111. h: inhlYlo r w.R. kindofphysiognomic theFrenchmodelwhich He favoured ence in unity. crime reduced IL~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ . 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ute4. bd. %V\'h5`i4n I 6sh sI-r:ltsSJ Si t-I P. e ~ enabledthem Pritchard.24 would arguethat in TheDaily Telegraph25 an article Europeans thephotographing police thatgte themBerlin them Berliomlthei tidentifyn othpaer thatgteontpaer tioentofyn Euopegans was an infringement ofcriminals suchd aoldbum sodee thatfte texchange poweris world Inothis woul texchange if had toconstrain in fact. News. o of prolitiepristoners. zzi . twenty.for for regulation. de la he describedin 'A Visit to the Prefecture in There the 'rogues'werephotographed Police'. st -?1 . by definite useless. photography' werenot. t .20Aftertheattemptedassassination of'criminal about theadvantages Newswas certain constitudifferent representing others.as method Galton'scomposite wayto understand crimilogicof 19th-century commodity thespecific 'o all lookedthesamethenwhy For. album could containa worldofdevianceand resistance... Frenchpictures which. decision. * 1A*8XSurfS.is t .it asked if criminals arguments minals. .

948. per head the estimated (conservative) which seek to silence dialogue.The Daily Telegraph cess the constitutive tothe reporton the progressof the act in in relation positions inferior government use wereassigned In thissense.or more specifically the camera's of the the gaze.developing method The regulatory reasonforthisabout turn? in which the dominatedpeoples' languageswere thecapiand and for too expensive measured against a norm of theirobservers provedto be simply In thisprofoundwanting. grammars. subjects.29 master of the termsof the impossibilty studio.dominated render and thenude theportrait between that interests Rouilleargues material ofthedifferent thecontradictions aboutbymonetary an inversion occurs there brought it. consigningit to the would eradicatethese contradictions. thebodyconfronted by thecamerawould looklike. of'text' thatthe emergence andLiterature. thisoverdetermined be comcan never then need to be told. Marxism In 1869 Edwin Cockingcould be foundsinging overspeech is a productof the colonialencounter to hischildsitters: twoditties Williams Imperialism.28 withunwritten 68 THE OXFORD ART JOURNAL- 13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon. speech. of language thesis structural (& even tionof norms.specifically The would be photographed. now only selected to the monological introduced contributed argued. ofprisoner powerrelationships categories model oflanguage. TheDailyTelegraph totheorise apparatus from therepressive and ofpublicmoney a wantonsquandering sentations. this conwas clearthat reprethese 373cases. precisely could be distinction circle The monologue/dialogue Language forthe Bakhtin calls heteroglossia.different old and newlinguistic element-body and thetrade. of kinds that before thecamera. unofficial national languages. was citedas a mere or imperialism from drawn could be linkedto photography usingmethods structure.3d.as AllonWhitehas argued: in logic rule.and so on. it through and subintointersubjec. women.that exchange.century collaborate thesepowerful subjects portrait. individual bourgeois. criminal accounts of colonial photography.thatmonologism This is a real irony. Bakhtin the of work in that the deconstruction is a practicepredicatedupon displete. thesubject-body between kindsofprofes.structuralist in thefirst be there modelwhicharguesitshouldn't proaches to culturework well on the monologic Bakhtin from what because it is sealed off place.to contrast sub-set ofthiscelebratory problematic one particular in In additionto this. of ofwhata typology between aroundthequestion riddledwithcontradictions considered is heteroglot. Post-structuralist totalcostwas calculatedto be ?2. of power in the in heteroglossia the social relations to rewrite in examining has argued. In short. over parole. and official languages. can IftheBakhtinian deconstruction giseslanguage. this subject instance. withconfidence oftheprisoner withmydiscussion here.634 theoreticalmodels which exclude resistanceor had been sentto London at a ofcriminals portraits actual speech must be seen as part of the forces cost of 18d.And it is this which to thosemethods to be superior which it itself the marksof heteroglossia schoolproves covering The discushad exiled fromits model.RaymondWilliamsinsisted.18s. schoolunderstood. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .as an attempt we if field demonstrates. stituted monololikeFoucaulteffectively nitrate. themestablish are They 'High'languages imperialistic. In the 19thactsas co-author. and contentment. within thatuse and struggle the for whilethe one paysforitsportrait in thissense. Whilea thinker ofsilver is useful ofmonologism White as concept be seen. producing a self-image insofar deconstruction theories) ofpeople. withcontradictions.not surprisingly. talistmode of productionsuch thingsultimately were. Here the object. Over or.forms useful here. The Bakhtin is paid for it. demonstrate photography. thespacesofdomestic those constitute The distinction thatRouillemakesis between ofsocialregister thespecifics on. child. narrative.certain of deconstruction appearpowerless same as the instabilities peoplesand classes. 'objective' including methods. languages.30 and so thefamilial.3" other theformalist approachto languagewas alwayscomto be in thissense. are which and those themselves oflanguageand at thesame timeshoot bodieswhich display thematerial of different types It is thiswhichpreThisisan issueofmatching revealed. 43.27 invested ofthemajority speech-use theactual exclude I want.Subject-body pertains tivityand thus returning relatesto thosewho on theother whilethe object-body hand.it was scaled down. thestudio'smonothatdemonstrates theexception Because. of and prestige by a variety as both'standard' selves theprescrip.proves The bourgeois portrait.26Duringthe periodNovember1871 untilits written: langue coming into forceon 31 December 1872. theimageofthebourgeois portrait. category and theobject-body (histhird oftheworkplace sional jargons. carrieddetails of the and activeaspectsoflanguage matter. all languageas undecidabletextbut. prove might ismuchmoreproblematic) language.powerrelationships between photographer from vents degenerating dialogism aboveall tothebourgeois us to preconstituted ject.forif White is correct.rather.is notthe portrait Heteroglossia. Heteroglossia apor post-structuralist revelation on thebasis ofa philosophical theoretical Formalist. was elevated 1873. random and untheorisabledomain of everyday powerin theworkofthesetheorsionofmonologic as a can only be presented istsalwaysleavesus withan alternative-dialogue. the codes of to determine withthe photographer as thesesystematically their own appearance.Andre Rouille'sdistinction uses. which a metaleptical the same periodthe numberof convictions as such. plicit with the monologues of the ruling class.

Therewas a little Who had a big drum.thoughtless. wasn rhea wich papere aobeen Socienty. The problem in front of from the little monster requiredfantasy the camera. else but stare.girl. and a but children are rarely attitudes. photographer's the bourwas paid forturning The photographer of into the sweetideal ofthechild reality geoissickly to be which had its image. . Till all theother boys. All I wantto see is a naturalistic of these proposals argued: . the camera watched s/he would see a bird with carefully in natural playing positions groupof youngsters and oreven studying emerge fromthe lens.. hood could be assembledfrom THE OXFORD ART well supported.. holds it up in astonishment. band'. This was an image put it. it was only necessary to be a little more way. Perhaps the most extravagant result women.32 It mustbe a military heavy Hardly greatlyricverse.33 children Place the infant on a table. courage. . I v'v- A . theirstrategies.A literature on theirindividual of developedwhichconsisted dure and suggestion for theactualmethods evernewer and morefanciful childof Victorian A taxonomy isationof fantasy.and a stoutpillowbehindit. was to suggestthat ifthe child One popular strategy able to do so. birds to theircameras. Said 'Here's a jolly noise.. toys.It t . a sfgiince achll babiesllookeadl moni atgthersolekp JouRNAL - 13:1 1990 69 This content downloaded on Mon.S. argudthlbeatelif Aothr memberowl othermetanhod.ion Photorahicd' fethers a childa tallowcandle ahead ofgiving plan is altogether photographwrmhen theusekofachlorfoahrm sougagestbeing of itwithan exhibition Punch and to eat. For in this relationship it was the job to fixan ideologicalmoment. She had such fine Justthecolouroftheskies. . - . slowlyand deliberately. Therewas a little Who had a little doll. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. The child's attention is now riveted upon the and taking plumed hand.is farpreferable fittedthe U. experimehad. and from one hand to thusthe play commencesrepeatedly the otherforan hour or two. It is a wonder thatthishas patented. side..used to occupy the sitter. theobjects. Punch' Almanackfor185Z But ifthesephotographers clients agreedwiththeir that therewas nothingmore charmingthan the innocence of childhood many of them supplewere mentedthisbeliefwithanotherthatchildren hopeto thegreatest might menacethephotographer was howtomakethe facein thestudio. membersesovn to withrll 35 Judy... . 4.qm L 'ti II4IVP411 1 Fig. Now dip each hand of the littlemodel in a pot of the left hand in a bag of molasses.so that place also a pillowon either the child has something to lean againstand restupon. manufactured mechanical singing men and miniature inwhich thechildren represent pose..beginsto pickeach feather adheresto the right but each one naturally hand. That she did nothing boy. an advantage. laughing children happy happy looking .. or frightening nt ing echildrn.34 exceedingly Newscarriednumerousgraphic ThePhotographic ofphotoof the trialsand tribulations descriptions facedwiththisdilemma.. however. And thedoll sat downon a chair. Charles E. Adults. .. Photographers errors and tips comments on each others exchanged ofprocesuccesses. Pearce posed the problem well enoughwhen he wrotethatifchildren possess thisspecialbeautythey are able and willing to make themselves ugly..would often be saylessapparent perhaps willfall intoungraceful vegetable and mineral . groups I should care. And he bangedthisdrumwithhis hand.. I: t> .animal. the left from hand. blue eyes. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .H: . to a cold and studied a picture book. .children createdforif. withthetropesoftheobsessionaldebateon how to in the 19thcentury.. J ]La's 4 iI A I 4 .theyare.or lesscarein posing In taking ofchildren.as one photographer to it was necessary then picturesque look naturally He continued: them bolt upright. and afterwards feathers. graphers theirfailure and theirdesperation. we know. . wthe Indeed. others went still further orat someoftheir childish games. . do morethanpose 1UNCW1'8 Ahi ANYACK . bourgeoischildren photograph to the images of staring From the rigidgendering a defieyes and the loud noises theydemonstrate attenwiththesubjects concern photographic nitely tion. an artistic to make expoyou ample opportunity giving of repot ofndaimeeting produferwPunch's fanflastos the not sure.

thousandsof picturesof the Royal baby had been sold thathad never been takenofhim. a different question. Punch. P.July15. P.37 And. positionwas much less certain.The lines of authority were clearlydemarcatedbetweenthe photographer and the object-body of the prisoner.It would take a photothesituation likeH. insiston unhelpfulsuggestions impossible poses and whatcould thephotographer do but humblycomply. the basis of which is payment. linked to itsbourgeois indexically parent.This was compoundedbecause the childwas undoubtedly accompaniedby an adult. themoment that thephotographer's was monologue halted. starvingchildren or taking them asleepwerenotfit to adviseothers. the positionofthe bourgeoischildwas.36 As alwayswitha literature ofthiskindthere were contradictions and counter claims. averageoperator's be thought ofas dialogic might This kindofportrait is economic.as one photographer noted. Robinsonto resolve grapher his studio.thatprovedto be thesourceoftheproblem.at anything but babyprices. rapidplatesfor children. 1876. had theauthority telltothechildtokeep simply they still.i PM Fig.after all. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For ultimately photographers were unsureof their 70 uncertain as to whether statusin thisrelationship.For ifthetechnical problems of 19th-century photography shouldnotbe underestimatedsomething moreis in evidence here.She wouldinvariably and offer advice. vol. the photographer was hereplaying outfantasies thatwerenot his or her own.71.usuallyits mother. Humorousas muchofthisliterature nowappears thepointis serious. But ifevenRobinsonfelt the to be respectful towards the bourgeoismother. WithRobinsonyou paid forart ofchildren folded backto portraits and hissuccessful he had confirm thatstatus.subject-body in its own right.as with all such aspects of the photographic fieldin the 19th the problemwas not slow to be capitalised century upon. 5.A relationship is set and itscondition on which the up. however. make matters worse. thesame a standard picture could be supplied. But then not every photographer was H. theresprangup specialchemicalformula for children. fantasphotographer suspendsthepowerofhis/her THE OXFORD ARTJOURNAL- 13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon. mostdistinguished at the Royal Academy painterwho had exhibited before he was 21. backgrounds for childrenand baby lenses . It was thisanswering strictly word.It was suggested that those who advocated photographing babies upside down. whose presencein the studio only made interfere. Robinson.38 way it was possibleforRobinsonto use thenurse's to controlthe child delegated parentalauthority while being sure of his own. probablythe an acclaimed ofhis generation.The all but thenursefrom by excluding reasonfor thishe arguedwas that:'it is easierto tell In this thenurseshe is an idiotthanthemother'.

oflinguistic quality cal term denoting a general tionslockedtogether bya powerstruggle.40 oppression In this conception the monologue/dialogue problem emerges as thespecific political opposition ofa monological dominant discourse which alwaysseeks to present itself as natural and neutral and a dialogism that insistson contradiction.tookpartin a dialoguewiththephotothemonoall themorestrongly onlyreveals grapher are other objects when place logue that takes or conducement intothestudiobyfinancial brought by socialpower. nature dialogic'. nalize'theopposite We arethusledto a very discourse. as a theoreti'dialogism' using Ifwearegoing tocontinue two not thus.Ken Hirschkop that this question to this arguing problem solution to what the texts cannotbe settledwithreference contraare internally mean because thetexts really thisissue. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Bakhtinschool on precisely dictory butthese opensup keynewareas and newconcepts need to be worked throughratherthan simply writes: assumed.psmrkd10. discourse is alwayssimultaneously flung in the oppositedirection by heteroglossia. f I 2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I 1*~~~~~~~~~~.39 itsvery definition then monologism is by discourse dialogic. In everything Bakhtinsuggeststhat by he insists that'life Poetics. ofDostoyevsky's Problems if all If is the this is case. not theliberal ofviews but which includes only exchange alsoquestions ofcultural andpower.- tksteBb oth htgahr' tic space. is dialogical. 43 * / T. In this manner Hirschkop develops a conception of builtaroundthesignas siteof dialogue/monologue class struggle analysis. in Discourse and the Novel. The factthat the bourgeoisindividual.Hirschkop . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ . of centripetal and centrifugal forces.A. but ontologies representational posipractice. according to Bakhtin. us witha has provided cannotexist.41 The ruling class. speciso that is needed. means different vision ofwhat Bakhtin one by'dialogue'.Pscr. couplet providesus If the dialogue/monologue toolwithwhichto examinethedisparwitha useful field itis also thecase ofthephotographic ate nature thatwithinthe work of the Bakhtinschool these At variouspoints conceptsare not unproblematic. evena child. Butthis also means be monologism toward another disrecognised as a strategy ofresponse which or'margialbeit a strategy aimsto'ignore' course.0 z~ K Fig 6. alwaysseeksto homologise discoursebut socialcontradiction meansthisprocess can never be completed.dialogical ofthedialogic in someprofound sense ofthedialogirather thansomeinexplicable perversion that must itself cal.'rnm 7 -. then somerevision oftheword asforms forms areunderstood cultural The realbenefit monological fically ofthisanalysis for historians and THE OXFORD ART JOURNAL - 13:1 1990 71 This content downloaded on Mon. Dialogueand monologue are. The model in Bakhtin thatwe might use for thisis his discussion.

but also itsoutside. ofPeasant 72 THE OXFORD ARTJOURNAL - 13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon. thebourgeois portrait in addition to the image in the fileindex. Any account whichattends to onlyone oftheseinstances willof necessity producea closure within knowledge. inthe case ofanti-realism all representation collapsing into thefunctioning ofpoweror desire. This is essentialbecause the photographic field encompassesthe celebratory as well as the repressive.45 The Book of Trades can be seen as the model for Sander'sAnlitz der Zeit(Face ofOur Time) whichis made up of a selectionof portraits producedand organisedaccordingto its classificatory logic. That Sander was committedto some kind of physiognomic programme is evident from his radio as a UniversalLanguage. He shared. The Traffic in Photographs and The andthe Body Archive. itis argued. 8. 7. orbookoftrades (Figs.42 to Sekula. as Robert Krammerhas argued: Sanderalso drewupona European fascination. As withthese earliertextsSander's book beginswith of the peasantry. As a theoretical approach. with the ofvarious depiction classes ofsociety arranged in hierarchies byappointed function andtrade. AugustSander.and as subjects and depicted in their 'life situation'. dating backto theFifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. In conclusion I wantto lookat arguments around a specific photographer.Sandercombineda 'faith According in theuniversality ofthenaturalsciencesand belief in thetransparency ofrepresentation'. because his is a practice whichhas been pulled intotheorbitofwhatI have been callingthe monological by therecent critique of physiognomic practices.I have in mind here.theoreticians of photography is thatit allows us to consider thestudio. by Allan Sekula. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . photographs perceivedof as the most elementalclass. 7. bore the outwardsignsof inner character. the common physiognomic beliefof the period that the body and especiallythe face and head. 9).rather. and ends withfools. the comments on Sander in twoessays principally.in this 4~~~~~~~~~~~4 A- --i der Fig.Sander has been selected. monologue but also dialogue. One traditional format wastheStadebiuch.44 talk on photography where he consistently stressedits photographic merits. full-length confronted withthecamera images. is in thesepictures as fixed present format. AugustSander:Anlitz Generations Zeit.This standardisingof the image allowed Sander to build a taxonomicsystemand.physiognomy.It is notmy intention to cast Sander in the role Bakhtinhad Dostoyevsky play.1929: Three Families. ifwe needed a photographer for thatslot I could think ofbetter candidates.

Sekula's comments on Sanderare determined by his concern notto overstate thepoweroftheinstruIn embracing thearchival modeas a fundamental the mentalimage and. As as an inessential and superficial matter. 8.was nevercompleted. This is importance and critical lematic. Sekulaargues. strategy able. in so doing. Sander.is based upon a commonunderstanding instance withinthe photographic field. case the unemployed.In 1934 the calibrating inferiority.1929: The Lord ofthe Manor. he argues. Sander's pictures offered an inexhaustible stockof Likeall positivists. the archival paradigm was.earnedhis living on thecelebratory latter. moreimportantly. as fundamentally positivist outlook that was incorporated into the locating Sanderwithin thisterrain Sekulais at pains Fascistproject ofdomination. This immenseproject which quence ofthis.on ofthelanguageofthebodyfor all peoples. and is. component it is argued.whilethe theotherhand. builtinto his practiceaspectsof the same general of photography In disjunctive. Sandersaw difference materialwithwhichto studyGerman society. to argue that it was this practice ated on the liberal humanistwing of this probwhichwas of primary forhim. 1929: roung Peasants.without the positivist challenging underpinnings of bothproonly by the Nazis but by such criticsas Alfred jects. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . lurking just belowthe surface is Social Darwinismwithits 'methods'for was to also include45 . we tend to thinkof THE OXFORD ART JOURNAL - 13:1 1990 73 This content downloaded on Mon. These comments are to stress thatthereare two kindsof physiognomic extremely suggestive but it oughtto be noted that The former.Sander To thisend he maintains a view photographic field. Fig.is a as a portraitist. While Sekula sees Sanderas typoiogy aroundsocialrather than'racial'categories theproducer ofinstrumental images.for instance. a minority practice: egalitarian and authoritarian. As a conseSekula himselfpoints out. Sekulawrites: the printer's blocksand seized all Nazis destroyed unsold copies. holdinga beliefin a universal in his essayA Small theposition takenby Benjamiin pedagogy.Fig. Here is our contradiction. AugustSander: Anlitz derZeit. August Sander: AnlitzderZeit. alwaysorganized his History ofPhotography.45 D6blin and WalterBenjamin.For him determinism.to homogenize of his modernism.Benjaminhad and thus maintainedhis distancefrombiological an altogether different opinionofhiswork. It seemsreasonwingofphotography of domination Sander is situand control. therefore. Sander One istempted toemphasize a contrast between Sander's clearlyenvisagedAnlitzderZeitas a radical work 'good'physiognomic science andthe'bad' physiognomy it was received as such not and.the dominant tendencyin practice. however. ing 12 images.Sander. 9.other each containvolumes. ofGunther [a Nazi race'theorist'] and hisilk.

course. themas forms however. and: speech. as such.Ifwe consider Bakhtin's typology reported speechthenwe can see just how complex be. Volosinovmarksout two basic modes in which thereporting ofspeechoperates.retaining element within somelevelofautonomy and coherence as thespeech ofanother. appear debatesaroundphysiognomy contemporary It seemsto me that to be in dangerofmonologising. forVolosinov. how'author' allowus to think alternatively.thegreater eminence toan utterance given itwillbe demarcated. a dynamicof integrity in reported and resistance inpartat least. And as subjects who author themselves. Thereis then. arounda hierarchy ofpower. the detail. themoreclearly The implications of this discussionof reported withthewill to referspeech. half intoa bound. difficult at photographs coursewould makelooking We wouldalwayshaveto approachthe and 'messy'.. though sucha consideradiscourse for photography InsteadI wantto tionmight proveto be productive. 74 some ofthesecategories Undoubtedly proposethe or thephotographer as a preconstituted writer subif we reinterpret ject in controlof representation.monologic as the utterances of others. context. ing of language. thesecondmode involves the ofreported assimilation and dissipation speechwith theauthor's retort. quotation explicit and ofthose and for theincorporating utterances.at thesame time. It is precisely 'the look of things'that symptom. can be seen as significant. Benjaminas thetheorist froman empirical his modernism he constructed This is..49 whichalwaysappears linguistics by post-Saussurian at themicrowhenoperating at itsmostcomfortable thanthe macroone of levelofthe phonemerather devotes a third In thissenseVolosinov theutterance. correct. concealed. whatBenjaminmeantwhen we need to reconsider der manualfor Zeitas a training he described Anlitz And forthis the Bakhtin knowingyour enemy. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .as Volosinov concrete speechperformance argued. modern linguisticthoughtis concerned with morphology and phoneticsrather primarily This is a trendcontinued today thanwithsyntax.'speak' at thesame time. But to keep themopen would seemmuchmoreuseful thantaking themonologue ofpowerat facevalueand eradicating theanswering wordofthosewhoare imaged. of his book to a studyof the problemof reported as: speechwhichhe defines disindirect . much post-structuralist work has monologised photography and silencedits multiple'voices'. oftheseforms and. speechorganised. in Discoursecould thenbe graspedas Janus-faced orientatedutterancesare which two differently This of maintained withinthe same construction. utterance about utterance. as itwere. The roleofsomeone utterances half reverently emphasized. thepossibleforms ofthephotograph might The discussionof reported speech is undoubtedly themostdense and specialist sectionofVolosinov's textand I certainly do not intendto discuss the ofsuch detailedlinguistic questionsas implications indirect discourse and quasi-direct direct discourse. quasi-direct which ofthose and thevariants modifications. whatis at modelofdetailedstudy.takenin conjunction ence ofdialogism are very for So great photography. unconscious. deliberately reinterpreted.50 etc unintentionally distorted. concealed. of the final section of his Marxismand thePhilosophy ofthose themodifications discourse). approvingly der Zeitas akintocomparative cited by Benjamin.47 that itbecomes with theobject ofAnlitz It is in thissensethatD6blin's description anatomy. THE OXFORD ART JOURNAL - 13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon.anyseriousunderstandLanguage. demarcatand protecting itfrom ingitsboundaries clearly the reporter's intonation.48 schoolmayagain proveto be invaluable.forthe Bakhtinschool.thedensity maywellbe difficult to unpack. listswas certainly more analyticthan systematic. through and 'character'. stakein his highregardforSanderwhom he comparedto Goethe'sremark: itself which so involves empiricism Thereis a delicate true theory. ofheteroglossia.utterance Reported speechis speechwithin about within and at thesametime also speech utterance. of power'soppoimage allowingforthe possibility of oftheforms site. conscious. 52 Reportedspeech is. Thus. theyseem in constructing Bakhtin these immensely suggestive.5' speech.how forgetting ofmontage. this we might dialogue One wayinwhich envisage is through ofthings a considerawith theappearance ofreported tionofVolosinov's discussion speechin As we haveseen. the syntactic patterns (directdiscourse.from Benjaminsaw a need to learnfrom as he was in the sign as interested look of things.theproblem ofreported speechis a questionoftheactiveinter-relationships within discoursewhichoperateas partoftheoverallproductionoflanguage.Volosinov's notion of reported speech would seem to provideus witha way ofconsidering theobjectsofthe camera'sgaze as subjects. of ofthereporting lookat thewayin whicha notion the another'sutterancemay allow us to rethink vexed problem of realism and documentary.turnson and yet. deliberately distorted.speech which enters discourse and becomes a constructional it while. In thisinstance of theboundaries reported speechare broken and fluid.I believe. patterns ofother for thereporting in language we find persons else'sword. speechwould. The first is tomaintaintheintegrity oftheother's utterance.an important part of which has consistedof arguing that all documentaryphotography contains an will to powerthatwould silenceall other implicit A consideration ofreported positions.

fora group of texts 5. 11. New Left 1986. 102.The question where ofwork and for and against. mentally of The suitdevelopedin Europe in the lastthird of the bouralmostas a uniform the 19thcentury writes: geoismale.June/July Journal. upon theirsuits. he argues. 160. My understanding Bakhtin. 12.liberal and Marxism ofVolosinov's thesis thecentral onlyconfirms Marxist scholars. Berger social formation point at which dress.950(London. 1881.Forthe with thosewhowouldmonologise otherthingthatVolosinov'sdiscussionof reported ofseparating out speechteachesus is the necessity voices. News. News. no. Ibid.1984). he did so in a fundamentally Thus. January 14.produced them. 95. andcalculating of talking gestures the from costumes. Essentially ference (Asdistinct. 16.theseyoungmenwereprobably second generationwho wore such suits in the The pointat stakehere forBergeris countryside. 1. upper-class to previous compared duelling. oftheBakhtin touse thework is that ofthisdispute The ultimate irony In this is to enterintoa dialogicstruggle. AlisdairMaclntyre. and thePhilosophy of Language(Cam7. V. inthe Middle East 1860.Chapter1. Robinson.The physicality labour. xiii. may process.53 evening. in ThePortrayal ofWomen Images ofWomen.Marxism Mass. 'Criminal Photography'. p. JohnTagg.New Left 'Bakhtin. The Photographic 2.. necessitates being dialogue in the the image. way the argumentover these works among Christian. he tion to concentrate at mostthe argues. that a work Medvedev'sname from to remove Todorov.p.p.. At the timeof Pritchard's January thefirst partof spending withall male prisoners gaol in Britain largest archive of and as a consequenceit heldthelargest their sentence there. in Britain bycritics Kanaev . Sachse. 21. 10. clues from body and speechand ofdialogue.ThePhotographic 15. 'Photographing Criminals'. 292-293. 18. Ken Hirschkop. appendix 11.communists.has beenreceived ofhistoritotheresearch programme and Whiteas a majorcontribution of these and interpreters in the Statesthe translators cal materialism. Photography and What To Do In It (London. Photographic Nov. At Millbank. bridge. thatthesignis thesiteofclass struggle. 11. In 1914. 21. the process.Volosinov. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the question of appearance could register.p. may whichthey conditions speechin relation One smallexampleofreported disto Sander'sworkcan be foundinJohnBerger's cussion of an image fromAnlitzderZeit in which threeyoung peasantsare depictedon the road in stateshis intenBerger goingto a dance. 1866.is.pp.Nov/Dec 1986. 99 Review. British The in Criminal Jurisprudence'. 'Towards a Book'. TzvetanTodorov. criminals. 103-104. 158. News.fundaoftheir by therhythms alien to thesuit. no. andthe ofLanguage. 'At Home'. Photograph (London. 'At Home'. Ibid.pp. 572.experience. July25th1890. I use 'The Bakhtinschool' as a shorthand authorship. November 13:1 1990 75 This content downloaded on Mon. Photography 1973-1983 (Novia Scotia.could onlybe conJews. arguments equallystrong a very complexissuewith livingin at thisrate it may well turnout thatBakhtinwas everyone like This said. complicit thesocial. hunting. 29. coincide. as such. rootedforexample. signs different to keep apartthosetwovery attempt of the German people Volkand Leute. 1985). about thebodyin terms of that and of the 'voices' part image to the listen to read able signs traces. from other theauthorial Notes * I would like to thankStanleyMitchell. Berger to idealisepurely costume ruling-class It was the first andconoftheadministrator The power power. could be profoundly difference natureoftheGermanpeople.even if not in the who make theirown histories choose. Artists SlideLibrary and Essayson Photographs ofRepresentation.'The Uses of Cultural Theory'. by Caryl Emerson (Manchester. Whilethework Williams likeEagleton.Berger's may provideus witha way of thinking argument We need to ofthesemiotic. ofthisgroup. deformthe bodies that bear that these garments of peasantbodies. To insist subversive. 1984). sedentary the suit was made forthe table.p. 3. Forthepeasantto submit homein effort'.p. Allan Sekula. Philosophy 6.or thesign'Bakhtin'.July/August. 'A Means ofSurveillance: (Basingstoke. 'Photography NVews. 1881. Review. and so on. Jo Spence. All therearRound. H. Histories as Evidencein Law'. is indeed oftheauthorship itdid notbelong. N. no.as The notionofreported see Sander's practicein to allow us such. 3. to include among his work socialists. 17. The Photographic Penitentiary.theunemployed mightbe stated as an project Sander's structive. theliberaland evenChristian to locatethemwithin are concerned texts to minimizethe role of involves attempting This strategy traditions.1891). abstractly.I thinkit is as a dialogic anotherlight Sander while may well have possibleto argue that groundas theNazis. A Study inMoralTheory Virtue. At Pentonville was the Pentonville visit.)54 dancing.p.Women The Silence:The Daughter's 2. Raymond Williams. 524.) 1986. operatedon thesame political withthelookoftheGerman and concemedhimself different people.p.'Disrupting 1989. gestures hereshouldbe apparent. Moscow in the periodshortof Stalinhimself. Principle TheDialogical 'sPoetics. Discourse and Democracy'. and Jeffrey AdrianRifkin draft ofthisessayand FredOrton on an earlier comments their Steelefor for his support. M.In such a monoand for Sanderto imagecontradiction logicclimate. 1873. reprinted Quarterly 19. in British Review. 9. and function While photographicdebates centred around ofall producereadings Foucaultand physiognomy images of the body as images of power. 1988). Sander'speasants. thatweredesignedto restrict at and uncreasedon bodies thatare 'fully unruffled tothesuit. however. Against 1.TheStudio forwhichmostof the key of thisargument.To reduce THE OXFORD ART JOURNAL - Sander to the physiognomic is. Story'. on theheterogeneous to offermultiple voices and multiple looks.Mikhail is takenfrom texts are untranslated. school. JuliusF. Bakhtin. becomethesiteofclass struggle. ofriding.p.have none ofthe uncorrupted ness thatthe Nazi ideal required. 8. butwhichare subjectto disputed writers signedbydifferent and now Bakhtin Medvedev.clothes The contradiction to be worn movement. Volosinov.I do notintend costhimhis life. MedvedevwiththeirknownMarxistcomVolosinovand particularly intoa body a Marxist terminology that they imported arguing mitments. TheBurden The 1988)Chapter3. Reworking oftheDostoyevsky 7. After 4. editedand translated Problems ofDostoyevsky 13. is a partofthehegemonic insists. Sarah Graham-Brown. (Manchester. andPhotoWorks Essays theGrain. P.1984).

The Photographic News. Texas. 36. Bakhtin. Ibid. Iz predystorii romannoglslovo. 42. August Sander. Gardiner'sworkwas highly praisedby the House of Lords' SelectCommittee on whoserecommendations thePrisonActof 1865was formed. ThePhotographic News. 109. 37. Sociolinguistics The Theory ofReading. 49. 34. p.p. Dover 6. AnneHalley. 6d. 1986.Winter Archive'. News. 252. Hereford 23. 226. There were 4 cases among the 356 prisoners at LancasterGate. 40.cit.. Bakhtin (Austin. op. p. cited Viach. theHome Secretary ignoredthisadvice and leftthe matter up to the individual Governors. and Deconstruction'. du dix-neuvieme Photographies siecle (Paris.the Governorof BristolGaol. and Allan Sekula. 84. 39.293. 26. 39. AllanSekula. to no avail.Lincoln CountyPrisonone at a costof3s. 50.1985).'The Traffic in Photographs'. Walter. 'Historical commentary'. 75. N. Leicester 3. 48.p. TheDialogic Imagination.p. Watney(London. A. 27. Winter. Leicester228 (including22 duplicates).p.1986). Pearce. May 13. On Galtonsee David Green.p. 87.eds P. WalterBenjamin. 54.. Ibid. November 2.pp.p.op. November 1.800. 797.. 'Photographing Criminals'. Coldbath Fields 2. 1873. 'At Home'. 46.cit. however. 1877.J. 1981). 53. 23. with Liverpool 2. Marxismand Literature (Oxford. The Photographic News. Portsmouth 33. p. All TherearRound. Bakhtin.The Photographic News. 409.p. August30. The Photographic News. Similarly Salford with1. op. Bakhtin.May 6. 252. 24. 198-199. 37-38. 1878.cit.p. AllonWhite. 35. TheSignificance M. 115. 'Photographing Criminals'. Brangwin Barnes. Bakhtin.p.'The Suit and the Photograph'.) (Brighton. C. cit. 139.cit.AboutLooking (London. 'On Photographing Children'.'A Response To the Forum On Bakhtin'..See 'Photographing Criminals'.January27. June3. andDialogue For Modern Semiotics.XI.November 29. RobertKrammer. One Way Street andOther Writings (Verso. 46. while Kirkdalewith657 prisoners. 83-88 and 'The Body and The Archive'. SovietStudiesin Literature. 1873and Criminal Photography..cit. 'The Body and the no.Vs. The British Journal Photographic Almanac.. ThePhotographic News. Photography and Eugenics'.p.op.p. was unabletospecify a single case photographic conviction. 1866. The percentage ofdetentions due to photography were: BedfordCounty Prison 105. 91.263spent f44. 44.'Photographing Children'.p. J. TheBritish Journal Photographic Almanac. op. op.p. Prestonwith 553. Ibid. trans.. see also George Croughton. 'International Criminal Photography'. Sekula..p. had used photography to identify habitualcriminals who attepted to pass themselves of as first timeoffenders.p. 126. 34.'The Traffic In Photographs'. 19.p. cit. ed.'The Traffic In Photographs'. M. White. 524-525.p. Raymond Williams.800. 112. 33. 'Talk in theStudio'. i d.Photography/Politics: Two.000prisoners in Lancashire between 1870and the end of 1872 withsingularly unsuccessful results. 47. Ken Hirschkop. This debatehad been goingon sinceat leastthe1840swhen J. 140.. 1978. Edwin Cocking. vol.'A Small History of Photography'. 'Photography as a UniversalLanguage'. pp. V. Utterance. werephotographed 5. 1871. M. 1870. 29. 'Punch'sScientific Register'. ThePhotographic December2. 'Photographing Criminals'. 30. On thequestionofphotography. 31. 22.. 51. LiverpoolBorough2.The Photographic News. August4. M. Volosinov. 45.ThePhotographic News. Spenceand S.800. vol. 58-59. John Berger. M.XIX. 1980). October.. Gary Saul Morson (Chicago. Four Essays ByM. 1975. 52. 363. 18 Mar 2013 14:05:43 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Marxism and thePhilosophy ofLanguage. 38. 588. 22. and Manchester with 1.p. 25.The Photographic News.'Bakhtin. 1881. 1984). Bakhtin of 'sIdeasonSign.pp. Holland. Gardiner.1986). 43. 1869. 'Photographing Criminals'. 28.583spent f155including theconstruction of a studiocosting f95 and a salary off60 perannum.244 all replied unknown. inDostoevsky's Problems Poetics. Spring/Summer.ThePhotographic News. 272-273. 1864. CharlesE. Photographs ofan Epoch1904-1959 (Philadelphia. Photography the against Grain. FrankGloversmith (ed. Holloway30. 32.pp.August 22.1980). AndreRouille.Massachusetts Review. Ibid. 'VeinsofResemblance. M. Robinson. no. 1870. 1889. 21.Le Corps etsonimage.p.p.The number ofphotographs sentto Londonare given as: Newgate 4. 1977). Westminster CountyPrison300.op. Essays and Dialoguesof His Work. Os. 'Discoursesin The Novel'. 76 THE OXFORD ARTJOURNAL - 13:1 1990 This content downloaded on Mon.p. July 26. Hertfordshire 3. op. pp. 4. AugustSander.'Children Froma Photographic PointofView. cit. At thePrefecture de Police in Paris. 'Photographing Children'. 1869. AllanSekula. 1986).pp..Ivanov. 206.. 41. 94. 1867. The majority of provincial townsstated'Not known'or 'Not ascertained'. Ibid.20.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful