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UNIT 5 Archana Menon

Nature of the Chemical Bond

Electronegativity Linus Pauling found electronegativity in covalent and ionic bonding High Electronegativity has a greater tendency to gain electrons versus losing an

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electron Low Electronegativity (electropositive) has a lower tendency gain electrons and is

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more likely to lose electrons Elements with higher electronegativity are ones with more valance electrons

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Fluorine has the highest electronegativity

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Alkaline Metals have low electronegativity

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Francium has the lowest electronegativity

UNIT 5 Archana Menon Nature of the Chemical Bond Electronegativity Linus Pauling found electronegativity in covalent

Ions

Rules to make an Ion These are the rules when and only when ionic bonding If you have 1,2, or 3 valance electrons, to make an ion you lose them all to make a cation. Electron configuration ends with p 6 have 0 valance electrons. The electrons left are core electrons If you have 5,6, or 7 valance electrons, to make an ion you gain enough to get to 8

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valance electrons to make an anion. Electron configuration ends with p 6 has 8 valance electrons If you have 4 valance electrons are not likely to ionically bond because losing or

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gaining 4 electrons is not energy favorable, so they will most likely covalently bond Cl - and Ca 2+ are isoelectric so they have the same electron configuration

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Lewis Dot Structure One dot per valance electron X represents the symbol of the element

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Alkaline Metals = X

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Alkaline Earth = X

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Nobel Gases = X

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To make an ion of X is X + so no dots the charge will correspond with how many electrons there were

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X X

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X with dots only for anions

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Cations don’t need dots because no valance electrons, the electrons remaining are

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core electrons First non-metals are metalloids. Their ionization energy is too high to be a metal but close. It has some similar properties to metals.

Ionic Bonding We use electronegativity table quantitatively If make an ionic bond look at difference in electronegativity value Low electronegativity lose electrons High electronegativity gain electrons If electronegativity is greater than 2 make an Ionic Bond If electronegativity is less than 1.5 make an Covalent Bond If electronegativity between 2 and 1.5 and is a metal and non-metal bonding they will make an ionic bond If electronegativity between 2 and 1.5 and are two non-metals bonding they will make an covalent bond

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Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are not charged because cations and ions attracted to each other must be neutral and balanced Lewis Dot Structure Compounds

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X 2+ +

Y -

[X 2+ + Y - ] gives an empirical formula XY 2

Ionic Nomenclature of Compounds Naming ionic compounds Each compound has one name which must be unambiguous but not superfluous (no extraneous information) If two ions in a compound start with the cation and end with anion and end with the suffix IDE. This tells people you are not talking about elements, but about ions Do not use the number of each ion in the name/ don’t specify how many of each ion it is implied because of the charge

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[Na Cl

- ]

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Salt (NaCl = Sodium Chloride) is an ionized coumpound MgCl 2 = Magnesium Chloride Transition Metals can have more than one possible charge (except Zinc and silver which always same charge) IDE = Single Element (except sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, and hydrogen sulfide) ATE & ITE = Look at Polyatomic Ions

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If you know the formula whose name ends in “ate” you can name all the other

variations of the formula if oxygen is present

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1 more oxygen above the “ate” = Per The “ate”

____

ate

1 less oxygen above the “ate” =

ite

____

2 less oxygen above the “ate” = Hypo ___ite

No oxygen =

ide

_____

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Example with Rules of Nomenclature:

ClO 4 Perchlorate ClO 3 =Chlorate ClO 2 Chlorite ClO 1 Hypochlorite ClO Chloride

“Per” from the prefix “Hyper” which means “too much”

Oxygen

“Hypo” means “not enough”

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Not all polyatomic ions have oxygen Three elements = Polyatomic Ion

Transition Metals Ambiguity in the D- Block and bottom of the P-Block Includes metals that go to the bottom of the p block tin FeCl2 more than one possible iron cation Exceptions: Zinc (+2) and Silver (+1) and Aluminum is always (+3)

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Rule put Roman Numeral after cation It indicates the charge on the amount Iron (II) Chloride +2 charge Iron (I) = Fe 1 Iron (II) = Fe 2 Example:

 

Ionic Compounds

 

Metals

Covalent Compounds

 

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Ions

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Atoms

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Molecules

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Crystal Structure

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Crystal Structure

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Molecular formula

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Empirical Formula

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Example: Aluminum

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Example: CO2

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Example: no such thing as a molecule of Sodium Chloride

   

Properties

Melting and Boiling Points

Melting and Boiling Points

Melting and Boiling Points

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Very High because

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Varies because

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Varies because

attractive force

weaker force hold it

some compounds

strong

together

are solid, some are

Conductivity

 

liquid, and some are gases at room temperature

(electrical)

Conductivity

Conductivity

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To conduct

(electrical)

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(electrical)

electricity need

Solid YES

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Solid NO

moving charge

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Liquid YES

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Liquid NO

particles

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Sea of Electrons:

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Solution NO

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Solid NO

electrons move

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Not moving

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Liquid YES

spontaneously and

because it has a

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Solution YES

randomly all the

high Ionization

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Charges cannot

time because low

Energy

move

Ionization Energy

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There are some

 

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Electrons not isolated to one atom if stops happening = not a metal anymore

exceptions that have low Ionization Energy (rare)

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Has a moving charge or flowing charge

 

Malleability

Malleability

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Very Malleability

Malleability

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Brittle

and Ductile because when hit metal = melt creating microscopic flow, reshape, and refreeze

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Brittle because interaction with other atom is small and has a small attractive interaction

Covalent Compounds

Covalent Bonding Based on Electronegativity

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Each Cl used the 2 electrons in its valance shell sometimes called “full octet”

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Bonding covalently is more energy favorable when no favorable electron loss or gain so they bond covalently

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Covalent Bond = creates a new bond called a “Bonding/Molecular Orbital”

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2 shared electrons (electrons counted twice)

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Energy Favorable when Electronegativity is less than 1.5

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2 Types of Covalent Bonds: Non-polar and Polar

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Non-Polar means electrons are shared equally and Electronegativity is less than 0.4

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Polar means the electrons are shared unequally and the one atom with the higher Electronegativity has a greater pull on the electrons. Compounds get increasingly polar

the higher the difference Electronegativity between the two elements gets and Electronegativity is usually greater than 0.4

Lewis Dot Structure for Covalent Compounds

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Unshared Pairs or Lone Pairs are the dots

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Line means covalent bond/shared electrons

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Hydrogen can never be the central atom because Hydrogen is full at 2 electrons and Central Atoms must be able to make two covalent bond meaning 4 electrons are needed in the valance shell but Hydrogen can only have 2 electrons in its valance

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shell Ask two questions to draw a Lewis Dot Structure. If the answer is yes for both you have finished the Lewis Dot Structure

Did you put all of the electrons in? Does every element have a full valance shell?

Lewis Dot Structures Show Geometry Basis of looking at the shape, symmetry, and geometry Basis of looking at the shape, symmetry geometry of a molecule tells about its

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Physical and Chemical properties. Electrons valance involved in bonding process where they are tells us where they

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are Count o=valance electrons

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-connect the atoms by bond. (Shared pair of electron usually each atom contributes

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an electron for the bond. -fill the valance shells

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-LDS for elements down the column are the same

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-LDS itself do not tell the shape of the molecule but it gives information to determine

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the shape. When run out of valance electrons before you fill valance shell there are rules but

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Boron + Aluminium 3 bonds and Berlium2 bonds does not get a full octet of electrons (creates covalent compound less stable + more reasctive more toxic.) For most elements cost of making double bond not bad because more stable except

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some are more stable without making double bonds To share more electrons make more bonds

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Example:

***Highly reactive because not full valance shell

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Putting orbitals too close together to make 4 bonds does not exist because of the repulsion force between electrons

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Example:

Stability in Charged Covalent Compounds

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BF -

=

STABLE

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NH +

=

STABLE

Resonance It is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis Dot

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Structure Usually more bonds make the space between the bonded atoms shorter and

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stronger, but all the bonds in resonance structures are the same strength and length Delocalized Bond

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Example:

Nomenclature of covalent compounds (Two elements)

Name Refers to How Many of Each Element

NUMBER OF EACH ELEMENT

PREFIX

1

MONO

2

DI

3

TRI

4

TETRA

5

PENTA

6

HEXA

7

HEPTA

8

OCTA

9

NONA

10

DECA

Order of Nomenclature in Covalent Compounds

First Element

Second Element

Suffix

Prefix (2-10 # of elements)

Prefix (1-10 # of elements; simply to remind people it is a covalent compound)

IDE (even for single elements)

Example:

CO = Carbon Monoxide CO 2 = Carbon Dioxide

Geometry or Shape of Molecules

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The Lewis Dot Structures tell us the geometry of the molecule by using VSEPR

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VSEPR

V Valence S Shell E Electrons P Pairs R Repetision

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Double Bond or Triple Bond= Count as ONE Bond

Bonds and Lone Pairs in Geometry o Bond angle that would give max separation between lone electrons Linear, Trigonal Planar, Tetrahedral can be symmetric IF all peripheral atoms

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around the central atoms are the same. Pyramidal and Angular always asymmetric / non symmetric

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Lone Pair = no nucleus = repulsion

push more = bond angle

 

Geometry in Covalent Bonds

 

Bonds + Lone

Lewis Dot

 

Bond angle

Shape

Pairs

Structure

  • 2 + 0

   

180

Linear

  • 3 + 0

   

120

Trigonal Planar

  • 4 + 0

   

109.5

Tetrahedral

  • 3 + 1

   

~ 107

Pyramidal (tetrahedral like)

  • 2 + 2

   

~ 105

Angular / Bent

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Linear, Trigonal Planar, Tetrahedral can be symmetric IF all peripheral atoms

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around the central atoms are the same. Pyramidal and Angular always asymmetric / non symmetric

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Lone Pair = no nucleus = repulsion

push more = bond angle

Molecules with Two Atoms

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X-Y

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Non-polar bond makes non-polar usually but can sometimes make polar molecules

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In non-polar molecules there is no difference in where you would find the electron

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because the electrons are being equally shared Polar bond makes a polar molecule usually but can sometimes make non-polar

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molecules An electronegativity of 1.4 or more makes a polar band

+ X --Y -

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(Lower-case Delta) = parallel charge

+ X --Y -  - Y--X +

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Repel bounce off

+ X --Y - ~~~ + X --Y -

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Positive Negative attraction so molecules stick making it need more energy to pull them apart

Intermolecular interactions

Dipole-Dipole

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Polar molecules have this attractive force like "Molecular Velcro"

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For this reason, you need more energy to pull them apart so it results in higher

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melting and boiling points Ionic compounds have the highest melting and boiling point because the strong

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electrostatic attraction force Polar molecules: Dipole Dipole at room temp more likely to be solid

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Purely non polar molecule could never be a liquid.

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Example of Helium:

  • No chemical reactions known

  • Spherical 1s orbital

  • Gas -> can be liquefied

  • Boiling Point of (He) is - 269C

  • Symmetrical

London Dispersion Force Electron is a wave and it ripples when the atoms is hit each other

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Temporary Dipole (Instantaneous Dipole)

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Build short lived temporary dipole

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Everything has this polar and non polar

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But London Dispersion Force is so small in polar molecules that we don’t notice

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London Dispersion Force can be significant in large atoms because electrons are less

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tightly bound so the electrons slosh around more (Example: Iodine; which is solid at room temperature) London Dispersion Force can produce liquids + solids but usually not

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Tetrahedral = Carbon Flourine bond so should have polar e- toward Flourine. But Carbon Flourine is symmetric and non-polar

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Symmetric molecules always non polar Asymetric molecules always Polar

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Nonpolar = lower boiling point

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Polar = higher boiling point

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Ionic = highest boiling point

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Our air has mostly nonpolar molecules

Hydrogen Bonding Only happens with Hydrogen bonded with OXYGEN, NITROGEN, and FLOURINE (H-

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O, H-N, H-F)

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Two thing hold water molecules together making them adhesive Hydrogen bonding can be a significant force Example: Holding DNA together.

1)

H2O

  • Hydrogen Bonding Network

  • Additional Intermolecular Interactions

  • Every bond paired with a lone pair because each Hydrogen has a lone pair to interact with

2)

H2O

  • Partial negative and partial positive sides are attracted to each other

Water

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If H2O was linear and therefore symmetric it would be a gas and life would not exist at this temperature

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CO2 gas = linear

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H2O liquid not linear

Hydrogen bonding can be a significant force . Ex. Hold DNA together.