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3-Phase AC Induction Motor

The AC induction motor is a rotating electric machine designed to operate from a three-phase source of alternating voltage. The stator is a classic three phase stator with the winding displaced by 120. The most common type of induction motor has a squirrel cage rotor in which aluminum conductors or bars are shorted together at both ends of the rotor by cast aluminum end rings. When three currents flow through the three symmetrically placed windings, a sinusoidally distributed air gap flux generating the rotor current is produced. The interaction of the sinusoidally distributed air gap flux and induced rotor currents produces a torque on the rotor. The mechanical angular velocity of the rotor is lower then the angular velocity of the flux wave by so called slip velocity. In adjustable speed applications, AC motors are powered by inverters. The inverter converts DC power to AC power at the required frequency and amplitude. The inverter consists of three half-bridge units where the upper and lower switch are controlled complimentarily. As the power device's turn-off time is longer than its turnon time, some dead-time must be inserted between the turn-off of one transistor of the half-bridge and turn-on of it's complementary device. The output voltage is mostly created by a pulse width modulation (PWM) technique.The 3-phase voltage waves are shifted 120 to each other and thus a 3-phase motor can be supplied.

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Key Characteristics Parameters Applications Products Documentation Tools

Key Characteristics

Medium construction complexity, multiple fields on stator, cage on rotor High reliability (no brush wear), even at very high achievable speeds Medium efficiency at low speed, high efficiency at high speed Driven by multi-phase Inverter controllers Motor EMI good butterrible EMI from Inverter Sensorless speed control possible Low cost per horsepower, though higher than for 1-ph AC induction motor Higher start torque than for 1-ph, easy to reverse motor Inverter shoot-through possible, requires dead-time circuits & compensation

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Electric motors are all around us, from common appliances to our most sophisticated computers. In fact, the technology has been present for more than 100 years, with many of the earliest motor types still in broad use. Motors provide motion. Whether rotating or linear, motors enable us to move people and machines. They impact every aspect of our daily lives.